WorldWideScience

Sample records for smart dust based

  1. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    and mobility for generating combat power while maintaining cybersecurity and accruing the benefits of technology in their lives . Figure 2...Designers ideate 100’s if not 1000’s of ways IoT and smart base technologies may improve the lives of Airmen. Figure 3: A conceptual AF mobile...innovation that unlock mission capabilities for Airmen. Both use cases are important (and can be integrated), but the functionals must continue to remind

  2. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  3. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  4. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Xibo; Peng Zhiran; Wu Wenquan

    2017-01-01

    With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mi...

  5. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  6. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  7. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-12-16

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  8. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird, the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  9. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed M Usman; Hussain, Sajid; Siddiqui, Ali Akber; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-01-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively

  10. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Ali, Syed M.; Hussain, Sajid; Akber Siddiqui, Ali; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-12-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input & Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively.

  11. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  12. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on the smart grid with the theory of business ecosystem may open opportunities to understand market catalysts. This study...

  13. A rhythm-based authentication scheme for smart media devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience.

  14. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  15. Book-Smart, Not Street-Smart: Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts and The Social Workings of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. C. Levy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper critiques blockchain-basedsmart contracts,” which aim to automatically and securely execute obligations without reliance on a centralized enforcement authority. Though smart contracts do have some features that might serve the goals of social justice and fairness, I suggest that they are based on a thin conception of what law does, and how it does it. Smart contracts focus on the technical form of contract to the exclusion of the social contexts within which contracts operate, and the complex ways in which people use them. In the real world, contractual obligations are enforced through all kinds of social mechanisms other than formal adjudication—and contracts serve many functions that are not explicitly legal in nature, or even designed to be formally enforced. I describe three categories of contracting practices in which people engage (the inclusion of facially unenforceable terms, the inclusion of purposefully underspecified terms, and willful nonenforcement of enforceable terms to illustrate how contracts actually “work.” The technology of smart contracts neglects the fact that people use contracts as social resources to manage their relations. The inflexibility that they introduce, by design, might short-circuit a number of social uses to which law is routinely put. Therefore, I suggest that attention to the social and relational contexts of contracting are essential considerations for the discussion, development, and deployment of smart contracts.

  16. The Security Email Based on Smart Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Zhang; Jiang, Meng Hai.

    Email has become one of the most important communication tools in modern internet society, and its security is an important issue that can't be ignored. The security requirements of Email can be summarized as confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. Recently many researches on IBE (identify based encrypt) have been carried out to solve these security problems. However, because of IBE's fatal flaws and great advantages of PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), PKI is found to be still irreplaceable especially in the applications based on smart card. In this paper, a construction of security Email is presented, then the design of relatively cryptography algorithms and the configuration of certificates are elaborated, and finally the security for the proposed system is discussed.

  17. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  18. The Geneva-based city smart growth evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wen

    2017-05-01

    With the popularity of smart growth raising worldwide, the sustainable development of cities has attracted more and more attention. In this paper, a model of AHP constructed by grey relational analysis is proposed to help implement smart growth theories into city design based on Geneva. Sustainable Development Metric (SDM) is our formulated metric.

  19. Design and implementation of a smart card based billing system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A smart card based billing system for petroleum dispenser is just one of the many ways in which smart cards can be employed to make commerce efficient. It incorporates the use of smart card as its legal tender and a smart card reader embedded into the filling station dispenser design. The smart card reader processes the ...

  20. IOT Based Smart Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gawade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things IoT joins the objects of this present reality to the virtual world and empowers at whatever time anyplace network for anything that has a turn ON and turn OFF switch. It constitutes to a world where physical things and humans and other living things and virtual information and situations collaborate with each other. Substantial measure of information is created as expansive number of gadgets is associated with the web. So this expansive measure of information must be controlled and changed over to helpful data keeping in mind the end goal to create productive frameworks. In this paper we concentrate on to a urban IoT framework that is utilized to construct Intelligent Transportation System ITS. IoT based intelligent transportation systems are intended to bolster the Smart City vision which intends to utilize the progressed and capable communication systems for the organization of the city and the residents.

  1. Managing performance based building of smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlies, R.D. van der; Maas, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Smart homes are considered a vital technology in an aging society as they compensate for a shortage in care workers. However, often smart homes do not perform well. Performance management is well known in the manufacturing industry but not common in the building industry. The performance approach is

  2. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  3. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  4. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  5. Magnetic-fluid-based smart centrifugal switch

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, R P

    2002-01-01

    A new type of centrifugal switch, which we call 'smart centrifugal switch' is designed and developed utilizing the novel properties of magnetic fluid. No mechanical movement is involved in the sensing and switching operations of this centrifugal switch and both these operations are achieved in a smart way. The performance of the switch is studied. This switch has several important advantages over conventional centrifugal switches like smart and non-contact type operation, sparkless and hence explosion proof working and inertia-less simple structure.

  6. Smart Home Energy Management Based on Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    E.Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Today organizations use IEEE 802.15&Zigbee to effectively deliver solutions for a variety of areas including consumer electronic device control, energy management and efficiency home and commercial building automation as well as industrial plant management. The smart home energy network has gained widespread attentions due to its flexible integrati- ion into everyday life. This next generation green home system transparently unifies various home appliances smart sensors &wireless communicati...

  7. Optical-based smart structures for tamper-indicating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Simmons, K.L.; Undem, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of several related projects performed from 1991 through 1996 concerning the design, construction, and application of optical-based smart structure to tamper-indicating and sensing secure containers. Due to several influences, the projects were carried through to varying degrees of completion. Cancellation of the overall project at the client level motivated the authors to gather all of the technology and ideas about smart structures developed during these several projects, whether completed or just conceptualized, into one document. Although each section individually discusses a specific project, the overall document is written chronologically with each successive section showing how increased smart structure complexity was integrated into the container

  8. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-05-04

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses) to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance.

  9. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Ghayvat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance.

  10. Automated Clinical Assessment from Smart home-based Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behaviour in the home and predicting standard clinical assessment scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a Clinical Assessment using Activity Behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident’s daily behavior and predict the corresponding standard clinical assessment scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident’s daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical assessment scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years using prediction and classification-based experiments. In the prediction-based experiments, we obtain a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive assessment scores and a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. Similarly, for the classification-based experiments, we find CAAB has a classification accuracy of 72% while classifying cognitive assessment scores and 76% while classifying mobility scores. These prediction and classification results suggest that it is feasible to predict standard clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis. PMID:26292348

  11. Smart learning objects for smart education in computer science theory, methodology and robot-based implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Stuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents the challenges, vision and context to design smart learning objects (SLOs) through Computer Science (CS) education modelling and feature model transformations. It presents the latest research on the meta-programming-based generative learning objects (the latter with advanced features are treated as SLOs) and the use of educational robots in teaching CS topics. The introduced methodology includes the overall processes to develop SLO and smart educational environment (SEE) and integrates both into the real education setting to provide teaching in CS using constructivist a

  12. Adaptation of Powerline Communications-Based Smart Metering Deployments to the Requirements of Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Powerline communications (PLC-based smart meter deployments are now a reality in many regions of the world. Although PLC elements are generally incorporated in smart meters and data concentrators, the underlying PLC network allows the integration of other smart grid services directly over it. The remote control capabilities that automation programs need and are today deployed over their medium voltage (MV grid, can be extended to the low voltage (LV grid through these existing PLC networks. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of narrowband high data rate (NB HDR PLC technologies deployed over LV grids for smart metering purposes to support internet protocol internet protocol (IP communications in the LV grid. The paper demonstrates these possibilities with the presentation of the simulation and laboratory results of IP communications over international telecommunication union: ITU-T G.9904 PLC technology, and the definition of a PLC Network Management System based on a simple network management protocol (SNMP management information base (MIB definition and applicable use cases.

