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Sample records for smear layer em

  1. Removal of surgical smear layer.

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    Fabiani, Cristiano; Franco, Vittorio; Covello, Francesco; Brambilla, Eugenio; Gagliani, Massimo M

    2011-06-01

    During apicoectomy and retrograde cavity preparation, a smear layer, which contains microorganisms and necrotic pulpal tissues, is formed on the dentinal surfaces cut by the instruments. Bacteria can survive and proliferate inside or below the smear layer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro two different procedures for the removal of the smear layer in retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retrotips. Twenty-eight single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root were cut with a carbide bur, and retrograde cavities were prepared with ProUltra ultrasonic retrotips (Maillefer Dentsply, Baillagues, Switzerland) at a depth of 3 mm. Teeth in group A were treated with a gel of 35% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, and teeth in group B were treated with a gel of 24% EDTA at a neutral pH for 2 minutes. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation and scored for the presence of the smear layer on the retrocavity walls. Eighty percent of the teeth in group A showed an optimal degree of cleanliness of the walls, with dentinal tubules completely open. The majority of analyzed samples coming from group B showed dentinal tubules covered with the smear layer. The analysis of the samples showed that orthophosphoric acid is more effective than EDTA in removing surgical smear layer even with less time of action. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study of smear layer removal by different etching modalities and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the root surface: a scanning electron microscopy study; Estudo comparativo, atraves de microscopia eletronica de varredura, da acao de diferentes substancias quimicas e do laser de Er:YAG, na remocao de smear layer, em superficies radiculares submetidas a raspagem e aplainamento

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    Theodoro, Leticia Helena

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, citric acid with tetracycline, and Er:YAG laser to smear layer removal on the root surface after scaling with manual instruments by SEM. Thirty specimens (n=30) of root surface before scaling were divided into 6 groups (n=5). The Control Group (G1) was not treated; Group 2 (G2) was conditioned with citric acid gel 24%, pH1, during 2 minutes; Group 3 (G3) was conditioned with EDTA gel 24%, pH 7, during 2 minutes; Group 4 (G4) was conditioned with citric acid and tetracycline gel 50%, pH1 during 2 minutes; Group 5 (G5) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 47 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 0.58 J/cm{sup 2}; Group 6 (G6) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94{mu}m), 83 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 1.03 J/cm{sup 2}. The micrographic were analyzed by scores and following the statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05) H=20,31. The G1 was significantly different of all groups (28.0); the G2 (13.4), G3 (11.7), and G4 (13.6) showed no difference in relation to G5 (20.3) and G6 (6.0), but the G6 was significantly different from G5. From the results, it can be conclude that: 1) there was intensity smear layer after scaling and root planing; 2) all treatments were effective to smear layer remove with significantly difference to G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6; G2, G3 and G4 were not statistically different from G5 and G6; 3) G6 was more effective in the smear layer remotion in relation to G5 and both presented irregular root surface. (author)

  3. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

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    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando qualquer instrumento abrasiona ou corta a dentina, produz na superfície uma camada de lama dentinária ou "smear layer". Dependendo do agente de união indicado em Odontologia adesiva, há a necessidade ou não da remoção da camada de lama da superfície dentinária. Com a finalidade de verificar a ação de diferentes substâncias para a limpeza dentinária, utilizamos 20 dentes pré-molares superiores íntegros, mantidos em soro fisiológico, nos quais as coroas foram seccionadas ao meio no sentido mésio-distal. Com instrumento diamantado, removeu-se o esmalte da porção vestibular e da porção lingual da coroa e, com uma broca carbide cilíndrica lisa nº 56, cortou-se aproximadamente 1 mm de dentina com alta rotação sob abundante refrigeração ar/água, para produzir a camada de lama dentinária. Em seguida, essa superfície foi tratada com diferentes substâncias e lavada por 30 segundos com "spray" ar/água. No controle, foi simplesmente utilizado o "spray" ar/água. Os espécimes foram montados em suportes metálicos, preparados e visualizados no MEV-DSM 950 da Zeiss, em aumentos que variaram de 100 a 5.000 vezes. Os materiais que mais removeram a camada de lama foram, em ordem crescente: 1. "spray" ar/água; 2. fluoreto de sódio 2%; 3. associação alternada de Dakin/Tergensol; 4. água oxigenada 3%; 5. jateamento com óxido de alumínio 50 mm; 6. flúor acidulado 1,27%; 7. ácido poliacrílico 25%; 8. ácido fosfórico 10%.A smear layer is produced on the dentin surface after abrasion or cutting by instruments. Its removal is indicated or not according to the kind of bonding agent used in adhesive dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of some substances on the smear layer. Twenty upper non-carious premolars, stored in isotonic saline solution, were mesiodistally hemi-sectioned and the buccal and lingual enamel was removed with high speed diamond bur. One millimeter of the dentinal

  4. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

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    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  5. Smear layer-deproteinizing improves bonding of one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin.

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    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thittaweerat, Suppason; Foxton, Richard M; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji; Hosaka, Keiichi; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF). Flat human dentin surfaces with standardized smear layer were prepared. Smear layer deproteinizing was carried out by the application of 50ppm hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on dentin surface for 15s followed by Accel ® (p-toluenesulfinic acid salt) for 5s prior to adhesive application. No surface pretreatment was used as control. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage under TEM observation were investigated. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and t-test at the significant level of 0.05. Smear layer deproteinizing significantly improved μTBS of SE, SU, and BB (pself-etch adhesives, resulting in the improving μTBS, eliminating hybridized smear layer and preventing reticular nanoleakage formation in resin-dentin bonding interface. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of different smear layers on bond durability of self-etch adhesives.

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    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Sai, Keiichi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Imai, Arisa; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different smear layers on enamel and dentin bond durability of various types of self-etch adhesives. Two universal adhesives, Scotchbond Universal (SU) and Prime & Bond elect (PE); a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive, G-ænial Bond (GB); and two two-step self-etch adhesives, Optibond XTR (OX) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were used in this study. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strengths (SFS) to human enamel and dentin were determined with different smear layer conditions. The prepared specimens were divided into three groups. The bonding surfaces were prepared by grinding with either (1) #180, (2) #600, or (3) #4000-SiC papers before making the bonded assemblies. For each group, 15 specimens were prepared for the SBS and 30 specimens for the SFS. The two-step self-etch adhesives showed significantly higher SFS values than the single-step self-etch adhesives, regardless of the smear layer condition or substrate. Although most of the tested adhesives showed no significant differences in enamel SFS values among the smear layer groups, SU, GB, and SE showed significantly lower SFS values in the #180 in dentin groups than the #600 and #4000 groups. The influence of different smear layer conditions on bond durability was adhesive dependent. Furthermore, the smear layers generated on different substrates also influenced the bond quality of the self-etch adhesives. Smear layer conditions of enamel and dentin influence the bond durability of universal adhesives and conventional single and two-step self-etch adhesives. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) gel on removing smear layer of root canal in vitro.

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    Poudyal, Sitashi; Wei-Hong, Pan

    2012-09-01

    FOR smear layer removal from root canal walls, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an effective chelating agent and its efficiency depends upon a lot of factors such as concentration, pH, duration of application, the type of the solution, the root canal length, penetration depth of the material, and hardness of the dentin.The aim of this scanning electron microscopic study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 19% EDTA gel on smear layer removal at different time periods when used as a final step in the irrigation regime.

  8. SEM evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser in root canals

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    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Roe, Iain M.; Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Barbizam, Joao Vicente B.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of two endodontic irrigants associated or not with Er:YAG laser on a smear layer created by hand instrumentation were evaluated in vitro in the middle and apical thirds of root canals. Twenty five human maxillary canines with a single root were distributed randomly into five groups of five teeth each. Group 1 was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, Group 2 received EDTAC 15% as irrigating solution and Group 3 received both NaClO 1.0% and EDTAC 15%. Group 4 was irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 5 received NaClO 1.0% as irrigating solution and was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Teeth were split longitudinally and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy. The teeth irrigated with NaClO (Group 1) showed the higher amount of smear layer, with statistically significant differences (plaser (Group 4), which showed intermediate amounts of smear layer. The teeth irrigated with EDTAC 15%, NaClO 1.0% associated with EDTAC 15% and NaClO 1.0% with Er:YAG laser (Groups 2,3 and 5) showed the lowest amounts of smear layer, being statistically similar between them and different (plaser can be as effective as EDTAC 15% when used associated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, but not as effective when used together with distilled water.

  9. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

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    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  10. Comparison of Smear Layer Removal Ability of QMix with Different Activation Techniques.

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    Arslan, Dilara; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Dincer, Asiye Nur; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat; Siso, Seyda Herguner

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of QMix solution (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) on the smear layer using the following irrigation activation techniques: the EndoActivator (EA) system (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), and an Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip. Sixty-four extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and the canals instrumented with ProTaper (Denstply Maillefer, Ballagues, Switzerland) up to size F4. The canals were irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and a saline solution for 1 minute each. The specimens were then divided randomly into 4 experimental and 4 control groups (n = 8) according to the final irrigation activation technique. These groups included group 1, 2.5 mL QMix; group 2, QMix + EA; group 3, QMix + PIPS; and group 4: QMix + Er:YAG. Laser activated distilled water was used as control groups 5, 6, 7, and 8. Teeth were split longitudinally, and specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Images were taken at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the teeth at a magnification of 1000× and were scored in the presence of the smear layer. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The highest scores were found in the apical third of all groups (P < .05). The QMix + Er:YAG group removed the smear layer more effectively than the nonactivated QMix group in the apical third (P < .05). The QMix + EA group removed the smear layer significantly in all thirds of the teeth when compared with the nonactivated QMix group (P < .05). The QMix + PIPS group showed a significantly better effect than the QMix group in the coronal third (P < .05). The EA and Er:YAG laser enhanced the smear layer removal ability of QMix in the apical thirds of the canals. QMix removed more smear layer in the coronal thirds when activated with the PIPS technique. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), MTAD and sodium hypochlorite irrigants on smear layer.

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    Venkataram, V; Gokhale, S T; Kenchappa, M; Nagarajappa, R

    2013-08-01

    Endodontic success depends heavily on effective chemo-mechanical debridement of root canals through the use of instruments and irrigating solutions. To compare the effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract, Biopure™ mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid and detergent (MTAD) and 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on removal of the smear layer. Randomised controlled trial. Thirty extracted single-rooted, primary human teeth were allocated at random into three experimental groups of 10 teeth each. For each tooth, the canal was prepared using the step-back technique. During instrumentation, 2 ml of the irrigant was used for at least 10 s after each file and 10 ml as a final flush for 2 min for chamomile and NaOCL irrigants. Whereas for MTAD, an initial rinse with 1.3 % NaOCl for a cumulated period of 20 min, and use of MTAD as the final rinse for a period of 5 min was followed. Longitudinal grooves were made on root segments, then split into two halves with a chisel, stored in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde solution and fixed in ethanol series. Specimens were examined for the smear layer according to Hulsmann et al. (Int Endod J 35:668-679, 2002) criteria using a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. The most effective result in removal of smear layer occurred with the use of MTAD, followed by chamomile extract. The chamomile extract was found to be significantly more effective than 2.5 % NaOCl solution which had only minor effects. The efficacy of chamomile to remove the smear layer was superior to 2.5 % NaOCl alone, but less effective than MTAD mixture.

  12. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

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    Elaine Vianna Freitas Fachin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957. CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  13. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

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    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

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    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  15. A New Nano-Chitosan Irrigant with Superior Smear Layer Removal and Penetration

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    Mohammad Kassaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our primary objective was to measure root canal penetrations of aqueous antibacterial nano-chitosan (Nano-CS, for the first time. The second objective was to compare and contrast such penetrations to those of chitosan (CS itself, as well as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexidine (CHX and ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA, at the routinely used concentrations. Molar roots were split longitudinally by a rotary diamond saw. Nano-CS was made by dissolving CS in acetic acid and adding tripolyphosphate (TPP, followed by a freeze-drying process. Dentin penetrations are estimated through measurements of sessile contact angles. Penetrations of the probed irrigants were assessed as inverse functions of their sessile contact angles. Accordingly, all Nano-CS solutions showed smaller sessile angles compared to those of NaOCl, CS, and EDTA samples. Hence, Nano-CS appeared to be a superior irrigant for demonstrating a higher penetration than the latter three. It fell only behind CHX, yet, the superb chelating ability of Nano-CS enabled it to remove smear layer to a larger extend than all of our other irrigants including CHX. Nano-CS could be considered as a new irrigant. Higher penetration was its main advantage over CS, and commercial NaOCl, and EDTA. This was verified by  the smaller sessile contact angle of Nano-CS. Anticipated chelating effect of Nano-CS could anchor more efficient removal of smear layer. This was another advantage of Nano-CS over other irrigants including CHX. Other advantages of Nano-CS included its reported biocompatibility, biodegradability and antibacterial effects. Commercialization of Nano-CS was deemed in the near horizon.

  16. Efficacy of MTAD with shortened irrigation time on smear layer removal after rotary canal instrumentation: An in vitro study

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    Vaishak Kustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A search in the endodontic literature showed the absence of any reports regarding the use of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD to remove smear layer at shortened irrigation time. Aims: To determine the efficacy of MTAD with shortened irrigation time on smear layer removal after Pro Taper rotary canal instrumentation. Methods: Twenty single-rooted lower premolar teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups. After decoronation of all the samples, working length was determined and all the teeth were instrumented to master apical size # 30 (F3, using Pro Taper rotary files. Teeth were irrigated with 3% NaOCl during instrumentation. Experimental groups one and two were irrigated with a 5 ml final rinse using MTAD for 5 min and 2.5 min, respectively. After irrigation, all root canals were dried with absorbent paper points. The teeth were then sectioned longitudinally and prepared for a scanning electron microscopic examination. The scanning electron microscope photographs were evaluated using a standard scoring system developed by Rome et al. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: When intercomparison was made between Group 1 and 2 at the coronal and middle third, statistically significant difference was observed, with Group 1 having significantly less smear layer than Group 2. In apical third, no statistically significant difference was observed between Group 1 and 2, even though smear layer removal was more in Group 1 than Group 2. Conclusion: Effective smear layer removal was not possible with shortened irrigation time using MTAD.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

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    Melahat Görduysus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA] and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA; G3, Ca(OCl2 + Poly(AA-co-MA; G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05. In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05. EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl2.

  18. The effect of QMix, an experimental antibacterial root canal irrigant, on removal of canal wall smear layer and debris.

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    Dai, Lin; Khechen, Khaled; Khan, Sara; Gillen, Brian; Loushine, Bethany A; Wimmer, Courtney E; Gutmann, James L; Pashley, David; Tay, Franklin R

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ability of two versions of QMix, an experimental antimicrobial irrigant, on removal of canal wall smear layers and debris using an open canal design. Cleaned and shaped single-rooted human root canals were irrigated with NaOCl as the initial irrigant and one of the following as the final irrigant: (1) QMix I (pH = 8), (2) QMix II (pH = 7.5), (3) distilled water, (4) 17% EDTA, and (5) BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK). Smear and debris scores were evaluated in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of longitudinally fractured canal spaces using scanning electron microscopy and analyzed using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistic. Smear scores, when the overall canal was considered, differences were observed among groups except groups 1 versus 4 and groups 2 versus 4. After adjusting for canal levels, all groups differed significantly from each other (p < 0.005) with the exception of groups 2 versus 5. For the debris scores, no significant difference was observed among the treatment groups when the overall canal was considered and after adjusting for the effect of canal level. Within the limitations of an open-canal design, the two experimental QMix versions are as effective as 17% EDTA in removing canal wall smear layers after the use of 5.25% NaOCl as the initial rinse. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of tropical fruit juices on dentine permeability and erosive ability in removing the smear layer: An in vitro study

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    Kanittha Kijsamanmith

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that tropical fruit juices, especially green mango and lime, increase dentine permeability and have a strong erosive ability to remove the smear layer, which causes dentine hypersensitivity.

  20. Laser activation of endodontic irrigants with improved conical laser fiber tips for removing smear layer in the apical third of the root canal.

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    George, Roy; Meyers, Ian A; Walsh, Laurence J

    2008-12-01

    With a tube etching process, conical-ended optical fibers for middle infrared lasers that have lateral emissions can be produced, a feature of benefit for delivering laser energy onto the root canal walls. This study examined the ability of these improved laser tips when Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers were used in root canals in which thick smear layers had been created intentionally to provide a challenge for the laser system. Smear layer was assessed from scanning electron microscopy images with an objective digital method. Lasing improved the action of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid with cetavlon (EDTAC) in removing smear layer. Conical fibers performed better than plain fibers, but there was no difference in performance between the 2 laser systems when matched for all other parameters. These results provide a "proof of concept" for lateral emitting fibers for endodontic procedures and illustrate the novel contribution of lasing to the action of EDTAC in dissolving smear layer.

  1. Comparative analysis of endodontic smear layer removal efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 7% maleic acid, and 2% chlorhexidine using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study.

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    Attur, Kailash; Joy, Mathew T; Karim, Riyas; Anil Kumar, V J; Deepika, C; Ahmed, Haseena

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of different endodontic irrigants in the removal of smear layer through scanning electron microscopic image analysis. The present in vitro study was carried out on 45 single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with single canal and complete root formation. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups with 15 teeth in each group. Group I samples were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) irrigation, Group II with 7% maleic acid irrigation, and Group III with 2% chlorhexidine irrigation. Scanning electron microscope evaluation was done for the assessment of smear layer removal in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Comparison of the smear layer removal between the three different groups was done by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for comparing individual groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Statistically significant difference was seen between the two test groups (17% EDTA vs. 7% maleic acid and 17% EDTA vs. 2% chlorhexidine) in smear layer removal at coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the root canal. The most efficient smear layer removal was seen in Group I with 17% EDTA irrigation compared with other groups (P < 0.05) and the least by 2% chlorhexidine. The present study shows that 17% EDTA efficiently removes the smear layer from root canal walls.

  2. Er:YAG 2,940-nm laser fiber in endodontic treatment: a help in removing smear layer.

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    Guidotti, Rebecca; Merigo, Elisabetta; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Medioni, Etienne; Vescovi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system are some of the most important goals in endodontic therapy. The aim of this preliminary study is to assess the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser fiber in removing the smear layer produced during root canal walls instrumentation. Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were prepared with manual and rotary Ni-Ti instruments, in addition to 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. Samples were randomly subdivided into groups and treated with: three irradiations of 5 s each, with 300-μm Er:YAG endodontic fiber, 1 W and 2.5% NaOCl solution (A Group); two laser irradiations with 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl solution (B Group); laser irradiation plus 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl (C Group); only in the final wash of 17% EDTA (control group D). During laser treatment, temperature variations were analyzed by using thermocouple and thermal camera devices in order to test both deep and superficial temperatures. Each sample was finally observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) at the coronal, medium, and apical thirds at ×500 magnification and blindly scored depending on the amount of smear layer. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test to determine the eventual significant differences between the quantity of smear layer in each group and between the groups at coronal, medium, and apical third: a p value laser endodontic fiber produces an average deep temperature increase of 3.5 ± 0.4 °C; analysis performed with a thermal camera showed an average superficial temperature increase of 1.3 ± 0.2 °C produced by laser endodontic fiber use. Deep and superficial temperatures fall immediately after irradiation possibly without causing structural damage or anatomical alteration inside the root canal and neither on periodontal tissues. SEM analysis showed that specimens of group B had the highest level of cleaning in every third, with a significant difference with groups D and A; group

  3. Effect of 808nm diode laser irradiation on root canal walls after smear layer removal: A scanning electron microscope study

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    Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Stowe, Sally; Forghani, Farshid; Shahravan, Arash

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of 808nm diode laser irradiation on dentinal tubules of root canal wall. Materials and Methods: Twelve single-rooted teeth were used. After cleaning and shaping with rotary instruments by the crown down technique, the smear layer was removed by alternating irrigation with EDTA and sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were then randomly divided into experimental and control groups of six teeth each. In experimental group, laser irradiation was activated inside the canal and the teeth of the other group served as controls. Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests were used for comparing occluded dentinal tubules in different part of the roots. Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed that occluded dentinal tubules could be observed in all laser irradiated teeth; however, none of the control teeth showed occluded dentinal tubules. The Friedman test showed that in the laser irradiated group the best result was achieved in the apical third of the root canals compared with the middle (pLaser radiation after removing smear layer could successfully occlude dentinal tubules and the best results was achieved at the apical part of the canal. PMID:24327813

  4. A Comparative Study of the Removal of Smear Layer by Two Endodontic Irrigants and Nd:YAG Laser: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study.

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    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Birang, Reza; Feizianfard, Mahboobe; Nasouri, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 17% EDTA, 5% maleic acid, and Nd:YAG laser on smear layer removal by SEM. Eighty single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups of 25 according to the final procedure for smear layer removal: irrigation by 17% EDTA or 5% maleic acid or Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The other five teeth was used as control. Roots were sectioned into buccal and lingual parts, and smear layer presence was recorded in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds under SEM. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests. There was no significant difference between smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 5% maleic acid. Nd:YAG laser showed the least effect significantly. The coronal part of samples was significantly cleaner than the middle, and the middle was cleaner than the apical section. 17% EDTA and 5% maleic acid were more effective in smear layer removal compared to Nd:YAG laser.

  5. Effectiveness of XP-endo Finisher, EndoActivator, and File agitation on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals: a comparative study.

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    Elnaghy, Amr M; Mandorah, Ayman; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the XP-endo Finisher (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) file on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals in comparison to different irrigation regimens. Seventy-five freshly extracted human mandibular molar teeth with mesial root curved more than 20° were used in this study. The mesial root canals were mechanically prepared using the BT-Race rotary system (FKG Dentaire) and divided into five groups (n = 15) according to the following irrigation techniques: positive control, non-agitated, File agitation, XP-endo Finisher, and EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialities, Tulsa, OK, USA). Root canals were split longitudinally and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Five-grade scoring system was used to assess the presence of debris and smear layer at the coronal, middle, and apical regions. The XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator groups revealed significantly lower debris and smear layer scores than the other groups at the coronal, middle, and apical regions (P  0.05). The apical region had higher debris and smear layer scores compared with the coronal regions in all groups (P  0.05). Irrigation of curved root canals using XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator methods appears to be more effective on debris and smear layer removal than the other tested groups.

  6. [Clinico-pathological studies on the effects of pulp protection (lining) under the condition with and without smear layers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S

    1990-05-01

    Many studies have been made of pulpal reactions to pulp protection (lining) materials have always employed a smear layer between the dentin wall and the lining materials. In this study, the author has attempted to evaluate pulpal response without a smear layer and compared effects of pulp protection (lining) with and without smear layers. Materials and methods. The experiment employed 84 vital human teeth ranging in age from 14 to 54 years. The experimental teeth were divided into 4 groups for the purposes of histopathological studies and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. Group C: No EDTA-treatment and lining with gutta-percha temporary material, 10 cases for histopathological study and 4 cases for SEM observation. Group TC: EDTA-treatment and lining with gutta-percha temporary material, 10 cases for histopathological study and 4 cases for SEM observation. Group P: No EDTA-treatment and lining with Protect Cement. 20 cases for histopathological study and 8 cases for SEM observation. Group TP: EDTA-treatment and lining with Protect Cement. 20 cases for histopathological study and 8 cases for SEM observation. After local anesthesia, Black's simple class I cavities were made in the experimental teeth with a diamond instrument mounted on a high-speed air turbine at room temperature with a water spray coolant. In Groups TC and TP only, an aqueous solution of 0.5% EDTA (pH 7.4) 10 ml was applied from cavity floor to dentin for 60 seconds. All cavities were then washed with distilled water, and the dentin was dried with an air stream. The floor of cavities were lined with thin layers of the following materials: Group C and TC, gutta-percha temporary material (G-C Dental Industrial Co., Tokyo, Japan). Group P and TP lining of Protect Cement which is a zinc phosphate cement containing 0.5% paraformaldehyde (Neo Dental Chemical Products, Tokyo, Japan). The restoration of each cavity was then filled with silver amalgam. Experimental teeth were clinically

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of Smear Clear with and without a canal brush in smear layer and debris removal from instrumented root canal using WaveOne versus ProTaper: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Wael H; Kataia, Engy M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare by scanning electron microscopy the presence of smear layer and debris on root canal walls after preparation with the single-file system WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus the rotary ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) under 2 final irrigant regimens. Forty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The ProTaper and ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush (Coltène Whaledent GmbH+ Co KG, Langenau, Germany) groups were instrumented with the ProTaper system. Groups WaveOne and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush were instrumented with the WaveOne system. The irrigant in all groups was 2 mL 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution, whereas the final irrigation after preparation in the ProTaper and WaveOne groups was 1 mL Smear Clear solution (Sybron Endo, Orange, CA) and then 5.25% NaOCl applied with a plastic syringe, and in the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups, it was 1 mL Smear Clear solution and then 5.25% NaOCl (rotary CanalBrush agitation). Roots were processed for scanning electron microscopic examination for debris and smear layer scoring. Data were statistically analyzed. All groups showed more efficient smear layer and debris removal coronally than in the middle and apical regions, whereas the mean total debris score and the mean smear layer score in all groups were less in the WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups than the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and the WaveOne and ProTaper groups. Using the rotary CanalBrush in canals prepared with WaveOne produced the cleanest canal walls, and the WaveOne system gave superior results compared with the ProTaper system. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... smears as a way to monitor her health. Women in their 20s with normal Pap smear results ...

  9. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  10. Effectiveness of Three Different Irrigants - 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, Q-MIX, and Phytic Acid in Smear Layer Removal: A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagzap, Janhavi Balasaheb; Patil, Sanjay S; Gade, Vandana Jaykumar; Chandhok, Deepika J; Upagade, Madhura A; Thakur, Deepa A

    2017-01-01

    Removal of smear layer from the root canal walls is important for long-standing endodontic success. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare smear layer removing ability among 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Q-MIX, and phytic acid by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This in-vitro experimental study assessed smear layer removal using three different irrigants. Thirty single-rooted freshly extracted human permanent premolars were collected, disinfected, and decoronated to a standardized root length of 13 mm. Root canals were cleaned and shaped till F2 universal rotary protaper at working length 1 mm short of the apex. They were randomly divided into three groups, and final irrigation was done accordingly. Group 1 ( n = 10): with 1 ml of 17% EDTA, Group 2 ( n = 10): with 1 ml of Q-MIX, Group 3 ( n = 10): with 1 ml of phytic acid. Samples were then longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under SEM at coronal, middle, and apical levels. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Smear layer removing ability among irrigants and sections in descending order: 17 EDTA > Q-MIX > phytic acid; coronal > middle > apical. 17% EDTA showed better and promising results followed by Q-MIX and then phytic acid.

  11. The influence of smear layer removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome: a 24-month, double-blind, randomized, and controlled clinical trial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Roberta; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Gleiser, Rogerio; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    The effect of smear layer (SL) removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome has not been well elucidated. To determine the effect of SL removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome. This is a double-blind, randomized, and controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients were randomly divided into SL removal (G1 = 40 teeth) or smear layer nonremoval (G2 = 42 teeth) groups. Following the chemomechanical preparation with K-files and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), teeth were irrigated with either 6% citric acid and 0.9% physiologic solution (G1) or only 0.9% physiologic solution (G2). Camphorated paramonochlorophenol was used as intracanal medication. At the second appointment, 1 week after, root canals were filled with zinc oxide-eugenol paste. Clinical and radiographical baseline criteria were stipulated equally for both groups. The success rate (G1 = 91.2%; G2 = 70.0%) was statistically different (P = 0.04) between the groups. In G2, the outcome was affected significantly by pulpal necrosis (P = 0.02), pre-operatory symptoms (P = 0.02), and periapical/inter-radicular radiolucency (P = 0.04). The pulpectomy outcome was improved by smear layer removal. The outcome for teeth with pulpal necrosis, pre-operatory symptoms, or periapical/inter-radicular radiolucency was significantly improved by removal of the smear layer. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Smear Layer and Debris on the Canal Walls prepared with a Combination of Hand and Rotary ProTaper Technique using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; Prakash, Sandeep; Siddharth, Pujari R; Saha, Supradip; Geojan, Naiza E; Ramachandran, Mookambika

    2016-07-01

    The effect of smear layer and debris on the success rate of endodontic treatment has not yet been definitely determined. So the present study was aimed to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris on the canal walls prepared with a combination of hand and rotary ProTaper technique using NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alternately as root canal irrigants using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Eighty intact freshly extracted human permanent mandibular premolar teeth were collected and randomly divided equally into four groups. In group I canals were prepared with hand K-Flexofiles; group II with rotary ProTaper instruments; group III with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with hand K-Flexofile; group IV with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with RC-Prep and irrigated with 1 mL of normal saline. In all groups canals were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA alternately. After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM examination using five-score indices for debris and smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third levels. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). Statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in cleaning the apical third. Groups I and III showed better canal cleanliness compared to group II. The use of EDTA and NaOCl in group III was more effective in removing debris and smear layer compared to EDTA and normal saline in group IV. Regardless of the instrumentation technique employed and the irrigant used, the cleaning ability decreased in the apical third, resulting in higher debris and smear layer scores compared to coronal and middle third levels. None of the instrumentation techniques in the present study could completely eliminate the smear layer and debris from the canal walls. Instrumentation of the canals with hand files after automated rotary preparation could result in cleaner

  13. Smear Layer Evaluation on Root Canal Preparation with Manual and Rotary Techniques using EDTA as an Irrigant: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, M; Annapurna, Kini; Sudhakar, V; Sunil Kumar, Vc; Hiremath, Vinay Kumar; Shah, Ankur

    2013-02-01

    The aim of any root canal treatment is to achieve a canal free of micro organisms, residual pulp remnants, debris and smear layer for the long term success of the procedure. Manual and automated instrumentation techniques along with proper irrigation regime is used to arrive at the aforementioned goal. Many authors focused on the preparation capabilities of various manual and rotary instruments but very few investigators stressed on the actual cleaning abilities of these instruments. This study was undertaken to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of manual K flex files and rotary Pro File systems in the root canals using a scanning electron microscope. Thirty single rooted mandibular first premolars were divided into two groups and randomized (the manual group-M and the ProFile group-P) with respect to the preparation technique. The Manual group was hand instrumented with stainless steel K- Flexofiles by means of a conventional filing technique. The Pro File group was instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions using a rotary handpiece. All canals were shaped and cleaned under frequent irrigation with EDTA. Final irrigation was carried out with 3 mL of normal saline solution to neutralize the action of the irrigant. The roots were split, one half of each tooth was selected for further SEM technique analysis and examined under the scanning electron microscope. The canal walls were quantitatively evaluated for the amount of debris and smear layer. The apical, middle and coronal regions of the canal surface, were graded (1-5) for debris and smear layer. A statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. ProFile performed least effective cleaning. Manual K-Flexofiles led to a grooved pattern. A statistically significant difference was observed (p<0.05) between the two instrumentation techniques concerning the amount of debris and smear layer at the apical level. The manually filed canals had less debris and smear layer than those using

  14. Effectiveness of four different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals : a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP, manual dynamic agitation (MDA, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and needle irrigation (NI as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals.Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08-15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20 according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP (EndoVac; group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA; group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI; and group 4, needle irrigation (NI. Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification.Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05. Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique.ANP (EndoVac system can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals.

  15. Effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation and manual dynamic irrigation on smear layer removal from root canals in a closed apex in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Mukhtar-Un-Nisar; Kumar, Ashok; Zia, Afaf; Iftekhar, Huma; Alam, Sharique; Siddiqui, Shiraz

    2014-08-01

    To compare the effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation with manual dynamic irrigation on smear layer removal from root canals using a closed apex in vitro model. The root canals of 45 freshly-extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared by the Pro-Taper rotary system to an apical preparation of F4 size. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into three groups; two experimental groups and one control group (n = 15) on the basis of the type of activation of final irrigation as follows: (a) Group A, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), no activation received; (b) Group B, 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, ultrasonic activation with a small file; and (c) Group C, 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, manual activation with a master gutta-percha point. The prepared teeth were decoronated and split into two halves longitudinally, and observed under a scanning electron microscope to assess the removal of the smear layer. In the apical-third region, the mean smear scores for groups B and C were significantly less than those of Group A (control group) (P < 0.05). Both activation techniques are important adjuncts in removing the smear layer, with manual dynamic activation being a simpler, safer, and more cost-effective technique. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. “Comparative evaluation of dentinal penetration of three different endodontic sealers with and without smear layer removal” - Scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the dentinal tubule penetration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londria, PR, Brazil, GuttaFlow® 2 sealer (Coltene/Whaledent with standard sealer AH Plus (Dentsply Detrey, Konstanz, Germany in instrumented root canals obturated by using cold lateral compaction techniques in either the presence or absence of the smear layer. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars with a single root canal were used for this study. All teeth were prepared using F2 Pro Taper nickel–titanium rotary system. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. GuttaFlow 2, MTA Fillapex and AH Plus were used as sealers in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. Groups were divided into two subgroups in which either the smear layer was removed or retained. Removal of smear layer was achieved by continuous irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The canals were dried and obturated using respective sealers by cold lateral compaction techniques. After storage at 37°C and 100% humidity for 14 days, the roots were then split into two halves using chisel and mallet. On each section, sealer penetration in the dentinal tubules at cervical, middle, and apical levels was examined by using scanning electron microscope. Results: Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was noticed in all groups. AH plus showed deeper penetration, followed by MTA Fillapex and GuttaFlow® 2. The penetration depth of the sealers at the cervical and middle third of root was significantly more than those at apical third. Conclusions: Within the parameters of the present study it was concluded, with the removal of smear layer AH plus sealer showed deeper penetration into the dentinal tubules at cervical and middle third of root compared with apical third.

  17. Bonding Durability of a Self-etch Adhesive to Normal Versus Smear-layer Deproteinized Dentin: Effect of a Reducing Agent and Plant-extract Antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Tagami, Junji; Foxton, Richard M; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a reducing agent and plant-extract antioxidant on the bonding durability of a self-etch adhesive to normal and NaOCl-treated, smear-layer-deproteinized dentin. Flat smear-layer-covered dentin surfaces from 60 extracted human molars were prepared by removing the occlusal enamel. The teeth were divided into two groups with or without NaOCl-deproteinizing treatment for 30 s, and further divided into three subgroups as follows: no application of antioxidant, application of Accel (p-toluenesulfinic acid sodium salt solution) for 5 s, or application of rosmarinic acid solution for 5 s. All treated dentin surfaces were bonded with a two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) and restored with composite (Clearfil AP-X). The bonded teeth were sectioned into a hourglass-shaped sticks with a composite-dentin bonded interface area of 1.0 mm2. After storage in artificial saliva for 24 h or 1 year, the specimens were subjected to the microtensile bond strength test (n = 15). Data were statistically analyzed with three-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, and the t-test (p self-etch adhesive to normal and smear-layer-deproteinized dentin compared with those after 24-h storage (p  0.05). Application of Accel and rosmarinic acid improved bonding durability of the self-etch adhesive to both normal and smear-layer-deproteinized dentin.

  18. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics.