  13. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  14. Tamper indicating and sensing optical-based smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.; Stahl, K.A.; Undem, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the type of optical-based structures that can be designed and constructed. These smart structures are capable of responding to their environment. The examples given represent a modest sampling of the complexity that can be achieved in both design and practice. Tamper-indicating containers and smart, sensing windows demonstrate just a few of the applications. We have shown that optical-based smart structures can be made multifunctional with the sensing built in. The next generation smart structure will combine the sensing functionality of these optical-based smart structures with other sensors such as piezoelectrics and electro-rheological fluids to not only be able to respond to the environment, but to adapt to it as well. An example of functionality in this regime would be a piezosensor that senses pressure changes (e.g., shock waves), which then causes an electro-rheological fluid to change viscosity. A fiber sensor located in or near the electro-rheological fluid senses the stiffness change and sends a signal through a feedback loop back to the piezosensor for additional adjustments to the electro-rheological fluid

  15. A smart card based student card system

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. A Smart Card looks like a normal plastic card that we use every day, but its capabilities and advantages are huge. Inside the card there is a small microprocessor capable of doing operations on data. With memory available on the card, data can be stored in a safe and secure location. This card can be used for various applications and is a big improvement on all of its predecessors. These applications can be anything from SIM cards in a cell phone to credit cards and cards used for ac...

  16. Smart-Home Architecture Based on Bluetooth mesh Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qing; Liu, Jianghua

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the smart home network system based on Nordic nrf52832 device. Nrf52832 is new generation RF SOC device focus on sensor monitor and low power Bluetooth connection applications. In this smart home system, we set up a self-organizing network system which consists of one control node and a lot of monitor nodes. The control node manages the whole network works; the monitor nodes collect the sensor information such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, PM2.5, etc. Then update to the control node by Bluetooth mesh network. The design results show that the Bluetooth mesh wireless network system is flexible and construction cost is low, which is suitable for the communication characteristics of a smart home network. We believe it will be wildly used in the future.

  17. An acceptance model for smart glasses based tourism augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidy, Waqas Khalid; Arshad, Haslina; Huang, Jiung Yao

    2017-10-01

    Recent mobile technologies have revolutionized the way people experience their environment. Although, there is only limited research on users' acceptance of AR in the cultural tourism context, previous researchers have explored the opportunities of using augmented reality (AR) in order to enhance user experience. Recent AR research lack works that integrates dimensions which are specific to cultural tourism and smart glass specific context. Hence, this work proposes an AR acceptance model in the context of cultural heritage tourism and smart glasses capable of performing augmented reality. Therefore, in this paper we aim to present an AR acceptance model to understand the AR usage behavior and visiting intention for tourists who use Smart Glass based AR at UNESCO cultural heritage destinations in Malaysia. Furthermore, this paper identifies information quality, technology readiness, visual appeal, and facilitating conditions as external variables and key factors influencing visitors' beliefs, attitudes and usage intention.

  18. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Collotta, Mario; Pau, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless netw...

  19. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  20. Smart Card Based Integrated Electronic Health Record System For Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    N. Anju Latha; B. Rama Murthy; U. Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Smart cards are used in information technologies as portable integrated devices with data storage and data processing capabilities. As in other fields, smart card use in health systems became popular due to their increased capacity and performance. Smart cards are used as a Electronic Health Record (EHR) Their efficient use with easy and fast data access facilities leads to implementation particularly widespread in hospitals. In this paper, a smart card based Integrated Electronic health Reco...

  1. Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutule, Anna; Obushevs, Artjoms; Lvov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the main goals and achievements of the Smart Grids ERA-NET project named “Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology (SmartGen)” during the second stage of project implementation. A description of Smart Grid Technology (S......) models developed within the framework of the project is given. The performed study cases where the SGT-models were implemented to analyze the impact of the electrical grid are discussed....

  2. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  3. Towards cloud based big data analytics for smart future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Z.; Anjum, A.; Soomro, K.; Muhammad, T.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of land-use, environment, socio-economic, energy and transport data is generated in cities. An integrated perspective of managing and analysing such big data can answer a number of science, policy, planning, governance and business questions and support decision making in enabling a smarter environment. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental perspective on the smart cities focused big data management and analysis by proposing a cloud-based analytics service. A proto...

  4. Dust storm detection using random forests and physical-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the capability of two physical-based methods, and random forests (RF) classifier, for the first time, to detect dust storms using MODIS imagery. Since the physical-based approaches are empirical, they suffer from certain drawbacks such as high variability of thresholds depending on the underlying ...

  5. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  6. An Architecture for Intelligent Systems Based on Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Mandayam, Shreekanth; Polikar, Robi

    2004-01-01

    Based on requirements for a next-generation rocket test facility, elements of a prototype Intelligent Rocket Test Facility (IRTF) have been implemented. A key component is distributed smart sensor elements integrated using a knowledgeware environment. One of the specific goals is to imbue sensors with the intelligence needed to perform self diagnosis of health and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. The preliminary results provide the basis for future advanced development and validation using rocket test stand facilities at Stennis Space Center (SSC). We have identified issues important to further development of health-enabled networks, which should be of interest to others working with smart sensors and intelligent health management systems.

  7. Clinical information system based on the medical smart card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Y L; Saiag, E

    2000-07-01

    Over the last 5 years Israel has implemented a nationwide health insurance plan covering the entire population of the country. We have developed a clinical information system based on electronic-chip health care medical smart cards. Health care cards are used in several European countries and chip smart cards have been successful in many sectors. Our project involves the community use of the MSC, thereby enabling health care professionals to skillfully employ card systems in the health care sector. This system can easily arrange electronic medical charts in clinics, facilitating the confidential sharing of personal health databases among health professionals. To develop an MSC applicable for daily use in the community and hospital system. The MSC project, currently underway in Israel and the USA, will aid in determining the costs, benefits and feasibility of the MSC. Successful implementation of the MSC in chosen clinics will promote a nationwide willingness to adopt this promising technology.

  8. Template matching based people tracking using a smart camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junzhi; Van Hese, Peter; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge Oswaldo; Bo Bo, Nyan; Gruenwedel, Sebastian; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Van Cauwelaert, Dimitri; Veelaert, Peter; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we proposes a people tracking system composed of multiple calibrated smart cameras and one fusion server which fuses the information from all cameras. Each smart camera estimates the ground plane positions of people based on the current frame and feedback from the server from the previous time. Correlation coefficient based template matching, which is invariant to illumination changes, is proposed to estimate the position of people in each smart camera. Only the estimated position and the corresponding correlation coefficient are sent to the server. This minimal amount of information exchange makes the system highly scalable with the number of cameras. The paper focuses on creating and updating a good template for the tracked person using feedback from the server. Additionally, a static background image of the empty room is used to improve the results of template matching. We evaluated the performance of the tracker in scenarios where persons are often occluded by other persons or furniture, and illumination changes occur frequently e.g., due to switching the light on or off. For two sequences (one minute for each, one with table in the room, one without table) with frequent illumination changes, the proposed tracker never lose track of the persons. We compare the performance of our tracking system to a state-of-the-art tracking system. Our approach outperforms it in terms of tracking accuracy and people loss.

  9. ABS-SmartPriority: An Agent-Based Simulator of Strategies for Managing Self-Reported Priorities in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván García-Magariño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities still need the appropriate tools for allowing researchers to contribute in this growing field that will change the comfort and qualities of live of citizens. Smart cities can provide services such as informing of the less overcrowded tourist routes, path-finding for avoiding traffic jams, search services for parking, collecting tree branches from streets, and the finding of the nearest available public electric bicycles or cars. The levels of urgencies differ from some situations to others. Examples of urgent matters are the fast transportation critical patients and the removal of obstacles in main roads. Since smart cities are meant to manage huge amounts of requests, priorities should be automated and managed in a flexible way for new scenarios. Smart cities may need citizens to report the service priorities. However, citizens may have different criteria and could abuse the highest priority levels hindering the service performance for really urgent matters. A novel agent-based simulation open-source framework is proposed for testing different policies for normalizing and controlling self-reported priorities, with its simulator called ABS-SmartPriority. This approach is illustrated by simulating two different policies, in which the smart policy outperformed the one used as the control mechanism.

  10. A CLOUD-BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Valentín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Turning a city into a smart city has attracted considerable attention. A smart city can be seen as a city that uses digital technology not only to improve the quality of people’s life, but also, to have a positive impact in the environment and, at the same time, offer efficient and easy-to-use services. A fundamental aspect to be considered in a smart city is people’s safety and welfare, therefore, having a good security system becomes a necessity, because it allows us to detect and identify potential risk situations, and then take appropriate decisions to help people or even prevent criminal acts. In this paper we present an architecture for automated video surveillance based on the cloud computing schema capable of acquiring a video stream from a set of cameras connected to the network, process that information, detect, label and highlight security-relevant events automatically, store the information and provide situational awareness in order to minimize response time to take the appropriate action.

  11. a Cloud-Based Architecture for Smart Video Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, L.; Serrano, S. A.; Oves García, R.; Andrade, A.; Palacios-Alonso, M. A.; Sucar, L. Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Turning a city into a smart city has attracted considerable attention. A smart city can be seen as a city that uses digital technology not only to improve the quality of people's life, but also, to have a positive impact in the environment and, at the same time, offer efficient and easy-to-use services. A fundamental aspect to be considered in a smart city is people's safety and welfare, therefore, having a good security system becomes a necessity, because it allows us to detect and identify potential risk situations, and then take appropriate decisions to help people or even prevent criminal acts. In this paper we present an architecture for automated video surveillance based on the cloud computing schema capable of acquiring a video stream from a set of cameras connected to the network, process that information, detect, label and highlight security-relevant events automatically, store the information and provide situational awareness in order to minimize response time to take the appropriate action.

  12. Development of Android based Smart Power Saving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Kumar, Pradeep; Ghosh, Tathagata; Bhawna, Shruthi. S.

    2017-08-01

    An android based smart power saving system has been presented in this paper. For this purpose, an application is developed for controlling the intensity of an AC supply using a dimmer circuit in android platform and to monitor the current flow on different intensity level a current sensor is used in the circuit. Dimmer circuit provides a 16-different intensity level to control the flow of current and help in power saving. The system is very simple and robust as it is based on android platform.

  13. The suggested system for health insurance Application based on Smart Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Esam Mohamed El Gohary; Mohamed El-Sayed Waheed

    2013-01-01

    This paper concentrates on designing a system for Health insurance using smart card technology .The system is called HISS (Health insurance system using smart card).As we will see the system is web based application based on central database ,uses smart card for two reasons first, as a data carrier for patient and professionals. Second reason is for authentication purposes. There are some figures that describe system architecture and processes then each component well be explained.

  14. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  15. Ball Lens Fiber Optic Sensor based Smart Handheld Microsurgical Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheol; Gehlbach, Peter L; Kang, Jin U

    2013-03-20

    During freehand performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery the surgeon must perform precise and stable maneuvers that achieve surgical objectives and avoid surgical risk. Here, we present an improved smart handheld microsurgical tool which is based on a ball lens fiber optic sensor that utilizes common path swept source optical coherence tomography. Improvements include incorporation of a ball lens single mode fiber optic probe that increases the working angle of the tool to greater than 45 degrees; and increases the magnitude of the distance sensing signal through water. Also presented is a cutting function with an improved ergonomic design.

  16. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Dammann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  17. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plass Simon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  18. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  19. Validation of the SmartBasing Aircraft Rotation and Retirement Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.; Gherman, B.; porumbel, I.

    2018-01-01

    SmartBasing provides fleet managers tools with which to manage their end-of-life aircraft fleets. The principles of SmartBasing include reassigning aircraft to different bases and assigning aircraft to a new mix of mission types to actively manage the remaining useful lifetime of each aircraft in a

  20. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  1. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-01-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  2. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap [B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn, E-mail: Dr.N.L@ieee.org [Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  3. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  4. A smart sensor-based vision system: implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elouardi, A; Bouaziz, S; Dupret, A; Lacassagne, L; Klein, J O; Reynaud, R

    2006-01-01

    One of the methods of solving the computational complexity of image-processing is to perform some low-level computations on the sensor focal plane. This paper presents a vision system based on a smart sensor. PARIS1 (Programmable Analog Retina-like Image Sensor1) is the first prototype used to evaluate the architecture of an on-chip vision system based on such a sensor coupled with a microcontroller. The smart sensor integrates a set of analog and digital computing units. This architecture paves the way for a more compact vision system and increases the performances reducing the data flow exchanges with a microprocessor in control. A system has been implemented as a proof-of-concept and has enabled us to evaluate the performance requirements for a possible integration of a microcontroller on the same chip. The used approach is compared with two architectures implementing CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) and interfaced to the same microcontroller. The comparison is related to image processing computation time, processing reliability, programmability, precision, bandwidth and subsequent stages of computations

  5. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Electrochromic smart windows offer a viable route to reducing the consumption of buildings energy, which represents about 30% of the worldwide energy consumption. Smart windows are far more compelling than current static windows in that they can dynamically modulate the solar spectrum depending on climate and lighting conditions or simply to meet personal preferences. The latest generation of smart windows relies on nominally transparent metal oxide nanocrystal materials whose chromism can be electrochemically controlled using the plasmonic effect. Plasmonic electrochromic materials selectively control the near infrared (NIR) region of the solar spectrum, responsible for solar heat, without affecting the visible transparency. This is in contrast to conventional electrochromic materials which block both the visible and NIR and thus enables electrochromic devices to reduce the energy consumption of a building or a greenhouse in warm climate regions due to enhancements of both visible lighting and heat blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control in the NIR and visible spectra, and demonstration of self-powering capabilities. This thesis is focused on developing low-temperature and all-solution processed plasmonic electrochromic devices and dual-band electrochromic devices. We demonstrate new device fabrication approaches in terms of materials and processes which enhance electrochromic performance all the while maintaining low processing temperatures. Scalable fabrication methods are used to highlight compatibility with high throughput, continuous roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates. In addition, a dualband plasmonic electrochromic device was developed by combining the plasmonic layer with a conventional electrochromic ion storage layer. This enables

  6. An Optical-Fiber-Based Smart Textile (Smart Socks) to Manage Biomechanical Risk Factors Associated With Diabetic Foot Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Bijan; Mohseni, Hooman; Grewal, Gurtej S; Talal, Talal K; Menzies, Robert A; Armstrong, David G