  19. Effect of Smear Layers Created by Different Burs on Durability of Self-Etching Adhesive Bond to Dentin of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, P; Senawongse, P; Harnirattisal, C; Wunsiw, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a smear layer generated by a high-speed diamond or carbide bur on the durability of microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of a self-etching adhesive to primary dentin. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces of 105 human primary molars were exposed using 600 grit silicon carbide paper before being divided into 2 groups for further grinding with either a highspeed diamond or carbide bur. Ten prepared dentin surfaces treated by each bur were evaluated for the characteristics of the smear layer using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Seventy-five specimens from each bur-prepared group were applied with a 2-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond(®)) then built up with a resin composite. Each bonded specimen was sectioned into a 1-mm thick slab and trimmed to a dumbbell shape with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1 mm(2). All slabs were divided into 3 groups (n=25) according to 3 storage times of 24 hrs, 3 months, and 6 months, in distilled water at 37°C. After storage, the μTBS was determined using a universal testing machine. All fracture specimens were prepared for observation of failure modes. Ten bonded specimens of each bur group were prepared for observation of the resin-dentin interface using an SEM. Smear-layer thickness, μTBS, and failure mode distributions were statistically analyzed. The high speed carbide bur created a significantly thinner smear layer than the diamond bur (p < 0.05). Dentin surfaces treated with a high-speed carbide bur generally obtained significantly higher μTBS than the diamond bur group (p < 0.05). The μTBS gradually decreased over time such that specimens stored for 6 months had significantly lower bond strength than those stored for 24 hrs (p < 0.05). Self-etching adhesive created a hybrid layer of the same thickness when prepared with either a carbide bur or diamond bur, but the carbide bur group had longer and more resin tags. Highspeed carbide bur groups had a higher

  20. Comparative study of smear layer removal by different etching modalities and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the root surface: a scanning electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodoro, Leticia Helena

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, citric acid with tetracycline, and Er:YAG laser to smear layer removal on the root surface after scaling with manual instruments by SEM. Thirty specimens (n=30) of root surface before scaling were divided into 6 groups (n=5). The Control Group (G1) was not treated; Group 2 (G2) was conditioned with citric acid gel 24%, pH1, during 2 minutes; Group 3 (G3) was conditioned with EDTA gel 24%, pH 7, during 2 minutes; Group 4 (G4) was conditioned with citric acid and tetracycline gel 50%, pH1 during 2 minutes; Group 5 (G5) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm), 47 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 0.58 J/cm 2 ; Group 6 (G6) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94μm), 83 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 1.03 J/cm 2 . The micrographic were analyzed by scores and following the statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05) H=20,31. The G1 was significantly different of all groups (28.0); the G2 (13.4), G3 (11.7), and G4 (13.6) showed no difference in relation to G5 (20.3) and G6 (6.0), but the G6 was significantly different from G5. From the results, it can be conclude that: 1) there was intensity smear layer after scaling and root planing; 2) all treatments were effective to smear layer remove with significantly difference to G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6; G2, G3 and G4 were not statistically different from G5 and G6; 3) G6 was more effective in the smear layer remotion in relation to G5 and both presented irregular root surface. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  3. Implementation of the Thin Layer Agar Method for Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Setting with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Homa Bay, Kenya▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anandi; Munga Waweru, Peter; Babu Okatch, Fred; Amondi Ouma, Naureen; Bonte, Laurence; Varaine, Francis; Portaels, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a low-cost method, the thin layer agar (TLA) method, for the diagnosis of smear-negative patients. This prospective study was performed in Homa Bay District Hospital in Kenya. Out of 1,584 smear-negative sputum samples, 212 (13.5%) were positive by culture in Löwenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and 220 (14%) were positive by the TLA method. The sensitivities of LJ and TLA were 71% and 74%, respectively. TLA could become an affordable method for the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in resource-limited settings, with results available within 2 weeks. PMID:19494065

  4. The effectiveness of the Erbium:Yttrium aluminum garnet PIPS technique in comparison to different chemical solutions in removing the endodontic smear layer-an in vitro profilometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Riman; Franzen, Rene; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the degree of endodontic smear layer removal using the Er:YAG PIPS technique (2.94 μm) in comparison with different irrigants. Sixty-four single-rooted teeth were endodontically prepared up to size #40 and were divided into 8 groups (a-h) (n = 8). Groups a, b, c, and d were irrigated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA), (0.9 % NaCl), (3 % NaOCl), and (20 % EDTA), respectively. Groups e, f, g, and h were treated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA + PIPS), (0.9 % NaCl + PIPS), (3 % NaOCl + PIPS), and (20 % EDTA + PIPS), respectively. The settings of the Er:YAG PIPS technique were (0.3 W, 20 mJ, 15 Hz, 50 μs, no water and air). The root canals were examined under a profilometer to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal using Hülsmann scores. The smear layer was present in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of groups b, c, f, and g. Groups a, d, e, and h exhibited open dentinal tubules in the coronal and middle thirds. However, none of the apical thirds showed open dentinal tubules. No significant difference was observed between the groups treated only with irrigants and those treated with Er:YAG PIPS and the same irrigants (p ≥ 0.0018). The Er:YAG PIPS technique did not show any improved results in removing the smear layer when compared to the irrigants alone. Moreover, the open dentinal tubules in some groups were a result of the chelating action of 20 % EDTA.

  5. Evaluation of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy - a blind comparative study Avaliação dos tratamentos químicos e/ou mecânicos da camada de esfregaço conforme observado por microscopia eletrônica de varredura - estudo cego comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira LUZ

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A blind comparative study of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer, according to scanning electron microscopy images, was carried out. The effect of the treatments was analyzed on the smear layer of mesio-occlusodistal cavity walls prepared in vitro in human third molars. The agents used were air/water spray, 37% phosphoric acid, 5% tannic acid, biologic detergent, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and enamel hatchet alone or in association with the previous agents. Electron micrographs were evaluated by three professionals according to the degree of visualization of underlying dentin or enamel. Phosphoric acid received the highest scores due to the complete removal of the smear layer. However, statistical analyses revealed diverse performances of non or slightly demineralizing agents, according to the cavity walls in dentin, while there was equivalent effect on the enamel of gingival walls.Um estudo comparativo cego de tratamentos químicos e/ou mecânicos da camada de esfregaço, de acordo com imagens da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, foi realizado. Analisou-se o efeito dos tratamentos sobre a camada de esfregaço de paredes de cavidades mésio-ocluso-distais, preparadas in vitro, em terceiros molares humanos. Os agentes empregados foram spray ar/água, ácido fosfórico a 37%, ácido tânico a 5%, detergente biológico, hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5% e machado para esmalte isoladamente ou associado a estas substâncias. Eletromicrografias foram avaliadas por três profissionais de acordo com o grau de visualização da dentina ou esmalte subjacentes. O ácido fosfórico recebeu as maiores graduações devido à remoção completa da camada de esfregaço. Análises estatísticas revelaram performances diversas entre tratamentos não/ou levemente desmineralizantes de acordo com as paredes cavitárias, em dentina e efeitos equivalentes entre si, em paredes de esmalte.

  6. Smear Layer Outcome on Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    microbial flora was the main factor in the healing of exposed pulp tissue. This study proved that pulp necrosis was due to bacterial infection. Since the...1965) definitively demonstrated that bacteria within the canal system were responsible for apical pathosis. Treatment success is directly related to...comparisons to this study inaccurate. Study limitations include the follow-up duration and the strict definition of success. Ng et al. (2011) found an

  7. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  8. Frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com antecedentes obstétricos em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina F. Barroso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência da colpocitologia oncótica em jovens com pelo menos uma gravidez completa em Teresina, capital do Estado do Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado de maio a dezembro de 2008. Foram coletados dados de 464 jovens, selecionadas por amostragem acidental, que finalizaram uma gravidez no primeiro quadrimestre de 2006 em seis maternidades da Cidade de Teresina. Investigou-se a frequência da coleta de colpocitologia oncótica. A frequência inadequada foi definida como coleta em intervalos maiores do que 1 ano. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das participantes foi de 20 anos. A frequência da colpocitologia foi semestral em 180 jovens (39,0% e anual em 160 (34,5%. Quinze jovens (3,2% nunca haviam feito a colpocitologia. A regressão logística simples mostrou que o não uso de contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual e não poder optar por atendimento ginecológico por homem ou mulher aumentou o risco em 48,0% (P = 0,049 e 49,0% (P = 0,044, respectivamente, para frequência inadequada de coleta do exame. A regressão logística múltipla mostrou que ter tido mais de uma gravidez elevou em 71,4% a chance de inadequação da frequência de coleta em comparação com ter somente uma gestação (P = 0,011. CONCLUSÕES: O fato de muitas jovens realizarem o exame de colpocitologia oncótica em intervalos menores do que 1 ano não melhora o rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino e pode onerar o serviço público de saúde. A multiparidade foi fator de risco para a frequência inadequada de coleta do exame, devendo esse aspecto ser considerado na assistência à saúde ginecológica de jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre

  9. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres com câncer de colo uterino Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear among women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo uterino apresenta alta mortalidade no Brasil, apesar dos programas para rastreamento. O objetivo deste estudo, de corte transversal, foi analisar conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou e entender a não adesão das mulheres a este exame. Foram entrevistadas 138 mulheres: noventa com neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau e 48 com câncer invasivo de colo uterino. As mulheres com câncer invasivo tiveram prática mais inadequada do exame. No entanto, independente do diagnóstico, mais de 80% delas referiram desmotivação/vergonha, 60% relataram que os médicos não examinavam e, cerca de 50% apontaram o tempo de espera para a consulta e a demora no agendamento como dificuldades para serem atendidas. Em geral, a prática do exame dependeu da iniciativa do médico e a periodicidade da coleta foi determinada pela procura de consulta devido a sintomas. As mulheres com 56 anos ou mais mostraram maior inadequação no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática. No entanto, aquelas com maior escolaridade conheciam melhor o exame. A maior idade e a menor escolaridade podem estar associados a não adesão das mulheres ao exame, porém as dificuldades sociais e econômicas para conseguir atendimento em saúde precisam ser consideradas para aumentar a prática do exame.Despite screening programs, Brazil has a high cervical cancer mortality rate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear and to understand why women fail to submit to this screening test. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 138 women: 90 with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 with invasive cervical cancer. Inadequate practices were more frequent among women with invasive cancer. In terms of difficulties in obtaining medical care, more than 80% of women reported lack of motivation, 60% reported that physicians failed to conduct a complete physical examination

  10. Estudo comparativo de raspados orais submetidos à técnica de citologia em meio líquido e citopatologia convencional Comparative study of oral smears applying liquid-based cytology and conventional cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra Dias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando comparada à técnica da citopatologia convencional (CC, a citologia em meio líquido (LBC tem sido referida como método de desempenho superior em esfregaços cervicouterinos. OBJETIVO: Comparar (quantitativa e qualitativamente esfregaços orais preparados por meio da citopatologia convencional e da LBC. Material e métodos: Foram realizados raspados em borda lateral da língua de seis indivíduos com mucosa oral de aspecto clínico normal, e testados três instrumentos de coleta: escova endocervical (cytobrush, espátula plástica e escova contida no kit da citologia em meio líquido utilizado no estudo, sendo os esfregaços submetidos à citopatologia convencional e à LBC. RESULTADOS: A escova endocervical mostrou-se mais adequada para coleta e quanto ao método, a LBC forneceu lâminas com distribuição celular mais regular e homogênea do que a citopatologia convencional. Notou-se ainda redução da quantidade de células inflamatórias e de colônias de bactérias. DISCUSSÃO: Mesmo em menor quantidade, a sobreposição celular não foi totalmente eliminada na LBC como a literatura relata, pois estava presente em algumas lâminas. Embora em amostras cervicouterinas a redução de células inflamatórias, de hemácias e de muco seja considerada uma vantagem da LBC, nos raspados orais muitas vezes esses elementos compõem aspectos significativos de determinada doença. CONCLUSÕES: A citologia em meio líquido pode ser uma nova técnica a ser somada aos exames auxiliares de diagnóstico oral, mas, apesar de apresentar alguns resultados favoráveis, ainda são necessárias adaptações ao utilizá-la no diagnóstico oral.INTRODUCTION: When compared to conventional cytopathology (CC, liquid-based cytology (LBC has been referred to as a method of superior performance in cervical smears. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively and qualitatively compare oral smears obtained through conventional cytopathology and liquid medium cytology

  11. Dentin-smear remains at self-etch adhesive interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Ende, Annelies; Matsumoto, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Kuboki, Takuo; Yatani, Hirofumi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-10-01

    The bonding potential of 'mild' self-etch adhesives may be compromised due to smear interference, as they may not dissolve/penetrate the smear layer effectively due to their relatively low acidity. We observed that the thickness of the dentin smear layer differed depending on the surface-preparation methodology used. The interaction of an (ultra-)mild self-etch adhesive (Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray Noritake) with human dentin, prepared either using a medium-grit diamond bur ('thick', clinically relevant smear layer) or 600-grit SiC-paper ('thin' smear layer), or just fractured (smear-free), was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Non-demineralized/demineralized 30-100nm interfacial cross-sections were prepared following common TEM-specimen processing and diamond-knife ultra-microtomy. The adhesive did not dissolve the bur-cut, nor the SiC-ground smear layer, but impregnated it. Within this 'resin-smear complex', hydroxyapatite was abundantly present. At fractured dentin, this complex was not present, while the actual layer of interaction of the adhesive was limited to about 100nm. Non-demineralized 'ultra-thin' (30-50nm) sections confirmed the interfacial ultra-structure to differ for the three surface-preparation methods. An electron dense band was consistently disclosed at the adhesive interface, most likely representing the documented chemical interaction of the functional monomer 10-MDP with Ca. The dentin surface-preparation method significantly affects the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild self-etch adhesive. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização Pap smears of 20 - 59 year-old women in Pelotas, Southern Brazil: prevalence, approach and factors associated with not undergoing the test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e o foco de realização do exame citopatológico do colo uterino e também fatores associados à sua não realização em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional. Através de amostragem por conglomerados foram sorteados 144 setores censitários em múltiplos estágios. Foram investigadas variáveis sociodemográficas e a realização de exame citopatológico do colo uterino. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 1404 mulheres que constituem a população-alvo dos programas de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino, 83,0% realizaram o exame citopatológico do colo uterino nos três anos antecedentes a este estudo. Mostraram-se significativamente associadas (POBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and approach of Pap smear tests, as well as associated factors in women living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, within the 20 - 59 age range, who did not undergo a Pap smear. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out from October to December 2003. 144 census tracts were sampled through a multiple-stage clustered method. Socio-demographic variables were investigated, as well as women's Pap smear tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,404 women who were the target population included in the early detection program of uterine cervix cancer, 83% had had Pap smears in the three years before the study. Variables statistically associated (p<0.05 with women not undergoing the test in the previous three years were: ages ranging from 20-29 to 50-59 years compared with 40-49 year-old women, lower schooling level, lower social level, mixed and black skin color, not having seen a gynecologist in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study presents a high coverage of women undergoing Pap smears, women that present higher risk factors for this type of cancer had fewer

  13. Trends in sputum smear conversion among smear-positive pulmo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sputum smear conversion during pulmonary tuberculosis treatment is an important indicator of patient response to therapy and as such determines the direction of TB patient care. This retro-spective review assessed the trends in sputum smear evaluation and conversion rates among follow up pulmonary tuberculosis ...

  14. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  15. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The canals were dried with paper points and the apical foramens were sealed with a small cotton plug to keep the root canal clean. Two furrows were made on the. Key Messages: Chitosan was more effective in smear layer removal than MTAD, especially in apical third. In consideration of its low production ...

  16. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group).

  17. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group). After the ...

  18. Epithelioid sarcoma in FNAB smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohar-Marinsek, Z; Zidar, A

    1994-12-01

    FNAB smears of eleven epithelioid sarcomas were reviewed and analysed. Ten cases had a very similar cytomorphologic picture composed predominantly of dissociated epithelioid-like cells with eccentrically placed nuclei. These tumors were clearly malignant but difficult to differentiate morphologically from melanoma, epithelioid leiomiosarcoma, and Schwannoma or adenocarcinoma. One case was composed of spindle cells and was reminiscent of a fibrohistiocytic tumor. Immunocytochemical reactions to vimentin and cytokeratin were performed in six cases on the Papanicolaou stained smears. The reactions to both antigens were positive in all six cases. Ultrastructural characteristics of eight of the tumors are also described. It seems that epithelioid sarcoma has a rather distinct cytomorphologic picture. Taking into consideration clinical data and using also immunocytochemistry, a definitive diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma can probably be given from FNAB smears.

  19. [Pap Smear after 65 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, I; Le Baccon, F-A; Pinsard, M; Joueidi, Y; Lavoué, V; Levêque, J; Nyangoh Timoh, K

    2017-09-01

    The French recommendations (in favor of stopping cervical cancer screening by cervico-uterine smear from 65 years of age) are logical in the context of organized screening; however, it is not yet generalized in France. The proportion of invasive cervical cancer in the oldest patients is high and these cancers are more evolved and have a more pejorative prognosis. The prevalent infection with high-risk HPV virus remains important in elderly patients: if the HPV infection does not appear to be more risky in the elderly, HPV-induced lesions appear to be more evolving. Unfortunately, pap smear coverage rates are low in the most advanced age groups. Patients without adequate follow-up are exposed to invasive cancer after age 65: all studies insist on the protective effect of two or more normal pap smears between 50 and 65 years that would allow to stop screening. Recent publications in Europe insist, however, on the value of continuing screening beyond the age of 65 in populations that live longer. For the clinician, in France, patients who could benefit from systematic FCU after age 65 could be those: (1) who request it, (2) who have an HPV history, (3) who have not had more than 3 consecutive normal pap smears or (4) who have an associated pathogenic condition. The place of the HPV test deserves to be considered: because of its very high negative predictive value, it could be performed as an exit test or as an alternative test to the pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis: empiric evidence challenges the need for confirmatory smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, B; Lauritsen, Jens; Katamba, A

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of single scanty or positive sputum smear results and its impact on the surveillance definition of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB).......To determine the frequency of single scanty or positive sputum smear results and its impact on the surveillance definition of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB)....

  1. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  2. Smeared quasidistributions in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Quasi- and pseudodistributions provide a new approach to determining parton distribution functions from first principles' calculations of QCD. Here, I calculate the flavor nonsinglet unpolarized quasidistribution at one loop in perturbation theory, using the gradient flow to remove ultraviolet divergences. I demonstrate that, as expected, the gradient flow does not change the infrared structure of the quasidistribution at one loop and use the results to match the smeared matrix elements to those in the MS ¯ scheme. This matching calculation is required to relate numerical results obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD computations to light-front parton distribution functions extracted from global analyses of experimental data.

  3. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household

  4. Imunofluorescência realizada em cérebros de camundongos infectados com vírus rábico - cepa CVS, em diferentes estágios de decomposição Fluorescent antibody test for detection of rabies virus in brain smears of CVS-infected mice at different stages of decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Juliana Ghiuro Valentini

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available O teste de imunofluorescência (IF foi avaliado na detecção de vírus rábico presente em cérebros de carcaças de camundongos infectados com vírus da cepa CVS, os quais foram conseguidos através de uma combinação de tratamentos, em que se variaram as temperaturas (4,25 e -20ºC e o tempo de armazenamento. No teste de IF realizado com impressões cerebrais de carcaças que haviam sido submetidas à temperatura de 25ºC por 12 -18 h, houve maior dificuldade de visualização imediata dos corpúsculos de inclusão, enquanto que nos materiais conservados a 4ºC por até 48 h, as inclusões foram facilmente reconhecidas. Carcaças mantidas a -20ºC mantiveram-se viáveis à identificação pela IF mesmo após terem sido armazenadas por 720 h quando foram feitas as últimas observações. Em carcaças mantidas a 25ºC por 10 h, com tratamento posterior a 4 e -20ºC, o antígeno rábico não pode ser identificado através da IF, em conseqüência da decomposição das carcaças que ocorrem, respectivamente, após 10 e 24 h. Recomenda-se, portanto, empregar o teste de IF, em caráter de rotina, no controle de qualidade da vacina contra a Raiva, no que diz respeito a prova de vírus residual (teste de verificação da inativação viral, de vez que ele permite esclarecer mortes assintomáticas ocorridas em animais inoculados com a vacina, durante o período de observação da prova (21 dias, bem como evitar a sua repetição quando essas mortes ocorrem, o que representa considerável economia de tempo.The efficiency of the fluorescent antibody (FA test in detecting rabies virus antigen in decomposed specimens was evaluated in simulated conditions of the safety test recommended for the assessment of residual virus in inactivated rabies vaccines. The CVS-infected mice were submitted to different treatments combining time and temperature in order to cause different stages of carcass decomposition and, the FA test was carried out sequentially at pre

  5. Prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis among outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of data on the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among out-patient attendees from individual Institutions and Health Care Facilities performing sputum smear microscopy in Ghana. This retrospective study analyzed sputum smear microscopy results among pulmonary TB suspected patients ...

  6. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear microscopy centres in Blantyre. Malawi: a facility based cross sectional survey. ABSTRACT. Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is.

  7. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits.

  8. Estabilidade de ervilha em conserva em embalagem metálica com baixo revestimento de estanho Stability of canned peas in tinplate cans with reduced tin layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2011-09-01

    ório, indicando a viabilidade do uso de folhas-de-flandres com camada de estanho de 2,0 g.m-2 para o acondicionamento de ervilha em conserva.Brazilian Federal Laws harmonized with MERCOSUL recommend that the tin layer of tinplate metallic packaging be technologically proven as adequate in the protection of the food against corrosion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of canned peas in welded three piece tinplate cans using a storage test, evaluating the performance relative to food/packaging interaction. The packaging was produced by tinplate using a 2.0 g Sn/m² internal layer and organic coatings on the inner surface. The can was characterized according to the type of metallic material and an evaluation of the internal organic coatings. The storage test was carried out during a period of 540 days under a controlled temperature of 35 °C ± 2 °C, evaluating the internal visual appearance of the cans, metal dissolution (chromium, tin and iron in the peas, and the vacuum level and composition of the gases oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen present in the can headspace. The characterization of the cans showed that the metallic material layers (chromium and tin were in agreement with the recommended standard and that the system of internal coating presented conditions suitable for all the parameters measured. The periodic evaluations of the product showed there were no significant changes in relation to metal dissolution in the product, which remained under acceptable conditions, as also the appearance of the inner surface of the packaging. During the storage period there was a reduction in internal vacuum and increase in the hydrogen concentration in the can headspace, indicating the development of internal can corrosion. The study concluded that a can produced with 2.0 g Sn/m² tinplate with the internal coating used showed satisfactory performance for a storage period of 540 days at 35 °C. These results indicated the viability of using this

  9. Papanicolaou smears and cervical inflammatory cytokine responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Samual

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a case-control study among 2064 South African women to investigate the risk of clinically invasive cancer of the cervix, we found a marked reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women who gave a history of ever having undergone even a single Pap smear, and a statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received. HPV infections and their associated low-grade lesions commonly regress, indicating that most often there is an effective host immune response against HPV infection. We hypothesized that act of performing a Pap smear is associated with inflammatory responses at the site of trauma, the cervix, and that this inflammatory signalling may be an immunological factor initiating these productive anti-HPV responses. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 80 healthy young women to investigate the impact of performing a Pap smear on cervical inflammation. Forty one women, in the intervention group, received a Pap smear at enrollment and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs were collected at baseline and 2 weeks later. Thirty nine women received no intervention at enrollment (control group but CVLs were collected at enrolment and 2 weeks later. We assessed various markers of inflammation including IL-12 p70, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β in CVL specimens. While CVL levels of IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6 remained unchanged following a Pap smear, markers of cell mediated immunity (IL-12 p70 and TNF-α and T cell regulation (IL-10 were significantly elevated.

  10. The significance of microbiopsies in cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana K Sherwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions is well documented. Conventionally obtained fine needle aspiration (FNA smears frequently contain well preserved viable intact tissue fragments (microbiopsies. Aims: The present study was aimed at evaluating the microbiopsies and carrying out further cyto-histopathologic correlation in order to assess what additional information they could provide. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 FNA smears from clinically suspected malignant lesions were examined, of which 81 smears (70.0% contained representative tissue fragments of the tumors. Histopathological details were available in 75 cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC was applied in selected smears as and when required. Results: Tumors in which microbiopsies aided in diagnosis chiefly included soft tissue malignancies (12 cases, typed into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibrosarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma and malignant melanoma; lung tumors (14 cases classified as small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma; breast tumors (08 cases, typed into ductal, medullary and lobular carcinoma; and lymph node metastasis (19 cases from primaries in lung, larynx and thyroid. The cyto-histopathologic concordance was raised from 81.2% in the absence of microbiopsies to 93.2% in their presence. Conclusions: FNA smears containing microbiopsies are of ample help in establishing firm diagnosis, tumor typing, and predicting possible primary sites in metastatic tumors which were not possible by cytology alone. Hence, this technique can be utilized to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, if put into practice in evaluation of routine cytology smears, without increasing any financial burden on patients.

  11. Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, C.H.; Rankin, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

  12. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2009 to assess the effect of the level of CD4 lymphocyte counts on the development of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) among HIV patients before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 155 HIV patients who were on HAART ...

  13. Cervical Smear in Pregnancy: The Zaria Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other dismay and horror. ¿. Cervical invasive carcinoma in pregnancy has been reported л with an incidence of 1:2, 500 pregnancies in large centres and an incidence of carcinoma in-situ of 1:750 pregnancies. 5. The aim of this report is to determine the pattern of abnormal cervical smears in pregnancy and the relationship.

  14. Anxiety and borderline PAP smear results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Ida J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Huveneers, Hans; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Low-grade abnormalities after cervical cancer screening, i.e. borderline (Pap 2) or mildly (Pap 3a1) dyskaryotic (BMD) smear results, are found in considerable numbers of women annually We compared quality of life and anxiety in women with BMD and a reference group of screening participants

  15. comparative study of intradermal smear microscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    women with malaria when the converse was the case. The reliability of the test, the positive predictive value, was 77.4%. This is a measure of the probability of intradermal smear to detect malaria parasitaemia in the presence of malaria parasites. That is, it will correctly detect malaria parasitaemia in greater than seven (7) ...

  16. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    patency, diabetes and hypertension) showed no statistically significant differences.   Figure 1 DISCUSSION: A Report on the practice of endodontic...as history of hypertension, diabetes and treatment factors such as preoperative diagnosis or presence of apical pathosis were evaluated for effect... periodontitis . Endod Dent Traumatol 1986; 2: 20-34. 20. Hulsmann M, Heckendorff M, Lennon A. Chelating agents in root canal treatment: mode of action and

  17. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Funding was provided by WRNMMC, Bethesda, MD. The Endodontics Department at the Naval Postgraduate Dental School (NPDS) is a referral-based clinic...thank Dr. Francois Tuamokumo and Dr. Glen Imamura from the Walter Reed Department of Research Programs for the statistical analysis support. The

  18. Pap Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most treatable. Other names for a Pap smear: Pap test, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou test, Pap smear test, vaginal ... org/cancer/cervical-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/pap-test.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. ...

  19. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    K Bhutia; M Puri; N Gami; K Aggarwal; S S Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap...

  20. Teste de Papanicolaou: cobertura em dois inquéritos domiciliários realizados no município de São Paulo em 1987 e em 2001-2002 Papanicolaou smear screening: coverage in two home surveys applied in the city of São Paulo in 1987 and 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ozawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a cobertura da citologia convencional de Papanicolaou em mulheres de 15 a 59 anos entre dois inquéritos domiciliários, relacionando a alguns atributos pessoais e à tendência da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero. MÉTODOS: analisou-se os dados coletados por meio de dois inquéritos domiciliários, com amostragem complexa, realizados no município de São Paulo nos anos de 1987 e 2001 a 2002. Foram comparadas as respostas autorreferidas de 968 mulheres no primeiro inquérito e 1.125 mulheres no segundo inquérito, na resposta à pergunta sobre a realização "alguma vez na vida" do teste de Papanicolaou, relacionando com faixa etária, cor da pele, situação conjugal, escolaridade e tendência da mortalidade por câncer de colo no período de 1980 a 2007. Foi aplicado o teste exato de Fisher em cada uma das comparações entre as amostras, consideradas como devidas ao acaso as diferenças que ocorreram com probabilidade p>5%. RESULTADOS: do primeiro inquérito para o segundo houve aumento de 24% na realização da citologia convencional de Papanicolaou (de 68,8% para 85%. As maiores variações do aumento de cobertura relacionadas com atributos pessoais das mulheres foram encontradas nas de cor da pele preta, solteiras e de nível de escolaridade mais baixo. Quanto à tendência nas taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo, não se observou nítida disposição de ascensão e nem de declínio ao longo dos 28 anos estudados (1980 a 2007. CONCLUSÃO: houve aumento no acesso ao exame citológico de Papanicolaou nas mulheres mais vulneráveis. Desde 2001 e 2002, a cobertura de 85% já atingia a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, porém sem nítida tendência de declínio nas taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo nos anos seguintes, indicando que o rastreamento é apenas parte de um programa efetivo e organizado para o controle do câncer do colo, cujo modelo deve garantir a integralidade da aten

  1. CENTRIFUGED BUFFY COAT SMEAR: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1 In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1 The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2 For decades light microscopy of blood smears has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria.(3 It is labor intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation, particularly at low level of parasitaemia.(4 The diagnostic modalities which are available for malaria range from conventional thick and thin smears, Quantitative buffy coat smears(QBC, to rapid and more reliable diagnostic modalities like antigen detection tests for detecting parasitic antigen like Histidine – rich protein-2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and pan specific aldolase. These techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity.(5 Each of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. A previous study from India(6 had developed standardized and reported on using Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS examination for diagnosis of malaria, in which wide bore 4 ml tube instead of a Wintrobe’s tube has been used to obtain a buffy coat. This technique has advantage over the existing method. The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of CBCS technique in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. AIMS: Detection of malarial parasite by Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS was compared with conventional thin and thick peripheral smear and antigen detection by commercially available card test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CBCS in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. METHODS, MATERIALS AND RESULTS: A total of 837 patients were tested

  2. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  3. Accuracy of Screening Tools for Pap Smears in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Harding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Data extraction tools (DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice, despite their limitations. Objective This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit. Method A widely available DET was used to establish the rate of Pap smears in a large multi-general practice (multi-GP in regional New South Wales followed by a manual audit of patient files. The main outcome measure was identification of possible discrepancies between the rates established. Results The DET used significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to the manual audit. In some instances, the patient file contained phone/specialist record of Pap smear conducted elsewhere, which accounted for the failure of the DET to detect some smears. Those patients who had Pap smears whose pathology codes differed between time intervals, i.e. from different pathology providers or from within the same provider but using a different code, were less likely to have had their most recent Pap smear detected by the DET (p < 0.001. Conclusion Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records. How this fits in DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice. This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit The DET tested significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to manual screening. Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records

  4. The gram stain smear: A screening test for genital mycoplasmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of 168 vaginal specimens from women examined for genital mycoplasmas showed that more of these organisms were isolated from specimens whose Gram stain smears were devoid of Gram positive bacilli (GPB) (43%) as against those whose smears contain GPB (22.1%). This result was found to be statistically ...

  5. Effects of Different Temperatures for Drying Cervical Mucus Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different room temperatures for drying cervical mucus on crystallisation of fern-tree patterns was determined using cervical mucus smears from 60 women undergoing investigation for infertility at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Cervical mucus smears were dried in the oven at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35C ...

  6. A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush or the Ayre spatula: a practice audit. ... The purpose of this study was to compare the adequacy of cervical smears taken with the Ayre spatula as opposed to the cytobrush. Methods: This was a retrospective analytical study. One sampler, an experienced ...

  7. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  8. Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Smears from Sporadic Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of abnormal smears in an unscreened population of sexually active women attending a gynaecological clinic. “Pap” smears were taken sporadically for cytological examination from sexually active women attending gynaecological clinics at the Federal Medical Centre Gombe.

  9. Quality assessment of sputum smears microscopy for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is no published information regarding the quality of sputum smear microscopy in Tanzania. Objective: To evaluate technical quality and results of smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in peripheral health care facilities in Kinondoni and Ilala Districts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design: ...

  10. Periodic abstinence from Pap (PAP) smear study: women's perceptions of Pap smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy; French, Linda; Barry, Henry C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to risk-based cervical cancer screening through focus group interviews of patients. We conducted 8 focus group interviews of women using semistructured interviews. The investigators independently reviewed the focus group transcripts and identified the overall themes and themes unique to each question using an immersion and crystallization approach. Women are in agreement that cervical cancer screening is important and that women should get Pap smears regularly as an important way of protecting their health. They are not open to the idea of reducing the frequency of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, however, because they perceive annual screening to be successful in reducing cervical cancer mortality. Additionally, they have concerns about test accuracy. Women are distrustful of the rationale for reducing the frequency of Pap smears. Women's previous bad experiences have reinforced their need for self-advocacy. Women are reluctant to engage in risk-based cervical cancer screening. In this environment, risk-based cervical cancer screening recommendations are likely to be met with resistance.

  11. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  12. Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence of Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013. Keywords: Tuberculosis. Smear positive Prevalence. Associated Risk factors ... other hospitals, medical centers and private practitioners of East Wollega, ..... associated risk factors in Eastern Ethiopian Prison. The International Journal of ...

  14. Effect of moisture and chitosan layered silicate on morphology and properties of chitosan/layered silicates films; Efeito do teor de quitosana e do silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades dos filmes quitosana/silicatos em camadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.R.M.B. da; Santos, B.F.F. dos; Leite, I.F., E-mail: itamaraf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Thin chitosan films have been for some time an object of practical assessments. However, to obtain biopolymers capable of competing with common polymers a significant improvement in their properties is required. Currently, the technology of obtaining polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites has proven to be a good alternative. This work aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan content (CS) and layered silicates (AN) on the morphology and properties of chitosan/ layered silicate films. CS/AN bionanocomposites were prepared by the intercalation by solution in the proportion 1:1 and 5:1. Then were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffraction (XRD) and X-ray thermogravimetry (TG). It is expected from the acquisition of films, based on different levels of chitosan and layered silicates, choose the best composition to serve as a matrix for packaging drugs and thus be used for future research. (author)

  15. Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Michael K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear among Omani women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi; Nasra Mohammed Alramadhani; Atheer Mohammed Alzaabi; Waad Abdullah Alsalami

    2017-01-01

    Background: Absence or low uptake of Pap smear is probably the main barrier for high incidence of cervical cancer. Aim: To assess the knowledge, practice, attitude, main barriers and motivating factors of Pap smear among Omani women. Methods: Cross-secal survey in a tertiary referral hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the patients who attended Outpatient Gynecology Department in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, the female staff from SQUH, College of Medi...

  17. An online identity authentication method for blood smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood smear test is the basic method of blood cytology and is also a standard medical test that can help diagnose various conditions and diseases. Morphological examination is the gold standard to determine pathological changes in blood cell morphology. In the biology and medicine automation trend, blood smears' automated management and analysis is very necessary. An online blood smear automatic microscopic image detection system has been constructed. It includes an online blood smear automatic producing part and a blood smear automatic microscopic image detection part. Online identity authentication is at the core of the system. The identifiers printed online always present dot matrix digit code (DMDC whose stroke is not continuous. Considering the particularities of DMDC and the complexities of online application environment, an online identity authentication method for blood smear with heterological theory is proposed. By synthesizing the certain regional features according to the heterological theory, high identification accuracy and high speed have been guaranteed with few features required. In the experiment, the sufficient correct matches between the tube barcode and the identification result verified its feasibility and validity.

  18. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  19. [Morphological characteristics in corneal smear of acanthamoeba keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-qun; Li, Ran; Zhang, Chen; Luo, Shi-yun; Sun, Xu-guang; Jin, Xiu-ying

    2010-05-01

    To study the morphological characteristics in corneal smear of acanthamoeba keratitis. Experimental study. From May 1991 to December 2007, in Department of Microbiology, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, 159 cases with acanthamoeba keratitis were analyzed for the laboratory results and clinical data. Giemsa's stained smear and wet-mount preparation of 159 cases were observed, all the results of cytology be photographed as the records. Among the 159 cases with acanthamoeba keratitis, 131 patients (82.4%) were positive on smear, and 110 cases (69.2%) were positive in culture of amoeba. The detection positive rate of smear was apparently higher than culture. Typical trophozoites, pre-encystment trophozoites, mature cysts and empty cysts could be observed by smear. So it is an important method for the clinical diagnosis. The edema and dissolved corneal epithelial cells, exudate cells, arthrospores or chlamydoconidium of mycelial fungus, vacuoles, lipid droplet and medicine crystallization should be differentiated with the pathogen. The movement of trophozoites could mainly be observed through wet-mount preparation. The detection of typical features of trophozoites, pre-encystment trophozoites, mature cysts and empty cysts by corneal smear is important for the etiological diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis.

  20. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher′s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  1. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, K.-W.; Woo, Z.-H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Oh, W.-Z.; Han, M.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3 H and 14 C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared

  2. Variability Study between Pap Smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, S.; Bari, A.; Hayat, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. Results: The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46 percent) women, while 77(54 percent) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5 percent) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5 percent) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58 percent). In the remaining 95(66.4 percent) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46 percent), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). Conclusion: There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. (author)

  3. Permeability evolution of normal faults with clay smear: insights from structural observations in water saturated sandbox models and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; Urai, Janos L.; Vrolijk, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    Fault processes are complex phenomena that defy reliable prediction. Clay smear in particular is difficult to predict for sub-surface flow applications and would benefit from an improved understanding of controlling processes. In this study, we present a series of water-saturated sandbox experiments producing large clay smear surfaces up to 500 cm2. In these experiments, we couple across-fault flow measurements with structural analysis of post-mortem excavated clay smear surfaces. To develop a tool for evaluating the evolving fault structure during formation, we compare measured flow data to simplified numerical flow simulations. Results show diagnostic relationships between the observed fault structures and measured cross-fault flow. In experiments with one or two clay layers and a cumulative thickness of 10 mm and 100 mm displacement, we observe that normally consolidated clay, in a structural domain of graben faulting, initially yields in hybrid brittle/ductile failure. Characteristic for this type of failure is an early breaching of the clay layer by brittle fracturing causing increased cross-fault flow. However, the type of failure varies laterally and shear failure occurs as well. We observed that holes preferably form beneath extensional parts of the footwall cutoff. These can be identified in map-view as the fault curves towards the hanging wall. During the evolution of the fault, this is typically followed by fault back-stepping, formation of clay smears and reworking of clay fragments in the fault. These processes lead to slower increases of cross-fault flux. Holes that formed during the early breaching of the clay layer mostly remain open during the evolution of a fault, although there is some evidence for occasional resealing of holes. Fault zones are segmented by fault lenses, breached relays and clay smears in which sand and clay mix by deformation. Experiments with two clay layers show that holes rarely form at the same position on the fault planes

  4. Expanded austenite in nitrided layers deposited on austenitic and super austenitic stainless steel grades; Analise da austenita expandida em camadas nitretadas em acos inoxidaveis austeniticos e superaustenitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteletti, L.C.; Fernandes, F.A.P.; Heck, S.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica; Oliveira, A.M. [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao (IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Gallego, J., E-mail: gallego@dem.feis.unesp.b [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    In this work nitrided layers deposited on austenitic and super austenitic stainless steels were analyzed through optical microscopy and X-rays diffraction analysis (XRD). It was observed that the formation of N supersaturated phase, called expanded austenite, has promoted significant increment of hardness (> 1000HV). XRD results have indicated the anomalous displacement of the diffracted peaks, in comparison with the normal austenite. This behavior, combined with peaks broadening, it was analyzed in different nitriding temperatures which results showed good agreement with the literature. (author)

  5. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita P. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  6. Thick Smear Is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. PMID:27162266

  7. Knowledge and Awareness Among Iranian Women Regarding the Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dadkhah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Screening is a necessity for country health systems. In undeveloped countries that have no screening programs, cervical carcinoma is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Although cervical cancer is preventable it is poorly controlled in some countries. The main cause of it is unawareness of people from cervical cancer and screening methods. Methods:The target population consisted of a consecutive sample of 1002 female patients, 15-45 years old, visiting the city health care centers in Tehran for any reason between January 2006 and January 2007. We used a self-administered,written, anonymous, multiple choice questionnaire that was developed by the study authors. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The mean of age was 31.23 ± 4.3 years. Five-hundred and twentytwo cases (52.1% had knowledge about Pap smear test. Only 230 cases (44.1%knew the correct time of the first Pap smear that should be done in women.And 408 cases (77.9% knew Pap smear can detect cancer of the cervix. 364 cases (71.9% had heard about cervical cancer,314 cases (59.9% had heard something about symptoms of cervical cancer. Conclusion: It is obvious that in Iran (and especially in Tehran, Pap smear awareness (52.1% is statistically similar to other developing countries, and only 45.9% had had at least one Pap smear test till the time of the interview. Thus, there is a need for an awareness campaign to increase the uptake of Pap smear testing.