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to validate a smart-textile based on fiber-optics for simultaneous measurement of plantar temperature, pressure, and joint angles in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). After in-vitro validation in the laboratory, 33 eligible subjects with DPN were recruited (age: 58 ± 8 years, BMI: 31.5 ± 8 kg/m 2 ) for assessing plantar pressure and temperature during habitual gait-speed in a clinical-setting. All participants were asked to walk at their habitual speed while wearing a pair of sensorized socks made from highly flexible fiber optics (SmartSox). An algorithm was designed to estimate temperature, pressure, and toe range of motion from optical wavelength generated from SmartSox. To validate the device, results from thermal stress response (TSR) using thermography and peak pressure measured by computerized pressure insoles (F-Scan) were used as gold standards. In laboratory and under controlled conditions, the agreements for parameters of interest were excellent ( r > .98, P = .000), and no noticeable cross-talks between measurements of temperature, angle, and pressure were observed. During clinical data acquisition, a significant correlation was found for pressure profile under different anatomical regions of interest between SmartSox and F-Scan ( r = .67, P < .050) as well as between thermography and SmartSox ( r = .55, P < .050). This study demonstrates the validity of an innovative smart textile for assessing simultaneously the key parameters associated with risk of foot ulcers in patients with DPN. It may empower clinicians to objectively stratify foot risk and provide timely care. Another study is warranted to validate its clinical application in preventing limb threating problems in patients with DPN.

  7. Customer value of smart metering: Explorative evidence from a choice-based conjoint study in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Simon; Künzel, Karoline; Loock, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Implementing smart metering is an important field for energy policy to successfully meet energy efficiency targets. From an integrated social acceptance and customer-perceived value theory perspective we model the importance of customer value of smart metering in this regard. We further shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment with Swiss private electricity customers. The study finds that overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering and are willing to pay for it. Further, based on a cluster analysis of customers’ value perceptions, we identify four customer segments, each with a distinct value perception profile for smart metering. We find that energy policy and management should integrate a solid understanding of customer value for smart metering in their initiatives and consider different smart metering market segments within their measures. - Highlights: ► We model the importance of customer value of smart metering. ► We shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment. ► Overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering. ► Customers are willing to pay for smart metering. ► There are four distinct customer segments with different value perceptions.

  8. Dust storm detection using random forests and physical-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arid areas of the Middle. East. Due to the influences of dust aerosols on climate and human daily activities, dust detection plays a crucial role in environmental and climatic studies. Detection of dust storms is critical to accurately under- stand dust ...

  9. Model Based Safety Analysis with smartIflow †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hönig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of safety requirements is one important task during the development of safety critical systems. The increasing complexity of systems makes manual analysis almost impossible. This paper introduces a new methodology for formal verification of technical systems with smartIflow (State Machines for Automation of Reliability-related Tasks using Information FLOWs. smartIflow is a new modeling language that has been especially designed for the purpose of automating the safety analysis process in early product life cycle stages. It builds up on experience with existing approaches. As is common practice in current approaches, components are modeled as finite state machines. However, new concepts are introduced to describe component interactions. Events play a major role for internal interactions between components as well as for external (user interactions. Our approach to the verification of formally specified safety requirements is a two-step method. First, an exhaustive simulation creates knowledge about a great variety of possible behaviors of the system, especially including reactions on suddenly occurring (possibly intermittent faults. In the second step, safety requirements specified in CTL (Computation Tree Logic are verified using model checking techniques, and counterexamples are generated if these are not satisfied. The practical applicability of this approach is demonstrated based on a Java implementation using a simple Two-Tank-Pump-Consumer system.

  10. MEMS- and NEMS-based smart devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2001-11-01

    structures and food and medical industries. This unique combination of technologies also results in novel conformal sensors that can be remotely sensed by an antenna system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. This paper provides a brief review of MEMS and NEMS based smart systems for various applications mentioned above. Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) with their unique structure, have already proven to be valuable in their application as tips for scanning probe microscopy, field emission devices, nanoelectronics, H2-storage, electromagnetic absorbers, ESD, EMI films and coatings and structural composites. For many of these applications, highly purified and functionalized CNT which are compatible with many host polymers are needed. A novel microwave CVD processing technique to meet these requirements has been developed at Penn State Center for the engineering of Electronic and Acoustic Materials and Devices (CEEAMD). This method enables the production of highly purified carbon nano tubes with variable size (from 5-40 nm) at low cost (per gram) and high yield. Whereas, carbon nano tubes synthesized using the laser ablation or arc discharge evaporation method always include impurity due to catalyst or catalyst support. The Penn State research is based on the use of zeolites over other metal/metal oxides in the microwave field for a high production and uniformity of the product. An extended conventional purification method has been employed to purify our products in order to remove left over impurity. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross- linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composites will be presented.

  11. Smart Material-Actuated Flexible Tendon-Based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  12. Smart materials based on shape memory alloys: examples from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotthardt, R.; Scherrer, P.

    2000-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have become increasingly attractive as embedded actuators in polymers yielding adaptive composite structures. In particular, SMA-elements have been used to actively or passively control shape, elastic modules, internal stress level and damping capacity of such smart composites. In the passive approach, copper-base SMA-plates can be used as temperature-sensitive damping elements, an interesting solution to improve the vibrational behaviour of alpine skis for example. Active materials are obtained by the integration of pre-strained Ni-Ti-base thin wires in polymer matrix composites enabling control of the vibrational behaviour through the recovery-stress tuning technique. In this paper, some results of national research programmes in Belgium and Switzerland, mainly concerning the damping capacity, are shown and a new European project entitled ''adaptive composites with embedded shape memory alloy wires'' is presented in which partners from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Great Britain and Switzerland are collaborating. (orig.)

  13. Password-based authenticated key exchange scheme using smart card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhong, Shaojun

    2013-03-01

    A protocol that allows any two entities to negotiate a shared session key is commonly called a key exchange protocol. If the protocol provides a function to authenticate each other, we call the protocol authenticated key exchange protocol (AKE). Password authentication key exchange (PAKE) is the AKE protocol in which the two entities share a humanmemorable password. Most of current PAKE relies on the existence of a public key infrastructure, which sometime is impossible for a certain environments such as low computational device due to the computation overhead. In this paper, we propose password-based authenticated key exchange using smart card. Compared to previous PAKE, our protocol is more efficient because our protocol is based on ECC. Thereby, the proposed protocol can be well applied to low computation device.

  14. Blockchain-based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alharby, Maher; van Moorsel, Aad

    2017-01-01

    An appealing feature of blockchain technology is smart contracts. A smart contract is executable code that runs on top of the blockchain to facilitate, execute and enforce an agreement between untrusted parties without the involvement of a trusted third party. In this paper, we conduct a systematic mapping study to collect all research that is relevant to smart contracts from a technical perspective. The aim of doing so is to identify current research topics and open challenges for future stu...

  15. Engineering Cooperative Smart Things based on Embodied Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Nathalia Moraes do; de Lucena, Carlos Jose Pereira

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the Internet of Things (IoT) is to transform any thing around us, such as a trash can or a street light, into a smart thing. A smart thing has the ability of sensing, processing, communicating and/or actuating. In order to achieve the goal of a smart IoT application, such as minimizing waste transportation costs or reducing energy consumption, the smart things in the application scenario must cooperate with each other without a centralized control. Inspired by known approaches to ...

  16. Design and implementation of a smart card based healthcare information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, Geylani; Tunali, E Turhan

    2006-01-01

    Smart cards are used in information technologies as portable integrated devices with data storage and data processing capabilities. As in other fields, smart card use in health systems became popular due to their increased capacity and performance. Their efficient use with easy and fast data access facilities leads to implementation particularly widespread in security systems. In this paper, a smart card based healthcare information system is developed. The system uses smart card for personal identification and transfer of health data and provides data communication via a distributed protocol which is particularly developed for this study. Two smart card software modules are implemented that run on patient and healthcare professional smart cards, respectively. In addition to personal information, general health information about the patient is also loaded to patient smart card. Health care providers use their own smart cards to be authenticated on the system and to access data on patient cards. Encryption keys and digital signature keys stored on smart cards of the system are used for secure and authenticated data communication between clients and database servers over distributed object protocol. System is developed on Java platform by using object oriented architecture and design patterns.

  17. Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

    2003-04-01

    A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

  18. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  19. "Smart" Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Shuwen

    2013-02-28

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. "Smart" materials based on cellulose have great advantages-especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli-and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of "smart" materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of "smart" materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these "smart" materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review.

  20. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-10-12

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  1. IPv6-Based Smart Metering Network for Monitoring Building Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart electricity monitoring system of building is presented using ZigBee and internet to establish the network. This system consists of three hardware layers: the host PC, the router, and the sensor nodes. A hierarchical ant colony algorithm is developed for data transmission among the wireless sensor nodes. The wireless communication protocol is also designed based on IPv6 protocol on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless network. All-IP approach and peer-to-peer mode are integrated to optimize the network building. Each node measures the power, current, and voltage and transmits them to the host PC through the router. The host software is designed for building test characteristics, having a tree hierarchy and a friendly interface for the user. The reliability and accuracy of this monitoring system are verified in the experiment and application.

  2. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  3. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bako; Awad, Ali Ismail

    2018-03-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or "things" to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  4. Smart Environment Program, Smart Way to Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Tutik Rachmawati; Priska Diah Pertiwi

    2017-01-01

    Bandung City Government is ranked the 3rd in smart city index in Indonesia only within 8 months of smart city application. Considering this achievement, it is necessary to study this fast-tracking success of smart city to enable a lesson learnt for other local governments. Hence, this research aims at evaluating the best practices of smart environment program as one of smart city projects and analyzing the positive transformation being brought. The analysis will be based on three core activit...

  5. Cryptanalysis And Further Improvement Of A Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Li et al. proposed a secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards to withstand the security flaws of Li-Hwang's efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Li et al.'s scheme is based on biometrics verification, smart card and one-way hash function, and it also uses the random nonce rather than a synchronized clock, and thus it is efficient in computational cost and more secure than Li-Hwang's scheme. Unfortunately, in...

  6. FPGA-based fused smart sensor for dynamic and vibration parameter extraction in industrial robot links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

  7. FPGA-Based Fused Smart Sensor for Dynamic and Vibration Parameter Extraction in Industrial Robot Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene de Jesus Romero-Troncoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA.

  8. FPGA-Based Fused Smart Sensor for Dynamic and Vibration Parameter Extraction in Industrial Robot Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). PMID:22319345

  9. Enhanced ID-Based Authentication Scheme Using OTP in Smart Grid AMI Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Soo Yeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vulnerabilities analyses of KL scheme which is an ID-based authentication scheme for AMI network attached SCADA in smart grid and proposes a security-enhanced authentication scheme which satisfies forward secrecy as well as security requirements introduced in KL scheme and also other existing schemes. The proposed scheme uses MDMS which is the supervising system located in an electrical company as a time-synchronizing server in order to synchronize smart devices at home and conducts authentication between smart meter and smart devices using a new secret value generated by an OTP generator every session. The proposed scheme has forward secrecy, so it increases overall security, but its communication and computation overhead reduce its performance slightly, comparing the existing schemes. Nonetheless, hardware specification and communication bandwidth of smart devices will have better conditions continuously, so the proposed scheme would be a good choice for secure AMI environment.

  10. A Model of Smart Environment for E-learning Based on Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Simić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of the concepts of Internet of Things and its application in creating smart environments. The specific goal is to design a smart environment for enhancing the teaching and learning processes at universities. The environment should integrate adequate concepts of smart buildings and smart classrooms with e-learning systems, in order to provide students with advanced e-learning services and services that improve the overall quality of students' experience. In addition, the model is based on the concept of crowdsourcing, where students actively participate in gathering the information, designing and implementing the e-services. Finally, the paper describes a prototype of the designed smart environment implemented at the Department for e-Business, at University of Belgrade.

  11. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  12. How to Evaluate Smart Cities’ Construction? A Comparison of Chinese Smart City Evaluation Methods Based on PSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of smart cities in the world, research relating to smart city evaluation has become a new research hotspot in academia. However, there are general problems of cognitive deprivation, lack of planning experience, and low level of coordination in smart cities construction. It is necessary for us to develop a set of scientific, reasonable, and effective evaluation index systems and evaluation models to analyze the development degree of urban wisdom. Based on the theory of the urban system, we established a comprehensive evaluation index system for urban intelligent development based on the people-oriented, city-system, and resources-flow (PSF evaluation model. According to the characteristics of the comprehensive evaluation index system of urban intelligent development, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP combined with the experts’ opinions determine the index weight of this system. We adopted the neural network model to construct the corresponding comprehensive evaluation model to characterize the non-linear characteristics of the comprehensive evaluation indexes system, thus to quantitatively quantify the comprehensive evaluation indexes of urban intelligent development. Finally, we used the AHP, AHP-BP (Back Propagation, and AHP-ELM (Extreme Learning Machine models to evaluate the intelligent development level of 151 cities in China, and compared them from the perspective of model accuracy and time cost. The final simulation results show that the AHP-ELM model is the best evaluation model.

  13. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Hasan; Jung, Low Tang

    2013-01-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  14. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    their knowledge; scalable data analytics platform for data mining over big data sets for energy demand forecasting and consumption discovering; data as the service for other applications using smart meter data; and a portal for visualizing data analytics results. The design will incorporate hybrid clouds...... of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart......Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social...

  15. Imaging-based dust sensors: equipment and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Greco, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Dust detection and control in real time, represent one of the most challenging problem in all those environments where fine and ultrafine airborne particulate solids products are present. The presence of such products can be linked to several factors, often directly related and influenced by the working-production actions performed. Independently from the causes generating dust, airborne contaminants are an occupational problem of increasing interest as they are related to a wide number of diseases. In particular, airborne dusts are well known to be associated with several classical occupational lung diseases, such as the pneumoconiosis, especially at high levels of exposure. Nowadays there is also an increasing interest in other dust related diseases, from the most serious as cancer and asthma, to those related with allergies or irritation and other illnesses, also occurring at lower levels of exposure. Among the different critical factors influencing health risk for airborne dust exposure, mainly four have to be considered, that is: i) nature of the dust resulting from working in terms of presence of specific poisoning material, i.e. free silica, and morphological and morphometrical attributes of particulates constituting airborne dust; ii) size of the particles, iii) duration of exposure time and, finally, iv) airborne dust concentration in the breathing zone where the worker performs his activity. A correct dust detection is not easy, especially if some of the previous mentioned factors, have to be detected and quantified in real time in order to define specific "on-line" control actions aimed to reduce the level of the exposure to dust of the workers, as for example: i) modification of aspirating devices operating condition, change of filtering cleaning sequence, etc. . The more severe are the environmental conditions, in terms of dust presence (in quantity and quality) more difficult is to utilize efficient sampling devices. Detection devices, in fact, tend

  16. Preference-based Internet of Things dynamic service selection for smart campus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manqele, L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available of IEEE AFRICON 2015, UNECA Conference Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14–17 September 2015 Preference-based Internet of Things dynamic service selection for smart campus 1Lindelweyizizwe Manqele, 2Mqhele Dlodlo Department of Electrical...