  8. Direct visualization by cryo-EM of the mycobacterial capsular layer: a labile structure containing ESX-1-secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The cell envelope of mycobacteria, a group of Gram positive bacteria, is composed of a plasma membrane and a Gram-negative-like outer membrane containing mycolic acids. In addition, the surface of the mycobacteria is coated with an ill-characterized layer of extractable, non-covalently linked glycans, lipids and proteins, collectively known as the capsule, whose occurrence is a matter of debate. By using plunge freezing cryo-electron microscopy technique, we were able to show that pathogenic mycobacteria produce a thick capsule, only present when the cells were grown under unperturbed conditions and easily removed by mild detergents. This detergent-labile capsule layer contains arabinomannan, alpha-glucan and oligomannosyl-capped glycolipids. Further immunogenic and proteomic analyses revealed that Mycobacterium marinum capsule contains high amounts of proteins that are secreted via the ESX-1 pathway. Finally, cell infection experiments demonstrated the importance of the capsule for binding to cells and dampening of pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Together, these results show a direct visualization of the mycobacterial capsular layer as a labile structure that contains ESX-1-secreted proteins.

  9. Cromatografia em camada delgada para o diagnóstico da intoxicação por aldicarb ("chumbinho" em cães e gatos Thin-layer chromatography for aldicarb poisoning diagnosis in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Xavier

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD como método de diagnóstico toxicológico para os casos de intoxicação por aldicarb em cães e gatos, utilizando-se 50 amostras de conteúdo gástrico obtidas durante a necropsia e 50 amostras de alimentos utilizados como iscas para intoxicar criminalmente os animais. Todas as amostras resultaram positivas para o aldicarb, mostrando ser a CCD uma técnica qualitativa eficiente, rápida e de baixo custo, com uso potencial na toxicologia veterinária forense.The present study concerns about the identification of aldicarb residues using thin-layer chromatography (TLC in 50 samples of gastric content obtained from the necropsy of dogs and cats and 50 samples of foods suspected of being used as baits. All samples resulted positive for aldicarb showing that the TLC is an efficient, fast and not expensive qualitative method for the detection of aldicarb, being useful for this purpose in the forensic veterinary toxicology.

  10. Pap smear screening, pap smear abnormalities and psychosocial risk factors among women in a residential alcohol and drug rehabilitation facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccio, Jacqui; Brown, Margaret; Comino, Elizabeth; Friesen, Emma

    2015-12-01

    To compare rates of late- screening, abnormal Pap smears and prevalence of psychosocial factors for cervical cancer between women in the community and women attending a residential drug and alcohol facility. Women with drug and alcohol addiction experience higher rates of abnormal Pap smears, late- or under- screening and psychosocial risk factors including domestic violence and sexual assault. A descriptive cross-sectional study of women attending publically funded women's health clinics in the community or in a live-in residential drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility. The study was approved in May 2012. Data were collected between October 2012-December 2013 using standardized women's health questionnaires, domestic violence screening tools and Pap smear tests. Women attending the rehabilitation facility had higher rates of abnormal Pap smears (16·7% vs. 1·6%) and self-reported history of abnormal Pap smears (44·4% vs. 20·6%). They also reported higher rates of smoking (72·2% vs. 29·2%), experience of sexual assault (44·1% vs. 16·9%), experience of domestic violence (65·7% vs. 10·9%) and other psychosocial risk factors, than women living in the general community. Unexpectedly, women in the rehabilitation facility reported similar levels of late screening as women in the community (52·8% vs. 55·4%). Women with drug and alcohol addiction have significantly higher incidence of risk factors for cervical cancer and abnormal Pap smears. Provision of opportunistic cervical cancer screening during residential treatment appears to reduce incidence of late-screening. Roles of Women's Health Nurses in providing services to vulnerable women should be explored further. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  12. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is the commonestmalignancy of the genital tract inNigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. Goal: To determine cervical smear pattern in patients ...

  13. Pap smear coverage among rural workers | London | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the high incidence of cancer of the uterine cervix aInong black South African women, many do not have access to cytological screening services. Data describing Papanicolaou smear coverage and factors related to .coverage are presented from 9 surveys ofrural women workers in the food canning and processing ...

  14. Hard-surface contamination detection exercise. [Smears:a3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a practical exercise which demonstrates the techniques used by Health Physicists to detect surface contamination, including both instrumentation and smear survey techniques. By understanding the basic principles of the most commonly found instruments the intent is that a new Health Physics graduate can correctly choose, and apply an instrument to their detection situation. The exercise is also intended to acquaint students with the very basic principles of smear techniques. Smear surveys are probably the most universally applied technique in this industry, however, very little literature exists on the subject. The techniques are usually taught, on-the-job and by demonstration. By their seeing and participating in this presentation, it is intended that Health Physics students can accelerate their first few weeks at their new careers, and enable them to recognize common mistakes. Health Physicists are expected to have knowledge of the basic practices of their profession. This exercise will allow Health Physics students to become familiar with the use of hand-held detection devices and the technique of smear surveys. Adequate measurement and recording of surface contamination information is necessary to: meet licensing requirements; protect the health and safety of the workers; maintain accurate records in the case of litigation or dose reconstruction; and maintain high levels of professional competency. This exercise will assist students in obtaining the skills necessary to adequately measure and record levels of surface contamination. 41 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-30

    Apr 30, 2005 ... To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of and reduction in diagnostic delay attributable to a clinical algorithm used for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonarytuberculosi&. (SNPTB) in HfV-infected adults. Design. An algorithm was designed to facilitate clinico- radiological diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) ...

  16. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  17. Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. ... Subjects. Subjects included 58 HIV-infected adult patients with suspected PTB consecutively referred to the local TB clinic for outpatient TB treatment using this algorithm between 12 February 2004 and 30 April 2005.

  18. Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Marie; Swahnberg, Katarina; Lindell, Gunnel; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To describe women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear result. Ten women were recruited from a women's health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis. The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused. In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women's situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized.

  20. Cytological Features Associated with Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Pap Cervical Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okodo, Mitsuaki; Kawamura, Jumpei; Okayama, Kaori; Kawai, Kenji; Fukui, Tadasi; Shiina, Natsuko; Caniz, Timothy; Yabusaki, Hiromi; Fujii, Masahiko

    2017-08-27

    Purpose: Ureaplasma urealyticum is associated with several obstetric complications and increases the importance of risk management in pregnant women. Furthermore, U. urealyticum has been identified as a cofactor that interacts with human papillomavirus infection in cervical cancer onset. The aim of this study was to assess specific cytological features of U. urealyticum infection in Pap smears to determine whether additional microbiological testing should be performed for pregnant women with a high possibility of U. urealyticum infection. Methods: Liquid-based cytology specimens (LBC) from cervical swabs of a total of 55 women, including 33 pregnant women who were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) on Pap testing and with U. urealyticum diagnosed without any other infectious microbes and 22 U. urealyticum-negative controls, were used in this study. We evaluated the localization of U. urealyticum by immunofluorescence, cytological features of secondary changes in squamous cells caused by inflammation, and the specimen background in Pap smears. Results: Based on analysis of Pap smears, a significant relationship was observed between U. urealyticum infection and cannonballs (p Pap smears of U. urealyticum infected samples, which have hardly been understood thus far, were assessed. The cytological features included cannonballs and predominance of coccoid bacteria. Our results might help in determining whether additional microbiological testing should be performed for pregnant women with a high possibility of U. urealyticum infection. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis in...

  2. The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. G S Mfinanga, E Ngadaya, R Mtandu, B Mutayoba, B Doulla, G Kimaro, T M Chonde, P Ngowi, S Mfaume, A M Kilale, S Egwaga, A Y Kitua ...

  3. A Correlation Of Symptomatology With Nasal Smear Eosinophilia In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To correlate subjective and objective clinical features with nasal smear cytology findings in non-infectious chronic rhinitis. Design: An analysis of prospectively collected data of consecutive patients with non-infectious seasonal and perennial rhinosinusitis seen at a tertiary health institution. Methodology: Clinical ...

  4. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes.

  5. Cervicovaginal Smear Findings of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Barut

    2008-08-01

    Although cervicovaginal smear generally is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinomas, it played an important role in determining serous carcinoma. This may be related with advanced stage and/or aggressive features of the neoplastic process.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Smear as a Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...

  7. Analysis of Diagnostic Value of Cytological Smear Method Versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aspiration of serous cavities is a simple and relatively non-invasive technique to achieve diagnosis. Cytologic evaluation of body cavity fluid is diagnostically challenging. Methods: A total of 150 fluid specimens were examined for conventional cytological smear (CS) and cell block method (CB). Out of 150 fluids ...

  8. Raising Awareness About Cervical Cancer Using Twitter: Content Analysis of the 2015 #SmearForSmear Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Philippe; Moulahi, Bilel; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Mercier, Gregoire; Carbonnel, François

    2017-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women under 45 years of age. To deal with the decrease of smear test coverage in the United Kingdom, a Twitter campaign called #SmearForSmear has been launched in 2015 for the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Its aim was to encourage women to take a selfie showing their lipstick going over the edge and post it on Twitter with a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening. The estimated audience was 500 million people. Other public health campaigns have been launched on social media such as Movember to encourage participation and self-engagement. Their result was unsatisfactory as their aim had been diluted to become mainly a social buzz. The objectives of this study were to identify the tweets delivering a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening (sensitizing tweets) and to understand the characteristics of Twitter users posting about this campaign. We conducted a 3-step content analysis of the English tweets tagged #SmearForSmear posted on Twitter for the 2015 European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Data were collected using the Twitter application programming interface. Their extraction was based on an analysis grid generated by 2 independent researchers using a thematic analysis, validated by a strong Cohen kappa coefficient. A total of 7 themes were coded for sensitizing tweets and 14 for Twitter users' status. Verbatims were thematically and then statistically analyzed. A total of 3019 tweets were collected and 1881 were analyzed. Moreover, 69.96% of tweets had been posted by people living in the United Kingdom. A total of 57.36% of users were women, and sex was unknown in 35.99% of cases. In addition, 54.44% of the users had posted at least one selfie with smeared lipstick. Furthermore, 32.32% of tweets were sensitizing. Independent factors associated with posting sensitizing tweets were women who experienced an abnormal smear test (OR [odds ratio] 13

  9. Predictors of delayed sputum smear and culture conversion among a Portuguese population with pulmonary tuberculosis

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    P. Caetano Mota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure of sputum smear and/or culture conversion after 2 months of tuberculosis (TB treatment has been considered a predictor of patient infectivity and treatment failure. We aimed to identify the factors associated with delayed sputum smear and culture conversion in patients with pulmonary TB who were given anti-TB treatment. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort of 136 adult patients with sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB referred to an urban Chest Disease Centre. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiological, microbiological, and therapeutic data were evaluated. Results: The median age was 41.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 18.0 years and 75.0% of patients were male. Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in 25.4% (30/118 and 27.2% (37/136 of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–13.3, male gender (OR 10.8, 95% CI 1.3–91.1, and smear grade > 1–9 acid fast bacilli (AFB/field (3+ (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.4–100.6 were significantly associated with persistent smear positivity after 2 months of treatment. Bilateral radiological involvement (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5–9.0 and colony count > 100 (3+ (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2–27.4 were significantly associated with persistent culture positivity. Conclusions: Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in about one third of patients. Older age, male gender, and higher bacillary load were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Bilateral radiological involvement and higher colony count were independently associated with delayed culture conversion. Resumo: Introdução: A ausência de conversão dos exames micobacteriológicos direto e/ou cultural de expetoração após 2 meses de tratamento para a tuberculose (TB tem sido considerado um preditor do grau de infeciosidade do doente e de falência terap

  10. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  11. Improved abnormal Pap smear triage using cervical cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Jeffrey L; Dye, Timothy; Grace, Chelestes; Hiraoka, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current system of Pap smear screening and management of abnormal cytology has resulted in a marked reduction in invasive cervical cancer. Many women, however, are not found to have significant precursor lesions. This is due to the poor specificity of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) triage. More specific cervical cancer biomarkers may be more effective triage tools than hr-HPV. We evaluated whether a dual stain for p16 and Ki-67 might improve the triage of abnormal Pap smears. p16/Ki-67 immunostaining was performed on additional slides prepared from 515 women with abnormal Pap smears (301 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS], 169 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], 29 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade lesion [ASC-H], 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]). High-risk HPV typing was performed on all cases. Immunostaining and hr-HPV were compared in relation to their diagnostic accuracy for the detection of biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. A cost analysis comparing hr-HPV versus immunostaining as the initial triage tool used for abnormal Pap smears was also performed. High-risk HPV was positive in 127 (42.2%) ASCUS, 129 (76.3%) LSIL, 20 (69.0%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. p16/Ki-67 was positive in 54 (17.9%) ASCUS, 73 (43.2%) LSIL, 19 (65.5%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. For detection of CIN 2/3, sensitivity/specificity of hr-HPV and p16/Ki-67 was 89.29%/14.94% and 96.43%/60.92%, respectively. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was statistically significantly higher for p16/Ki-67 compared with hr-HPV. Compared to HPV, immunostain triage could have generated approximately $46,000 savings in the study population. The triage of abnormal Pap smears by p16/Ki-67 immunostaining shows comparable sensitivity, improved specificity, and significantly improved diagnostic performance when compared to hr-HPV. Immunostaining is of value in triaging LSIL and ASC-H Pap smears in addition

  12. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  13. Pap smear screening in women under 30 in the Norwegian Coordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program, with a comparison of immediate biopsy vs Pap smear triage of moderate dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Jan F; Nygård, Mari; Skare, Gry Baadstrand; Thoresen, Steiner Osterbø

    2006-01-01

    Top provide population based estimates of Pap smear screening results among women under 30 and to compare the outcomes of 2 triage options for women under 30 with a moderate dysplastic Pap smear: immediate biopsy vs. Pap smear follow-up. All Pap smears, histologically verified cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 2/3 and invasive cervical cancer in 1999-2002 from women in Norway under 30 in 2000-2002 were analyzed. Due to different triage recommendations in different laboratories, 836 women under 30 with a moderately dysplastic Pap smear were recommended for immediate biopsy, while 109 were recommended for a Pap smear within 6 months. Risk estimates for triage outcome were estimated by multinominal logistic regression. The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesion was highest around 20 years. The first moderate dysplasia was diagnosed at age 16, as was CIN 2/3. Of the women with Pap smear triage, one third were diagnosed with a CIN 2+ lesion, one third had a normal outcome, while the last third were in uncertain state 12 months later. Among those recommended for immediate biopsy, nearly 70% were diagnosed with a CIN 2+, thus having odds of 4.2 (95% CI 2.5-7.1) higher than did women with Pap smear triage of being diagnosed with CIN2+ 12 months later. The choice of triage has a profound impact on the proportion of young women diagnosed with CIN 2+ after a moderately dysplastic Pap smear.

  14. Vegetable cells in Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasi, Francesco; Tosi, Giovanni; Ruozi, Barbara; Curatola, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Vegetable cells are unusual findings in Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears; these structures could be wrongly mistaken for abnormal human cells, worm eggs, or spores by a cytologist encountering the possibility of meeting those elements in cytological analysis. Five cervicovaginal smears showing similar vegetable cells have been detected over a 3-yr period (2002-2004) in the course of a population screening program for cancer of the uterine cervix in Modena (Italy) involving 32,500 women. According to the clinical histories of the patients, the vaginal pharmaceutical drugs or appliances used were of different types: vaginal lavages, pessaries, and vaginal creams. Following a careful investigation, the only substance that can lead to vegetal elements has been identified as polysaccharide galactomannan, which is one of the excipient present in the drugs used. The authors have identified the origin of these contaminants and the means of pollution, using cytological and pharmaceutical investigation.

  15. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  16. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  17. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.T.; Zahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  18. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  19. Evaluation of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Kelekci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the statistical analysis of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period accompanied by literature. Cervicovaginal smear results of 894 postmenopausal women were evaluated retrospectively according to the 2001 Bethesda system (BS in Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic from 2007–2010. The study found, normal results on 287 patients (32.1%, benign findings on 556 patients (62.2%, abnormal epithelial cell changes on 48 patients (5.36% and malignant changes on 3 patients (0.33%. The abnormal epithelial changes were observed to be atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US for 22 patients (2.46%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL for 11 patients (1.23%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL for 7 patients (0.78%, findings that cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H for 6 patients (0.55% and atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS for 2 patients (0.22%. Malignant results were 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (0.22% and 1 adenocarcinoma (ACC (0.11%. Cervical cancer screening programs should be expanded and Pap smear screening should be applied to all postmenopausal women. The longer time span involved from premalignant lesions to cancer improves our chance for the diagnosis and treatment. As the incidence of invasive cancer increases in menopausal period, gynecological smear examination and regular check-up are crucial. A high rate of abnormalities of epithelial cells was detected in this study.

  20. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

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    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  1. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  2. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions.

  3. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  4. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Ibeh, Joy N; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  5. Incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino: fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais Incontinencia urinaria en mujeres que solicitan un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino: factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento Urinary incontinence in women undergoing Pap smear test: socio-demographic and behavioral factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal objetivou investigar a associação entre, de um lado, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais e, de outro, a presença de incontinência urinária referida em 784 mulheres que buscam exame preventivo de câncer de colo uterino na Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados sociodemográficos, estado de saúde, atividade física, constipação e índice de massa corporal, sendo utilizado o International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. A prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 30,7% (16,5% perdiam urina uma vez por semana ou menos e 23,8% em pequena quantidade. Na regressão de Poisson bruta, estiveram associados à incontinência urinária os seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda por pessoa da família até um salário mínimo, etnia não caucasiana, excesso de peso corporal, pior autoavaliação do estado de saúde, constipação e idade. Após ajuste, seguindo modelo hierarquizado, permaneceram associados: escolaridade, etnia, estado de saúde e idade. A alta prevalência de incontinência urinária em mulheres que buscam exame de rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino justifica abordagens preventivas nesses espaços de atuação.Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre factores socio-demográficos y de comportamiento con la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, informada por 784 mujeres que solicitaron un examen preventivo de cáncer de cuello uterino en el área metropolitana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos socio-demográficos, estado de salud, actividad física, estreñimiento e índice de masa corporal, utilizándose el International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-SF. La prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria fue de un 30,7% (16,5% perdían orina una vez por semana o menos y un 23,8% en pequeña cantidad. En la regresión de Poisson bruta se asoció a la incontinencia urinaria: la

  6. Note on: 'EMDPLER: A F77 program for modeling the EM response of dipolar sources over the non-magnetic layer earth models' by N.P. Singh and T. Mogi, Computers & Geosciences 36 (2010) 430-440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie, Majid; Mirzaei, Saeid; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper some mistakes arising in Singh and Mogi (2010) that are: (1) wrong formulation of the intrinsic impedance of the layers of an N-layered earth (Zi) and reflection coefficient of the EM wave in TM-mode (rTM), (2) using wrong and the very same algorithms for computing reflection coefficients of the EM wave in both the TE- and the TM-mode (rTE and rTM) and (3) using flawed algorithms for computing phase and normalized phase values, relating to electric and magnetic components of the EM wave, are noted and corrected form of these mistakes are presented. Moreover, in order to illustrate how these mistakes can affect forward modeling results different two- and three-layered earth models, the same as the models used in Singh and Mogi (2010), are chosen; afterwards EMDPLER and corrected version of this program, presented in this paper titled "EMDPLER_Corr", are conducted on these models and real and imaginary parts of Hz and Hy components of the magnetic field intensity, their normalized amplitudes (|Hz /Hz0 |and|Hy /Hy0|) and the corresponding normalized phases are computed, plotted versus frequency and compared with each other.

  7. Association of knowledge, attitude and demographic variables with cervical Pap smear practice in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Sabin; Tiwari, Mamta; Dhungana, Govinda; Shrestha, Reshmi

    2014-01-01

    Coverage of cervical pap smear test in Nepal is below general global values. One of the reasons may be that cervical cancer prevention policy of Nepal has 'Visual Inspection of Cervix with Acetic Acid' as the only screening tool. The focus of present study was to find out association of demographic factors, knowledge and attitude regarding cervical Pap smear test with its practice by women in Nepal. This cross sectional analytical observational study was conducted between February 1, 2013 and April 30, 2013. Participants were interviewed with the help of a structured questionnaire. Chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to detect associations of variables with pap smear practice. Chi square test showed that practice was significantly associated with knowledge about pap smear test and cervical cancer, having favourable attitude towards the test, urban residency and 36-50 years age-group. Pap smear utilization was not associated with age-at-marriage, parity and age-at-first-child-birth. Multivariate logistic regression showed favorable attitude towards pap smear test as the only variable which significantly influenced pap smear practice (p=0.006, OR: 2.4). Pap smear coverage has been found to be 15.7% which is lower than global average and that for developing countries. Health education programs which are effective not only in increasing knowledge about cervical cancer and pap smear test but also effective in positively changing attitude towards the test should be organized to increase pap smear coverage.

  8. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  9. The pap-smear test experience of women in Turkey: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Zeynep; Ozsoy, Suheyla

    2012-01-01

    The study was planned with the purpose of examining the attitude of women who have pap-smear test for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, factors affecting their decisions and their feelings and experiences during this period. A phenomenological method was used. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 using standard and purposive samplings from 17 women. A detailed interview with women were held in their houses and recorded. The data collection tool consisted of two parts, one of which is information form with 17 questions identifying sociodemographic and cervical cancer risk factors of women and the second part is made up of semi-structured interview form with 15 alternative questions taking literature and the pap-smear test into consideration. Collected data were put into a written document. Content analysis was held by loading the documents into NVIVO 8 Statistical Programme. The study comprised themes such as cervical risk factor, decision of taking pap-smear test, taking pap-smear test, knowledge about pap-smear test, relieving factors during pap-smear test, obstructive factors during pap-smear test, gynecological examination and feelings of women during and after pap-smear test while waiting for the results. As women perceive gynaecological examinations differently from other examinations, they have different feelings in each process of the Pap smear test. Medical staff should advise women more clearly on the nature and advantages of the Pap-smear test.

  10. Young Singaporean women's knowledge of cervical cancer and pap smear screening: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Juanna; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Mackey, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    To assess the knowledge of young female Singaporeans regarding cervical cancer and pap smear, the intention to participate in pap smear and whether there is any relationship between knowledge and intention to participate in pap smear screening. While cervical cancer has poor prognosis in the later stages, pap smear is effective in identifying precancerous lesions, which are more treatable. Pap smear screening is available to women in Singapore, but its uptake is opportunistic. Research has shown that knowledge about pap smear and cervical cancer is important determinant of screening behaviour in Singaporean women. Cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. Three hundred and ninety-three young Singaporean undergraduates, aged 18-25 years, were recruited via convenience sampling from a local university over a four-month period. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the participants knew the term 'pap smear' and its function. However, knowledge of the risk factors for cervical cancer was lacking among the young women. Knowledge of pap smear and cervical cancer had a weak correlation with the intention to go for the future uptake of pap smear. Educational efforts among younger Singaporean women on the knowledge of pap smear and risk factors for cervical cancer are needed. Improving knowledge will enable them to understand the importance of reducing exposure to risk factors and regular pap smear screening. All health professionals working with young Asian women should be prepared to educate and counsel young women to participate in pap smear screening according to current guidelines. In particular, knowledge of the age to attend the first pap smear and the recommended frequency for screening need to be targeted for health education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  12. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  13. Parton distributions from lattice QCD with momentum smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus). Cyprus Inst.; Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-15

    In this work we continue our effort to explore a recent proposal, which allows light-cone distributions to be extracted from purely spatial correlations, being thus accessible to lattice methods. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we present our latest results from a twisted mass lattice calculation of the flavor non-singlet momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of the nucleon. Furthermore, we apply a newly proposed momentum improved smearing, which has the potential to reach higher nucleon momenta as required for a safe matching procedure to the physical distribution functions.

  14. Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a smeared crack modelling approach is used to simulate corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete. The presented modelling approach utilizes a thermal analogy to mimic the expansive nature of solid corrosion products, while taking into account the penetration of corrosion...... products into the surrounding concrete, non-uniform precipitation of corrosion products, and creep. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented modelling approach, numerical predictions in terms of corrosion-induced deformations as well as formation and propagation of micro- and macrocracks were...

  15. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  16. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-01-01

    SETTING: Urban clinic, Nairobi. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. DESIGN: Prospective study among TB suspects. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly ...

  17. Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 y...

  18. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Inequalities in Pap smear screening for cervical cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Werutsky, Gustavo; Campani, Raquel Barth; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Barrios, Carlos Henrique

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors associated with never being screened for cervical cancer (CC) in Brazil. Using the National Household Sample Survey 2008 (PNAD), we analyzed data from 102,108 Brazilian women ages 25-64years. The patients were analyzed as having been or never having been screened with a Pap smear (Yes/No). Age-adjusted prevalence of never-screening was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Crude and adjusted models using Poisson regression were performed. The prevalence of never-screened women for CC was 12.9%, 11.5% and 22.2% in Brazil in general, urban and rural areas, respectively. The Brazilian region with the highest prevalence of never-screening was the North (17.4%, 14.7% and 27.3% in general, urban and rural areas, respectively). The factors associated with a higher risk for never being screened were the following: poverty, younger age, lower educational level, non-white skin color, a greater number of children, no supplemental health insurance and not having visited a doctor in the past 12months. Socioeconomic and demographic conditions lead to inequalities in access to Pap smear screening in Brazil. Public health policy addressing these risk groups is necessary. © 2013.

  20. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  1. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis for Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus DNA testing and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Kan; Hung, Hui-Fang; Duffy, Stephen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    As the effectiveness of cytology-based screening programme for cervical cancer in mortality reduction has reached a plateau, various preventive strategies have been considered, including intensive Pap smear screening and the supplemental use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test or HPV vaccination. Cost and effectiveness of these various preventive strategies are therefore of great concern for health policy makers. We intended to assess whether the combination of HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination with Pap smear screening programme or the sole annual Pap smear screening is more effective and cost-effective in prevention of cervical cancer than the existing triennial Pap smear screening programme. A Markov decision model was constructed to compare total costs and effectiveness between different preventive strategies (including annual Pap smear, HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination together with Pap smear screening programme) as opposed to the triennial Pap smear screening alone (the comparator). Probabilistic cost-effectiveness (C-E) analysis was adopted to plot a series of simulated incremental C-E ratios scattered over C-E plane and also to yield the acceptability curve for different comparisons of strategies. The threshold of vaccine cost and the influence of attendance rate were also investigated. Compared with triennial Pap smear screening programme, most of preventive strategies cost more but gain additional life years (quadrant I of C-E plane) except HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 5 years dominated by triennial Pap smear screening programme. The most cost-effective strategy was annual Pap smear (incremental C-E ratio = $31 698), followed by HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 3 years ($36 627), and vaccination programme with triennial Pap smear screening ($44 688) with the corresponding cost-effective probabilities by the acceptability curve being 65.52%, 52.08% and 35.84% given the threshold of $40 000 of willingness to pay. Vaccination combined with

  3. Tissue Impression Smears as a Supplementary Diagnostic Method for Histopathology in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamperi, Nuwani H; de Silva, M Vipula C; Pathirana, Nishantha; Abeyewickreme, Wimal; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2018-01-15

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is diagnosed mainly by light microscopy of smears made using lesion material. Histopathology is usually done in atypical presentations or when lesion smears are negative. Tissue impression smears (TIS) made from skin biopsy specimens were compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of CL. Out of the 111 patients included, 83 (74.8%) were positive by either methods. The TIS was positive in 70.3% whereas histopathology was positive in 56.8% of patients. Tissue impression smears can be used as a supplementary diagnostic test that gives sensitive and rapid results when tissue biopsies are used as the source of lesion material for diagnosis of CL.

  4. Comparison of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and the Pap Smear for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parul; Srivastava, Pritika; Srivastava, Anand

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in the early detection of cervical cancer and compare it with the Pap smear. This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 316 patients who attended the Gynecology Outpatient Department of Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and gave their informed consent were included. VIA was found positive in 38 patients (12.6%). Pap smear was positive in 31 patients (10.3%). Twenty-eight patients had a positive VIA and a positive Pap smear, 3 had a negative VIA and a positive Pap smear, 10 had a positive VIA and a negative Pap smear, and 34 had a negative VIA and a negative Pap smear. The sensitivity of VIA and the Pap smear was found to be nearly equal, 93.3 and 93.8%, respectively. The Pap smear was found to be more specific than VIA, i.e., 72.9 versus 60%. In terms of test accuracy, the Pap smear was found to have greater test accuracy, i.e., 77.3 versus 66.7% for VIA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands...... developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per...

  6. Comparative study of hand sewn single layer anastomosis of dog's bowel Estudo comparativo das anastomoses manuais em plano único do intestino delgado de cães

    OpenAIRE

    João Luiz Moreira Coutinho Azevedo; Octávio Hypólito; Otávio Cansanção Azevedo; Otávio Monteiro Becker Jr.; Dalmer Faria Freire

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two-layer intestinal anastomosis increases the inflammatory response while single-layer anastomosis results in a better wound healing. However the four main kinds of stitches which may be chosen in performing single layer intestinal sutures never before had been comparatively studied. AIM: To compare the four more commonly used types of single layer surgical anastomosis sutures of the digestive tract. METHODS: Six mongrel dogs were operated, each one receiving two anastomosis: one...

  7. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  8. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura de superfícies radiculares antes e após raspagem e condicionamento com ácido cítrico e EDTA: um estudo "in vitro" Scanning electron microscopy analysis on root surfaces before and after scalling and citric acid and EDTA conditioning: an "in vitro" study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Valverde Rodrigues Bastos Neto

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A superfície radicular mais benéfica para a regeneração do periodonto ainda não está estabelecida. Visando uma busca por esta superfície este trabalho utilizou 14 dentes de humanos recém extraídos, seccionados em corpos de prova e tratados com raspagem e condicionamentos com ácido cítrico e EDTA e analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As superfícies hígidas apresentavam grânulos regulares provenientes de fibras do ligamento periodontal rompidas na exodontia. As superfícies contaminadas apresentavam massas de cálculo aderidas e áreas de reabsorção cementária. Quando raspadas com curetas manuais as superfícies foram cobertas por "smear layer". O condicionamento com ácido cítrico foi eficiente na remoção total do "smear layer", assim como o condicionamento com EDTA gel, e o condicionamento com EDTA líquido não teve efetividade total na sua remoção. Tomando como padrão as superfícies hígidas, conclui-se que os tratamentos que mais se aproximam do ideal são a raspagem e condicionamento com ácido cítrico e EDTA gel sem diferenças entre si.The most benefic root surface for periodontal regeneration has not been known. Looking for this surface this study used 14 human teeth prepared as testing corpus and treated with scaling and conditioning with citric acid and EDTA, and analysed in scanning electron microscopy. The health teeth surfaces showed regular grains representing broken periodontal ligament fibers by exodontics. The contaminated surfaces showed calculus masses, very porous, and resorption areas. When scalled with hand curettes the surfaces was covered by smear layer. The citric acid conditioning was efficient on smear layer removal, as well as the EDTA gel, and the EDTA liquid solution was not efficient on smear removal.

  9. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-05-01

    Urban clinic, Nairobi. To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. Prospective study among TB suspects. A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly more men than women produced a set of three 'good' quality specimens (175/274 vs. 182/339, P = 0.01). Lowering thresholds for definitions to include scanty smears resulted in increases in SPC detection in both sexes; the increase was significantly higher for women. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) case definition was associated with the highest detection rates in women. When analysis was restricted only to patients submitting 'good' quality specimen sets, the difference in detection between sexes was on the threshold for significance (P = 0.05). Higher SPC notification rates in men are commonly reported by TB control programmes. The revised WHO SPC definition may reduce sex disparities in notification. This should be considered when evaluating other interventions aimed at reducing these. Further study is required on the effects of the human immuno-deficiency virus and instructed specimen collection on sex-specific impact of new SPC definition.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  11. The influence of the cervix on smear quality. I: Atrophy. An audit of cervical smears taken post-colposcopic management of intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, C A

    1997-08-01

    Out of 951 smears taken from women attending a hospital cytology clinic, 122 were found to be of poor quality. Twenty-eight percent of these were associated with clinical and/or cytological atrophy, and in 91% of these the main adverse factor affecting smear quality was scantiness. The relative risk of obtaining a scanty smear was found to be 4.8 times greater in women in whom clinical atrophy was identified when compared with those with no atrophy. It is suggested that a reduction in the number of scanty, and hence potentially inadequate, smears in the screening programme may be achieved by the use of more appropriate sampling implements in all women in whom there is clinical evidence of atrophy. Further review of alternative sampling methods is indicated.

  12. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  13. Crack Models for Concrete, Discrete or Smeared? Fixed, Multi-Directional or Rotating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, J.G.; Blaauwendraad, J.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical tools to simulate cracking in concrete and similar materials are developed. Firstly, a treatment is given of smeared and discrete crack concepts, which start from the notion of a continuum and a discontinuum respectively. With the smeared crack concept a distinction is furthermore made

  14. Loss to follow-up of cervical smears without endocervical columnar cells is not disturbing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Mulder, J.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the six-month recommended follow-up after mass screening of Pap smears because of the absence of endocervical columnar cells (ECC-) or ECC+ smears with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined origin (ASCUS/AGUS) or low-grade squamous or glandular

  15. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); F.J. van Kemenade (Folkert); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The

  16. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  17. Leishman-Giemsa cocktail: an effective Romanowsky stain for air-dried cytologic smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbyal, Rajendra S; Agarwal, Neeta; Kumar, Prachi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an economical, quick, readily available and simple alternative to May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain and so to explore the combination of Leishman and Giemsa stain (LG cocktail). One wet-fixed and 2 air-dried smears were prepared from 720 cases during the period January 2003-November 2004. The LG cocktail and MGG stain were used on the air-dried smears and Papanicolaou stain in wet-fixed smears. Diagnoses of the cases were made using the LG cocktail-stained smears, and then its diagnostic efficacy was cross-checked with the MGG- and Papanicolaou-stained smears by the same cytopathologist. A comparative study of the LG cocktail and MGG-stained smears was done. The results achieved with the LG cocktail-stained smears were comparable to or even better than those with the MGG-stained smears, with excellent diagnostic efficacy. As compared to MGG stain, the 1-step LG cocktail is cheaper, easier to standardize and quicker.

  18. Documentation and treatment outcomes of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesgaye, F.; Defar, A.; Beyene, T.; Shafi, O.; Klinkenberg, E.; Howe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Smear-negative and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comprise two thirds of TB cases reported in Ethiopia. Neither treatment outcomes nor underlying associated factors are routinely reported for these cases. To assess treatment outcomes and associated risk factors of smear-negative and

  19. Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... Objective: To determine the age distribution pattern of abnormal Paps smear in women in our environment in order to have a basis for the points of entry and exit for cervical cancer screening protocol. Materials and Method: In this ...

  20. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  1. Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Emdadi, Shohreh

    2011-11-04

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were ran-domly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear pro-gram. There was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23]. Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular Pap-smear test.