  17. Reinforcement Learning Based Novel Adaptive Learning Framework for Smart Grid Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a potential infrastructure to supply electricity demand for end users in a safe and reliable manner. With the rapid increase of the share of renewable energy and controllable loads in smart grid, the operation uncertainty of smart grid has increased briskly during recent years. The forecast is responsible for the safety and economic operation of the smart grid. However, most existing forecast methods cannot account for the smart grid due to the disabilities to adapt to the varying operational conditions. In this paper, reinforcement learning is firstly exploited to develop an online learning framework for the smart grid. With the capability of multitime scale resolution, wavelet neural network has been adopted in the online learning framework to yield reinforcement learning and wavelet neural network (RLWNN based adaptive learning scheme. The simulations on two typical prediction problems in smart grid, including wind power prediction and load forecast, validate the effectiveness and the scalability of the proposed RLWNN based learning framework and algorithm.

  18. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and ...

  19. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Das; Adrijit Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authenticati...

  20. Spatial distribution of mineral dust single scattering albedo based on DREAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Ničković, Slobodan; Ilić, Luka

    2016-04-01

    Mineral dust comprises a significant part of global aerosol burden. There is a large uncertainty in estimating role of dust in Earth's climate system, partly due to poor characterization of its optical properties. Single scattering albedo is one of key optical properties determining radiative effects of dust particles. While it depends on dust particle sizes, it is also strongly influenced by dust mineral composition, particularly the content of light-absorbing iron oxides and the mixing state (external or internal). However, an assumption of uniform dust composition is typically used in models. To better represent single scattering albedo in dust atmospheric models, required to increase accuracy of dust radiative effect estimates, it is necessary to include information on particle mineral content. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of dust single scattering albedo based on the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) with incorporated particle mineral composition. The domain of the model covers Northern Africa, Middle East and the European continent, with horizontal resolution set to 1/5°. It uses eight particle size bins within the 0.1-10 μm radius range. Focusing on dust episode of June 2010, we analyze dust single scattering albedo spatial distribution over the model domain, based on particle sizes and mineral composition from model output; we discuss changes in this optical property after long-range transport. Furthermore, we examine how the AERONET-derived aerosol properties respond to dust mineralogy. Finally we use AERONET data to evaluate model-based single scattering albedo. Acknowledgement We would like to thank the AERONET network and the principal investigators, as well as their staff, for establishing and maintaining the AERONET sites used in this work.

  1. TOWARDS A CLOUD BASED SMART TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  2. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-04-13

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  3. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  4. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Peng, Limei; Lu, Huimin; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif

    2017-07-10

    Body area networks (BANs) are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device's battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  5. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Hao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body area networks (BANs are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device’s battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  6. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Massaroni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  7. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  8. Smart Garbage Based on Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, K.; Haryanto; Rohim, D. F.

    2018-01-01

    Trash is one of serious problems in Indonesia. It leads to another problems which deal with social, culture and economic, most of cities inindonesia have some problems in managing the trush. It is because the government doesn’t have the standard of trash management. The schedule to take the trash usually discover a problems with a lateness. The lack of trashmanagement and people’s habbit who don’t care about the trash impact effect to more serious problems that dealwith the trash. Such as, enviromental problems. Based on the problems the researcher makes a system called “Smart Garbage Based On Internet of things”. The system applies the technology of temporary garbage used internal system. This system creates in order to fix the problem of punctuality. Which makes the trash management more effective and afficient. The process of uploading the information in the internal awerness of based on the “real time” ativity this system can increase the peurity and health. Because the trash is controlled and not aculamulated arround people. The ultrasonic sensor and nodeMCU are used as a module of IoT to discover the temporary garbage. Grapical user Interface dekstop and android are also used in order to observe the level of trash in temporary garbage. The notification system can be access in mobile and dekstop interface. Furthermore the temporary garbage location can find by using google map the result of research shows that the system is running well. The system can onilne 12 hours/day along 2 weeks in exsperiment. The data sent by online based on “real time” activity and the result of mapping and tracking on android show the location of garbage.

  9. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...

  10. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with

  11. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    Full Text Available In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  12. SmartCell: An Energy Efficient Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture for Stream-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents SmartCell, a novel coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture, which tiles a large number of processor elements with reconfigurable interconnection fabrics on a single chip. SmartCell is able to provide high performance and energy efficient processing for stream-based applications. It can be configured to operate in various modes, such as SIMD, MIMD, and systolic array. This paper describes the SmartCell architecture design, including processing element, reconfigurable interconnection fabrics, instruction and control process, and configuration scheme. The SmartCell prototype with 64 PEs is implemented using 0.13  m CMOS standard cell technology. The core area is about 8.5  , and the power consumption is about 1.6 mW/MHz. The performance is evaluated through a set of benchmark applications, and then compared with FPGA, ASIC, and two well-known reconfigurable architectures including RaPiD and Montium. The results show that the SmartCell can bridge the performance and flexibility gap between ASIC and FPGA. It is also about 8% and 69% more energy efficient than Montium and RaPiD systems for evaluated benchmarks. Meanwhile, SmartCell can achieve 4 and 2 times more throughput gains when comparing with Montium and RaPiD, respectively. It is concluded that SmartCell system is a promising reconfigurable and energy efficient architecture for stream processing.

  13. SmartCell: An Energy Efficient Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture for Stream-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents SmartCell, a novel coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture, which tiles a large number of processor elements with reconfigurable interconnection fabrics on a single chip. SmartCell is able to provide high performance and energy efficient processing for stream-based applications. It can be configured to operate in various modes, such as SIMD, MIMD, and systolic array. This paper describes the SmartCell architecture design, including processing element, reconfigurable interconnection fabrics, instruction and control process, and configuration scheme. The SmartCell prototype with 64 PEs is implemented using 0.13 μm CMOS standard cell technology. The core area is about 8.5 mm2, and the power consumption is about 1.6 mW/MHz. The performance is evaluated through a set of benchmark applications, and then compared with FPGA, ASIC, and two well-known reconfigurable architectures including RaPiD and Montium. The results show that the SmartCell can bridge the performance and flexibility gap between ASIC and FPGA. It is also about 8% and 69% more energy efficient than Montium and RaPiD systems for evaluated benchmarks. Meanwhile, SmartCell can achieve 4 and 2 times more throughput gains when comparing with Montium and RaPiD, respectively. It is concluded that SmartCell system is a promising reconfigurable and energy efficient architecture for stream processing.