  2. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  3. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S; Omair, Aamir A; Bamefleh, Hana S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III System (2001). All abnormal smears patients' data were collected and compared to the data of randomly selected 200 normal smears' patients. Abnormal pap smear prevalence was found to be 4.3% (841/19,650 Saudi patients were found with atypical epithelial cells abnormalities). Its prevalence in the years 2008 was 5.7%, 2009 was 4.9%, 2010 was 4.2%, and 2011 was 2.5%. Abnormal smear patients have lower parity (p=0.001), and were less likely to use intra-uterine devices (p=0.03) compared with normal smear patients. Presence of abnormal cervical appearance was associated with increased epithelial cell abnormalities (p=0.045). The only positive history that has characterized patients with epithelial cell abnormalities was their previous history of abnormal pap smear (p=0.001). Squamous cell abnormalities were identified in 91% of the patients (767/841), and glandular cell abnormalities were identified in 9% of the patients (74/841). Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in central Saudi Arabia is relatively low, while advanced glandular abnormalities prevalence was observed to be high. 

  5. Níveis de cálcio em dietas para poedeiras semipesadas após o pico de postura Levels of calcium in diets for brown layers post-peak production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos dos níveis de cálcio nas rações sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 216 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann Brown no período de 39 a 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, composto de seis níveis de cálcio (3,0; 3,4; 3,8; 4,2; 4,6; 5,0% e seis repetições de seis aves por parcela. Os níveis de cálcio avaliados não influenciaram os parâmetros produtivos, mas afetaram significativamente as porcentagens de albúmen e casca do ovo. O aumento do cálcio na dieta promove incremento na qualidade da casca do ovo em relação aos demais componentes do ovo. Recomenda-se nível de 4,3% de cálcio em dietas para poedeiras semipesadas após o pico de postura.Two hundred and sixteen layers were raised from 39 to 55 weeks of age to study the effects of levels of calcium in the rations on performance and eggs quality of brown commercial layers. A completely randomized experimental design were used with six levels of calcium (3.0; 3.4; 3.8; 4.2; 4.6 and 5.0% and six replicates of six layers hens. There was no effect of calcium levels on hen performance, however significantly affected the percentage of albumen and egg shell. The increase of calcium in the diet promoted increment in egg shell quality in relationship to other eggs components. The calcium level of 4.3% is recommended for brown layer hens after production peak.

  6. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  7. Análise da camada de fibras nervosas pelo GDx em pacientes pseudofácicos com opacidades da cápsula posterior Analysis of the nerve fiber layer using GDx in pseudophakic patients with posterior capsular opacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Azevedo Arraes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a opacificação de cápsula posterior (OCP influenciaria na análise da camada de fibras nervosas pela polarimetria "scanning laser" (GDx. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete pacientes pseudofácicos não glaucomatosos foram submetidos a análise da camada de fibras nervosas pelo GDx antes e após a realização de capsulotomia com Nd:YAG laser. RESULTADOS: Em cinco olhos, o GDx não conseguiu imagens aceitáveis pelos parâmetros de aquisição do aparelho. Em todos os outros, não foi observada diferença significante entre os valores médios das variáveis antes e após a realização da capsulotomia posterior. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de OCP em graus moderados e/ou quando há imagens aceitáveis em pacientes pseudofácicos não influencia o resultado da análise das imagens das fibras do nervo óptico pelo GDx. Apenas intensos graus de OCP que impeçam a obtenção de imagem analisável pelo aparelho inviabilizam o exame.PURPOSE: To evaluate if posterior capsule opacification (PCO would alter the analysis of nerve fiber layer using the scanning laser polarimetry (GDx. METHODS: Pseudophakic non-glaucomatosous eyes (37 patients underwent nerve fiber layer analysis using GDx before and after posterior capsulotomy with Nd:YAG Laser. RESULTS: In five eyes, GDx did not obtain acceptable images using the device's parameters of acquisition. In the others, mean variable values did not reach significant difference before and after posterior capsulotomy. CONCLUSION: Moderate degrees of PCO and/or acceptable images in pseudophakic patients do not alter the analysis of nerve fiber layer by GDx. Only intense degrees of PCO that hinder analyzable images make the examination impracticable.

  8. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  9. Personal influencing factors associated with pap smear testing and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Kelly; Pohl, Joanne; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-02-01

    Pap smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. Unfortunately, not all women obtain routine screening. The method used was a qualitative study exploring personal influences regarding Pap smears. Face-to-face interviews with 7 low-income African American women who do and do not obtain Pap smears (between 21 and 37 years of age) were conducted at a health department about their social influence, previous health care experience, and cognitive appraisal regarding Pap smears and cervical cancer. Women were found to be socially influenced by their family and their physician. Previous health care experience with the Pap and pelvic was perceived as negative. Cognitively, Pap smears were believed to test for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the women also felt that if one took good care of oneself it reduced the risk for cervical cancer. It was concluded that exploring beliefs associated with Pap smears and perceptions of vulnerability to cervical cancer and giving correct information and counseling may increase Pap smear screening in women.

  10. Age and Pattern of Pap Smear Abnormalities: Implications for Cervical Cancer Control in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfolarin, Adepiti Clement; Olusegun, Ajenifuja Kayode; Omoladun, Okunola; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Onwundiegu, Uche

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A total of 252 (12.3%) samples were excluded from the analysis. The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6%) women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9%) women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) were reported in 117 (5.7%), 209 (10.2%), and 111 (5.4%) women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0%) and 3 (1.0%), respectively. There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  11. Leishman-Giemsa Cocktail - Is it an Effective Stain for Air Dried Cytology Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddagowda, Shilpa Manigatta; Shashidhar, Hemalatha Anantharamaiah; Prasad, Chinaiah Subramanyam Babu Rajendra

    2017-03-01

    Air dried cytology smears are stained routinely with Romanowsky stains so that the relative cell size, nuclear size, cytoplasmic details, smear background elements and intercellular matrix components are better appreciated. A variety of modified Romanowsky stains are used in cytology. Leishman-Giemsa (LG) cocktail is one of the new staining techniques which can be used for staining the air dried cytology smears. To evaluate the quality of staining of LG cocktail on air dried smears and to compare the quality of staining of LG cocktail with May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) which is the most commonly used stain in cytology. The present prospective comparative study was carried out with 100 cases and two extra smears were prepared for each case and stained with MGG and LG cocktail stains. The stained slides were blinded and were evaluated for the staining characteristics of the nucleus, cytoplasm and background staining. Based on this, scoring was done by two pathologists independently. Quality Index (QI) was calculated by dividing the scores obtained with the total score possible. LG cocktail stained slides were excellent in cytoplasmic staining, granularity, nuclear morphology, background material staining and overall staining characteristics. QI of LG cocktail was 0.8 while that of MGG was 0.59. Staining of air dried smears by LG cocktail has a good QI. It is also cheaper, requires short duration for staining as compared to MGG. Hence, LG cocktail can be an effective replacement for MGG for staining the air dried cytology smears.

  12. Use of and attitudes and knowledge about pap smears among women in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hammasi, Khadija; Samir, Ola; Kettaneh, Soania; Al-Fadli, Athari; Thalib, Lukman

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of Pap smear among women in Kuwait and to assess their knowledge about and attitude toward Pap smears. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling method. We interviewed 299 women attending polyclinics in Kuwait using a self-administered questionnaire. Factors related to history of having a Pap smear, knowledge level, and willingness to participate in a screening program were evaluated. The lifetime prevalence of Pap smear was found to be 37% (95% CI 33-43). Forty-four percent of women in our study had a Pap smear only once in their lives. History of having at least one Pap smear was significantly related to such factors as age, total family income, marital status, history of cervical infection, and knowledge. The level of knowledge about cervical cancer varied among the participants. Forty-six percent of women were uncertain about the symptoms of cervical cancer. About half the women recognized cervical infection, smoking, and having multiple sexual partners as risk factors for cervical cancer; however, only 10% recognized early sexual intercourse as a risk factor. Willingness to participate in a future screening program varied significantly according to educational level, employment status, and total family income. Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality are relatively low in Kuwait, they may be underreported in the absence of a screening program. Moreover, lifetime prevalence of having a Pap smear was found to be considerably lower in Kuwait compared with developed countries.

  13. Diagnostic efficiency of the Sysmex XN WPC channel for the reduction of blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordegraaf, Madelon; Meijer, Paul; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2016-11-01

    Several small studies showed that the WPC (white precursor cell) channel in the Sysmex haematology analyser for leukocyte differentiation analysis leads to a significant reduction of microscopic blood smears. We determined the added value of the WPC channel for blood smear reduction in a large teaching hospital and whether this reduction was cost-effective and save. Retrospectively, for 7850 leukocyte differentiation orders the percentage of samples resulting in a WPC analysis and the outcomes of the WPC analysis were analysed and compared with the blood smear results. WPC analysis resulted in a 12% reduction of blood smears, which is much lower than observed in other studies. This means 3-4bloodsmears/day less of a total of 28smears/day at the expense of missing 14 patient samples with pathology (blasts or abnormal lymphocytes) in a 9weeks period. The estimated total costs of WPC analysis per year was more than the reduction in costs due to less blood smear reviews. In a large teaching hospital, the small reduction in blood smears by the WPC channel does not outweigh the costs and the slight reduction in sensitivity for pathology. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  15. Perception and opinion of medical students about Pap smear test: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2010-01-01

    the objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of medical students regarding the Pap smear test. Focus group discussion was held with twenty three medical students. The students were divided into three focus groups; two groups of female participants consisting of 9 and 8 students; respectively. The third group consisted of 6 male students. Questions regarding Pap smear testing included barriers that prevented women from taking the test, gender preference for the physician to conduct the cervical screening test, willingness to suggest Pap smear test to the family or friends. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Most of the study participants mentioned that the main barriers for women to not perform Pap smear test is lack of awareness 16 (70%), followed by shyness 12 (52%) and the cost of the test 12 (52%). Most agreed that the gender of the physician will affect the women decision to do Pap smear test. All mentioned that the advantage of a regular Pap smear test is to detect the abnormality at the early stage of cervical cancer. Some of the participants 9 (39%) mentioned that the disadvantages are expense, possible injury in the vagina due to the test procedures 8 (35%), associated infection 7(30.4%) and pain 7(30.4%) . The majority, 20 (87%) mentioned that the most effective prevention methods for cervical cancer are having sex only after getting married with the spouse only, HPV vaccination 15 (65%) and Pap smear 14 (61%). The main barriers for women to not perform Pap smear test is lack of awareness, shyness and the cost of the test. Gender of the physician will affect the women decision to do Pap smear test.

  16. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  17. The evidential value of cosmetic foundation smears in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amanda; Coulson, Sally

    2004-11-01

    Cosmetic foundation products are easily transferred to clothing and other surfaces as a result of contact with such objects. Examination of past cases involving cosmetics in New Zealand has shown cosmetic foundation to be one of the more common cosmetic products encountered. The aim of this research was to determine the most discriminating method for the comparison of transferred foundation with samples obtained from a known source in forensic casework. Fifty-three foundation samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). It was found that a 5 mm2 section of a light smearing was enough to provide detectable results. The discriminating powers for FTIR, SEM-EDX and GC-FID were 98.3, 93.8, and 82.0% respectively. A combination of all three techniques provided a discriminating power of 99.7%, meaning that almost complete discrimination was achieved between the foundation samples.

  18. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência dos métodos de Kato-Katz e sedimentação espontânea para o diagnóstico das helmintíases intestinais. A sensibilidade da técnica de sedimentação espontânea foi s...

  19. Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?

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    Mohit Padamchand Gandhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69% cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5% new and 206/2040 (10% previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early

  20. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  1. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) often presents with cystic cervical metastasis and a small primary tumor localized in the palatine tonsils or base of the tongue, which is diagnostically challenging. Testing for HPV DNA in fine......-needle aspiration (FNA) smears from metastases may facilitate a targeted diagnostic workup for identifying the primary tumor. This study was designed to assess the ability to detect HPV DNA in FNA smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: May-Grünvald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained FNA smears from metastases...... and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...

  2. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate...... in this paper. The improved smearing technique results in better accuracy for predicted natural frequencies of flat stiffened plates, as demonstrated for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The improved prediction accuracy is demonstrated by comparing results from a numerical model based...... improvement concerns the orientation of the stiffeners. The original smearing technique presupposes that the stiffeners are parallel to the edges of the plate, but simple considerations make it possible to relax this requirement. To test the validity of the resulting technique a series of plates are examined...

  3. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    Full Text Available The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  4. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

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    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  5. Sensibilidade e especificidade da citologia anal com escova no diagnóstico das lesões clínicas provocadas pelo papilomavírus humano, comparando uma com duas coletas Sensibility and specifity of anal cytology with cytobrush in the HPV induced clinical lesions diagnosis, comparing one to two smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados da coleta única com duas amostras para avaliar se haverá melhora da sensibilidade e especificidade do exame. MÉTODO: Foram 112 doentes masculinos HIV-positivo com doença anal pregressa ou atual pelo Papilomavírus humano (HPV. As lesões HPV induzidas foram observadas em 58 deles. Colhemos material do canal anal utilizando duas escovas (cytobrush Comparamos estatisticamente os resultados da primeira amostra com a soma das duas coletas. RESULTADOS: dos 58 doentes com lesões clínicas, a primeira amostra confirmou a doença em 40 (69% e a soma das duas coletas revelou lesões em 51 (88%. Os resultados mostraram sensibilidade de 69% com a primeira coleta e 88% quando somadas as duas amostras. Essa diferença foi confirmada estatisticamente. A especificidade foi menor para as duas amostras, porém sem diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a sensibilidade foi maior e a especificidade foi semelhante quando os resultados foram obtidos com a somação das duas amostras da citologia anal.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to know if two smears may have better sensibility and specificity than a unique smear for anal cytology. METHOD: There were 112 patients, males, HIV-positive, with current or previous anal HPV-induced lesions. Proctological examination revealed clinical disease in the anal canal of 58 of them. Smears were collect with cytobrushes. We compared results of the first smear to a sum of this with a second one. RESULTS: First smear was positive in 40 patients (69%, and with both smears this incidence reached 88%. Results showed sensibility of 69% to the unique smear, and 88% when both were summed. Statistics revealed significant difference. Specificity was higher when both smears were summed, but statistics showed no difference. CONCLUSION: We concluded sensibility of anal cytology was better and specificity was similar when results were obtained with a sum of two smears.

  6. Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, J M

    1998-01-01

    Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

  7. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  8. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  9. Agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid and Papanicolaou's smear as screening methods for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Uzma; Hanif, Sadia

    2014-04-01

    To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou's (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. A cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaou's smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings.

  10. Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Açikel, Cengiz Han

    2011-02-01

    This study is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. While the Champion Health Belief Model scales have been tested extensively for breast cancer and screening for this, evaluation of these scales in explaining the beliefs of women with regard to cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test has only received limited attention. This methodological research was carried out in Turkey in 2007. The data were collected with 237 randomly selected women who met the criteria for inclusion and agreed to participate in this study. The Champion Health Belief Model scales were translated into Turkish, adapted for cervical cancer, validated by professional experts, translated back into English and pilot-tested. Factor analysis yielded five factors: Pap smear benefits and health motivation, Pap smear barriers, seriousness, susceptibility and health motivation. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the five subscales ranged from 0·62 to 0·86, and test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0·79 to 0·87 for the subscales. The Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test was found to be a valid and reliable tool in assessing the women's health beliefs. Understanding the beliefs of women in respect of cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test will help healthcare professionals to develop more effective cervical cancer screening programmes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Knowledge and attitude of women attending Subharti Medical College towards Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prateek, Shashi; Gupta, Smriti; Gupta, Akanksha; Choudhary, Sonam; Prakash, Diksha; Nain, Geetika

    2018-03-19

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. It was carried out on the women coming to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at our University, with the help of a pre-formed questionnaire. We found that only 33% of the women were aware of the Pap smear, and of these hardly (10%) had the correct information. Sixty-five percent of the women said that they would have gotten the Pap smear done, if they had known about it earlier. Unless this knowledge amongst women is improved and their attitude is changed, the indices of cervical cancer cannot be improved. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? A Pap smear is used as a screening test to detect not only early stages of cervical cancer but also the precancerous conditions. A Pap smear is done every three years for routine screening, or every five years along with an HPV DNA test. What do the results of this study add? Despite the efforts from the medical fraternity and governments, the number of women undergoing this test in Uttar Pradesh is very minimal. This study analysed the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The results have brought into light the many factors hindering an effective cervical cancer screening in India. Further actions need to be directed in the direction to address these issues.

  12. PENYULUHAN METODE PAP SMEAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP WANITA TUNA SUSILA DALAM PENDETEKSIAN KANKER SERVIKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Wulandari AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effectiveness Of Pap smear Test’s Counseling Regarding To The Level Of Knowledge And Behaviour In Prostitution Worker For Detection Of Cervical Cancer In Bintang Mas Kubu Raya 2014. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectivity of counseling toward knowledge and behavior. in prostitution worker about pap smear and cervical cancer. This research was quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. There are 38 respondents. McNemar test showed there are significant. improvement of knowledge (p<0.05, and significance behavior change (p<0.05 in all respondents before and after counseling. Keyword : knowledge, behaviour, cervical cancer, pap smear Abstrak : Penyuluhan Metode Pap smear Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Wanita Tuna Susila Dalam Pendeteksian Kanker Serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat efektivitas terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap melalui penyuluhan mengenai pap smear kepada para wanita tuna susila. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest-postest design. Besar sampel berjumlah 38 orang. Hasil menunjukkan uji McNemar menunjukkan terdapat signifikansi yang bermakna untuk pengetahuan (p < 0,05 dan signifikansi untuk perubahan sikap (p<0.05 pada responden sebelum dan setelah penyuluhan. Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, kanker serviks, pap smear

  13. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, R.; Khawaja, N.P.; Malik, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  14. Note on: 'EMLCLLER-A program for computing the EM response of a large loop source over a layered earth model' by N.P. Singh and T. Mogi, Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 1301-1307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie, Majid

    2016-11-01

    Singh and Mogi (2003) presented a forward modeling (FWD) program, coded in FORTRAN 77 called "EMLCLLER", which is capable of computing the frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) response of a large circular loop, in terms of vertical magnetic component (Hz), over 1D layer earth models; computations at this program could be performed by assuming variable transmitter-receiver configurations and incorporating both conduction and displacement currents into computations. Integral equations at this program are computed through digital linear filters based on the Hankel transforms together with analytic solutions based on hyper-geometric functions. Despite capabilities of EMLCLLER, there are some mistakes at this program that make its FWD results unreliable. The mistakes in EMLCLLER arise in using wrong algorithm for computing reflection coefficient of the EM wave in TE-mode (rTE), and using flawed algorithms for computing phase and normalized phase values relating to Hz; in this paper corrected form of these mistakes are presented. Moreover, in order to illustrate how these mistakes can affect FWD results, EMLCLLER and corrected version of this program presented in this paper titled "EMLCLLER_Corr" are conducted on different two- and three-layered earth models; afterwards their FWD results in terms of real and imaginary parts of Hz, its normalized amplitude, and the corresponding normalized phase curves are plotted versus frequency and compared to each other. In addition, in Singh and Mogi (2003) extra derivations for computing radial component of the magnetic field (Hr) and angular component of the electric field (Eϕ) are also presented where the numerical solution presented for Hr is incorrect; in this paper the correct numerical solution for this derivation is also presented.

  15. Estudo da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica: análise com GDxTM Study of retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni: analysis with GDX TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida Vieira Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a camada de fibras nervosas da retina de portadores de esquistossomose mansônica hepatoesplênica. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos ao exame com o GDx Scanning Laser System, 23 portadores de esquistossomose na forma hepatoesplênica que tinham sido submetidos, quando crianças, a esplenectomia, ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda e auto-implante de tecido esplênico no omento maior. Todos apresentaram pressão intra-ocular menor que 21 mmHg. No grupo controle foram estudados 23 indivíduos com idade e condição socioeconômico-geográfica similar, sem esquistossomose. RESULTADOS: Em apenas um paciente do grupo portador de esquistossomose foram observadas alterações em quatro parâmetros: superior nasal, média superior, média da espessura e número de fibra. Todos os indivíduos do grupo controle apresentaram GDx com parâmetros dentro da normalidade. CONCLUSÃO: No estudo realizado não foi encontrado diferença significante entre os dois grupos. Apenas um paciente mostrou redução da camada de fibras nervosas.PURPOSE: To study the retinal nerve fiber layer in young patients suffering from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni who were submitted, when children, to splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein and auto-implantation of spleen tissue in the major omentum underwent GDx Scanning Laser System evaluations. All patients presented with intraocular pressure below 21 mmHg. RESULTS: Only one patient suffering from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni showed abnormalities on the GDx examination. There were no abnormalities on GDx examination in the control group. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between the two groups of this study. Only one patient showed retinal nerve fiber layer reduction.

  16. Correlation of Cervical Pap Smear with Biopsy in the Lesion of Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Makaju, R; Sharma, S; Bhandari, S; Shrestha, S; Bastakoti, R

    Background Cervical cancer can be controlled to a greater extent by screening to improve morbidity and mortality. Pap smear is important screening method, which has proven to be highly effective in reducing the number of cases and the mortality from cervical carcinoma. Any abnormality detected in pap smear has to be confirmed with cervical biopsy, which remains the reference investigation. Objective To find the changes of cervical cytology by pap smear, to classify cervical lesions into malignant and benign groups on cytological and histopathological basis and to correlate the changes observed in cervical cytology with cervical biopsy. Method This is a prospective cross sectional study done in between July 2014 and July 2015 in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. During the period, all the samples requested for pap smear were studied. The cases who had undergone both pap smear and cervical biopsy were compared. Clinical data were obtained from requisition submitted along with the cytology and tissue specimens received in the department. Result During the study period, total 1922 pap smears were performed and out of them 75 patients were advised to do cervical biopsy. On cytology, out of total 1922 number of cases, 67.90% were normal, 27.90% were inflammatory smears, 3.80% were unsatisfactory (inadequate) and 0.40% were high grade intraepithelial lesions. Highest numbers of patients screened for pap smear ranged from 31 to 40 years. On histopathology, 78.70% had chronic cervicitis, 8% had normal findings, 1.30% had moderate and 6.70% had severe squamous intraepithelial lesions. The frank malignancy was found in 5.30%. The mean age ± SD for carcinoma was 52.75±6.29. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of pap smear were 77.80%, 100%, 100% and 97% respectively considering cervical biopsy as the gold standard Conclusion This study revealed a good correlation of cervical cytology with cervical biopsy

  17. The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-04-12

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, and less likely to use preventive health care and health promotion activities. There were also to demonstrate that people with visual impairment has less access to appropriate healthcare services and is less likely to receive screening examinations. In Taiwan, there was no study to explore utilization of Pap smear, associated factors and use barriers about Pap smear screening test among women with visual impairment. The purpose is to explore the utilization and barriers of using Pap smear for women with visual impairment in Taiwan. To identify the barriers of women with visual from process of receiving Pap smear screening test. The cross-sectional study was conducted and the totally 316 participators were selected by stratified proportional and random sampling from 15 to 64 year old women with visual impairment who lived in Taipei County during December 2009 to January 2010. The data was been collected by phone interview and the interviewers were well trained before interview. The mean age was 47.1 years old and the highest percentage of disabled severity was mile (40.2 %). Totally, 66.5 % of participators were ever using Pap smear and 38.9 % used it during pass 1 year. Their first time to accept Pap smear was 38.8 year old. There was near 50 % of them not to be explained by professionals before accepting the Pap smear. For non-using cases, the top two percentage of barriers were "feel still younger" (22.3 %), the second was "there's no sexual experience" (21.4 %). We found the gynecology experiences was key factor for women with visual impairment to use Pap smear, especially the experiences was during 1 year (OR = 4). Associated factors and barriers to receive Pap smear screening test for women with visual impairment can be addressed through interventions

  18. Mineral chemistry in inerted layers of red mud from Hydro Alunorte; Quimica-mineral das camadas inertizadas em lama vermelha da Hydro Alunorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Erika Raiol; Fernandez, Oscar Jesus Choque; Costa, Josivaldo Chaves, E-mail: raiolerika@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PR (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study were carried out the mineral chemistry variations in samples of the different depths and deposition time of the red mud solids from Hydro ALUNORTE Para. Red mud samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The predominant chemical compositions are: iron, sodium and titanium oxides, residual alumina and silica. Similar phases along the profiles layers are similar and are represented by hematite, anatase, goethite, sodalite and quartz. Sometimes occur calcite, zircon, cristobalite and gypsum. The iron percentage increases in the deeper layers as well as the residual silica and alumina decrease with depth. The titanium oxide had constant. The pH of the samples ranged from 9.9 to 11. The predominant size particles are < 74 micrometers. The study shows the possibility of working with this residue in other applicability observing its characteristics. (author)

  19. An exploration of Papanicolaou smear history and behavior of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Hsin; Chao, Angel; Liao, Mei-Nan; Lin, Jr-Rung; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ying; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2010-01-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is an effective preventive measure in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The national health insurance made free annual cervical screening available to all Taiwanese women 30 years or older. The objective of this study was to increase knowledge about Pap smear screening history, attitudes, and behavior in Taiwanese women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. One hundred forty-one women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled between January 2007 and June 2008. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey, which included (1) demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, (2) reasons for receiving or not receiving a Pap smear test, and (3) knowledge of and sources of information on Pap smears. Of the 141 patients, 62 (44.0%) had never had a Pap smear before diagnosis, 10 (7.1%) did not know about the Pap smear, and only 30 (21%) reported having had more than 3 Pap smears in their lifetime. Stepwise logistic regression identified perceived potential pain, fear of embarrassment, and the number of sexual partners of the male consort as independently associated with the number of previous Pap smears (0 vs > or =1). Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and experiences with Pap smear screening and developing more comfortable methods of cervical cancer screening. Education strategies should be focused on improving access to never-users. The need for a better understanding of women's experiences with Pap smear screening is highlighted.

  20. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (Pcorrelation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (Pself-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  1. Age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities: Implications for cervical cancer control in a developing country

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    Adepiti Clement Akinfolarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. Design: This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. A total of 252 (12.3% samples were excluded from the analysis. Results: The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6% women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9% women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL were reported in 117 (5.7%, 209 (10.2%, and 111 (5.4% women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0% and 3 (1.0%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  2. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

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    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  3. The pattern of cervical smear abnormalities in marginalised women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Y H; Tse, H Y; Lam, W C; Chan, K S; Leung, T Y

    2017-02-01

    "Ripple Action" and "WE Stand" are projects co-organised by the Hong Kong Women Doctors Association. The two projects organise free cervical screening for low-income women, new immigrants from Mainland China, and ethnic minority women. The objective of this study was to analyse the pattern of cervical smear abnormalities in these marginalised women. The study group consisted of 1189 marginalised women who participated in a free cervical screening campaign, including 324 low-income local Chinese, 540 new immigrants from Mainland China, and 325 ethnic minority women. The comparison group consisted of 1141 local Chinese who attended a well women clinic. The prevalence of cervical smear abnormalities was compared using Chi squared test. In the study group, 42.6% of women had never had a cervical smear. Compared with the comparison group, they had a significantly higher prevalence of cervical smear abnormalities (13.7% vs 1.4%; Pvs 0.5%; Pvs 0.8%; P=0.036), and high-grade lesion (1.1% vs 0.1%; P=0.002). Logistic regression analysis showed that the strongest predictors for abnormal cervical smear were being South Asian (odds ratio=11.859; 95% confidence interval, 4.635-30.341), South-East Asian (6.484; 3.192-13.171), or new immigrant from Mainland China (6.253; 2.463-15.877). Marginalised women had a significantly higher prevalence of cervical smear abnormality than the general population and almost half had never had a cervical smear before. Outreach strategies are needed to enrol this population into screening programmes.

  4. Hybrid layer difference between sixth and seventh generation bonding agent

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    Grace Syavira Suryabrata

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Since etching is completed at the same stage as priming and bonding, when applying the sixth and seventh generation bonding, the exposed smear layers are constantly surrounded by primer and bonding and cannot collapse. The smear layer and the depth of penetration of resin bonding in dentinal tubules are completely integrated into hybrid layer. The purpose of this laboratory research was to study the penetration depth of two self etching adhesive. Fourteen samples of human extracted teeth were divided into two groups. Each groups consisted of seven samples, each of them was treated with sixth generation bonding agent and the other was treated with seventh generation bonding agent. The results disclosed that the penetration into dentinal tubules of seventh generation bonding agent was deeper than sixth generation bonding agent. Conclusion: bond strength will improve due to the increasing of penetration depth of resin bonding in dentinal tubules.

  5. Metodologia para observação da camada de cera em maçãs, utilizando microscopia eletrônica de varredura Methodology for observation of the wax layer in apples, using scanning electron microscopy

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    Luis Antônio Suita de Castro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura mais superficial da epiderme dos frutos é constituída por fina camada de cera, responsável por mecanismos de proteção, principalmente relacionados à evapotranspiração e ao ataque de patógenos. A visualização de cera por microscopia eletrônica de varredura apresenta dificuldades no processamento da amostra, pois os métodos rotineiramente utilizados ocasionam sérios danos a esta camada ou, simplesmente, provocam sua eliminação devido ao processo de solubilização causado pelos reagentes utilizados. Alguns autores têm utilizado temperaturas baixas (-90ºC para o processamento de amostras. No Brasil, tentativas de observação de cera em maçãs, utilizando a microscopia eletrônica de varredura, têm sido realizadas; entretanto, os resultados não foram satisfatórios. No Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Embrapa Clima Temperado, foi adaptado um método simples e que tem apresentado bons resultados. Para este experimento, foram retiradas pequenas porções da casca de maçãs da região equatorial dos frutos. As amostras foram fixadas em lâminas histológicas, utilizando fita adesiva nas extremidades. Posteriormente, foram colocadas em dessecador contendo sílica gel, para que ocorresse a desidratação. Após 72 horas, foram retirados fragmentos para fixação em stubs e metalização com ouro. Foi usado um microscópio eletrônico ZEISS (DSM-940A, regulado à distância de trabalho de 15mm, voltagem de aceleração de 10 kV e ampliação de 3.000 X. As imagens obtidas permitiram avaliar a interferência dos fatores ambientais utilizados no processo de frigoconservação de maçãs.The fruit epidermis is covered by a thin layer of wax which gives protection to the fruit, mainly against water loss and pathogenic organisms. Several studies using scanning electron microscope have been developed to study that wax. The wax layer visualization through the scanning microscope is difficult due to some problems of

  6. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications Nutrientes em camadas de solo submetido a sucessivas aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos e sob plantio direto

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    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Hapludalf. The treatments consisted of pig slurry applications (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 and at the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected (layers 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm. The levels of mineral N, available P and K and total N, P and K were evaluated. The 19 pig slurry applications in 93 months promoted migration of total N and P down to 30 cm and available P and K to the deepest layer analyzed. At the end of the experiment, no increase was observed in mineral N content in the deeper layers, but increased levels of available P and K, showing a transfer of N, P and K to layers below the sampled. This evidences undesirable environmental and economic consequences of the use of pig slurry and reinforces the need for a more rational use, i.e., applications of lower manure doses, combined with mineral fertilizers.Aplicações sucessivas de dejeto de suínos em solos sob plantio direto podem aumentar os teores de nutrientes em suas camadas superficiais, bem como parte desses podem ser transferidos para as mais profundas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de nutrientes no perfil de um solo com 19 aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos em sistema de plantio direto, durante 93 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio de 2000 a janeiro 2008, em um Argissolo Vermelho distr

  7. Óleo essencial de limão no ensino da cromatografia em camada delgada Lime essential oil in the teaching of thin layer chromatography

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    Rosaly S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple experiment employing the essential oil of limes which can be applied in undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory classes for the teaching of thin layer chromatography (TLC. The experiment consists in submit lime peel oil to TLC separation employing hexane and dichloromethane as the eluents and five different systems for visualization of the chromatogram. In one experiment it is possible to teach the different variables of the TLC technique. This experiment may also be performed following vapor distillation and liquid-liquid extraction technique in experimental classes.

  8. Implementasi Algoritma PSO Dan Teknik Bagging Untuk Klasifikasi Sel Pap Smear

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    Toni Arifin

    2017-09-01

      Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in worldwide. In Indonesia cervical cancer and breast cancer is a cancer disease with most patients. The cause of cervical cancer is HPV virus (Human Papilloma Virus types 16 and 18. Pap Smear test is one of the prevention of cervical cancer early. On Pap Smear examination the cells will be observed under a microscope to distinguish normal and abnormal cells, on this examination Pathologists sometimes find it difficult to observe cells because of the almost identical cell shape, and examination are time-consuming and sometimes faulty. The purpose of this research is to propose a classification model for Pap Smear to facilitate Pathologists. The method is used a combination of Particle Swarm Optimization for selection feature and Bagging technique to overcome an unbalanced of classes. From the combination of the two methods, we tested the classification method of Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes and K-NN to find out the comparison of each classification method.  The result of this research indicate that the incorporation of Particle Swarm Optimization method and Bagging Technique proved effective for classification of Pap Smear cells, it is viewed from the accuracy shown results. Classification with K-NN method gives the best accuracy for normal and abnormal cell classification of 95,05%, while classification method with best accuracy for classification 7 class is Decision Tree with 64,24%.   Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear and Classification.

  9. The urethral smear as a tool in diagnosing adenovirus-induced urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønsberg, E; Hartgill, U

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus is a recognised cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, and is not uncommonly associated with extragenital signs and symptoms. This case report describes a patient with symptoms of conjunctivitis, meatitis and urethritis. The urethral smear revealed almost exclusively monocytes microscopically, raising the suspicion of a viral aetiology. Results confirmed the presence of adenovirus in both the eyes and urethra. Despite waning reliance on the urethral smear in sexual health clinics, it can still be an important diagnostic tool in assessing the aetiology of non-specific urethritis. Finding an obvious monocytic cell response in the urethral smear can indicate a viral cause and allow the clinician to optimise management, counsel appropriately, and potentially reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Use of Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain for detecting Helicobacter pylori in smears and tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitoun, A M

    1992-05-01

    A Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain was used for identifying Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens from 50 patients with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Air dried smears were prepared from fresh biopsy tissue and histological sections were prepared from paraffin wax processed tissue. The Diff-3 technique is accomplished in five steps and takes about 30 seconds. Results using the Diff-3 stain correlated 100% with those using the Giemsa stain. The Diff-3 stain is reliable, simple, rapid, easy and clean, and smears prepared from fresh biopsy tissue can be examined and an immediate report given. The method is recommended for the identification of H pylori in smears prepared from fresh tissue as well as in sections prepared from processed tissue.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of suspected tuberculosis from archived smear slides from the Balimo region, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Diefenbach-Elstob, Tanya; Pelowa, Daniel; Pollard, Sandra; Burgess, Graham; McBryde, Emma S; Warner, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with an estimated 30000 new cases and 3800 deaths each year. In the Balimo region of the Western Province, diagnosis relies on clinical manifestations and on the microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smears, a technique with limited sensitivity. A molecular diagnosis assay targeting DNA extracted from archived sputum smear slides collected from the Balimo region (2012-2014) was conducted, without the need for a viable culture. The presence of Mycobacterium sp on 1162 slides prepared from 345 sputum samples was assessed using a real-time PCR (qPCR) approach. The qPCR technique identified the presence of mycobacteria in 35.4% of the smear slides and 59.7% of the tested sputum samples. Poor agreement was observed between the two diagnosis methods (smear AFB microscopy versus qPCR), with 100 AFB-positive sputum samples compared to 206 qPCR-positive sputum samples overall. Treatment was initiated in 90.2% of the smear-positive cases. Unnecessary treatment of 'false-positive' TB cases (AFB-negative/qPCR-negative) was very low (8.6%) and was even lower when the nine patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB were excluded from the analysis. However, the prevalence of false-negatives (AFB-negative/qPCR-positive) was high (28.5%). Undetected smear-negative TB is occurring in the Balimo region of PNG, as well as some unnecessary empirical treatment. Molecular methods of diagnosis could greatly reduce the frequency of inappropriate clinical assessment, as well as providing point-of-care diagnosis. This may provide substantial patient and programmatic benefits, including lowering the economic burden on patients from rural areas seeking medical diagnosis in Balimo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, Sabit Sinan; Us, Tercan; Arslan, Emine; Oge, Tufan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey. A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Twenty six of 615 patients (4%) were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6%) 4 AGUS (0.6%), 2 CIN I (0.3%) results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41) underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis). HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  13. Validation of a model for predicting smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with initial acid-fast bacilli smear-negative sputum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun-Jun [Department of Chest Medicine, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi City (China); Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China); Meiho University, Pingtung (China); Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Heng Chun Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China)

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort. HRCT characteristics were analysed, and multivariable regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to develop a score predictive of iSN-SP-aPTB. The derivation cohort showed clusters of nodules/mass of the right upper lobe or left upper lobe were independent predictors of iSN-SP-aPTB, while bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe or left lingual lobe were negatively associated with iSN-SP-aPTB. A predictive score for iSN-SP-aPTB based on these findings was tested in the validation and prospective cohorts. With an ideal cut-off score = 1, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the prediction model were 87.5% (90%, 90.5%), 99% (97.1%, 98.4%), 94.6% (81.3%, 57.5%), and 97.6% (97%, 99.8%) in the derivation (validation, prospective) cohorts, respectively. The model may help identify iSN-SP-aPTB among patients with non-iSP pulmonary diseases. circle Smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis that is initial smear-negative (iSN-SP-aPTB) is infectious. (orig.)

  14. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence....... Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few...

  15. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

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    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  16. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  17. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  18. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, G.; Hanumantha Rao, A.; Gopalachari, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  20. Ocorrência de aflatoxinas em arroz consumido por militares do Exército Brasileiro por cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Incidence of aflatoxins in rice to be consumed by militaries in the brazilian army by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Oliveira da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungos do gênero Aspergillus como A. flavus e A. parasiticus são capazes de produzir metabólitos secundários tóxicos denominados aflatoxinas. Estas espécies podem se desenvolver rapidamente em cereais sob condições favoráveis. A partir do conhecimento dos riscos à saúde decorrentes da presença de aflatoxinas em alimentos, foi realizado um levantamento para avaliar a presença de aflatoxinas em arroz beneficiado polido tipo I, destinado ao consumo dos militares do Exército Brasileiro. As amostras foram coletadas no armazém do 5º Batalhão de Suprimento do Exército Brasileiro, Curitiba-PR no período de novembro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004 e avaliada a ocorrência de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, utilizando-se as técnicas de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD e Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, contribuir com o controle de qualidade dos alimentos consumidos pelos militares da 5º Região Militar do Exército Brasileiro, no que se refere ao controle dos níveis de aflatoxinas e comparar as técnicas de CCD e CLAE. Do total de 30 amostras analisadas por cromatografia em camada delgada, não foi verificada em nenhuma a presença de aflatoxinas. De 26 amostras analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, seis (23,07% apresentaram positividade para aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, com níveis entre 0,54 e 2,04µg/kg e uma (3,84% apresentou presença de aflatoxina B2 (AFB2 com 1,84µg/kg.Aspergillus are fungal species like a A flavus and A parasiticus and they are able to develop secondary metabolites called mycotoxins. They grow quickly under ideal conditions. From the moment one discovered its danger for health resulted from the presence of aflatoxins in foods, an achievement was carried out to evaluate the presence of a mycotoxins lifiting in benefited polished rice type 1, used by Brazilian army. The samples were collected at " 5º Batalhão de Suprimento" (army departament from

  1. Estudo das propriedades físicas e de transporte na secagem de cebola (Allium cepa L. em camada delgada Study of the physical and transport properties in the onion (Allium cepa L. drying in thin layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Corrêa Martins

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a cinética de secagem da cebola em camada delgada, comparando os valores da difusividade efetiva média baseados nas espessuras inicial e média das amostras. Estes resultados foram utilizados para a estimativa da temperatura das amostras através de um modelo térmico simplificado. Foram analisadas também as propriedades físicas e de transporte das amostras em função da umidade ao longo da operação. Os ensaios de secagem foram realizados em um secador com escoamento de ar perpendicular à área de seção transversal do leito de amostras de cebola, operando com Tar=60ºC e v ar=1,5m/s. A determinação da umidade de equilíbrio foi obtida através das isotermas de dessorção e a temperatura das amostras foi determinada por meio de um termopar inserido no centro da partícula. As massas específicas das amostras aparente e absoluta foram determinadas através dos métodos indireto e destrutivo, respectivamente. Os valores da difusividade efetiva variável de umidade foram obtidos através do método das tangentes. O modelo térmico simplificado apresentou melhor ajuste com os valores da difusividade efetiva média de secagem, baseados na espessura média. Os valores das massas específicas das amostras de cebola aparente e absoluta foram ajustados em função da umidade através da equação de LOZANO, ROTSTEIN & URBICAIN [10], apresentando coeficientes de correlação maiores que 96%. A redução de espessura do material foi de 80% em relação a da amostra inicial. Os resultados da difusividade efetiva média de umidade, baseados na espessura média das amostras, foram semelhantes aos valores médios da difusividade efetiva variável de umidade para a primeira etapa de secagem.In this work it was studied the onion drying kinetics in thin layer comparing the values of the drying difusivity effective average based on the initial and average thickness of the samples. These results were fitted to a simplified

  2. Fitossociologia do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo em campo limpo úmido no Brasil Central Phytosociology of the herb-subshrub layer of a moist grassland community in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo limpo úmido é uma das fisionomias de Cerrado onde o lençol freático é superficial durante o ano todo. Em geral ocorrem bordeando as matas de galeria, sendo um local de ligação entre estas e as fitofisionomias bem drenadas de Cerrado. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a estrutura fitossociológica do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo de uma comunidade de campo limpo úmido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília, e avaliar possíveis alterações na composição e cobertura de espécies, em diferentes ocasiões no período de 13 meses, após incêndio. Uma área de 400×400 m foi subdividida em quatro porções de 200×200 m onde foram sorteadas as linhas de amostragem. No levantamento fitossociológico, adotou-se o método de interseção na linha, onde cada linha foi dividida em seções de 1 m. Foram amostradas 84 espécies incluídas em 54 gêneros e 24 famílias. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as quatro transeções amostradas foi baixa, entre 0,26 e 0,55%. As linhas sobre solos com lençol freático superficial o ano todo apresentaram composição de espécies diferenciada das linhas sobre solos com flutuação sazonal do lençol freático. A similaridade entre os cinco períodos de inventário foi elevada, pois as espécies mais importantes mostraram pouca variação nas suas taxas de cobertura ao longo do ano.The moist grassland community vegetation of the Cerrado is one of the physiognomies where the water table is superficial throughout the year. It generally occurs bordering the gallery forests, located between these forests and the well-drained Cerrado physiognomies. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytosociological structure of the herb-subshrub layer in a moist grassland at Água Limpa farm, Brasília, DF, and assess possible changes in species composition and cover, at different times throughout a 13-month period, after a fire. An area of 400×400 m was subdivided into four sections of 200×200 m and the

  3. Knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’s support of Pap smear among multiparous women which have Pap’s smear examination in Aviati clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyawati, L.; Anggraini, D. R.; Fitrie, A. A.; Anggreini, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious health problem and stated as the second cause of death of woman worldwide. Several studies have noted a higher incidence of cervical cancer with increasing parity. Early detection with Pap smear is proven to reduce mortality of patients. Knowledge, attitude and husband’s support contributed to theled womanto follow Pap smear examination. This study explores the knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’ s support of Pap smearin multiparous women that have Pap smear examination. This research is a quantitative study with cross sectional approach recruited 50 respondents as multiparous women that have Pap smear examination inAviati Clinic, Padang Bulan, Medan. The data were collected by self-reports using structured objectives by questionnaires. The result of this study showed that 66% respondents have high knowledge of cervical cancer and 76% respondents have ahigh attitude of Pap smear, but they almost have low husband’s support of Pap smear including information support (62%), emotional support (46%) and real support (50%). This study has revealed that multiparous women that had Pap smear examination generally had high knowledge about cervical cancer and positive attitude about Pap smear, even most of them had low husband’s support.

  4. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  5. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-06-02

    This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Pap Smear Uptake Among Young Women in the United States: Role of Provider and Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2017-10-01

    It has been reported that Pap smear use is higher among U.S. women who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine than unvaccinated women. This study assessed the role of provider and patient in the difference of Pap smear use by vaccination status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5416 young women (21-30 years of age) with detailed information on Pap smear use and HPV vaccination status from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2013-2015. Vaccinated women received at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Main outcomes included Pap smear in the past year, provider's recommendation for Pap smear, and patient-initiated Pap smear. The prevalence of Pap smear in the past year was much higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (67.5% vs. 52.8%, p Pap testing (60.8% vs. 50.8%, p Pap testing after receiving a provider's recommendation (75.1% vs. 67.9%, p = 0.004), and to initiate Pap testing themselves (57.7% vs. 38.2%, p Pap smear recommendation and uptake vanished. Unvaccinated women who have not visited an OB/GYN in the past year are less likely to receive a recommendation for Pap testing from their providers or to initiate Pap testing themselves without a provider's recommendation. They should be encouraged to visit an OB/GYN provider for cervical cancer screening.

  7. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! | Gordon | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of keen volunteer ...

  8. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s Smear and it\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted among 421 undergraduates of the University of Ibadan using self- dministered questionnaires probing into their risk factors for neoplastic cervical lesions, awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s smear and its utilisation. The percentage of sexually active respondents was 81.5%. Sexual ...

  10. Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ssengooba, Willy; Nakanjako, Damalie; Armstrong, Derek; Holshouser, Molly; Kirenga, Bruce J.; Shah, Maunank; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses L.; Ellner, Jerrold J.; Dorman, Susan E.; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in

  11. Erythrocyte Features for Malaria Parasite Detection in Microscopic Images of Thin Blood Smear: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Shuleenda Devi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic image analysis of blood smear plays a very important role in characterization of erythrocytes in screening of malaria parasites. The characteristics feature of erythrocyte changes due to malaria parasite infection. The microscopic features of the erythrocyte include morphology, intensity and texture. In this paper, the different features used to differentiate the non- infected and malaria infected erythrocyte have been reviewed.

  12. Computerized morphometric discrimination between normal and tumoral cells in oral smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruntu, Irina-Draga; Scutariu, Monica M; Dobrescu, Gioconda

    2005-01-01

    The oral exfoliative cytology allows a quick and fairly accurate assessment of suspicious lesions of the oral cavity. Within this context, our paper proposes a quantitative approach, focusing on the construction of a classifier for detecting the presence of the tumoral cells on oral smears. The design of the classifier relies on a detailed computerized analysis of the individual morphometric features exhibited by two large known populations of normal and tumoral cells, respectively; the digital image processing was performed in the Zeiss KS400 environment. The classifier was implemented as a neural network with step activation function, whose parameters were obtained from an adequate training, based on the nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the cells belonging to the two populations. Our procedure based on this classifier was meant to operate by identifying the tumoral or normal nature of any cell randomly selected from a smear. To identify the nature of an arbitrary cell, its nuclear and cytoplasmic areas are presented at the input of the classifier. The classification procedure was tested on several smears, and the results coincided with the pathological diagnosis in all the considered cases. The performances of our approach are discussed in comparison with other analytical methods previously reported in oral exfoliative cytology. These discussions emphasize the role of numerical information exploited for the classifier design, concluding that the individual morphometric features are more meaningful than the global characterization of smears by mean values.

  13. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  14. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  15. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions: predictive value of the papanicolaou smear.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aspert-van Erp, A.J.M. van; Smedts, F.; Vooijs, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  16. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation to chromosome analysis of aged bone marrow smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D W; Hinchliffe, R F; Goyns, M H; Potter, A M; Lilleyman, J S

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the reliability of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in the retrospective cytogenetic assessment of old bone marrow smears stored for periods of up to 20 years. METHODS--A series of bone marrow smears either Romanowsky stained, or frozen and unstained, and aged from one month to 20 years were hybridised with biotin labelled probes specific for the centromeric regions of human chromosomes X, 6, and 18. Sites of hybridisation were detected with fluoresceinated avidin. One hundred to 400 cells from each preparation were examined and the number of signals observed was recorded. RESULTS--All smears exhibited signals in most cells examined. In cytogenetically normal cases, an average 67.6% of cells (range 36%-90%) demonstrated the appropriate number of X centromere signals. In those samples known to contain extra chromosomes X, 6, or 18 the presence of cells with the abnormal copy number was clearly detected in each case. CONCLUSION--When applied in the way described, FISH can give consistent and accurate results with a variety of archival bone marrow smears, including aged prestained material. This will permit retrospective assessment of specific cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with leukaemia using their initial diagnostic slides even where these are several years old. Images PMID:8063931

  17. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polypl...

  18. What do women think about abnormal smear test results? A qualitative interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Schijf, C.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is a report of Dutch women's views on abnormal cervical smear test results and the consequences thereof. Twenty-seven women with recent PAP III in their history were interviewed in the context of this qualitative study. GPs often do not inform patients beforehand about the ways

  19. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I. J.; van Ballegooijen, M.; Wauben, B.; Looman, C. W. N.; Habbema, J. D. F.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Korfage I, van Ballegooijen M, Wauben B, Looman C, Habbema J, Essink-Bot M. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study. BJOG 2012;119:936944. Objective To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact of

  20. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  1. Utilization of pap smear in the prevention of cervical cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical carcinoma is a preventable disease, yet it remains the leading genital tract malignancy among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To assess awareness, knowledge and utilization of Pap smear as a screening modality for cancer of the cervix among female health workers at Federal Teaching ...

  2. Comparison of blood smear microscopy to a rapid diagnostic test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of microscopy using Giemsastained thick and thin blood smears to a rapid malaria dipstick test (RDT) in detecting P. falciparum malaria in Kenyan school children. Design: Randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial from 1998-2001. Setting: Rural Embu district, Kenya ...

  3. Estudo de resistência à tração de três sistemas adesivos associados a resina composta em superfícies dentinárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATOS Adriana Bona

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a resistência à tração de três sistemas adesivos associados a resina composta aderidos à superfície dentinária. Quarenta e cinco superfícies de dentina foram obtidas a partir de molares humanos extraídos, sobre elas foi preparado "smear layer" e foram divididas em 3 grupos: G1 adesivo autocondicionante + resina micro-híbrida; G2 adesivo de componente único + ácido e resina micro-híbrida e G3 adesivo convencional (ácido + "primer" + bond + resina micro-híbrida, aplicados de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Os corpos-de-prova foram preparados para teste de tração, imersos em água destilada por 24 horas a 37ºC. Findo este tempo, o teste de tração foi realizado em máquina de ensaio Inströn com velocidade constante de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados foram expressos em MPa e submetidos a análise de variância (p < 0,05. Os autores concluíram que: o tipo de sistema adesivo influenciou na resistência à tração das resinas compostas testadas; o sistema adesivo de componente único apresentou os melhores resultados de resistência adesiva.

  4. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  5. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  6. Comparison of Pap Smear and Colposcopy in Screening for Cervical Cancer in Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Zanbagh, Leila; Shafii, Alireza; Taghipour-Zahir, Shokouh; Teimoori, Soraya; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The sensitivity of conventional Pap smear in detecting cervical lesions before cervical cancer is 51%, which means the false negative value is 49%. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for screening for cervical cancer in patients with secondary immunodeficiency, i.e., the conventional Pap smear and colposcopy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 immunodeficient patients who were referred to the Gynecologic Clinic at Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd from March 2011 to August 2012. All patients underwent the Pap test, a colposcopy, and a cervical biopsy, with the latter being considered as the gold-standard test. The most frequency of immunodeficiency was noted among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (53.3%), and this was followed by patients who were undergoing chemotherapy (30.7%), patients with lupus erythematosus (12.9%), and patients with AIDS (3%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Pap smear were 18.2, 98.5, 85.5, 71.3, and 72.2%, respectively. The respective values for colposcopy were 66.7, 98.94, 80, 97.9, and 97%, respectively. In this study the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of colposcopy were higher than those for the Pap smear in detecting high-grade, cervical, pre-malignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN ≥ 2). Therefore, an annual colposcopy is advised for secondary immunodeficient patients instead of a Pap smear.

  7. Perception and use of Pap smear screening among rural and urban women in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan; Pristavu, Anda; Grigore, Ana Maria; Matei, Mioara; Gafitanu, Dumitru

    2017-12-01

    In 2012 the National Screening Program for all women between 25 and 64 years of age was launched in Romania. Public awareness is an important factor in the success of a screening program. For this reason, we intended to assess the perception and the level of awareness of Romanian women regarding the Pap test in the prevention of cervical cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 454 women from rural and urban areas. For our study, we used a questionnaire covering general characteristics, awareness, knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear. 431 participants (95%) had heard of cervical cancer and Pap smear but only 71.8% knew the exact role of it. Bivariate analysis showed that knowledge about the importance of the Pap smear, early detection and treatment of early-stage cervical cancer was reduced among women with low socio-economic status, mainly living in rural area. The most frequent reasons for avoiding Pap smear screening were: lack of money, embarrassment or fear of gynaecological consultation and pain, the feeling that they don't need it, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer. Because the uptake and the success of cervical cancer screening are determined by women's knowledge and awareness of Pap smear, it is critical to improve these perceptions in the near future especially in rural area characterized by a low socio-economic status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical parameters associated with absence of endocervical/transformation zone component in conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lou; Wang, Peng-Hui; Lee, Chen-Hui; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chou, Min-Min; Hwang, Sheau-Feng; Ke, Yu-Min; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Lu, Chien-Hsing

    2016-02-01

    To study clinical factors predicting the absence of endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ) components of conventional cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The medical charts of patients who received Pap smears between March 2006 and August 2006 in the hospital were reviewed. The results of their Pap smears were retrieved while their demographic and clinical information were obtained from the medical charts. After excluding 378 cases with incomplete demographic data and 1397 cases with a history of pelvic irradiation, pelvic malignancy, and hysterectomy, 5662 cases were enrolled for data analysis. The relationship between clinical parameters and the absence of EC/TZ component was analyzed by Pearson Chi-square tests with Yates continuity correction and binary logistic regression tests. The incidence of satisfactory but absence of EC/TZ component was 8.7% (491/5662). Pregnancy increased the absence of EC/TZ component [odds ratio (OR}: 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14-3.77, p<0.0001]. Postpartum status and endocervical polyps decreased incidence (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98, p = 0.043 and OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.25-0.44, p<0.0001, respectively). Pregnancy is the only clinical factor associated with increased incidence of absence of EC/TZ cells. For these pregnant women undergoing a Pap smear, a more effective strategy may be needed to get a satisfactory smear with adequate EC/TZ components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Fate of Listeria innocua during production and ripening of smeared hard cheese made from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Bockelmann, W; Hoffmann, W

    2017-10-01

    The fate of 2 different Listeria innocua strains was analyzed during the production and ripening of smeared raw milk Greyerzer cheese (Gruyère). These strains were used as surrogates for the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, as they are physiologically very similar. Bacterial cells were added to the cheese milk at levels of 10 5 cfu/mL. During the first 24 h of cheese making, the number of the test strains decreased to a level of below 10 2 cfu/g. Obviously, the cooking temperature of 56°C and the subsequent slight temperature decrease to 50°C within 70 min contributed to a distinct reduction of Listeria counts. The counts in the cheese cores did not exceed 10 3 cfu/g within 12 wk of cheese ripening and Listeria was not detectable after 24 wk. In contrast to the cores of the cheeses of the 4 batches in this study, their rinds always contained a high listerial load of approximately 10 6 to 10 8 cfu/g throughout the entire ripening period. The smeared surface showed an increase of pH to alkaline values, corresponding to smear microbiota development. Coryneforms and Staphylococcus counts were stable at >10 7 cfu/cm 2 over 175 d, whereas yeast counts decreased to about 10 5 cfu/cm 2 at the end of ripening. The study shows that the smear culture had no noticeable anti-listerial potential. When removing the rind or portioning such smeared cheese loaves with a cutting device, a postprocess contamination of the core might occur, thus presenting a major hygienic risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Audit of the practice of sputum smear examination for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-07-01

    In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.

  11. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Shavey: DNA extraction from archived Giemsa-stained blood smears using polymerase chain reaction to detect host and parasitic DNA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are the data from a laboratory experiment in which DNA content was removed from blood smears and extracted. The blood smears were either stained with...

  12. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Pap Smear as a Screening Test for Cervical Cancer among Saudi Population in Riyadh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khudairi, Hassan; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alomar, Osama; Salem, Hany

    2017-01-17

    To explore the public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Saudi women towards Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer. A descriptive cross-sectional study took place in four major secondary and tertiary healthcare hospitals located in the capital city Riyadh between January 2016 and June 2016. A self-administered, coded, close-ended survey was randomly distributed to 1000 non-single women attending the obstetrics/gynecology outpatient clinics or inpatient wards. Five hundred and seven women participated in the survey (overall response rate: 50.7%). The vast majority of respondents aged between 20-40 years (88%) and were married (94.1%), Saudi citizens (96.5%), university educated (45.6%) and housewives (64.5%). A total of 234 women (46.2%) did not hear whatsoever about Pap smear previously. Only 273 women (53.9%) heard about it, mostly during their hospital visits for obstetric/gynecologic purposes (57.1%). A sum of 381 women (75.2%) did not do a single Pap smear previously. A sum of 383 women (75.5%) reported that their physicians never advised them to do Pap smear. Regarding knowledge of Pap smear, 415 women (82%) did not know when to start doing Pap smear, 471 women (92.9%) did not know how frequently they should do Pap smear and 476 women (93.9%) did not know when to stop doing Pap smear. Moreover, 456 women (89.9%) did not know the difference between Pap smear and high vaginal swap. A total of 429 women (84.6%) never requested their physician to do Pap smear. Almost all women (95.3%) expressed an interest in knowing more information about the Pap smear screening test. The awareness and knowledge of Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer among Saudi population living in Riyadh is unsatisfactory. There is an urgent necessity to educate and foster awareness concerning cervical cancer and its screening through Pap smear.

  13. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P

    1990-01-01

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be trans...

  14. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  15. Comparative study between Pap smear and visual inspection using acetic acid as a method of cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S A; Rashid, M H; Nessa, A; Aziz, M A; Zakaria, S M; Roy, J S

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study was done for the comparison of visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA) and Pap smear as a method of cervical cancer screening. This study was also done to determine the proportion of women screened positive with VIA and proportion of women screened positive with Pap smear. Another aim was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and Pap smear. A total of 300 women attended to the outpatient gynecologic clinic and cervical cancer screening programme at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) were included. On VIA, 23 out of 300 women screened had aceto-white lesions. On Pap smear, 14 out of the 300 women had ASCUS or worse lesions. Of the 300 enrolled women, 11 were positive on both VIA and cytology; 12 were positive on VIA only; and 3 were positive on cytology only. Those women (n=26) who showed positive test result with either VIA or Pap smear or both tests were further subjected to colposcopy directed biopsy. Histology was taken as gold standard to compare the performance of VIA and cytology (Pap's smear). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 18 Positive cases out of the total 26 patients who underwent biopsy. Pap smear picked up 10 out of the 18 biopsy-proven cases whereas VIA could identify 17 out of the 18 CIN/carcinoma cervices. VIA was more sensitive (94.44%) than pap smear (55.55%), which was statistically significant. However, the specificity of VIA was slightly lower (97.87%) than that of cytology (98.58%). The PPV of VIA was 73.91% versus 71.42 % for Pap smear.

  16. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  17. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited in 2015. The participants asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire including five parts (questions about: demographic factors, knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear, Pap smear performance, barriers and facilitators related to Pap smear and the sources of information). Data were analyzed through SPSS version 19, using descriptive statistics, Independent T-test, and logistic regression. The mean age of the participants was 34.08±7.81 years. Almost 50.4% of the subjects had a history of Pap smear test. Pap test performance was significantly higher in those who had higher knowledge (PPap smear and age was the most important predictors of the Pap test performance (PPap smear test were inadequate knowledge and the recommendations received from family, friends and healthcare professionals (44.3% and 40.2%, respectively). Knowledge about Pap smear and cervical cancer was important in predicting Pap test doing. In addition, inadequate knowledge was introduced as the most important barrier to screening test from the perspective of women. Therefore, we suggest that health education and health promotion studies as interdisciplinary and targeted interventions should be implemented to improve the women's knowledge.

  18. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as “laziness” for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%). Conclusion There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. PMID:24179380

  19. Refractile mycobacteria in Romanowsky-stained bone marrow smears. A comparison of acid-fast-stained tissue sections and Romanowsky-stained smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, E; Clayton, F; Ames, E D

    1992-03-01

    The appearance of mycobacteria was studied in Wright-stained bone marrow preparations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and compared with acid-fast-stained trephine biopsy sections and culture results. Mycobacterium avium complex in Romanowsky-stained preparations may be seen as extracellular and intracellular clear or red refractile beaded rods and nonrefractile "negative images." Refractile mycobacteria were seen in 17 of 20 culture-positive cases. Acid-fast stain of the trephine biopsy demonstrated organisms in only 11 of the 20 cases. Thus, six cases were culture positive and contained refractile rods but had no acid-fast organisms on the trephine biopsy. No false-positive results were seen with Romanowsky stain; the three false-negative results for refractility also were negative with acid-fast stain. Examination of Romanowsky-stained smears or imprints for refractile mycobacteria provides a reliable and sensitive method to identify mycobacteria in this population. Romanowsky-stained bone marrow aspirate and imprint smears should be examined for refractile bacilli when mycobacterial infection is suspected.

  20. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper...... the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes...

  1. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  2. Pap smear: understanding of rural women about the purpose and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igho Leonardo do Nascimento Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: todescribe the understanding of rural women about the purpose and access to Pap smear. Methods:qualitative study conducted with 15 women. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured interview script, by adopting content analysis. Results: the study found that women had insufficient understanding about the reason to perform the examination, both in the matter of prevention and regarding diagnosis of cervical cancer. Women have also demonstrated difficulties to perform the examination by the difficult access to the cytological examination and by the little frequency of the Family Health Strategy team in going the rural communities evaluated. Conclusion: the understanding of the purpose of Pap smear is insufficient and access is inappropriate. This condition is a risk to the onset of cervical cancer in rural women.

  3. Detecting mycobacteria in Romanowsky-stained cytologic smears. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debdatta; Nilkund, Jeevana

    2003-01-01

    Cytologic features of mycobacterial infections are granulomatous inflammation with or without caseous necrosis and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli with special stains. However, immuno-compromised patients might not mount the expected response. A routinely used Romanowsky (Leishman) stain was used for the presumptive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a 30-year-old man with AIDS. The mycobacteria were identified as inclusions, described as "negative images," in the cytoplasm of macrophages in smears of bone marrow aspirate. They were then confirmed to be acid-fast bacilli with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Negative images of mycobacteria may be seen in Romanowsky-stained cytologic smears from patients with immunodeficiency. This is a rapid and cost-effective way of detecting the mycobacteria before more specific results are available. Such a search should be undertaken routinely in all patients suspected to have such infections.

  4. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Purrotti, Micol

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (...... increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.......Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI......-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M...

  5. Knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap smear among Uyghur women from Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Guzhalinuer; Abulimiti, Tangnuer; Li, Hua; Abuduxikuer, Guzhalinuer; Mijiti, Patiman; Zhang, Su-Qin; Maimaiti, Ayinuer; Tuergan, Muyasier; Simayi, Ayiguli; Maimaiti, Miherinisha

    2018-01-17

    Cervical cancer is a significant public health issue in Xinjiang China. In order to provide scientific basis for cervical cancer intervention in Xinjiang, women's knowledge of cervical cancer was investigated in this study. Besides, relations between Uyghur women's awareness and their age, educational background, yearly household were evaluated. Questionnaire survey was conducted to 7100 Uyghur women from Karkax Hotan and Payzivat Kashgar during 2008 and 2009. Women aged 21 to 70 years, had sexual activity, no history of cervical lesion or cervical cancer were considered to be eligible to the study. Information include participants' socio-demographic background, personal data, awareness about Pap smear, about cervical cancer and HPV, sources of information acquisition was investigated. 65.1% of the 7100 respondents with primary education level, and 95.0% participants were farmers. Only 7.4% had undertaken Pap smears before, not aware of the importance of the test (97.4% of 7100) was the main reason for not performing Pap smears. 29.3% of total participants had heard about cervical cancer, and only 0.14% (10 out of 7100) had heard about HPV. Top three route of knowledge acquire were television advertises (39.1%), neighbors (21.0%) and health care providers (15.0%). Women younger than 40 years, with higher educational levels and higher income had better awareness of cervical cancer and more willing to accept regular Pap smears. Uyghur women in Xinjiang had poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV infection. Low awareness of women was associated with less household income and lower educational levels. TV shows and education from health care providers may increase women's participation in cervical cancer control and prevention.

  6. The degree of agreement between HPV testing, pap smear and colposcopy in cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinte-Popescu, Alina; Costăchescu, G

    2012-01-01

    The current study analyzed the degree of agreement between HPV testing, Pap smear, and colposcopic directed cervical biopsies. The study was performed on a group of 332 patients diagnosed and treated for cervical dysplasia at Cuza-Vodă Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic Hospital and Suceava County Hospital between 2006 and 2011. 190 patients (57.23%) were positive for HPV, 56 (35%) were positive for two HPV types and 42 (22.10%) for three or more HPV types. High grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) accounted for 88 (26.5%), low grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) for 92 (27.71%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) for 69 (20.78%) and squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 5 (1.5%) of referral Pap smears. Colposcopic directed cervical biopsies reported no pathological abnormality (negative) in 64 (19.28%), HSIL in 105 (31.62%), LSIL in 83 (25%) and other lesions in 80 (24.1%) women. Exact degree of agreement between Pap smear and cervical biopsy was fair (k = 0.5) when analyzing for high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 66 and 68 and the low-risk HPV types 11, 54, 83, and 61 were the most frequently detected HPV types. The current study showed the fair agreement between Pap smear and colposcopic biopsy. Incorporation of HPV testing into the present Pap screening program has the potential to make screening for cervical cancer more effective, and a necessary prelude to assessing this is determining the prevalence of the high-risk types.

  7. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  9. [A smear method for measuring anti-cancer drugs residues in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takumi; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Saito, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Anti-cancer drugs are harmful to healthy persons. In recent years, occupational exposure to anti-cancer drugs has become a major concern to health care workers. To address this issue, a smear method was developed to measure widely using anti-cancer drugs depositing on the floors, safety cabinet surfaces, and tables in hospital. Ten kinds of widely used anti-cancer drugs, paclitaxel, vincristine, docetaxel, vinorelbine, irinotecan, methotrexate, oxaliplatin, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine and fluorouracil were collected by smearing material surfaces with methanol impregnated cellulose filter paper and/or polypropylene nonwoven. The collected anti-cancer drugs are extracted in 5 ml of 0.01% (v/v) hydrazine/methanol solution by sonication. The extracted solution was filtered and concentrated to prepare 1ml of sample solution. Then, the anti-cancer drugs in the sample solution were simultaneously measured by LC/MS. The anti-cancer drugs excepting fluorouracil spread on P-tile surface were measured with recoveries of 37-101% and standard deviations (SD) of 1.8-19%. All 10 of the anti-cancer drugs on a stainless steel plate surface were measured with the recoveries of 35-111% and SD of 1.3-11%. Using this smear method, 9 or 10 kinds of widely used anti-cancer drug residues in hospital, possibly exposed to health care workers, were grasped.

  10. Cytology smears as diagnostic material for EGFR gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrózek, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Paweł; Pankowski, Juliusz; Reszka, Katarzyna; Jakubiak, Magdalena; Obrochta, Anna; Wojas-Krawczyk, Kamila; Buczkowski, Jarosław; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-11-14

    Cytology smears can be effectively used for EGFR mutation testing in the qualification of NSCLC patients for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. However, tissue specimens are preferred for EGFR mutation analysis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the real-time PCR method for EGFR testing in histology and cytology materials obtained simultaneously from NSCLC patients. Fourteen adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR-mutation-positive primary tumor tissues were included in the study. Corresponding cytological smears of metastatic lymph nodes obtained by EBUS-TBNA were examined. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit (EntroGen, USA) and real-time PCR (m2000rt system, Abbott, USA) were used for EGFR mutation analysis in both types of material. In primary tumor tissues, 12 deletions in exon 19 and 2 substitutions in exon 21 (L858R mutation) of the EGFR gene were found. Except for 1 deletion in exon 19, the same EGFR gene mutations were detected in all corresponding cytology samples. The percentage of tumor cells, DNA concentration, percentage of mutated DNA as well as ΔCt values were similar in cytology slides and histology material. In both types of materials, no significant correlations were found between the percentage of tumor cells and the percentage of mutated DNA nor between the DNA concentration and the percentage of mutated DNA. We demonstrated the high effectiveness of a sensitive real-time PCR method in EGFR gene mutation detection in cytology smears.

  11. Intraoperative squash smear cytology in CNS lesions: A study of 150 pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of CNS lesions in pediatric patients were studied over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative squash smears were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. Remaining sample was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Medulloblastoma (24.0% was the most frequently encountered tumor followed by pilocyctic astrocytoma (21.33% and ependymoma (13.33%. Diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique was 94.67% when compared with histological diagnosis. Conclusion: Smear cytology is a fairly accurate tool for intraoperative CNS consultations.

  12. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  13. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  14. Limitations and requirements for quality control of sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, A; Portaels, F

    1998-09-01

    Sputum microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is considered to be the most appropriate method for case-finding in a tuberculosis (TB) control programme. It is usually carried out by general technicians, often after minimal training. Quality control of their results therefore seems indispensable. The methods advocated for quality control are reviewed. Controls by culture leave too much uncertainty because of big differences in technical characteristics of the methods. Sets of smears sent out by a central laboratory can only be used to assess capability. Rechecking routine smears allows daily performance to be appraised and may be a strong motivation, but feasibility may be a problem. Based on our experience, we describe the technical requirements for cross-checking of routine smears. Counter-checking slides with discordant results is crucial for accurate assessments. A sample size should strike a balance between statistical accuracy and the man-power needed. Indicators for evaluation are proposed that allow discrimination of error gradings, to be used in a phased manner with priority at first being given to false negatives and false positives that pass the threshold for clinical decision-making. Estimates of critical values with suggestions about their interpretation are placed in the context of supervising TB laboratories.

  15. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Negative Samples Examined by Direct Smear and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI world­wide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may de­pend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Dia­mond's media. The aim of this study was checking the samples, which were negative by direct smear and culture, with PCR technique.Methods: The urine samples and vaginal discharge of patients attending Gynecology Clinics of Ma­zandaran Province, Iran with different symptoms rechecked for Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR technique using primers targeting a conserved region of the beta-tubulin genes of the para­site. Data were analyzed by Epi Info software programResults: Out of 161 negative samples by direct smear and culture, seven samples (4.3% were posi­tive by PCR technique.Conclusion: Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could play important role to help the physicians for properly treatment and control of infection.

  17. Serum calcium level among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M R; Muttalib, M A; Chakraborty, P K; Ahmed, S S; Laila, T R; Islam, M M; Rahman, M A; Jafrin, W; Sultana, S

    2013-07-01

    This case control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh in cooperation with the Outpatient Department and Medicine Units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Fulbaria Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh and some DOTS centers of BRAC, a non-government organization during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum calcium level in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups - Group I (Control; n=60) apparently healthy people selected matching by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case; n=60) people with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum calcium was estimated by colorimetric principle. Serum calcium was adjusted by serum albumin concentration. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD of adjusted serum calcium in Group II (2.41±0.15mmol/L) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that in Group I (1.85±0.11mmol/L). It is evident from the study that serum calcium level significantly increases in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  18. Effects of smear layer removal agents on the physical properties and microstructure of mineral trioxide aggregate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Sona, Mrunali; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effect of QMix (Dentsply Sirona), 7% maleic acid (MA), and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the microhardness, flexural strength and microstructure of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; ProRoot MTA, Dentsply Sirona). Forty MTA specimens were divided into four groups: [I] QMix [II] 7% MA [III] 17% EDTA and [IV] distilled water (control). After treatment with 5mL of the respective solution for 1min, the specimens were tested for microhardness using a Knoop hardness tester. Forty additional specimens were similarly treated and evaluated for the flexural strength using a universal testing machine. For microstructure evaluation, MTA specimens were treated in a similar manner and examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For microhardness, there were no differences between distilled water, QMix and EDTA groups. However, MTA exposed to distilled water had higher microhardness than MA. When compared with QMix and EDTA, MA had lower microhardness; there was no difference between EDTA and QMix. For flexural strength, distilled water group had higher flexural strength than the other agents. There were no differences between EDTA vs MA and EDTA vs QMix. Specimens treated with QMix had higher flexural strength than MA. X-ray diffraction indicated that EDTA inhibited hydration of MTA. For SEM, all the tested agents altered the microstructure of MTA when compared to distilled water. MA had more detrimental effect on the physical properties of MTA and EDTA was more detrimental to the hydration of MTA. The present study highlights the effect of newer chelating agents on the physical properties and microstructure of MTA. Preventing the deterioration of MTA is important for its long term success in endodontic procedures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Pap smear follow-up of possible role of mucopurulent exudate as a prognosticator of a negative pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, U K; Fairfax, M R; Ayers, M

    1999-07-01

    Our objective was to study a cohort of women by various means to detect sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to correlate the presence of mucopurulent exudate (PEX) on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears with pregnancy outcome. Bacteriologic cultures taken from swabs for chlamydia and gonorrhea were correlated with Gen-Probe results. Smears were examined for trichomonas, yeast, HPV, obscuring mucopurulent exudate, and squamous intraepithelial abnormalities. There was no positive correlation between STD and negative pregnancy outcome. Mucopurulent exudate on Pap smears was very high in this population. Continuing study of this population of women is needed to see if larger cohorts will demonstrate any positive correlations between PEX and pregnancy outcome. Placing women with obscuring mucopurulent exudate in a "high-risk" category for complications may prevent adverse side effects to the birth product. The Pap smear works as well as the Gram stain for detection of bacterial vaginosis and cervicitis. Eliminating the Gram stain from routine pelvic exam results in cost savings.