  14. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  15. Construction of BIM-based SMART-ITL Facility Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Bae, Hwang; Hwang, Sang-Chul; Min, Byung-Eui

    2015-01-01

    The flow area and volume are scaled down to 1/49. The ratio of the hydraulic diameter is 1/7. Therefore, SMART-ITL is a large-scale thermalhydraulic test facility with about 45 m height, which is consisted of 10 m underground and 35 m from the ground level. Until now, the management of design data and maintenance of large scale test facilities have been managed based on hard-copy information. Recently, Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division (THSRD) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed Facility Management System (FMS) based Building Information Modeling (BIM) to manage its design data more effectively for these large scale test facilities of SMART-ITL and ATLAS, and this BIM technology has been applied to SMART-ITL at the first. This study proposed a method of effective management and maintenance of design data applied to the SMART-ITL. That is, a FMS was developed based on the BIM technology for SMART-ITL. Figure 2 shows an overview of FMS development process based on BIM technology. SMART-ITL FMS facilitates its management and maintenance more effectively and accurately by 3- dimensional visualization. It enables the shape information of large scale test facilities to be visualized intuitively in a virtual space, and the efficient maintenance of data and instruments is possible by linking 3D shape information

  16. Construction of BIM-based SMART-ITL Facility Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Bae, Hwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Chul; Min, Byung-Eui [DDRsoft Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The flow area and volume are scaled down to 1/49. The ratio of the hydraulic diameter is 1/7. Therefore, SMART-ITL is a large-scale thermalhydraulic test facility with about 45 m height, which is consisted of 10 m underground and 35 m from the ground level. Until now, the management of design data and maintenance of large scale test facilities have been managed based on hard-copy information. Recently, Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division (THSRD) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed Facility Management System (FMS) based Building Information Modeling (BIM) to manage its design data more effectively for these large scale test facilities of SMART-ITL and ATLAS, and this BIM technology has been applied to SMART-ITL at the first. This study proposed a method of effective management and maintenance of design data applied to the SMART-ITL. That is, a FMS was developed based on the BIM technology for SMART-ITL. Figure 2 shows an overview of FMS development process based on BIM technology. SMART-ITL FMS facilitates its management and maintenance more effectively and accurately by 3- dimensional visualization. It enables the shape information of large scale test facilities to be visualized intuitively in a virtual space, and the efficient maintenance of data and instruments is possible by linking 3D shape information.

  17. Towards an open data based ICT reference architecture for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Schieferdecker, Ina; Tcholtchev, Nikolay; Lämmel, Philipp; Scholz, Robert; Lapi, Evanela

    2017-01-01

    Given that ICT is at the heart of today's Smart City approach, it is of paramount importance to investigate concepts, which would enable the unification, the common understanding and the replication of ICT architectures/solutions/models across multiple cities. This unified and replicable approach can be best achieved by a very abstract model, aiming to capture the taxonomy and high-level structure of complex integrative ICT solutions for Smart Cities. The approach should be based on the idea ...

  18. Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) Based Monitoring of Smart Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Gerald; Huzaifa, Umer; Beling, Peter; Haimes, Yacov; Marvel, Jeremy; Weiss, Brian; LaViers, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The vision of Smart Manufacturing Systems (SMS) includes collaborative robots that can adapt to a range of scenarios. This vision requires a classification of multiple system behaviors, or sequences of movement, that can achieve the same high-level tasks. Likewise, this vision presents unique challenges regarding the management of environmental variables in concert with discrete, logic-based programming. Overcoming these challenges requires targeted performance and health monitoring of both the logical controller and the physical components of the robotic system. Prognostics and health management (PHM) defines a field of techniques and methods that enable condition-monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics of physical elements, functional processes, overall systems, etc. PHM is warranted in this effort given that the controller is vulnerable to program changes, which propagate in unexpected ways, logical runtime exceptions, sensor failure, and even bit rot. The physical component's health is affected by the wear and tear experienced by machines constantly in motion. The controller's source of faults is inherently discrete, while the latter occurs in a manner that builds up continuously over time. Such a disconnect poses unique challenges for PHM. This paper presents a robotic monitoring system that captures and resolves this disconnect. This effort leverages supervisory robotic control and model checking with linear temporal logic (LTL), presenting them as a novel monitoring system for PHM. This methodology has been demonstrated in a MATLAB-based simulator for an industry inspired use-case in the context of PHM. Future work will use the methodology to develop adaptive, intelligent control strategies to evenly distribute wear on the joints of the robotic arms, maximizing the life of the system.

  19. A smart growth evaluation model based on data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokun; Guan, Yongyi

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid spread of urbanization, smart growth (SG) has attracted plenty of attention from all over the world. In this paper, by the establishment of index system for smart growth, data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was suggested to evaluate the SG level of the current growth situation in cities. In order to further improve the information of both radial direction and non-radial detection, we introduced the non-Archimedean infinitesimal to form C2GS2 control model. Finally, we evaluated the SG level in Canberra and identified a series of problems, which can verify the applicability of the model and provide us more improvement information.

  20. Design of smart home gateway based on Wi-Fi and ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand for home lifestyle, the traditional smart home products have been unable to meet the needs of users. Aim at the complex wiring, high cost and difficult operation problems of traditional smart home system, this paper designs a home gateway for smart home system based on Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This paper first gives a smart home system architecture base on cloud server, Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This architecture enables users to access the smart home system remotely from Internet through the cloud server or through Wi-Fi at home. It also offers the flexibility and low cost of ZigBee wireless networking for home equipment. This paper analyzes the functional requirements of the home gateway, and designs a modular hardware architecture based on the RT5350 wireless gateway module and the CC2530 ZigBee coordinator module. Also designs the software of the home gateway, including the gateway master program and the ZigBee coordinator program. Finally, the smart home system and home gateway are tested in two kinds of network environments, internal network and external network. The test results show that the designed home gateway can meet the requirements, support remote and local access, support multi-user, support information security technology, and can timely report equipment status information.

  1. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes. PMID:29518023

  2. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bako Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  3. Agent-based Decentralization of Applications in Distributed Smart Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kienesberger, Georg; Xypolytou, Evangelia; Marchgraber, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid technology promises to prepare today’s power systems for the challenges of the future by extensive integration of information and communication technology (ICT). One key aspect is the control paradigm which will have to be shifted from completely centralized control systems to more...... dezentralized concepts in order to adapt to the distributed nature of smart grids. Multi-agent systems (MAS) are a very promising approach for designing distributed, decentralized systems, naturally also in the field of smart grids. This work introduces the notion of decentralized multi-agent-based control...... systems (DMACS) and aims to give an overview on the different requirements and challenges on the way from current centralized control systems to DMACS. Therefore, different ICT scenarios and MAS topologies are employed to discuss the decentralization of three exemplary smart grid applications: voltage...

  4. A Cherenkov camera with integrated electronics based on the 'Smart Pixel' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulian, Norbert; Hirsch, Thomas; Hofmann, Werner; Kihm, Thomas; Kohnle, Antje; Panter, Michael; Stein, Michael

    2000-01-01

    An option for the cameras of the HESS telescopes, the concept of a modular camera based on 'Smart Pixels' was developed. A Smart Pixel contains the photomultiplier, the high voltage supply for the photomultiplier, a dual-gain sample-and-hold circuit with a 14 bit dynamic range, a time-to-voltage converter, a trigger discriminator, trigger logic to detect a coincidence of X=1...7 neighboring pixels, and an analog ratemeter. The Smart Pixels plug into a common backplane which provides power, communicates trigger signals between neighboring pixels, and holds a digital control bus as well as an analog bus for multiplexed readout of pixel signals. The performance of the Smart Pixels has been studied using a 19-pixel test camera

  5. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  6. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  7. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Grid Communications: Cyber Attacks, Intrusion Detection System and Topology Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Chhaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are small micro electrical mechanical systems that are deployed to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.

  8. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment From Smart Home-Based Behavior Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.