  20. Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral smear leading to the diagnosis of congenital hyposplenism in a patient with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Hannah; Dittus, Christopher; Malek, Anita; Negroiu, Andreea

    2015-08-01

    We present a case of isolated congenital hyposplenism that was discovered after the peripheral smear revealed Howell-Jolly bodies. This case serves as the basis for a review of hyposplenism for the general practitioner.

  1. Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral smear leading to the diagnosis of congenital hyposplenism in a patient with septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Hannah; Dittus, Christopher; Malek, Anita; Negroiu, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a case of isolated congenital hyposplenism that was discovered after the peripheral smear revealed Howell-Jolly bodies. This case serves as the basis for a review of hyposplenism for the general practitioner.

  2. Can visual inspection with acetic acid be used as an alternative to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend S. Saleh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: VIA a good screening, simple test, has low cost and high sensitivity in comparison to Pap smear. So, it can be used as alternative screening modality for cervical cancer in low resource locations.

  3. Retinal nerve fiber layer loss documented by Stratus OCT TM in patients with pituitary adenoma: case report Perda da camada de fibras nervosas retiniana documentada por meio do Stratus OCT TM em pacientes com adenoma hipofisário: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Campelo Leal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report abnormalities of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT TM in patients with pituitary adenoma. METHODS: Two patients with long-standing bitemporal visual field defects and optic nerve band atrophy were submitted to optical coherence tomography examination (Stratus OCT TM. RESULTS: Both patients with band atrophy revealed diffuse loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer on Stratus OCT TM, with severe reduction in the nasal and temporal areas of the optic disc. Retinal nerve fiber layer loss correlated well with visual field loss and with previous histological studies of band atrophy of the optic nerve. CONCLUSIONS: Stratus optical coherence tomography can provide useful information in the diagnosis of band atrophy from chiasmal lesions such as pituitary adenomas.OBJETIVO: Relatar alterações na camada de fibras nervosas retiniana (CFNR com o uso da tomografia de coerência óptica (Stratus OCT TM em pacientes com adenoma hipofisário. MÉTODOS: Dois pacientes com defeito perimétrico bitemporal de longa duração e atrofia em banda do nervo óptico foram examinados com tomografia de coerência óptica (Stratus OCT TM. RESULTADOS: Ambos pacientes demonstraram perda difusa da camada de fibras nervosas retiniana com redução acentuada nas regiões nasal e temporal do disco óptico. A perda da camada de fibras nervosas retiniana se correlacionou com o defeito de campo visual e com os estudos histológicos de atrofia em banda do nervo óptico. CONCLUSÕES: A tomografia de coerência óptica (Stratus OCT TM pode apresentar grande utilidade no diagnóstico da atrofia em banda decorrente de lesões quiasmáticas tais como os adenomas pituitários.

  4. External Quality Assessment of Sputum Smear Microscopy in Tuberculosis Laboratories in Sughd, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eva; Luelmo, Fabio; Baydulloeva, Zamira; Joncevska, Marija; Kasymova, Guljamol; Bobokhojaev, Oktam; Mohr, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Tajikistan has a laboratory network with three levels of tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. The external quality assessment (EQA) of sputum smear microscopy was implemented in 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EQA system and identify potential performance improvement strategies in TB microscopic laboratories in Sughd, Tajikistan. This is a cross-sectional study based on retrospective record review and secondary data analyses on Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) microscopy data and EQA reading results collected between the first quarter of 2011 and the fourth quarter of 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the overview of microscopy laboratories activities, EQA results, and laboratory performance. Of the 123,874 smears examined between 2011 and 2013, 11,522 (9.30%) were re-checked by the EQA system. The population TB screening rate rose from 0.46% in 2011 to 0.57% in 2013, and the case positivity rate decreased from 6.98% to 4.80%. The regional EQA results showed a reduction in high false-positive, high false-negative, and low false-negative errors. False-positive errors had decreased from 0.13% in 2011 to 0.07% in 2013, and false-negative errors from 0.91% in 2011 to 0.15% in 2013. Regional sensitivity of smear microscopy, when compared to re-checking controller, increased from 88.2% in 2011 to 97.2% in 2013. The regional specificity level remained relatively stable at above 99%. Our study found that a decreasing trend of case positivity rate from 2011 to 2013 in Sughd, though the overall laboratory workload was on the rise. In addition, EQA results showed an overall error reduction and an improved sensitivity of smear microscopy in the region. The overview of microscopic laboratory activities and the actual evaluation of the EQA system on sputum smear microscopy complement each other in providing a better picture on the progress of TB laboratory strengthening. We recommend similar approaches to be adapted by future evaluations on TB

  5. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  6. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in prison settings of North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teklay Gebrecherkos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and associated risk factors in prison settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included. Socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum samples were collected, smears were prepared and stained with Auramine O stain and examined through light emitting diode- fluorescence microscope. All samples positive for acid-fast bacilli were further examined by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and a P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between risk factors and prison tuberculosis. Results A total of 282 prison inmates suspected of PTB were enrolled in the study. The overall prevalence of smear positive PTB infection was 5.3 % (15/282, but none of the smear positive TB cases were resistant to rifampicin. The prevalence of HIV infection among TB suspected prisoners and smear positive PTB cases was 6 and 27 %, respectively. Moreover, smear positive PTB disease was significantly associated with smoking status, malnutrition, number of prison inmates per cell, poor cell ventilation, and a history of contact with TB patients. Conclusion The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among north Gondar prison inmates was still high although lower than previous reports. There was a high prevalence of HIV among smear positive PTB cases. Reducing the burden of prison inmates in a particular cell, preventing malnutrition, establishing

  7. Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasad-Shahrak, Shakiba; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Mostafa-Garebaghi, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malakouti, Jamileh; Haghsay, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.

  8. Low uptake of Pap smear testing among medical clinic attendees in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Arunakiri, Komakal; Wickramasinghe, Sumudu I; Sumanasekera, Rukshala D N; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-06-01

    The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test is a safe and effective screening test for pre-invasive cervical cancer. The test is offered free of charge through well-woman clinics in Sri Lanka, but previous studies have shown poor awareness and uptake. We used an interviewer administered validated questionnaire to conduct a cross sectional survey among ever-married women between the ages of 25 and 65 years attending a medical clinic at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. We obtained data on socio-demographic characteristics, awareness/knowledge and uptake status of Pap smear testing. A total of 188/280 eligible women were interviewed (67.1%). Participant ages ranged from 29-65 years. Awareness about Pap smear testing was found in 111 (59.0%) women of whom 41 (36.9%) did not know that the Pap smear was used to detect pre-cancerous lesions. Only 34 (18.1%) subjects had ever had a Pap smear taken. Univariate associations related to Pap smear uptake were: prior awareness of the test (pcervical carcinoma (pPap smear testing was poor. Pap smear uptake was very low, and did not parallel prior knowledge, although knowledge did influence uptake. Parity and contact with patients with cervical cancer correlated with uptake. There is an urgent need to increase uptake through a multi-pronged campaign. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was ...

  10. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

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    Weisheng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases, 1 min (6 cases, or 2 min (4 cases. Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11% were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89% were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55 or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41. DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH.

  11. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  12. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  13. Knowledge and Acceptability of Pap Smears, Self-Sampling and HPV Vaccination among Adult Women in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositch, Anne F.; Gatuguta, Ann; Choi, Robert Y.; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Bosire, Rose; Manyara, Lucy; Kiarie, James N.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Farquhar, Carey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to assess adult women’s knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. Methods Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. Results Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years) had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%). Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%), very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%). Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82%) and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%). Nearly all women (94%) reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening. PMID:22808257

  14. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  15. Measuring the accuracy of a point system to diagnose tuberculosis in children with a negative smear or with no smear or culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino Giovani Braga Cartaxo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a scoring system was adopted to diagnose tuberculosis in childhood. This study determined the accuracy in diagnosing tuberculosis in children with either a negative smear or with no smear or culture conducted in a reference center in João Pessoa Paraíba – Brazil. It is a phase III validation study, using a cross-section design. The study population consisted of 167 patients attending the outpatient clinics suspected of having tuberculosis. The reference standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was a blind and independent review of the medical records, radiology and tuberculin test by two experts. Of the 167 patients, 60 were considered to have tuberculosis (by the reference standard diagnostics. The results for the scoring system with the cut-off of 30 points were: sensitivity 78.57% (95%-CI: 65.56–88.41%, specificity 69.16% (95%-CI: 59.50–77.73%, positive predictive value (PPV: 57.14% (95%-CI: 45.35–68.37%, negative predictive value (NPV: 86.05% (95%-CI: 76.89–92.58%, likelihood ratio (+: 2,55, pre-test probability: 34.36%, and post-test probability (+: 57.14%. This supports the current recommendation for the use of this scoring system in Brazil and similar sites with the cut-off of 30 points. However, as the discriminatory power of the point scoring system may vary across settings, it would be advisable to replicate this phase III study in different settings.

  16. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ...

  17. Exploring tuberculosis by molecular tests on DNA isolated from smear microscopy slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaina Rakotosamimanana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of global public health importance caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The disease has worsened with the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB strains. The timely diagnosis and treatment of TB remains a key public health priority, and laboratories have a critical role in the rapid and accurate detection of TB and drug resistance. Molecular assays based on nucleic acid amplification techniques have been developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of TB, with the ability to determine the drug sensitivity status. These molecular techniques are now available or are being implemented in developing countries. However, traditional microscopy and culture methods cannot yet be replaced; the molecular assays can be applied in parallel with these tests for the diagnosis of TB or for drug susceptibility testing. Performing such molecular tests is often restricted by constraints with regard to sputum sample storage and safe transportation from remote health centres to central laboratories. Since smear slides are performed routinely for the diagnosis of TB in most TB diagnostic laboratories, they are readily available and could be the ideal tool to transport sputum for further molecular tests. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey on the use of smear slides for both TB diagnosis and the molecular test approach. Based on the literature, stained smear microscopy slides can be a safe system for the transportation of sputum specimens from remote health centres to reference TB laboratories for further molecular TB or MDR-TB detection, and could help in the rapid diagnosis and therefore timely management of TB patients.

  18. Barriers to follow-up of an abnormal Pap smear in Latina women referred for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percac-Lima, Sanja; Aldrich, Leslie S; Gamba, Gloria B; Bearse, Adriana M; Atlas, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Lower rates of follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear in racial and ethnic minorities may contribute to the higher incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer seen in these groups. To identify patient-perceived barriers to follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear result among Latina women. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND APPROACH: Qualitative, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with patients from an academic hospital-affiliated urban community health center. Three groups of women were interviewed: new colposcopy clinic patients, patients who had previous colposcopies and patients enrolled in the health center's patient navigator program. Open-ended questions explored their knowledge, beliefs and experiences with colposcopy. Content analysis of transcripts was performed using established qualitative techinques. Of 40 Latina women recruited, 75% spoke only Spanish. The average age was 31.5 (range 18-55). Personal and system barriers identified were categorized into four themes: (1) anxiety/fear of procedure and diagnosis; (2) scheduling/availability of appointments interfering with work and/or child care; (3) inadequate communication about appointments, including lack of explanation regarding diagnosis, procedure and results; and (4) pain. New patients more commonly reported problems with scheduling and communication. Follow-up patients were more concerned about pain, and navigated women most often reported fear of results but had fewer concerns about inadequate communication. Anxiety/fear was the most common personal barrier, while difficulty scheduling appointments and inadequate communication were the major systems barriers identified in these Latina women. Interventions to lower these barriers to colposcopy among Latina women may increase adherence to follow-up of abnormal Pap smears.

  19. Awareness of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Testing Among Omani Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Alwahaibi; Waad, Alsalami; Atheer, Alzaabi; Nasra, Alramadhani

    2016-11-01

    Background: In developed countries, awareness of cervical cancer screening is well documented. In contrast, in Oman as a developing country, public responses regarding cervical screening are unclear. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about cervical cancer and Papanicolau (Pap) smear testing and to establish any correlations between knowledge and demographic factors among Omani women. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, participants were divided into three groups: patients who attended the Outpatient Gynecology Department in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, female staff from SQUH, College of Medicine and College of Nursing at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) and graduating female students at SQU. Data collection was through interview-based and online self-administered questionnaires. Cumulative scoring was used for data analysis. Results: There were 204 outpatients, 133 staff and 157 students. Outpatients (79.4%), staff (97.7%) and students (75.2%) had heard of cervical cancer. Nevertheless, their specific knowledge, regarding signs and symptoms, risk factors and Pap smear, was low at 38.7%, 35.3% and 7.6% among outpatients, staff and students, respectively. Some 39.9% of the married outpatients had adequate overall knowledge as compared to none of the single women. Educational level was found to be significantly associated with outpatient knowledge with the highest awareness levels among postgraduates and medical university graduates (61.5%). Conclusion: Specific knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors and cervical Pap smear is generally poor among Omani women. This lack of knowledge may be one of the contributing factors for the high incidence of cervical cancer in Oman relative to that in developed countries. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Serum albumin and creatinine clearance rate among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M R; Chakraborty, P K; Paul, U K; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Shahidullah, S M; Gautam, B; Sultana, S; Ferdous, N; Samsunnahar, M

    2014-07-01

    This case control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in cooperation with the Outpatient Department and Medicine Units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Fulbaria Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh and some DOTS centers of BRAC, a non-government organization during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum albumin & creatinine clearance levels in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients as these levels decrease significantly. Serum albumin level was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the nutritional status of TB patients and also for the adjustment of serum calcium level. Creatinine clearance rate was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the impairment of renal function and nutritional depletion in tuberculosis patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups- Group I (Control; n=60) - apparently healthy people selected matching by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case; n=60) - people with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum albumin was estimated by colorimetric principle. Serum creatinine was also estimated by colorimetric principle & creatinine clearance rate was estimated from serum creatinine by Cockcroft- Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD of serum albumin in Group II (3.74±0.44gm/dl) was significantly lower (pcreatinine clearance rate in Group II (35.36±8.29ml/min) was also significantly lower than that in Group I (84.16±20.20ml/min). It is evident from the study that serum albumin & creatinine clearance rate levels significantly decrease in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  1. Rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis in smear-negative clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R.A. Leite

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens

  2. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, R.; Amjad, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and

  3. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felegie, T P; Pasculle, A W; Dekker, A

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detection of P. carinii, clinical microbiologists should be aware of the morphology of this organism in gram-stained specimens because this relatively simple procedure gives quick results. Images PMID:6084017

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  5. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  6. Grid size effects with smeared cracking in finite element analysis of reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, R. H.; Darwin, D.; Smith, J. L.; Leibengood, L. D.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of modeling parameters on the response of finite element representations of reinforced concrete members are examined. The convergence of load deflection curves and cracking patterns is studied. Nonlinear behavior is limited to cracking of the concrete and yielding of the reinforcement. The smeared crack representation is governed by a limiting tensile stress criterion. Concrete is treated as linear elastic in compression. Reinforcement has a bilinear stress-strain curve. Constant strain bar elements and rectangular isoparametric elements model the steel and concrete, respectively. Analyses are performed for flexural members under both a uniformly distributed load and a concentrated load at midspan, using a minimum of three variations in grid refinement.

  7. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos, marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS, versão 10.0, com valor de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each

  8. Exame Papanicolaou: sentimentos relatados por profissionais de enfermagem ao se submeterem a esse exame Pap smear screening: sensations reported by nursing professionals when submitted to this test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os sentimentos de auxiliares e técnicas de enfermagem ao se submeterem ao exame Papanicolaou. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado nos meses de setembro a outubro de 2006, com 35 servidoras de uma instituição governamental referência em ginecologia na cidade de Fortaleza (CE. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada, contendo uma questão norteadora gravada e analisada de acordo com referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. Os relatos foram agrupados em três temáticas: um exame que causa incômodo, medo e vergonha; um exame que gera ansiedade quanto aos resultados; e um exame que "me deixa calma e tranquila". Apesar de as entrevistadas pertencerem a uma instituição que cuida de mulheres na prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino, elas não deixaram de emitir sentimentos negativos relacionados ao exame. Concluiu-se a importância de realizar projetos educativos, enfatizando a importância do empoderamento das usuárias a fim de minimizar essas questões.This work sought to record the impressions of nursing assistants and technicians after submitting to Pap smear screening. This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach conducted in September and October of 2006 with 35 employees of a public institution, which is a benchmark in gynecology in Fortaleza in the State of Ceará (Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews containing a recorded leading question and analyzed according to the methodological-theoretical reference of social phenomenology. The testimonials were separated in three groups: an exam that causes discomfort, fear and shame; an exam that causes anxiety about the results; and an exam that "makes me calm and relaxed". Despite the interviewees being part of an institution that cares for the prevention of cervical-uterine cancer in women, negative feelings about the Pap smear test were nonetheless

  9. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  10. Comparative study between pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid (via) in screening of CIN and early cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ashish Kumar; Nath, Jyan Dip; Deka, Harajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common among women globally. In most cases of Assam, Ca Cervix is detected late due to lack of effective screening programme. To screen the patient at Gynaecology OPD at the age 18-60 yrs by doing pap smear, VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid) and to detect sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN and early Ca Cervix. It is a cross sectional study of 300 women (18- 60 yrs) who fulfill selection criteria. The pap smear and VIA are done in these cases. In positive cases, cervical biopsy and histopathological studies are done, The sensitivity and specificity of each test are determined and compared. The positive result detected from cytology are 22, VIA was positive in 52 cases. The histology of 19 cases are suggestive of CIN and Ca Cervix. The findings were compared with other studies and evaluated. The most common finding in per speculum examination is cervical erosion. The sensitivity of VIA is 89% (versus pap smear-52%) the specificity of VIA is 87% (versus pap smear-95%). The accuracy VIA is 87% compared to pap smear-93%. The lack of effective and implementable screening programme lead to reporting of advanced cases of Ca Cervix. If detected at CIN or early Ca cervix stage, effective treatment can be provided with encouraging results. Therefore effective & implementable Ca Cervix screening need to be provided in our country.

  11. The Correlation of Initial Sputum Smear Positivity on Treatment Failure of Category 1 Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Puput Dyah Ayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is an important public health problem. Based on data from East Java Province Health Department reported that number of tuberculosis patient in Surabaya is the highest in East Java on year 2014. Early identification and good treatment based on the result of sputum identification are the strategy use to control tuberculosis widespread. So that why, microscopic observation to identify acid fast bacilli (AFB is the fundamental stage to determine recovery treatment. Initial sputum smear positivity is necessary to determine infectious graded. The objectives of the study were to identify of initial sputum smear positivity on treatment failure of category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011-2014. This study used case control method with quantitative approach. Forty two samples were taken from secondary data. Case group is 21 samples who have treatment failure and control group is 21 successful treatment. Samples were selected by simple random sampling. The chi square correlation showed that highly positive initial smear (p = 0,045; OR = 5,4 have correlated and risk factor to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The conclusion is patient’s high positive sputum smear initially correlated to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011–2014. Keywords: initial sputum smear positivity, treatment failure,, category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

  12. Band smearing of PCR amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes: dependence on initial PCR target diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrimec, Jan; Kopinč, Rok; Rijavec, Tomaž; Zrimec, Tatjana; Lapanje, Aleš

    2013-11-01

    Band smearing in agarose gels of PCR amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes is understood to comprise amplicons of varying sizes arising from PCR errors, and requires elimination. We consider that with amplified heterogeneous DNA, delayed electro-migration is caused not by PCR errors but by dsDNA structures that arise from imperfect strand pairing. The extent of band smearing was found to be proportional to the sequence heterogeneity in 16S rRNA variable regions. Denaturing alkaline gels showed that all amplified DNA was of the correct size. A novel bioinformatic approach was used to reveal that band smearing occurred due to imperfectly paired strands of the amplified DNA. Since the smear is a structural fraction of the correct size PCR product, it carries important information on richness and diversity of the target DNA. For accurate analysis, the origin of the smear must first be identified before it is eliminated by examining the amplified DNA in denaturing alkaline gels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatores associados à não realização do exame de Papanicolaou: um estudo de base populacional no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with women's failure to submit to Pap smears: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência da não realização do exame de Papanicolaou segundo variáveis sócio-econômicas, demográficas e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde, em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Município Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, de base populacional em uma amostra de 290 mulheres. Os fatores associados à não realização do Papanicolaou, encontrados na análise multivariada, foram: ter de 40 a 59 anos, ser preta/parda, ter escolaridade de até 4 anos. Entre os motivos alegados por quem nunca realizou o Papanicolaou destacam-se: achar desnecessário (43,5%, sentir vergonha (28,1% e 13,7% por dificuldades relacionadas aos serviços. O SUS foi responsável por 43,2% dos exames de Papanicolaou realizados. Verificou-se a existência de discriminação racial e social na realização do exame, o que enfatiza a necessidade de intervenções que garantam melhor cobertura e atenção às mulheres mais vulneráveis à incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero.This study analyzes the prevalence of non-submittal to Pap smears according to socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables in women 40 years or older in Campinas, São Paulo State. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a sample of 290 women. Based on multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having Pap smears were: age (40-59 years, race/ethnicity (black or mixed-race, and schooling (< 4 years. The following reasons were cited for not having Pap smears: considered unnecessary (43.5%, embarrassment (28.1%, and barriers related to health services (13.7%. The Unified National Health System performed 43.2% of the reported Pap smears. Health services should promote more equitable access to the health care system and improve the quality of care for women, since Pap smears are an effective tool against cervical cancer. The study confirmed that

  14. Kadın doktorların Pap smear testi konusunda bilgi tutum ve davranışlarının belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Işık, Oğuz; Çelik, Mustafa; Keten, Hamit; Dalgacı, Ahmet; Yıldırım, Fatiş

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pap smear test is a cytological screening test based on collecting and examining shedded cervical cells. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female physicians in Pap smear test. Material and Methods: In the present study, a total of 197 female physicians who worked in Kahramanmaras province were included. After obtaining informed consents, questionnaire was applied to participants. Knowledge level of participants in Pap smear test were ev...

  15. Genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV): correlation with clinical and cervicovaginal Pap smear findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavala, Mukaddes; Topaloğlu Demir, Filiz; Zindanci, Ilkin; Can, Burce; Turkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru; Cam, Osman Halit; Teksen, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has not been clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the frequency of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar involvement in PV and to determine their association with genital symptoms, clinical involvement, and cytological status. The current study's sample included 34 female patients with PV. Gynecologic and ear, nose, and throat examinations and indirect immunofluorescence analyses were performed, and Pap smears were collected. Genital involvement was observed in 44.1% of patients. It was significantly associated with disease severity and clinical involvement. Pharyngeal involvement was observed in 61.8% of patients and was the second-most frequently involved mucosal region. Genital involvement was significantly associated with nasal mucosa involvement. Cervicovaginal Pap smears showed acantholytic cells of PV in 35.3% of patients. The sample size is small. Genital involvement in PV is not rare. Genital mucosa is the most affected mucosal region after oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Furthermore, genital involvement is significantly associated with nasal involvement and genital symptoms. The need for complete gynecologic evaluations of patients with PV, nasal involvement, and genital symptoms is emphasized. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circular shape constrained fuzzy clustering (CiscFC) for nucleus segmentation in Pap smear images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ratna; Bajger, Mariusz; Lee, Gobert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nucleus is the precursor step towards computer aided analysis of Pap smear images. This is a challenging and complex task due to degree of overlap, inconsistent staining and poor contrast. In this paper, a novel nucleus segmentation method is proposed by incorporating a circular shape function in fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using the Overlapping Cervical Cytology Image Segmentation Challenge - ISBI 2014 challenge dataset comprised of 945 overlapping Pap smear images. It achieved superior performance in terms of Dice similarity coefficient of 0.938, pixel-based recall 0.939 and object based precision 0.968. The results were compared with the standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering, ISBI 2014 challenge submissions and recent state-of-the-art methods. The outcome shows that the new approach can produce more accurate nucleus boundaries while keeping high level of precision and recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Entanglement between smeared field operators in the Klein-Gordon vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2010-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the application of quantum physics to fields. It provides a theoretical framework widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. One of the most distinct features of quantum physics with respect to classical physics is entanglement or the existence of strong correlations between subsystems that can even be spacelike separated. In quantum fields, observables restricted to a region of space define a subsystem. While there are proofs on the existence of local observables that would allow a violation of Bell's inequalities in the vacuum states of quantum fields as well as some explicit but technically demanding schemes requiring an extreme fine-tuning of the interaction between the fields and detectors, an experimentally accessible entanglement witness for quantum fields is still missing. Here we introduce smeared field operators which allow reducing the vacuum to a system of two effective bosonic modes. The introduction of such collective observables is motivated by the fact that no physical probe has access to fields in single spatial (mathematical) points but rather smeared over finite volumes. We first give explicit collective observables whose correlations reveal vacuum entanglement in the Klein-Gordon field. We then show that the critical distance between the two regions of space above which two effective bosonic modes become separable is of the order of the Compton wavelength of the particle corresponding to the massive Klein-Gordon field.

  18. Accurate Cervical Cell Segmentation from Overlapping Clumps in Pap Smear Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youyi; Tan, Ee-Leng; Jiang, Xudong; Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chen, Siping; Lei, Baiying; Wang, Tianfu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of cervical cells in Pap smear images is an important step in automatic pre-cancer identification in the uterine cervix. One of the major segmentation challenges is overlapping of cytoplasm, which has not been well-addressed in previous studies. To tackle the overlapping issue, this paper proposes a learning-based method with robust shape priors to segment individual cell in Pap smear images to support automatic monitoring of changes in cells, which is a vital prerequisite of early detection of cervical cancer. We define this splitting problem as a discrete labeling task for multiple cells with a suitable cost function. The labeling results are then fed into our dynamic multi-template deformation model for further boundary refinement. Multi-scale deep convolutional networks are adopted to learn the diverse cell appearance features. We also incorporated high-level shape information to guide segmentation where cell boundary might be weak or lost due to cell overlapping. An evaluation carried out using two different datasets demonstrates the superiority of our proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in terms of segmentation accuracy.

  19. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-03-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  20. Cytopatholologic features of gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation of the brain in squash smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Miyai, Yumi; Funamoto, Yasunobu; Haba, Reiji

    2009-12-01

    Gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation (GSPNED) is an extremely rare neoplasm. A case is presented here in which squash smears of a left temporal lobe tumor in a 76-year-old male demonstrated two distinct and easily recognizable cellular populations, i.e., densely hyperchromatic cells of a primitive nature in a fibrillary background and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells. Occasional pseudo-rosette formations and nuclear cannibalism suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation were also found. A cytologic diagnosis of a malignant tumor was suggested, and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Reticulin stain highlighted increased intercellular collagen and reticulin deposition within the spindled regions, whereas nodules with primitive cells were reticulin-poor. There was a diffuse and strong reactivity to neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and CD56 immunostains. A stain for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein demonstrated a subset of tumor cells including elongated cytoplasmic processes. The spindled component was positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, whereas the primitive-appearing tumor cells were negative. The diagnosis of GSPNED was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The cytomorphologic features of this distinctive tumor are illustrated, and the adjunctival value of squash smears for frozen-section diagnosis is also discussed. This is the first presentation of a cytopathologic analysis that provides an important clue to an accurate diagnosis of GSPNED.

  1. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akca, Zeki; Teke, Havva Uskudar; Ugur, Hediye

    2011-12-01

    Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Two patients complained of anemia (2.2%) (HbHowell-Jolly bodies (1%). Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%), Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%), hypersegmentation (20%), immature granulocytes (8%), and blasts (6%) were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50%) and platelet hypogranulation (19%). According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  2. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gavazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016 and 8.47% (133 of 1569 of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958 and 4.47% (138 of 3,081 of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once. Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P<0.0001, decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P<0.0001, RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P<0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively. qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement.

  3. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  4. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  5. Cytological diagnosis of typical carcinoid on bronchoscopic brush smears in an HIV-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of typical carcinoid of the lung in a 60-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive man diagnosed on brush cytology smears. Bronchial carcinoids are rare tumors, accounting for 1% to 2% of all lung tumors. Although the exact incidence in HIV-infected individuals is not known, the paucity of their documentation in the literature indicates that they may be equally rare. Cytological diagnosis on brush smears is rarely documented as the tumor is covered with mucosa and cellular yield is often not good. In this case, bronchial brushings showed distinctive cytological features of typical carcinoid. The awareness of its characteristic cytological features and differential diagnosis is required for an accurate diagnosis. Clinical awareness that non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining cancers can also occur in HIV-infected individuals in the context of the prolonged survival in the antiretroviral era is equally important. This case emphasizes the clinical importance of a broad differential diagnosis for lung lesions in HIV-positive patients.

  6. Performance evaluation of tuberculosis smear microscopists working at rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Asrat

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study assessed the performance of tuberculosis smear microscopists at external quality assessment rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 81 laboratories from April to July 2015. Panel slides were prepared and validated at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. The validated panel slides were used to evaluate the performance of microscopists at these laboratories compared with readers from the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 389 external quality assessment rechecking laboratory microscopists participated in the study, of which 268 (68.9% worked at hospitals, 241 (62% had more than five years of work experience, 201 (51.7% held Bachelors degrees, and 319 (82% reported tuberculosis smear microscopy training. Overall, 324 (83.3% participants scored ≥ 80%. Sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis bacilli was 84.5% and specificity was 93.1%. The overall percent agreement between participants and reference readers was 87.1 (kappa=0.72. All 10 slides were correctly read (i.e., scored 100% by 80 (20.6% participants, 156 (40.1% scored 90% – 95%, 88 (22.6% scored 80% – 85% and 65 (16.7% scored below 80%. There were 806 (20.7% total errors, with 143 (3.7% major and 663 (17% minor errors. Conclusion: The overall performance of participants in reading the slides showed good agreement with the reference readers. Most errors were minor, and the ability to detect tuberculosis bacilli can be improved through building the capacity of professionals.

  7. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  8. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); CERN, PH-TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-15

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  10. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangement detection is feasible in routine air dried fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    from routine air-dried FNA smears was established which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR). In order to assess....../PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. These promising methodological advances, if confirmed in larger series of FNA and FFPE samples, may lead to the introduction of molecular analysis of routine air dried FNA smears in everyday practice.......Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular carcinomas (FTC) and papillary carcinomas (PTC), their detection...

  11. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  12. Remoção da smear layer dos canais radiculares em função das técnicas de instrumentação e irrigação endodônticas = Remoción del barrillo dentinario en los conductos radiculares en función de las técnicas de instrumentación e irrigación endodóncicas

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho da Silva, Fausto Miguel Tadeu

    2012-01-01

    1 - Introducción El concepto de tratamiento endodóncico se basa en la instrumentación, limpieza, desinfección y obturación de los conductos radiculares. Con el fin de mejorar estos aspectos, algunos investigadores crearon nuevos planteamientos, técnicas e instrumentos, logrando un gran progreso para la Endodoncia. Ésta, como toda ciencia, tuvo una gran evolución en el siglo pasado y consiguió tener un elevado grado de desarrollo, no solo en sus bases biológicas sino también en el desarro...

  13. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  14. Value of washed sputum gram stain smear and culture for management of lower respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Luong Dong; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Takeda, Nobue; Nigo, Yukiko; Aizawa, Jirou; Kuroki, Haruo; Kohno, Yoichi

    2004-02-01

    To date, the technique of washed sputum examinations has not been widely used in the clinical management of lower respiratory tract infections in children. A total of 224 sputum samples from 125 pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infections were collected for washed sputum Gram stain smears and cultures. The results with these methods were compared to find correlation rates. The value of washed sputum cultures was assessed by examining the clinical responses of the patients who received antibiotic therapies instituted on the basis of the sputum culture results. Isolation rates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were 22.4%, 9.4%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. For the prediction of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis, the sensitivities of the washed sputum Gram stain smears compared with the culture method were 86.0%, 81.0%, and 90.9%, respectively. The specificities of the washed sputum Gram stain smear technique were 94.8%, 97.5%, and 98.1%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the washed sputum Gram stain smear method were 85.5% and 87.2%, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from only one specimen; and washed sputum Gram stain smear estimation was correlated with the culture result. On the basis of the washed sputum culture results, appropriate antibiotic therapies were instituted for 93.3% of the patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections. This study suggests that the techniques of washed sputum Gram stain smear and culture are valuable and should be encouraged in clinical practice for the management of lower respiratory tract infections in children.

  15. Comparative study of indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Tzanck smear test for the diagnosis of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Fang, Siyue; Li, Chunlei; Hua, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Pemphigus is one of the potentially fatal autoimmune blistering diseases. An early and accurate diagnosis is important for prognosis and therapy. It may be difficult to diagnosis based on clinical grounds alone. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the Tzanck smear test, or histopathology are all available for the diagnosis of pemphigus. However, there are no generally accepted diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of this condition at present. To evaluate the diagnostic value of indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Tzanck smear test for the diagnosis of pemphigus in dental clinics. A single-center retrospective study was conducted, and the clinical data of 33 patients with pemphigus and 61 controls were collected and analyzed from the Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School of Stomatology, during 2010-2014. The sensitivities and specificities of indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Tzanck smear test were calculated and compared in two groups. Sensitivities for the Tzanck smear test, indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 96.7%, 84.8%, and 84.8%, respectively, whereas the specificities of these tests were 60%, 91.8%, and 96.7%, respectively. The serial tests for the Tzanck smear test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed 82% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. The serial test for the Tzanck smear test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay may represent a simple, rapid, and reliable way to definitive diagnosis of pemphigus. It is recommended as a common test for the diagnosis of pemphigus in dental clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  17. Intoxicação em cães e gatos: diagnóstico toxicológico empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia líquida de alta pressão com detecção ultravioleta em amostras estomacais Intoxication in dogs and cats: toxicological diagnosis using thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in stomach samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Picada Bulcão

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotóxicos e raticidas são responsáveis por inúmeras intoxicações humanas e animais. Dados preliminares sugerem que o uso ilegal desses compostos com a finalidade de intoxicação fatal em pequenos animais é uma prática comum na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O Laboratório de Toxicologia (LATOX recebe amostras de casos em que a principal suspeita é a intoxicação por agrotóxicos ou raticidas (lícitos e ilícitos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um levantamento das intoxicações de pequenos animais, analisadas pelo LATOX no período de 2004 a 2008, sendo identificados os xenobióticos por meio de métodos analíticos otimizados pelo laboratório, incluindo screening por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e possível confirmação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV. No período, foram analisadas 68 amostras oriundas de intoxicações em cães e gatos. As amostras biológicas analisadas foram o estômago e o conteúdo estomacal, das quais a CCD permitiu a identificação de carbamatos, warfarina e estricnina. Esta mostrou ser uma técnica qualitativa eficiente e adequada para esse propósito, além de ser relativamente rápida, de baixo custo e de sofrer pouca interferência de componentes da matriz. Também foi realizado um screening toxicológico por CLAE-UV para os carbamatos n-metilados: aldicarb, carbaril, carbofuran e propoxur. O resultado das análises indicou que o principal agente tóxico encontrado foi o aldicarb (chumbinho, responsável por 39,7% das intoxicações (27 casos, seguido por estricnina (seis casos, warfarina (três casos e monofluoracetato de sódio (um caso. Sendo assim, o "chumbinho" foi o principal agente envolvido em intoxicações de cães e gatos na região central do Estado no período avaliado, e os métodos analíticos CCD e CLAE-UV podem ser utilizados de forma eficiente na rotina laboratorial para identificação e confirmação dos xenobi

  18. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Mathematical Sciences Institute. Ithaca, NY: Cornell. Guckenheimer, J. & Labouriau, 1. 1990. Bifurcation of the Hodgkin - Huxley equations: a new vt.vist. In...olm es -____ II_ John Guckenheimer Avwi tI.,,ti 1it y ’odes ,Av9L! an.,I/or Dist Special •D L 2 Narrative Philip Holmes is continuing to study the...not localized in spae like the structur observed in the turbulent baft y layer. Wavelet bases, having compact support, seem much more appropriate. J

  19. KLASIFIKASI INTI SEL PAP SMEAR BERDASARKAN ANALISIS TEKSTUR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION BERBASIS ALGORITMA C4.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Arifin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Pap Smear is an early examination to diagnose whether there’s indication cervical cancer or not, the process of observations were done by observing pap smear cell under the microscope. There’s so many research has been done to differentiate between normal and abnormal cell. In this research presents a classification of pap smear cell based on texture analysis. This research is using the Harlev image which amounts to 280 images, 140 images are used as training data and 140 images other are used as testing. On the texture analysis used Gray level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM method with 5 parameters that is correlation, energy, homogeneity and entropy added by counting the value of brightness. For choose which the best attribute used correlation-based feature selection method and than used C45 algorithm for produce classification rule. The result accuracy of the classification normal and abnormal used decision tree C45 is 96,43% and errors in predicting is 3,57%. Keywords : Classification, Pap Smear cell image, texture analysis, Correlation-based feature selection, C45 algorithm. Abstrak - Pap Smear merupakan pemeriksaan dini untuk mendiagnosa apakah ada indikasi kanker serviks atau tidak, proses pengamatan dilakukan dengan mengamati sel pap smear dibawah mikroskop. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membedakan antara sel normal dan abnormal. Dalam penelitian ini menyajikan klasifikasi inti sel pap smear berdasarkan analisis tektur. Citra yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah citra Harlev yang berjumlah 280 citra, 140 citra digunakan sebagai data training dan 140 citra lain digunakan sebagai testing. Pada analisis tekstur mengunakan metode Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM menggunakan 5 parameter yaitu korelasi, energi, homogenitas dan entropi ditambah dengan menghitung nilai brightness. Untuk memilih mana atribut terbaik digunakan metode correlation-based feature selection lalu digunakan algoritma C45 untuk

  20. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahishale, Vinay; Avuthu, Sindhuri; Patil, Bhagyashri; Lolly, Mitchelle; Eti, Ajith; Khan, Sujeer

    2017-03-01

    There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA 1C ≥7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1ctuberculosis.

  1. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited i...

  2. A pilot study of same day sputum smear examination, its feasibility and usefulness in diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneedu, V P; Verma, A K; Sharma, P P; Behera, D

    2011-10-01

    A large number of tuberculosis cases are continuously being reported from India and other developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality. In spite of many newer tests available for diagnosing a case of tuberculosis, smear microscopy of sputum is still the preferred test under programmatic conditions. The current national and international guidelines recommend two sputum smear examinations in two days for diagnosing cases of tuberculosis, which is time-consuming, tedious, needs multiple visits, leading to high dropout of infectious cases. In the background of existing limitations of smear microscopy, we attempted to complete the diagnosis of tuberculosis on same day by serial collection of the spot sputum specimen and analyze its advantages, feasibility and viability. The study was undertaken by the Department of Microbiology, Lala Ram Sarup Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases during May 2010 to April 2011. Sputum specimens were collected from 330 randomly selected tuberculosis suspects who attended OPD of hospital, patients submitted spot and home collected morning sputum sample in a standard method and spot and additional spot sputum (X- spot) collected one hour after the first spot sample as per the proposed front loading method. All the samples received were stained by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain and examined on the same day. The sputum sample was pooled and cultured in Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media in duplicate set of bottles. The results of two different microscopic methods were compared with the gold standard culture test. Out of the total 330 TB suspects, 70.60% were males and 29.39% females. The most common complaint was of cough with sputum (88.18%), chest pain (70.21%), fever (55.15%) and loss of appetite (43.03%). Upon examining the total sputum slides, 18.48 % were positive for acid fast bacilli. The smear positivity was 61/330 (18.48%) by standard methods and in proposed new method 43/330 (13.03%). Sensitivity of the

  3. Técnicas de sutura do tubo digestivo em plano único total, em jejuno de cães: pontos de Gambee com nós atados na serosa versus pontos totais atados no lume, sobre a mucosa Single layer anastomosis of digestive tract with thru-and-thru sutures, in dogs: Gambee's stitch knotted under viscous surface, on serosa, versus simple stitch knotted inside the lumen, under mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Moreira Coutinho Azevedo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a sutura do tubo digestivo em plano único com pontos totais simples versus pontos especiais de Gambee. MÉTODOS: Foram operados seis cães machos, sem raça definida, pesando entre 7 e 12 kg, anestesiados com pentobarbital sódico a 30 mg/kg. Foi realizada secção transversa do jejuno, a 30 cm da flexura duodenojejunal, seguida de anastomose término-terminal com a técnica de sutura em plano único total descrita por Gambee, sendo a metade anterior da anastomose suturada com nós atados na superfície serosa e a metade posterior com nós atados sobre a camada mucosa, no lume do órgão. Foram utilizados pontos simples separados de polipropileno monofilamentar azul 4-0, pré-montados em agulha de 2 cm (3/8 de círculo, intervalados de 3 mm. No 7º dia pós-operatório os animais foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Foram analisadas as aderências na linha de sutura mediante um escore e feita análise macroscópica e microscópica , inclusive histometria. RESULTADOS: As aderências peritoneais se equivaleram em ambas as faces da anastomose.O exame macroscópico da linha de sutura mostrou boa regeneração serosa. Na microscopia observava-se permanência de fenômenos inflamatórios agudos em ambas as suturas. O realinhamento, a reestruturação e a regeneração das camadas foram adequadas em todo o perímetro da anastomose. Na morfometria, os polimorfonucleares, os macrófagos, os fibroblastos e as fibras colágenas se equivaleram nas duas metades comparadas da anastomose. CONCLUSÃO: A reparação do tubo digestivo na região anastomótica em plano único total pela técnica de Gambee se faz de forma similar, quer tenham sido utilizados pontos de sutura especiais de Gambee ou pontos totais simples. Dessa forma, é indiferente a utilização de um ou de outro tipo de sutura aqui estudado, dependendo exclusivamente da preferência do cirurgião.PURPOSE: To compare two types of single layer thru-and-thru sutures of the digestive

  4. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  5. Shock Initiation of Wedge-shaped Explosive Measured with Smear Camera and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) is an important insensitive high explosive in conventional weapons due to its safety and high energy. In order to have an insight into the shock initiation performance of a TATB-based insensitive high explosive (IHE), experimental measurements of the particle velocity histories of the TATB-based Explosive using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and shock wave profile of the TATB-based explosive using High Speed Rotating Mirror Smear Camera had been performed. In this paper, we would describe the shock initiation performance of the TATB-based explosive by run-to-detonation distance and the particle velocity history at an initialization shock of about 7.9 GPa. The parameters of hugoniot of unreacted the TATB-based explosive and Pop relationship could be derived with the particle velocity history obtained in this paper.

  6. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  7. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about "Quatrefoil" Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called "quatrefoil RBCs," qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement.

  8. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

  9. Tuning for three flavors of anisotropic clover fermions with stout-link smearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint; Lin, H.-W.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schroedinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are fixed to the tree-level tadpole-improved values, and we demonstrate that they satisfy the nonperturbative conditions as determined by the Schroedinger-functional method. For the desired lattice spacing a s ≅0.12 fm and renormalized anisotropy ξ=3.5, we find the gauge and fermionic anisotropies can be fixed to quark mass independent values up through the strange quark mass. This work lays the foundation needed for further studies of the excited-state hadron spectrum.

  10. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  11. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  12. Microscopy of Stained Urethral Smear in Male Urethritis; Which Cutoff Should be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Hartgill, Usha; Skullerud, Kristin Helene; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-03-01

    The microscopical diagnosis of male urethritis was recently questioned by Rietmeijer and Mettenbrink, lowering the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis to ≥2 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high power field (HPF), and adopted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. The European Non-Gonococcal Urethritis Guideline advocates a limit of ≥5 PMNL/HPF. To determine if syndromic treatment of urethritis should be considered with a cutoff value of ≥2 PMNL/HPF in urethral smear. The design was a cross-sectional study investigating the presence and degree of urethritis relative to specific infections in men attending an STI clinic as drop-in patients. The material included 2 cohorts: a retrospective study of 13,295 men and a prospective controlled study including 356 men. We observed a mean chlamydia prevalence of 2.3% in the 0-9 stratum, and a 12-fold higher prevalence (27.3%) in the strata above 9. Of the chlamydia cases, 89.8% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For Mycoplasma genitalium, the prevalence was 1.4% in the 0-9 stratum and 11.2% in the stratum ≥10, and 83.6% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For gonorrhea, a significant increase in the prevalence occurred between the 0-30 strata and >30 strata from 0.2% to 20.7%. The results of the prospective study were similar. Our data do not support lowering the cutoff to ≥2 PMNL/HPF. However, a standardization of urethral smear microscopy seems to be impossible. The cutoff value should discriminate between low and high prevalence of chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhea to include as many as possible with a specific infection in syndromic treatment, without overtreating those with few PMNL/HPF and high possibility of having nonspecific or no urethritis.

  13. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  14. The acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Serrano Doratioto Faria Braz

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in adult women. However, many women do not undergo cervical cancer screening for the following reasons: fear, shame, physical limitations, cultural or religious considerations and lack of access to health care services. Self-collected vaginal smears maybe an alternative means of including more women in cervical cancer screening programs. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We selected articles from PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase that were published between January 1995 and April 2016. Studies written in English, French, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish that involved women between 18 and 69 years of age who had engaged in sexual intercourse were included in this review. The review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Nineteen studies were ultimately evaluated in this review. Most of the included studies (n=17 demonstrated that the self-collection method exhibited outstanding acceptability among women with respect to cervical cancer screening, and only two studies indicated that self-collection exhibited low acceptability among women in this context. The acceptability of self-collection was determined subjectively (without standardized questionnaires in 10 studies (53% and via structured and validated questionnaires in the remaining studies. The results of our review suggest that the self-collection method is well-accepted and may therefore encourage greater participation in cervical cancer screening programs. However, additional studies are required to verify these results.

  15. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  16. The Role of the Third Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear in Tuberculosis Screening for Infection Control Purposes: A Controversial Topic Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have suggested that two negative acid-fast bacillus (AFB smears may be as effective as three when screening patients with suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis for respiratory isolation purposes. However, current recommendations in Canada, the United States and Europe still support a three-smear approach.

  17. Accuracy of a Low Priced Liquid-Based Method for Cervical Cytology in 632 Women Referred for Colposcopy After a Positive Pap Smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, B. M.; Buikema, H. J.; Groen, H.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    The aim of this quality controlling study was to determine the accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) with the Turbitec (R) cytocentrifuge technique. Cervical smears of 632 Women, Who were referred to our CIN outpatient department, after at least two smears with ASCUS or higher were evaluated and

  18. Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Cervical Cancer Screening by Papanicolaou Smear and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid for Pregnant Women at a Thai Provincial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertcharernrit, Jiraporn; Sananpanichkul, Panya; Suknikhom, Wineeya; Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn; Suwannarurk, Komsun; Leaungsomnapa, Yosapon

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common in Thailand, but the mortality rate may be rising yearly. It is a cancer that can be prevented by early screening for precancerous lesions, several methods being available. To identify the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and lesions with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in pregnant women and assess risk factors for this group. This prospective study was performed at Prapokklao Hospital, Thailand during April-July 2016. All pregnant women of gestational age between 12-36 weeks who attended an antenatal clinic were recruited. All participants were screened for cervical cancer by Pap smear and VIA. If results of one or both were abnormal, colposcopic examination was evaluated by gynecologic oncologist. A total of 414 pregnant women were recruited. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA were 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. The most common abnormal Pap smear was low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, 44%). Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear in pregnant women were low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer. In pregnancy, Pap smear had higher sensitivity and specificity than VIA for detection of precancerous cervical lesion. Patients with young coitarche or more than 25 years of active sexual activity were high risk groups. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA in pregnant women was 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear were coitarche, years of sexual activity, low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer.

  19. [Is there a benefit to continue pap smear screening for cervical cancer after 65 years of age? A retrospective study on 53,644 women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raphaël; Lemay, Anne-Lise; Guy, Xavier; Giraud, Céline; Mathevet, Patrice; Flori, Marie

    2012-04-01

    One third of cervical cancers are discovered after age 65. French guidelines allow women to cease having cervical pap smears at age 65, providing they have had a minimum of two consecutive negative smears. To study the frequency of pathological smears in the group of women aged over 65 with a normal and sufficient cytological follow-up, according to the guidelines. To analyze the smear results and the former follow-up of this population to determine whether there is an interest to continue the smear screening after age 65. This is a retrospective multicenter study based on collecting data from three pathology laboratories of the region Rhone-Alpes. We study a population of women 65 and older with smears that have been made between 2004 and 2008. Precancerous lesions and cervical cancer can be discovered after age 65 despite an adequate former follow-up. The rate of these women for having a pathological smear is 14,2‰, including 1,2‰ with cytological abnormalities in favour of cancer. These results show that there is interest to continue the smear tests after age 65 at least, while considering medical and financial issues of a reasonable screening strategy.

  20. Single step modified ink staining for Tzanck test: quick detection of herpetic giant cells in Tzanck smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Akeda, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2012-02-01

    Tzanck test has been recently re-evaluated as a method for the diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Giemsa staining for the Tzanck test is time-consuming and laborious. There is a need to develop simple and quick staining methods for bedside diagnosis of this disease. We report a single step and quick method for staining herpes giant cells in Tzanck smears using routinely available inks and physiological saline. A keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured on a slide glass and stained with various commercially available blue, blue-black and black inks serially diluted with physiological saline. Clinical smear samples from herpes lesions were also stained with these solutions without specific pretreatment. The nuclei of HaCaT were clearly stained showing high contrast with the cytoplasm using 5% Parker-Quink blue-black ink saline solution. Concentration of ink solution higher or lower than 5% resulted in less contrast. Blue or black inks or other manufacturers' inks can also be used, but staining of the cultured keratinocytes was less clear. Smear of clinical samples from herpes lesions were also stained with 5% ink solution. The nuclei of the multinucleated giant cells were clearly stained, and the sample could be immediately used for microscopic examination. One step staining of Tzanck smear using this diluted ink solution is an inexpensive and a convenient bedside diagnostic tool for the dermatologist. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A

    2011-01-01

    and secondary outcomes were sputum smear conversion, weight gain, sedimentation rate, reduction of cough and chest X-ray improvement as well as levels of NO in urine (uNO) or exhaled air (eNO) at two months. There was no effect of the intervention on the primary outcome (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.69-3.0, p = 0...

  2. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention.

  3. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  4. Evaluation of a worksite cervical screening initiative to increase Pap smear uptake in Malaysia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29-4.62). Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  5. Less medical intervention after sharp demarcation of grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia smears by neural network screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, MR; Boon, ME; Schreiner-Kok, PG; Hermans, J; Grobbee, DE; Kok, LP

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Neural network technology has been used for the daily screening of cervical smears in The Netherlands since 1992. The authors believe this method might have the potential to demarcate diagnoses of Grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1-2). METHODS. Of 133,196 women who were

  6. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: pattern of tuberculosis, two-month smear conversion and treatment outcomes in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Fengling; Tan, Shouyong; Liang, Li; Harries, Anthony D; Hinderaker, Sven G; Lin, Yan; Yue, Wentao; Chen, Xi; Liang, Bing; Gong, Fang; Du, Jian

    2013-11-01

    There is a high burden of both diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in China. We evaluated the association between DM and the pattern of disease, 2-month sputum smear conversion and treatment outcomes of patients with TB in Guangzhou, China. All patients registered with TB from September 2011 to June 2012 were screened for DM and assessed for treatment outcomes in relation to presence or absence of DM and quality of DM control using patient registers, treatment cards and electronic record systems. There were 1589 patients with TB of whom 189 (12%) had DM. Among those with DM, there was a significantly higher proportion of men, persons aged 35 years and older and persons with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (P Diabetes mellitus in new smear-positive patients with PTB was associated with failure to sputum smear convert at 2 months and adverse treatment outcomes of loss-to-follow-up and failure. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for these findings and to determine whether the current length of treatment of 6 months is adequate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We

  9. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  10. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1. PMID:24073411

  11. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  12. Limited Understanding of Pap Smear Testing among Women, a Barrier to Cervical Cancer Screening in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hammadi, Fatima Ahmed; Al-Tahri, Fatema; Al-Ali, Asma; Nair, Satish C; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-12-29

    Global data indicate that cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Important factors that affect interventions for early diagnosis of cervical cancer include social beliefs and values and poor knowledge. These may contribute to women’s participation in screening for cervical cancer and have a significant impact on decisions to take preventive action. The present study was conducted with 599 women in the UAE between September 2016 and March 2017. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and perceived barriers. Knowledge about the Pap smear test was limited, and awareness that they should undergo the Pap smear test every three years even with an initial negative/normal Pap smear result was abysmal. In spite of the positive attitude of the women towards the Pap smear test, almost 80% of the women surveyed had no knowledge of precancerous lesions. Having higher income (21/29, 72%, p=0.027) and more miscarriages were associated with better practice of Pap smears (19/26, 73%, p=0.010). Knowledge levels were significantly higher (66.3±22.2,) that values for attitude (60.5±20.9, p= 0.03, 95% CI {0.22-11.3}, Chi-square 4.38) and practice (53.7 24.1, p= 0.001, 95% CI {6.9-18.1}, Chi-square 19.7). A well-designed health education programme on cervical cancer and benefits of screening should increase the awareness among women in UAE. One point to stress is that better communication with health professionals and improvement of access to health care services should increase the rate of cervical cancer screening. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Delayed diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer after negative evaluation for atypical glandular cell pap smear: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdini, Anthony F; Augart, Carolyn L; Olivieri, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    At initial evaluation, 1 in 6 women with atypical glandular cells (AGCs) on Pap smear has cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Years later, a greater-than-expected incidence of "significant delayed diagnoses" has been reported in women who had negative initial evaluation results. This study aimed to test the premise that AGC represents a lesser future risk for CIN 2/CIN 3/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer after negative evaluation results in a population diagnosed at a young age (Pap smears (1997-2010); 213 were diagnosed with AGC, and 117 met inclusion criteria. Completed evaluation was consistent with American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines without finding CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS or cancer. Follow-up lasted for longer than 1 year. Categorical data were evaluated with χ. During the follow-up period that averaged for 85.3 months, the cohort had 4.5 mean Pap smears and reported 46 cytological diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 3 diagnoses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 10 repeated diagnoses of AGCs. Two CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS lesions, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were confirmed on biopsy. Average age of patients at index Pap smear was 34.2 years (range = 15-64 years). Compared with a published report where the average age at index Pap smear was 41.5 years, our cohort developed a total of 4.3% significant delayed diagnoses versus 10.8% (significant difference, p = .046). During a 7-year follow-up, this cohort of 117 women with AGC and negative initial evaluation findings developed fewer significant delayed diagnoses than expected when compared with an older reported group and had no new extragynecological cancers. Age seems to be a risk factor for delayed diagnoses in patients with AGC.

  14. Effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) films; Efeito do teor de silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jessica R.M.B. da; Santos, Barbara F.F. dos; Leite, Itamara F., E-mail: jraquell@homail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of PVA films. The PVA/layered silicate (AN) films were prepared by intercalation solution, using 1 to 2% of bentonite with respect to the PVA total weight. Then the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results of the FTIR revealed interaction between the functional groups of the PVA and the layered silicate. The XRD analysis showed that nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology were obtained. The results of TG showed that the nanocomposite PVA/2%AN showed higher thermal stability compared to PVA/1%AN. The DSC results showed that the addition of AN to the PVA did not affect crystallization rate, as well as promoted a reduction in glass transition temperature and melting of the PVA. (author)

  15. Ensaios de campo para determinação de emissões de biogás em camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos Field tests for biogas emissions determination in cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Holanda Mariano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia de campo utilizada para determinar as emissões de biogás através das camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos, por meio de ensaios simples, diretos e de baixo custo. Os resultados obtidos nesses estudos indicaram que o fluxo de metano (CH4 pode atingir valores de até 150 kg/m². ano, o que representa 630 mil toneladas do CO2eq por ano em um simples aterro de 20 hectares. A espessura da camada de cobertura, que variou entre 0,2 e 0,7 m, não foi um fator relevante nas emissões medidas, enquanto que as pressões de biogás no contato camada-lixo, com valores acima de 500 Pa, favorecem a formação de microfissuras no solo da camada de cobertura, o que eleva as emissões de gases nesses pontos.This paper presents a field methodology used to determine emissions of biogas through the cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills, by means of simple, straightforward and inexpensive tests. The results from these studies indicated that the flow of methane (CH4 can reach values up to 150 kg/m². year, representing 630,000 tons of CO2eq per year in a mere 20 hectares of landfill. The thickness of the cover layer, which ranged between 0.2 and 0.7 m, was not a relevant factor in the measured emissions, while the pressure of biogas in the contact layer-waste, with values above 500 Pa, favors the formation of microcracks on the soil of the cover layer, which increases the emissions of gases in these points.

  16. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o panorama da cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil, com ênfase nos seus fatores determinantes. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisadas as bases de dados "on line" LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, MEDLINE - 1966 a 2004 (Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde, PAHO (Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde e WHOLIS (Sistema de Informação da Biblioteca da OMS. A revisão foi ampliada por meio da busca a referências bibliográficas dos estudos relevantes, solicitação de estudos publicados e não publicados a especialistas e outras fontes. Foram selecionados artigos que preenchiam os seguintes critérios: ser um estudo transversal, ter sido realizado no Brasil, conter informações sobre a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou (alguma vez na vida ou nos últimos três anos ou sobre seus fatores determinantes. Foram excluídas as duplicidades e os artigos sem resumo. Um total de 13 artigos foram selecionados atendendo a esses critérios. RESULTADOS: são poucos os estudos sobre a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil. A maioria concentra-se nas grandes cidades das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Além da escassez, existe pouca padronização metodológica em relação à amostragem e perfil das mulheres a serem investigadas, o que torna difícil a comparação entre si. Estas diferenças metodológicas devem ter contribuído para a grande variabilidade nas coberturas encontradas. Entretanto, apesar de todos os problemas, observa-se tendência de aumento temporal no percentual de mulheres que foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame de Papanicolaou: os dois únicos estudos realizados nos anos 80 mostram coberturas de 55,0 e 68,9% na vida, ao passo que um inquérito domiciliar realizado em 15 capitais e no Distrito Federal entre 2002 e 2003 apresenta valores que variam de 73,4 a 92,9%; porém, dois estudos de abrangência nacional realizados em 2003 apresentaram

  17. Crowdsourcing malaria parasite quantification: an online game for analyzing images of infected thick blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Miguel Angel; Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

    2012-11-29

    There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist's time. This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteers with no prior experience would be able to count malaria parasites in digitized images of thick blood smears by playing a Web-based game. The experimental system consisted of a Web-based game where online volunteers were tasked with detecting parasites in digitized blood sample images coupled with a decision algorithm that combined the analyses from several players to produce an improved collective detection outcome. Data were collected through the MalariaSpot website. Random images of thick blood films containing Plasmodium falciparum at medium to low parasitemias, acquired by conventional optical microscopy, were presented to players. In the game, players had to find and tag as many parasites as possible in 1 minute. In the event that players found all the parasites present in the image, they were presented with a new image. In order to combine the choices of different players into a single crowd decision, we implemented an image processing pipeline and a quorum algorithm that judged a parasite tagged when a group of players agreed on its position. Over 1 month, anonymous players from 95 countries played more than 12,000 games and generated a database of more than 270,000 clicks on the test images. Results revealed that combining 22 games from nonexpert players achieved a parasite counting accuracy higher than 99%. This performance could be obtained also by combining 13 games from players trained for 1 minute. Exhaustive computations measured the parasite counting accuracy for all players as a

  18. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance.Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1

  19. Usefulness of interferon-γ release assay for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Lou, Yong-Liang; Wu, Zhong-Xiu; Jiang, Jin-Qin; Fan, Xing-Li; Wang, Li-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Du, Peng; Yan, Jie; Sun, Ai-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturer's protocol. The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P > 0.05). The detection ratio of positive TB patients and extra-pulmonary TB patients were 90.0% (350 of 389) and 87.6% (99 of 113), respectively, which was not significantly different (P > 0.05). In this work, the total detection ratio using TB-IGRA was 89.4%, therefore TB-IGRA has diagnostic values in smear-negative pulmonary TB and extra-pulmonary TB diagnosis.

  20. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and screening among Malaysian women who have never had a Pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women worldwide. Despite the existence of effective screening using Pap smear, the uptake of screening is poor. A qualitative study was undertaken using face-to-face in-depth interviews to investigate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on cervical cancer screening of Malaysian women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women aged 21-56 years and who have never had a Pap smear test, with the aim to explore their knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its screening. A lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test was found among the respondents. Many women did not have a clear understanding of the meaning of an abnormal cervical smear and the need for the early detection of cervical cancer. Many believe the purpose of the Pap smear test is to detect existing cervical cancer, leading to the belief that Pap smear screening is not required because the respondents had no symptoms. Despite considerable awareness of a link between cervical cancer and sexual activity, as well as the role of a sexually-transmitted infection, none of the respondents had heard of the human papillomavirus. The findings highlight the importance of emphasising accurate information about cervical cancer and the purpose of Pap smear screening when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Malaysian women.

  1. Rates of abnormalities and infectious agents in cervical smears from female inmates in Texas: comparison with private and university clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrono, R; Wong, J Y

    1999-09-01

    Inmates are generally considered a high-risk population for gynecologic neoplasia and sexually transmitted diseases. Cervical smears from prisoners of the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) were expected initially to have higher rates of cellular abnormalities and infectious agents than do smears from the general population. The cytologic findings from 25,522 TDC gynecologic smears were compared with those of 6883 cases from The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) affiliated physician private clinics, and with 56,178 from the UTMB hospital clinics. The period of study was from September 1995 to February 1998. This study revealed a 5.23% higher rate of abnormalities for TDC gynecologic smears as compared with that for the private clinic smears. However, the TDC rate of abnormalities was unexpectedly 1.08% lower than that for the UTMB clinic smears. These unexpected findings were probably the result of a more selected high-risk population referred to the UTMB clinics. The TDC smears showed also the highest incidence of trichomoniasis.

  2. Awareness and knowledge regarding of cervical cancer, Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus infection in Gabonese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, Samira Zoa; Mabika, Barthelemy Mabika; Mbiguino, Angelique Ndjoyi; Mouallif, Mustapha; Khattabi, Abdelkim; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2015-04-19

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in Gabon. The age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer is 19.9 per 100 000 women and the mortality rate is 8.4 per 100 000. Various international studies have identified the lack of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer as barriers to use preventive methods. This article assesses the awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and its use and HPV among women living in Libreville, Gabon. This study was conducted in October 2014 in Libreville. A total of 452 women aged 16 years and above were recruited from different town locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Associations were considered statistically significant at p cervical cancer and only 27.9% (126/452) had heard of Pap smear test. Of these 126 women, only 65.1% (82/126) had done cervical cancer screening and 68.3% (56/82) on the suggestion of a doctor. The most common reason for not undergoing Pap smear testing was neglect (50%, 22/44) followed by lack of financial resources (13.6%, 6/44), fear of discovering a serious disease (13.6%, 6/44) and deeming it unimportant (13.6%, 6/44). Only 8% (40/452) of the participants had heard about HPV and their knowledge of HPV was fair. There is a very poor level of knowledge about cervical cancer among Gabonese women. This study demonstrates a very low level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV in a sample of Gabonese women. There is a critical need for Gabonese women to be informed about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test to improve the use of this preventive method. The implication of health staff and Gabonese media should be included as a centerpiece in the effort to inform the population in

  3. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB. A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA1C≥7% and optimal control diabetics (HbA1c<7%. Patients were started on anti-TB treatment and followed for 2 years for severity and treatment outcome. ANOVA was used for numerical variables in the univariable analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis of treatment outcome. The significance level was kept at a P≤0.05. Results: A total of 630 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed; of which 423 patients had poor glycemic control (PGC and 207 patients had optimal glycemic control (OGC. The average HbA1c was 10±2.6 and 5±1.50 in the PGC and OGC groups, respectively. The mean symptom score was significantly higher in the PGC group compared with patients in the OGC group (4.55±0.80 vs. 2.70±0.82, P<0.001. PGC was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation, and positive sputum smear at the baseline. In PGC, sputum smears were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. PGC patients had significantly higher rates of treatment failure (adj. OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P<0.001 and relapse (adj. OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.60-2.92, P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of advanced and more severe TB disease in the form of lung cavitations, positive sputum smear, and slower smear conversion. It has a profound negative effect on treatment completion, cure, and relapse rates in patients with

  4. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  5. Molluscicidal Activity of Methomyl and Cardenolide Extracts from <em>Calotropis proceraem> and <em>Adenium> <em>arabicum> Against the Land Snail <em>Monacha cantianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Bayoumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from <em>Adenium arabicumem> Balf f. [the benzene (B and methanol (M extracts], one cardenolide extract from <em>Calotropis proceraem> (Aiton W.T. Aiton (extract C, and methomyl against the harmful land snail <em>Monacha cantianaem> (Montagu. The contact LD50 values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg−1 of body weight, respectively, while the LD50 for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg−1, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus DNA testing and Pap smear for cervical cancer screening in a publicly financed health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, I H-I; Tang, C-H; You, S-L; Liao, C-H; Chu, T-Y; Chen, C-J; Chen, C-A; Pwu, R-F

    2010-12-07

    to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of different strategies for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing combined with Pap smear for cervical cancer screening in Taiwan. this study adopts a perspective of Department of Health in cost-effectiveness analysis to compare a no-screening strategy with nine different screening strategies. These strategies comprise three screening tools (Pap smear alone, HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage, and HPV DNA testing combined with Pap smear), and three screening intervals (annually, every 3 years, and every 5 years). Outcomes are life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSAs) were conducted to assess parameter uncertainty. when three times gross domestic product per capita is used as the decision threshold, all nine screening strategies were cost-effective compared with the no-screening strategy. Compared with the current screening strategy (an annual Pap smear), HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 years and every 3 years were cost-effective. Results of PSA also indicated that a HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 or every 3 years achieved the highest expected net benefits. possible economic advantages are associated with extending the cervical cancer screening interval from one Pap smear annually to HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 years with an ICER $1 247 000 per QALY gained, especially in a country with a publicly financed health-care system. 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.

  7. Concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. The concentration

  8. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  9. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  10. Preparation of gas diffusion layers for PEMFC fuel cells using carbon fibers; Elaboracao de uma camada de difusao de gas a partir de fibras de carbono para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.N.; Kunsti, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Metalurgia (PPGEM) - Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosao (LAPEC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana - Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, PR (Brazil); Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Materiais, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The electrode/membrane system, called MEA, is the fundamental unit of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell). Within the MEA, the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is the bridge between the flow field and the catalyst layer. One of the important elements in a GDL is the substrate, typically a carbon cloth or paper, that has to be an excellent electrical conductor and show mechanical strength along with thermal and chemical stability. In this work, GDLs were produced from a suspension containing short carbon fibers in water-based polyurethane and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) resins with appropriate characteristics to be used in low temperature fuel cells. The obtained GDL was characterized regarding its wettability, electrical conductivity and morphological aspects, evaluated by SEM. (author)

  11. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  12. [Prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Aïoun hospital (Hodh El Garbi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushab, B M; Savadogo, M; Sow, M S

    2016-08-01

    In this retrospective study in the regional hospital Aioun from 1st January 2010 to 31st April 2014, the objective was to determine the prevalence of smear-positive PTB. In total, 320 cases have been identified giving a proportion of 9%. The male subjects (74%) were three times higher than for female subjects with a sex-ratio man/woman of 2.8. The average age of patients was 41±16 years with extremes of 15 and 90 years and the most affected age group was 15-30 years (41%). The majority of our patients (85%) came from rural areas. No patient had been screened for HIV infection. There was a statistically significant relationship between gender, age group (P=0.005) and resistant cases after 6months of anti-TB treatment (P=0.04). Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in our country. Many efforts will still be provided for screening and epidemiological surveillance for a good control of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetes mellitus is associated with cavities, smear grade, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Kempker, R R; Kipiani, M; Gandhi, N R; Darchia, L; Tukvadze, N; Howards, P P; Narayan, K M V; Blumberg, H M

    2015-06-01

    National tuberculosis (TB) treatment facility in the country of Georgia. To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-DM among patients with TB using glycosylated-hemoglobin (HbA1c), and to estimate the association between DM and clinical characteristics and response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. A cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2014 at the National Centre for TB and Lung Disease in Tbilisi. Patients aged ⩾ 35 years with pulmonary TB were included. HbA1c was used to define DM (⩾ 6.5%), pre-DM (⩾ 5.7-6.4%), and no DM (tuberculosis treatment outcomes. A total of 318 newly diagnosed patients with TB were enrolled. The prevalence of DM and pre-DM was 11.6% and 16.4%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, patients with TB-DM had more cavitation (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.26), higher smear grade (aOR 2.37), and more multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (aOR 2.27) than patients without DM. The risk of poor anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes was similar among patients with and those without DM (28.1% vs. 23.6%). DM and pre-DM were common among adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in Tbilisi, Georgia, and DM was associated with more clinical symptoms, and MDR-TB, at presentation.

  14. Understanding Romanowsky staining. I: The Romanowsky-Giemsa effect in blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Walter, K J

    1987-01-01

    Normal blood smears were stained by the standardised azure B-eosin Y Romanowsky procedure recently introduced by the ICSH, and the classical picture resulted. The effects of varying the times and temperature of staining, the composition of the solvent (buffer concentration, methanol content, & pH), the concentration of the dyes, and the mode of fixation were studied. The results are best understood in terms of the following staining mechanism. Initial colouration involves simple acid and basic dyeing. Eosin yields red erythrocytes and eosinophil granules. Azure B very rapidly gives rise to blue stained chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, platelets and ribosome-rich cytoplasms; also to violet basophil granules. Subsequently the azure B in certain structures combines with eosin to give purple azure B-eosin complexes, leaving other structures with their initial colours. The selectivity of complex formation is controlled by rate of entry of eosin into azure B stained structures. Only faster staining structures (i.e. chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, and platelets) permit formation of the purple complex in the standard method. This staining mechanism illuminates scientific problems (e.g. the nature of 'toxic' granules) and assists technical trouble-shooting (e.g. why nuclei sometimes stain blue, not purple).

  15. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bulava, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Foley, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Juge, K.J. [University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Peardon, M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics

    2011-08-15

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3} x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s} {proportional_to}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t} {proportional_to}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  16. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41....../100,000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100,000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (P

  17. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  18. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural, hydrologic. and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste employment layout on host-rock thermal was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis a real power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts

  19. The effect of vaginal lubrication on unsatisfactory results of cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasileios; Vlachos, Dimitrios G; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Christakis, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Georgios D

    2015-01-01

    Speculum lubrication with water-based gels before cervical smear sampling has been investigated and commented on thoroughly during the last decade. The present meta-analysis was based on randomized and quasi-randomized control trials and evaluated its impact on unsatisfactory cytologic results. We also assessed its efficacy in producing lower pain scores during speculum insertion. We searched MEDLINE (1966- 2013), Scopus (2004-2013), Clinicaltrials.org (1997-2013), Popline (1973-2013), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999-2013), and Google Scholar (2004-2013) engines for published randomized control trials, as well as the reference lists from all the included studies. Five randomized trials and 2 quasi-randomized trials were included in the present review involving 8,717 women. Unsatisfactory results based on conventional cytology did not statistically differ among procedures performed with lubricated speculums and those without (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.64-1.37). Consequently, pain scores also did not differ significantly among the 2 groups (odds ratio = -0.37, 95% CI = -1.10 to 0.36). Only 2 studies evaluated unsatisfactory results on liquid-based cytology, precluding firm results. It seems that speculum lubrication does not interfere with the rates of unsatisfactory results when examination is based on conventional cytology. Conversely, however, the limited number of studies evaluating speculum lubrication on liquid-based cytology precludes firm conclusions.

  20. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  1. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Thoresen, Steinar Ø; Nygård, Jan F

    2007-01-01

    Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC). Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4). As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8%) with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3%) in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the

  2. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Steinar Ø

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC. Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4. As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8% with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3% in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy

  3. The rate of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default in a high-burden setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M Marx

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: High rates of recurrent tuberculosis after successful treatment have been reported from different high burden settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the rate of smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default. In particular, it is not known whether or not treatment defaulters continue to be or become again smear-positive and thus pose a potential for transmission of infection to others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in a high tuberculosis burden setting, the rate of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis among cases defaulting from standardized treatment compared to successfully treated cases. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study among smear-positive tuberculosis cases treated between 1996 and 2008 in two urban communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Episodes of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis were ascertained via probabilistic record linkage. Survival analysis and Poisson regression were used to compare the rate of smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default to that after successful treatment. RESULTS: A total of 2,136 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were included in the study. After treatment default, the rate of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis was 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.59-8.41 per 100 person-years compared to 2.09 (95% CI: 1.81-2.41 after cure (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 3.97; 95% CI: 3.00-5.26. Among defaulters, the rate was inversely associated with treatment duration and sputum conversion prior to defaulting. Smear grade at start of the index treatment episode (Smear3+: aHR 1.61; 95%CI 1.11-2.33 was independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis re-treatment, regardless of treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-burden setting, there is a high rate of subsequent smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default. Treatment defaulters are therefore likely to contribute to the pool of infectious source cases in the community. Our

  4. Microscopic evaluation of methods of fixation and preservation of vaginal smears taken from normal women submitted to radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, O.L.N.; Baruffi, I.; Valeri, V.; Parente, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were evaluated for fixation and conservation of vaginal smears of normal and irradiated women for periods as long as four months. An initial fixation was used with 95% alcohol for 24 hours followed by either air storage or 0,5% alcohol - ether celoidina solution coating. It is concluded that through microscopic evaluation, the smears of non-irradiated women treated by both methods in long run observation are only worthwhile for oncotic studies. On the other hand, the smears of irradiated women are not valid either for hormonal or oncotic analysis. (Author) [pt

  5. Comparative study of Gram stain, potassium hydroxide smear, culture and nested PCR in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Nejabat, Mahmood; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Keshavarz, Fatemeh; Shakiba, Elaheh

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and practicality of the molecular method, compared to the standard microbiological techniques for diagnosing fungal keratitis (FK). Patients with eye findings suspected of FK were enrolled for cornea sampling. Scrapings from the affected areas of the infected corneas were obtained and were divided into two parts: one for smears and cultures, and the other for nested PCR analysis. Of the 38 eyes, 28 were judged to have fungal infections based on clinical and positive findings in the culture, smear and responses to antifungal treatment. Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining, culture and nested PCR results (either positive or negative) matched in 76.3, 42.1, 68.4 and 81.6%, respectively. PCR is a sensitive method but due to the lack of sophisticated facilities in routine laboratory procedures, it can serve only complementarily and cannot replace conventional methods. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Sumiko; Maezawa, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist.

  7. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-01-01

    Papanicolaou smears (CP) and liquid-based samples by the ThinPrep Pap Test (TP). A total of 1607 CP smears from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000 and 798 TP samples from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2002 diagnosed as atypia were included. The results show that the detection rate of atypia in cervical......-up diagnosis of mild dysplasia was seen more than twice as often in TP than in CP (12.8% versus 5.0%, P Pap Test yielded...... a significant decrease in atypia rates compared with the conventional Papanicolaou test. In subsequent follow-up the percentage of neoplastic lesions was significantly increased in the ThinPrep Pap Test samples....

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  9. Predicting Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and Pap Smear Screening Intentions Among Young Singaporean Women Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    Evangeline I. Chirayil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to analyze the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions to obtain Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccinations or a Papanicolaou (Pap smear in a sample of young Singaporean women. A further aim was to evaluate knowledge of cervical cancer and preventive measures as a possible additional predictor of intentions. A purpose-designed TPB and knowledge questionnaire was completed by 206 women aged 18 to 26 years living in Singapore. Descriptive analyses and structural equation modeling revealed subjective norm as the best predictor, while perceived behavioral control had moderate predictive power. Attitude and knowledge were not significant predictors of intentions. The findings suggest the importance of focusing on subjective norms, rather than factual knowledge, in educational and awareness campaigns that encourage HPV vaccination and Pap smear screening in Singapore.

  10. Relationship of black layer and milk line development on maize seed maturity Relação entre o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido e a maturidade de sementes de milho

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    R.D. Vieira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of black layer and milk line development on maize seed maturity was evaluated under tropical conditions. Seed moisture (g.kg-1, standard germination - SG (7 days, 25°C, and vigor, using accelerated aging-AA (96 hours, 42°C and 100% of RH, cold test-CT only in 1991/92 (7 days at 10°C and 7 days at 25°C and electrical conductivity-EC (four 50-seed samples, 24 hours imbibition at 25°C and milk line and black layer formation (using a five-stage rating system were determined at 3 to 4 days intervals, using two genotypes (hybrid CX 133 and variety IAC 100 during the crop seasons of 1990/91 and 1991/92. The results showed that physiological maturity was reached before stage 4, based on seed germination and vigor (AA and CT values, which occurred before that stage and presented the lowest values of EC. On the other hand, moisture content levels of 300 to 350 g.kg-1 were reached only at stage 4. The milk line ratings proved useful in predicting physiological maturity as well as the harvest maturity.A relação entre o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido e a maturidade fisiológica de sementes de milho foi estudada durante dois anos agrícolas (1990/91 e 1991/92. Para atingir os objetivos do trabalho, avaliou-se o grau de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (envelhecimento acelerado, teste frio e condutividade elétrica e o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido para dois genótipos (CX 133 e IAC 100. Com base nos resultados de germinação e vigor das sementes verificou-se que a maturidade fisiológica foi alcançada antes do estádio 4. Por outro lado, graus de umidade de 30 a 35% foram alcançados somente no estádio de desenvolvimento 4. A linha de transformação em amido provou ser um instrumento útil para predizer a maturidade fisiológica e de colheita para sementes de milho.

  11. [Spatial-temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Sichuan province, 2011-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Yang, C H; He, J G; Li, Y K; Xiao, Y; Li, J; Wang, D X; Chen, C; Wu, J L

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province from 2011 to 2016. Methods: The registration data of PTB in 618 townships of Liangshan from 2011 to 2016 were collected from "Tuberculosis Management Information System of National Disease Prevention and Control Information System" . Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to establish the geographic information database and realize the visualization of the analysis results. Software OpenGeoda 1.2.0 was used to conduct the analyses on global indication of spatial autocorrelation (GISA) and local indication of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). Software SaTScan 9.4.1 was used for spatio-temporal scanning analysis. Results: From 2011 to 2016, the registration rate of smear positive PTB in Liangshan declined from 56.97/100 000 (2 666 cases) to 21.11/100 000 (1 038 cases). The global spatial autocorrelation coefficient Moran's I ranged from 0.25 to 0.45 and the difference was significant (all P =0.000). Local autocorrelation analysis showed that "high-high" area covered 43, 34, 37, 34, 42 and 61 townships from 2011 to 2016, respectively, mainly in Leibo county. Spatial temporal clustering analysis found one class Ⅰ clustering in the area around Bagu township of Meigu county and two class Ⅱ clustering in the areas around Liumin and Hekou township of Huili county, respectively (all P =0.000). Conclusion: Obvious spatial temporal clustering of smear positive PTB distribution was found in Liangshan from 2011-2016. Hot spot areas with serious smear positive PTB epidemic and high spread risk were mainly found in northeastern Liangshan, including townships in Leibo and Meigu counties. Targeted TB prevention and control should be conducted in these areas.

  12. National guidelines not always followed when diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with HIV in Botswana.

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    Taurayi A Tafuma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB is challenging, especially in patients with HIV. The Botswana National Tuberculosis Program (BNTP guidelines give guidance in diagnosing and treating SNPTB. Patients with chronic cough should be screened for TB by 3 sputum smear investigations. If negative, a chest x-ray (CXR should be performed. If negative for TB, antimicrobial treatment for other infections should be started. We investigated the clinicians' use of the guidelines in clinical practice. METHODS: Data regarding the medical history (coughing period, requested and conducted investigations concerning tuberculosis diagnosis (sputum smear or culture or CXR or alternative diagnoses (sputum microscopy or blood or sputum culture for diagnosis of other organisms, in SNPTB HIV-positive patients (outpatients and admitted patients from 2006-2009 in a district hospital in Botswana were extracted from all available hospital medical records. Additionally, a survey was done in all doctors diagnosing SNPTB in this hospital using a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding the application of the BNTP guidelines in practice. Descriptive analyses of collected data were performed to test the compliance to the guidelines. RESULTS: Data from medical records showed that in 47.0% (132/281 of patients, TB treatment was started without microbiological results from sputum smears. Other methods to rule out or confirm PTB were used in 2.1% (6/281; and 99.6% (280/281 of SNPTB patients had received a CXR. The survey in 7 clinicians found that all always used CXR, and all clinicians requested three sputum results only sometimes. Six out of 7 clinicians started antibiotics before starting TB treatment. Reasons clinicians gave for difficulties in following the guidelines included inability of patients to produce sputum; and laboratory delays in releasing sputum results. CONCLUSION: Between 2006 and 2009 a high proportion of SNPTB

  13. Correlation of BRAF V600E Mutation in Peripheral Blood Smears of Hairy Cell Leukemia with Morphology and Immunophenotyping

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    Narges Jafarzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hairy cell leukemia being defined as a mature B-cell lymphoma shows unique clinicopathological, immunophenotype, and genetic alteration features among another mature B-cell malignancy. Although lymphocytes with hairy appearance and co-expression of CD25, CD11c and CD103 markers on B-cells are compatible with hairy cell leukemia, there are some difficulties in differential diagnosis between HCL with its variant and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. The presence of kinase-activating BRAF V600E mutation in classical HCL clone and in no other mature B-cell lymphomas/ leukemia has implication in differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated BRAF V600E mutation detection of H&E stained peripheral blood smears by Sanger sequencing method in patients with classical HCL and findings related to morphology and immunophenotype. Peripheral smear review indicated a subpopulation of atypical lymphocytes with villous cytoplasmic projections. By flow cytometry analysis, B-cells represented immunophenotype of CD19+ CD20(bright+ CD11c+ CD25+ CD103+. Sanger sequencing demonstrated that presence of BRAF V600E mutation in 86.6% (13/15 of analyzed HCL DNA. Hence, gain-of-function mutation of BRAF V600E is detectable in DNA of peripheral blood smear of patients with classical HCL that were evaluated by immunophenotyping. In conclusion, DNA from peripheral blood smear can be used to identify BRAF V600E mutation using Sanger sequencing method in samples with at least 10% HCL clone as supplementary approach to aid in the diagnosis of classical HCL.

  14. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  15. Avian malaria in Brazilian passerine birds: parasitism detected by nested PCR using DNA from stained blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S F; Sebaio, F; Branquinho, F C S; Marini, M A; Vago, A R; Braga, E M

    2005-03-01

    The microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and a nested PCR were performed to detect avian Plasmodium in 275 passerine birds from small and large fragments of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The 275 blood smears were used both for the microscopical examination and nested PCR providing the DNA template used for the reactions. The sensitivity of the nested PCR assay was higher than that observed for blood smears through microscopical examination. High prevalence (39.6%) of Plasmodium infections was detected by nested PCR while the microscopical examination detected only 16.5 % positive birds. Poor agreement was observed between the results of the two different tests. The PCR data obtained were correlated to the forest fragment size of the Atlantic Forest and also correlated to the biological characteristics of the birds (nest type construction, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, age and sex). Birds captured in the large forest areas were more infected than birds captured in the small areas (51.9 % and 28.5 %, respectively). Diet and participation in mixed-species flocks were correlated to the Plasmodium parasitism. The insectivorous birds and those that participated in mixed-species flocks were more frequently infected (47% and 41.5%, respectively) than the other groups.

  16. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2015-04-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or -3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children.

  17. THE PROFILE OF VAGINAL TEMPERATURE AND CYTOLOGY OF VAGINAL SMEAR IN BALI CATTLE DURING ESTRUS CYCLE PHASE

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    Indira P.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate physiological condition of Bali cattle during estrus. Ninecattles were used in the research. The method of the research was descriptive analysis. The measurementof vaginal temperature was conducted by using digital thermometer and cytology of vaginal smear wasdone by using cotton bud swabbed on object glass. It was washed by methanol and was stained withGiemsa staining and was observed by microscope. The results indicated that vaginal temperature were38.39 ± 0.29 oC; 38.05 ± 0.15 oC; 37.4 ± 0.74 oC; 37.86 ± 0.3 oC at estrus, metestrus, diestrus, proestrusphase, respectively. On the basis of the cytology of vaginal smear, estrus phase had more superficialcornification and intermediate cells causing estrogen concentration increased. In conclusion, the profileof vaginal temperature showed that each kind of estrus cycle phase had characteristic within estrus. Thecytology of vaginal smear showed various types of cells preferences in different phase of estrus cycle.

  18. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A

    2017-12-31

    Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (PPap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.

  19. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

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    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  20. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  1. Role of Papanicolaou Smear in the Diagnosis of Pathologic Flora in Asymptomatic Patients in Rural Health Care Set-Up

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    Siona Sabu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infections of female genital tract, especially the cervix are asymptomatic in presentation and pose a diagnostic challenge. Vaginal infections can lead to cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities in the epithelial cells. Additionally, these infections could augur an inflammatory response of varying nature. The most common flora include Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, Human Herpes Virus (HHV and Actinomyces sp. Aim: This study seeks to measure the role of Papanicolaou smear in detection of pathologic flora: Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, HPV, HHV and Actinomyces; in a rural health care set up amongst women in the reproductive and menopausal age group. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of cervical smears by Papanicolaou method, over a 14 month period was carried out in a tertiary care centre including a total number of 150 patients. Results: Of the total of 150 samples examined, Candida species was the most frequently detected (8.7% followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (5.3% and Gardnerella vaginalis species (4.7%. HPV-induced changes were noted in a mere 2% of cases. Actinomyces species was noted in less than 1% of cases. Conclusion: The Papanicolaou test for examining cervical smear has definite uses in detecting vaginal microorganisms. Apart from detection of the usual pathogenic flora, the test has utility in defining the degree of inflammation and additional reparative changes.

  2. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education through Telegram Instant Messaging Services on Pap smear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademolhosseini, Farzaneh; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2017-08-27

    Background: Pap smear is an effective screening method for early detection of cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model (HBM) through Telegram instant messaging services on the Pap smear test. Material and methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was performed on 106 eligible women (48 participants in the intervention group and 47 participants in the control group). The patients in both groups completed the written consent form and questionnaires at the beginning of the study. In intervention group, the educational content based on HBM was regularly sent via Telegram during one month. After education and three months later, both groups completed questionnaires. Then, the data was analyzed with using SPSS version 22. Results: The findings showed that the two groups at first were similar in demographic characteristics. In the intervention group, the mean difference of the scores before and immediate post training on the knowledge and all of the constructs were significant (Pbelief and behavior regarding Pap smear test. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randomly divided in two groups (35 in intervention group and 35 in control group). The data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Interventions were run based on Health Belief Model during three sessions only for intervention group. Each educational session was for 45-60 min. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. According to results, the mean scores of knowledge were significantly different between two groups after intervention (P model variables (perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived benefits, and barriers) had no significant difference in the two groups before intervention, but after intervention had significant difference between the two groups (P health education programs based on health belief model can promote the practice of women regarding to pap smear tests.

  5. Impact of Educational Intervention on Patients Behavior with Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study Using the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadgal, Khair Mohammad; Nakhaei-Moghadam, Tayebeh; Alizadeh-Seiouki, Hadi; Zareban, Iraj; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a single-agent infectious disease, which is the major cause of death around the world. Approximately one third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli and at risk of developing active TB. The purpose of this study was determined the impact of education based on health belief model in promoting behavior of smear-positive pulmonary TB among patients in Chabahar city, Iran. Of the 80 smear-positive pulmonary TB who referred to health centers in Chabahar voluntarily participated in this interventional study. The data collected using questionnaire based on health belief model. The data were analyzed by using paired t-test, independent t-test, pearson correlation and chi-square test with SPSS 16. The cognitive skills were increased significantly from 6.10 to 6.88 after intervention. All behavioral skills were increased significantly from 2.08 to 2.88 after implementing the intervention. Perceived severity was increased from11.08to12.19 significantly. Percepted benefits were enhanced significantly from 11.48 to 12.23. Mean percepted barrier was decreased significantly from 17.52 to 16.68. Findings demonstrated that implementing educational intervention programs can increase the level of knowledge and behavior of patients regarding smear- positive pulmonary TB initiatives.

  6. Adsorption of phosphate in hydrocalumite-like layered double hydroxides: a comparison between memory effect and ion exchange processes; Adsorcao de fosfato em [Ca-Al]-HDL: comparacao entre o efeito de memoria e troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, M.P., E-mail: marcelapiassib@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Moreira, F.K.V.; Ribeiro, C. [Embrapa Instrumentacao (LNNA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for agriculture, but the excessive use of this element has caused severe damages to the environment. Layered double hydroxide (LDHs) are excellent candidates to remove PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} anions through adsorption process. In this work, the phosphate adsorption on hydrocalumite-like (Ca-Al) LDHs was evaluated over the ion exchange and memory effect processes. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed formation of analogous crystalline phases from both process as the phosphate concentration was increased. However, the phosphate quantity adsorbed varied according to the process used. The ion exchange route is the most efficient process to remove phosphate from aqueous medium. (author)

  7. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia; Lise, Mauro; De' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Polesel, Jerry; Ghinelli, Florio; Falcini, Fabio; Finarelli, Alba C

    2010-06-21

    The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age or =45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied. In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is

  8. Evaluation of peak voltage, irradiation time, output and half value layer in computed tomography equipment;Avaliacao da tensao de pico, tempo de irradiacao, rendimento e camada semi-redutora em equipamentos de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nersissian, Denise Y.; Santos, Lucas R. dos; Saito, Ricardo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Silva, Marcia C. [Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the voltage peak, the irradiation time, output and half value layer were evaluated in two multislice computed tomography equipment. These evaluations are commonly done in conventional, fluoroscopic and mammographic equipment, but not in computed tomography. The results have depicted that accuracy and reproducibility meet the 10% limit established by Portaria SVS MS 453/1998 and by Guia de Radiodiagnostico - RE 1016/2005. The half value layer is between (6.55 +- 0.31) mmAl and (7.70 +- 0.39) mmAl for 120 kVp on three bow tie filter positions. The output obtained for the isocenter position was 0.097, 0.158, 0.227 and 0.286 mGy/mAs for 80, 100, 120 e 135 kVp, respectively; being similar between two tomography equipment. Such evaluations have only been possible due to the intervention on the CT equipment, stopping the rotation of the X-ray tube inside the gantry. (author)

  9. Women's perceptions and attitudes about cervical cancer in Turkey: Kato's device as an alternative to the Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa Kursat; Sahin, Gulay; Dikici, Mustafa Fevzi; Igde, Fusun Artiran; Yaris, Fusun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the status of women's perception and attitudes about cervical cancer and their thoughts on Kato's self-sampling device. This descriptive research was conducted between July- December 2012 with a study populationof married women older than 18 years. A total of 246 women volunteered, with a mean age of 34.9±9.22 (19-52). In the last year, 52.0% had been examined by a gynecologist to address a complaint or for a periodic health check. Of the 118 who had not had a gynecological examination, 42.4% indicated negligence, 26.3% stated the reason was no complaint, 14.4% feared they might receive bad results from the examination, and 8.5% stated that were shy or embarrassed. Of all of the women, 35.0% answered that they had information about cervical cancer, and 0.7% had heard about the HPV vaccine. No one in their families had received the vaccine. Of the women, 28.5% had had a Pap smear, and 71.4% of those had normal results. Of those who had never had a Pap smear, 47.2% had never heard about the test; 18.8% explained the reason for not having a test as shyness or embarrassment with a male doctor. None of the women had heard about Kato's device. Once the women were informed, 73.6% expresseed interest in use; 51.9% answered they could use it and not be embarrassed, 30.9% would use it because they did not have to see a doctor, and 17.1% would use it as it allows them to take a smear in all conditions and whenever they want. Of the women, 60.0% thought that they could not successfully use Kato's device; 40.0% thought that a smear should be taken by a doctor. Most of the women in our population had never had a Pap smear and wanted to use the Kato's device.

  10. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid nodules: effective technique and a peculiar smear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyeong Rok; Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook; Koo, Yong Woon; Lee, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Tae Woo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the effective methods that are appropriate for an endemic area of thyroid disease and to compare the differences of cytologic diagnostic rates with and without using a peculiar smear technique. We analyzed the incidence rate of insufficient results, complications and the total procedure times of 1,126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients who underwent US-FNAB (ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy) from January to December 2005. We compared the diagnostic rate between the two groups; the groups' tests were performed with a peculiar smear technique (Group A, n 313) or with a ventional smear technique (Group B, n = 250). According to the size of the thyroid nodule, the incidence rate of an insufficient result on US-FNAB and the mean total procedure time for 1126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients were measured as 16.9% (52/308) and 208 seconds for nodules under 0.5 cm, 9.8% (30/306) and 160 seconds for nodules between 0.5 cm-10 cm, and 6.0% (30/504) and 134 seconds for nodules over 1.0 cm. These 776 patients showed no significant complication, except for mild pain. In Group A, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was calculated as 15.1% (14/93) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 5.3% (5/95) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 4.8% (6/125) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 8.0% (25/313) for the total A Group. In Group B, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was measured as 33.3% (15/45) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 28.1% (25/89) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 21.4% (24/112) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 25.7% (63/245) for the total B group. There was a statistically significant correlation between the rate of an insufficient result and the peculiar smear technique or the size of the thyroid nodule. We consider that US-FNAB is very simple, safe and accurate diagnostic method for thyroid nodules, and US-FNAB with a peculiar smear technique is able to

  11. Factors associated with Pap smear screening among French women visiting a general practitioner in the Rhône-Alpes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussaid, N; Lutringer-Magnin, D; Barone, G; Haesebaert, J; Lasset, C

    2013-10-01

    To help prevent cervical cancer, three yearly opportunistic Pap smear screening is recommended in France for women aged 25-65 years. Pap smear screening coverage varies with age and socioeconomic level. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify factors associated with a low uptake of Pap smear screening among women with no limited access to healthcare. We analyzed data from women aged 25-65 living in the Rhône-Alpes region who completed a self-administered questionnaire given to them by general practitioners between June and August 2008. The questionnaire covered knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention as well as the women's history of Pap smear screening and other health-related behaviors. The relationship between low uptake of Pap smear screening--defined as not having had the test within the past 3 years--and a range of possible contributing factors was investigated using logistic regression. Of 1186 women with an intact uterus who completed the questionnaire, 89.1% said they had had a Pap smear within the past 3 years. On multivariate analysis, the 10.9% who had not were significantly more likely to live alone (1.76 [1.13-2.74]), to have no children (2.17 [1.31-3.62]), to have never used contraception (5.35 [2.98-9.62]), to have less knowledge about Pap smear screening (3.40 [1.55-7.49]), and to be unvaccinated against hepatitis B (0.55 [0.35-0.87]). Despite high overall compliance with Pap smear screening recommendations among women who consulted general practitioners, several factors were significantly associated with a low uptake of the service. Considering these factors may help to refine messages aimed at cervical cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. High-grade cervical abnormalities and cervical cancer in women following a negative Pap smear with and without an endocervical component: a cohort study with 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Canfell, Karen; Gertig, Dorota M; Saville, Marion

    2014-09-01

    The proportion of Pap smears containing an endocervical component (ECC) has been declining in Australia. Given that ECC negative (ECC-) smears may be associated with reduced sensitivity, we undertook a retrospective cohort study to estimate rates of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical abnormality (HGA) and cancer in women with negative Pap smears with and without an ECC. Women 18-69 years with at least two Pap smears between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with the first smear in that period (index smear) showing no abnormality were eligible. Follow-up ended at date of the first abnormal smear, date of histological diagnosis, date of hysterectomy, date of death, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. ECC status was treated as a time varying exposure. Follow-up was split at each smear after the index smear. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) by ECC status. The incidence rate of histologically confirmed HGA was significantly lower following ECC- smears than after ECC+ smears (adjusted IRR: 0.69, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 0.62-0.77), particularly at older ages (interaction between ECC status and age, p = 0.001). In contrast, the overall rate of invasive cancer was not significantly different after ECC- than after ECC+ smears (IRR: 1.27, 95%CI 0.90-1.77). In conclusion, women had a lower rate of confirmed HGA and no significant increase in the rate of invasive cervical cancer following ECC- smears. This study does not support differential (accelerated) follow-up in women with a negative smear without an endocervical component. © 2014 UICC.

  13. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  14. Preanalytic specimen triage: Smears, cell blocks, cytospin preparations, transport media, and cytobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro A

    2017-06-01

    With increasing requests for the evaluation of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers, great attention must be paid to the preanalytical issues regarding sample quality and DNA/RNA yield from all different types of cytological preparations. The objectives of this review were: 1) to provide an update regarding the importance of specimen triage as well as specimen handling and collection; 2) to discuss the different cell preparations that can be used for molecular testing, their advantages and limitations; and 3) to highlight the strategies for biobanking cytology samples. Good-quality DNA/RNA can be harvested from fresh cells in cell suspensions, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell blocks, archival stained smears, archival unstained cytospin preparations, liquid-based cytology slides, FTA cards, and cryopreserved cells. In contrast to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens (small biopsies and surgical resections), the multitude of types of sample preparations as well as the diversity in sample collection and processing procedures make cytology an ideal specimen for most genomic platforms, with less DNA and RNA degradation and a purer sample, usually with a higher concentration of tumor cells. The broad incorporation of cytological specimens into clinical practice. A should increase the number of samples potentially available for molecular tests and avoid repeat invasive procedures for tissue procurement, thereby increasing patient safety. In this context, it is of utmost importance that cytopathologists become familiar with the variables that can affect test results and embrace the goal of excellence in sample quality. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125(6 suppl):455-64. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. The sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide smear and fungal culture relative to clinical assessment in the evaluation of tinea pedis: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jacob Oren; Levitt, Barrie H; Akhavan, Arash; Yanofsky, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5%) and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%), respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5%) and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%). Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  16. Timely reminder interventions to improve annual Papanicolaou (Pap) smear rates among HIV-infected women in an outpatient center of southern Nevada: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Vimala; Moonie, Sheniz; Patel, Dina; Hunt, Aaron T; Richardson, Jan; Di John, David; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend annual Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women for cervical cancer screening. Rates for such screening in Nevada are below the national rate. Our cohort includes 485 eligible HIV-infected adult women from an outpatient center in Southern Nevada of which only 12 women had obtained a Pap smear in the past year. An intervention was conducted from June 2015 to September 2015, in which reminders to schedule a Pap smear were sent to the remaining cohort of 473 women via sequential text messaging, followed by phone call attempts. Of all subjects, 94% contacted by text messages and 41% contacted by phone calls were successfully reached. There was an increase in the rate of completed Pap smears from 2.5% (12/485) at baseline to 11.8% (56/473) after interventions (p < 0.0001) in a period of three months. Out of the 68 Pap smear results, 20 (29.4%) were abnormal. Our intervention, utilizing methods of communication such as text messaging and phone calls, markedly increased the rate of completed Pap smear screening in our population.

  17. Clinical value of whole-blood interferon-gamma assay in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB smear- and polymerase chain reaction-negative bronchial aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin Yup; Yoo, Seung Soo; Cha, Seung Ick; Won, Dong Il; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Won-Kil; Kim, Chang Ho

    2012-07-01

    Combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchoscopy is frequently performed to allow a rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, limited data are available concerning clinical judgment in patients with suspected PTB and AFB smear- and PCR-negative bronchial aspirates (BA). The present study evaluated the usefulness of whole-blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in these patients. Of 166 patients with suspected PTB who had undergone bronchoscopy because of smear-negative sputum or inadequate sputum production, 93 (56%) were diagnosed with culture-positive PTB. Seventy-four patients were either AFB smear- or PCR-positive. In the 75 patients whose BA AFB smear and PCR results were both negative, 19 were finally diagnosed with PTB by culture. The QFT test had a negative predictive value of 91% for PTB. The QFT test may be useful for excluding PTB in patients with suspected PTB whose BA AFB smear and PCR results are both negative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  19. (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity survey for evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENSEMBLES

    2016-05-26

    May 26, 2016 ... Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted at. Modomo/Eleweran ... Key words: Weathered layer, geological fissures, aquifer, electrical resistivity, geoelectric section, electromagnetic. ..... 1745 Meyerside drive, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Naghibi SA ...

  20. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture; Cultivo e irradiacao de fibroblastos humanos em meio enriquecido com lisado de plaquetas para obtencao de camada de sustentacao em culturas de celulas da epiderme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-07-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  1. Evaluation of genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 line probe assay for the detection of MDR-TB in smear positive and negative sputum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaza, Abyot; Kebede, Abebaw; Yaregal, Zelalem; Dagne, Zekarias; Moga, Shewki; Yenew, Bazezew; Diriba, Getu; Molalign, Helina; Tadesse, Mengistu; Adisse, Desalegn; Getahun, Muluwork; Desta, Kassu

    2017-04-17

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Line Probe Assay (LPA) is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic test based on DNA-STRIP technology for the identification of the M. tuberculosis complex and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH). Hain Lifescience, GmbH, Germany has improved the sensitivity of Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 LPA for the detection of MDR-TB; with the possibility of applying the tool in smear negative sputum samples. A cross sectional study was conducted on 274 presumptive MDR-TB patients referred to the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL), Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) who submitted sputum samples for laboratory diagnosis of drug resistant-TB testing. Seventy-two smear and culture positive samples processed in smear positive direct LPA category and 197 smear negative sputum samples were processed for direct LPA. Among the smear negative samples 145 (73.6%) were culture negative and 26 (13.2%) were culture positive. All specimens were processed using NALC-NaOH method and ZN smear microscopy done from sediments. Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 done from processed sputum sediments and the result was compared against the reference, BACTEC MGIT 960 culture and DST. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 assay was determined and P-value TB from direct smear positive sputum samples. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Genotype MTBDR plus VER 2.0 LPA were 77.8, 97.2, 82.4 and 97.2%, respectively, for the detection of M. tuberculosis from direct smear negative sputum samples. Fourteen (53.8%) samples had valid results with LPA among the 26 smear negative culture positive samples. The remaining 8 (30.8%) and 4 (15.4%) were invalid and negative with LPA

  2. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  3. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to

  4. Determination of half-value layers and tenth-value layer to barite as shielding against X radiation in radiological protection; Determinacao de camadas semi-redutoras e deci-redutoras para barita como blindagem contra radiacao x em protecao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, G.A.; Aragao Filho, G.L., E-mail: lopesgideon@gmail.com, E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Almeida Junior, A.T., E-mail: airton.almeilda@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, M.A.P., E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Araujo, F.G.S., E-mail: fgabrielaraujo@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP /REDEMAT), MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The barium mortar has been widely used as radiation shielding material for X and gamma radiations in Brazil, by presenting some advantages as the high rate of efficiency in radiation shielding, the easy handling and application, the facility to be found in the national market and low cost. The determination of the half-value layers (HVL) and tenth-value layer (TVL) of different types of barite becomes the major factor to characterize the attenuation of these materials, in order to ensure the efficiency and quality of projects shielding, by ensuring the safety of workers occupationally exposed to radiation and of individuals to the public. Thus, plates of different thickness of mortar of barite were made for determination of their HVL and TVL. The plates were irradiated with X-ray qualities for radiological protection according to standard ISO 4037. A system of CdTe spectrometry was used to acquire spectra transmitted, in the presence of each plate, and their combinations. The areas of the spectra obtained, depending on the total thickness of the plates used in the arrangement were used to determine the attenuation curves. From these curves obtained in this work was to establish the HVL and TVL.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeveeranna, Chamaraja; Mohan, Surekha Sadhana; Singh, Laiphrakpam Ranjit; Singh, Naorem Nabakishore

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Industrialized countries have dramatically reduced the incidence of mortality from cervical carcinoma in the last 50 years through aggressive screening programs utilizing pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears but it still remains a major problem in the developing world. This study was performed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India. This cross sectional study was carried out with a questionnaire survey covering the socio demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices about Pap smear screening among 224 nurses in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India during December 2011. Two hundred and twenty one participants (98.6%) had heard about cervical carcinoma but 18.3% lacked adequate knowledge regarding risk factors. Knowledge about the Pap smear was adequate in 88.8% of the respondents. Out of these, only 11.6% had Pap smear at least once previously. The most common reasons for non-participation in screening were lack of any symptoms (58.4%), lack of counselling (42.8%), physician does not request (29.9%) and fear of vaginal examination (20.5%). Although knowledge of Pap smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer is high, practice is still low. The nurses who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. If we can improve the practice of Pap smear screening in such experts, they should be able to readily provide appropriate and accurate information and motivate the general population to join screening programs.

  6. Five-Year Assessment of Time of Sputum Smears Conversion and Outcome and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Patients in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate risk factors which influence sputum smear conversion, outcome, and trends of conversion of sputum smear during 5 years and compare outcomes in patients with different regimens. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients with sputum smear positive tuberculosis were evaluated for comorbidities and demographic, microbiological, and therapeutic data and outcome. Smear examinations were performed at the beginning, at 2 months for CAT I, at 3 months for CAT II, at the end of second month of maintenance phase, and at the end of treatment. Results. This study enrolled 211 sputum smear positive patients, but 189 patients who completed the intensive phase of treatment were evaluated. Sputum smear of 158 patients converted at the end of intensive phase (83.6. Univariate analysis indicated that the risk of a persistent positive smear at the end of intensive phase was greater in diabetic patients ((odds 4.038, 95% CI 1.123–14.516 P=0.033, and also a 3+bacillary load had risk of 2.933-fold ((95% CI 1.278–6.732 P=0.011. Overall rate of unfavorable outcome was 20.9%. Factors associated with unfavorable outcome were age (P value 0.000, male gender (P value 0.027, diabetes (P value 0.000, and delayed conversion of sputum at the end of intensive phase (P value 0.000. Outcome for different regimens was not different significantly. Two specimens were isoniazid resistant. Conclusions. We suggest supervised treatment and care for diabetic patients and those with higher bacillary load. Paying attention to early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the elderly to reduce poor outcome and further measures to prevent transfer-out could improve the success rate.

  7. Commercial Ripening Starter Microorganisms Inoculated into Cheese Milk Do Not Successfully Establish Themselves in the Resident Microbial Ripening Consortia of a South German Red Smear Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C.; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M.; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the “old-young” smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary. PMID:18281427

  8. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  9. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevil, S.; Kevser, O.; Aleattin, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test , and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who k new of the Pap smear test . Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  10. Diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage gene Xpert in smear-negative and sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Khalil, Kanwal Fatima; Butt, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. An analytical study. Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens.

  11. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

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    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of 37.6±1.7. Gynecologic examinations revealed cervical erosion in 8 (1.6%), vaginitis in 193 (37.7%) and normal findings in 311 (60.7%); pathological evaluation reports of the smears were negative in 290 (56.6%), inflammation in 218 (42.6%) and ASC-US in 4 (0.8%), according to the 2001 Bethesda classification. It can be concluded that Pap smear test - proven to be a very valuable test at the clinical level- should also be widely used at the community level to detect cervical cancer at very early stages to reduce both the mortality and morbidity among healthy people. The need for continuous community-based cervical cancer screening programs is strongly suggested.

  12. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

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    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  13. Diagnostic utility of melanin production by fungi: Study on tissue sections and culture smears with Masson-Fontana stain

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    Challa Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dematiaceous fungi appear brown in tissue section due to melanin in their cell walls. When the brown color is not seen on routine H and E and culture is not available, differentiation of dematiaceous fungi from other fungi is difficult on morphology alone. Aims and Objective: To study if melanin production by dematiaceous fungi can help differentiate them from other types of fungi. Materials and Methods: Fifty tissue sections of various fungal infections and 13 smears from cultures of different species of fungi were stained with Masson Fontana stain to assess melanin production. The tissue sections included biopsies from 26 culture-proven fungi and 24 biopsies of filamentous fungi diagnosed on morphology alone with no culture confirmation. Results: All culture-proven dematiaceous fungi and Zygomycetes showed strong positivity in sections and culture smears. Aspergillus sp showed variable positivity and intensity. Cryptococcus neoformans showed strong positivity in tissue sections and culture smears. Tissue sections of septate filamentous fungi (9/15, Zygomycetes (4/5, and fungi with both hyphal and yeast morphology (4/4 showed positivity for melanin. The septate filamentous fungi negative for melanin were from biopsy samples of fungal sinusitis including both allergic and invasive fungal sinusitis and colonizing fungal balls. Conclusion: Melanin is produced by both dematiaceous and non-dematiaceous fungi. Masson-Fontana stain cannot reliably differentiate dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi like Aspergillus sp; however, absence of melanin in the hyphae may be used to rule out dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi. In the differential diagnosis of yeast fungi, Cryptococcus sp can be differentiated from Candida sp by Masson-Fontana stain in tissue sections.

  14. Impact of the RNTCPIRL-EQA-OSE visits on quality of sputum smear microscopy services of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilesh D; Rade, Kiran; Dave, Paresh V; Pujara, Kirit; Solanki, Rajesh N; Vegad, M M; Modi, B; Shah, Amar

    2012-01-01

    On-site evaluation of laboratories with standard checklist is a first step to promote effective and consistent supervision. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the RNTCP- Intermediate Reference Laboratory External Quality Assessment- On-Site Evaluation visits on quality of sputum smear microscopy services of Gujarat, India. Data of three IRL-EQA-OSE visit rounds, carried out between January 2005 and December 2010 are presented here. Within the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme EQA framework, the IRL, Ahmedabad visited all Gujarat District Tuberculosis Centres, and evaluated their sputum smear microscopy services. The study covered a cohort of 29 DTCs during each of the three IRL-EQA-OSE visits. The authors focused on section III of Annexure A to study and analyse the said impact. In order to convert qualitative data into quantitative one, the authors denoted a score of 1 to "Acceptable" (No Error) remark and 0 to "Not-Acceptable" (Error) one. A larger degree of improvement was noted in Standard Operating Procedure practices, Disinfection practices, and Internal Quality Control practices. Many DTCs did not retrain their laboratory staff in EQA methodology. The Gujarat DTCs achieved an overall score of (820/957) 86% during the initial OSE visits which consistently improved to (842/957) 88% and (885/957) 92% during the two follow-up OSE visits along with sustenance and improvement in many important laboratory parameters. The co-sponsoring organisation (IRL) recognises the challenges and therefore, is committed to supporting state-level implementation of EQA through additional training, technical assistance to districts, and improving this technical guidance. By periodic IRL-EQA-OSE visits, sputum smear microscopy services can be sustained and improved at field level.

  15. qPCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms

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    Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR, a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H, the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease.

  16. qPCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Ramuno, Natália Mortari; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Tassa, Mônica; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy) and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA) and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H), the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals' capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued support.

  18. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

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    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  19. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

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    Jin Woo Choi</