  9. Column generation based planning in smart grids using TRIANA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Column generation is applied to the TRIANA smart grid framework's planner and combined with distributed dynamic programming. Simulations show that this improves the resulting planning compared to methods described in previous work (extra peak reduction of 7.3%; large fluctuation reduction) at the

  10. Persona-based Adaptation in a Smart Green Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, P. (Paul); Leeuwen, van H. (Henk); Salomons, E. (Etto); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Etto Salomons presents his vision of the GoGreen project on a smart home that is capable of decreasing energy consumption while at the same time increasing user comfort. To identify the main challenges he introduces a general model for intelligent homes that describes the current

  11. Sparse estimation of model-based diffuse thermal dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Melis O.; Bobin, Jérôme

    2018-03-01

    Component separation for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data is primarily concerned with the estimation of thermal dust emission, which requires the separation of thermal dust from the cosmic infrared background (CIB). For that purpose, current estimation methods rely on filtering techniques to decouple thermal dust emission from CIB anisotropies, which tend to yield a smooth, low-resolution, estimation of the dust emission. In this paper, we present a new parameter estimation method, premise: Parameter Recovery Exploiting Model Informed Sparse Estimates. This method exploits the sparse nature of thermal dust emission to calculate all-sky maps of thermal dust temperature, spectral index, and optical depth at 353 GHz. premise is evaluated and validated on full-sky simulated data. We find the percentage difference between the premise results and the true values to be 2.8, 5.7, and 7.2 per cent at the 1σ level across the full sky for thermal dust temperature, spectral index, and optical depth at 353 GHz, respectively. A comparison between premise and a GNILC-like method over selected regions of our sky simulation reveals that both methods perform comparably within high signal-to-noise regions. However, outside of the Galactic plane, premise is seen to outperform the GNILC-like method with increasing success as the signal-to-noise ratio worsens.

  12. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between

  13. Dust-concentration measurement based on Mie scattering of a laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Shi, Yunbo; Wang, Tian; Sun, Xu

    2017-01-01

    To realize automatic measurement of the concentration of dust particles in the air, a theory for dust concentration measurement was developed, and a system was designed to implement the dust concentration measurement method based on laser scattering. In the study, the principle of dust concentration detection using laser scattering is studied, and the detection basis of Mie scattering theory is determined. Through simulation, the influence of the incident laser wavelength, dust particle diameter, and refractive index of dust particles on the scattered light intensity distribution are obtained for determining the scattered light intensity curves of single suspended dust particles under different characteristic parameters. A genetic algorithm was used to study the inverse particle size distribution, and the reliability of the measurement system design is proven theoretically. The dust concentration detection system, which includes a laser system, computer circuitry, air flow system, and control system, was then implemented according to the parameters obtained from the theoretical analysis. The performance of the designed system was evaluated. Experimental results show that the system performance was stable and reliable, resulting in high-precision automatic dust concentration measurement with strong anti-interference ability.

  14. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  15. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-05-21

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  16. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  17. CPS-Based Smart Warehouse for Industry 4.0: A Survey of the Underlying Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the state-of-the-art techniques in cyber-physical systems facilitate building smart warehouses to achieve the promising vision of industry 4.0. We focus on four significant issues when applying CPS techniques in smart warehouses. First, efficient CPS data collection: when limited communication bandwidth meets numerous CPS devices, we need to make more effort to study efficient wireless communication scheduling strategies. Second, accurate and robust localization: localization is the basis for many fundamental operations in smart warehouses, but still needs to be improved from various aspects like accuracy and robustness. Third, human activity recognition: human activity recognition can be applied in human–computer interaction for remote machine operations. Fourth, multi-robot collaboration: smart robots will take the place of humans to accomplish most tasks particularly in a harsh environment, and smart and fully-distributed robot collaborating algorithms should be investigated. Finally, we point out some challenging issues in the future CPS-based smart warehouse, which could open some new research directions.

  18. CONTEXT BASED ANDROID APPLICATIONADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS CONTROL (CBAA–AAC FOR SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharavanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Android applications in smart phones are generally towards provide greater flexibility and convince for users. Considering the fact that the Android applications are having privilege to access data and resources in mobile after it gets installed (one time permission provided by end user on the time installation, these application may also lead to issues in security for the user data as well as issues relate smart phone with peripheral environment. A practical example for an issue which relates smart phone with peripheral environment can be even an Android smart phone application of a college student use camera resource to capture photos of R&D cell and transfer without user or organization permission. The security of the organization and user should be prevented by providing an adoptable solution. The proposed concept of CBAA-AAC (Context Based Android Application Administrative Access Control is used to control the privileges of any Android application over a corresponding longitude and latitude by the organization administrator. In this way, administrator is able to block malicious application of every individual smart phone which can have activity towards utilizing services and resources that may affect the security of the organization, such an move is must for assuring security of any organization and educational institutions while they allow users to “bring their own smart phones/mobile devices” into the campus.

  19. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  20. Smart windows based on cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2017-02-01

    With increase in global warming, use of active cooling and heating devices are continuously increasing to maintain interior temperature of built environment, greenhouses and cars. To reduce the consumption of tremendous amount of energy on cooling and heating devices we need an improved control of transparent features (i.e. windows). In this respect, smart window which is capable for reflecting solar infrared energy without interfering with the visible light would be very attractive. Most of the technologies developed so far are to control the visible light. These technologies block visual contact to the outside world which cause negative effects on human health. An appealing method to selectively control infrared transmission is via utilizing the reflection properties of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our research, we have fabricated a smart window which is capable of reflecting different amount of solar infrared energy depending on the specific climate conditions. The reflection bandwidth can be tuned from 120 nm to 1100 nm in the infrared region without interfering with the visible solar radiations. Calculations reveal that between 8% and 45% of incident solar infrared light can be reflected with a single cell. Simulation studies predicted that more than 12% of the energy spent on heating, cooling and lighting in the built environment can be saved by using the fabricated smart window compared to standard double glazing window.

  1. NFC-Based User Interface for Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical support of a home automation system, joined with a simplified user-system interaction modality, may allow people affected by motor impairments or limitations, such as elderly and disabled people, to live safely and comfortably at home, by improving their autonomy and facilitating the execution of daily life tasks. The proposed solution takes advantage of the Near Field Communications technology, which is simple and intuitive to use, to enable advanced user interaction. The user can perform normal daily activities, such as lifting a gate or closing a window, through a device enabled to read NFC tags containing the commands for the home automation system. A passive Smart Panel is implemented, composed of multiple Near Field Communications tags properly programmed, to enable the execution of both individual commands and so-called scenarios. The work compares several versions of the proposed Smart Panel, differing for interrogation and composition of the single command, number of tags, and dynamic user interaction model, at a parity of the number of commands to issue. Main conclusions are drawn from the experimental results, about the effective adoption of Near Field Communications in smart assistive environments.

  2. An Observation-based Study of the Sensitivity of Dust Aerosol Net Direct Radiative Effects to the Physical and Optical Properties of Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Yu, H.; Kato, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dust aerosols play an important role in the radiative energy budget of Earth-Atmospheric system. They participate in Earth's energy budget directly by absorbing and scattering radiation, which is so called direct radiative effect (DRE). Many previous studies have focused on studying the DRE of dust in the shortwave (SW) domain. However, dust aerosols are large enough in size to have significant longwave(LW) DRE. Recently, dust longwave(LW) DRE have obtained more and more interest from scientists, but the DRE of dust aerosols remains uncertain in magnitude and even sign in recent assessments. These uncertainties are mainly in the microphysical and optical properties of dust. The first objective of this research is to perform an observation-based sensitivity study of dust SW, LW and net DRE to dust size distribution, shape and refractive index. Different sets of dust size distribution, shape and refractive index are used in this research to compute the optical properties. We use the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model driven by atmospheric profiles and aerosol extinction profiles derived from CALIPSO in CERES, CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS merged product (CCCM) to compute both SW and LW forcing efficiency. Then the sensitivity of dust DRE to those properties will be analyzed. In addition, an optimal combination of dust size distribution and refractive index, which provides good agreement with CERES observation in both outgoing longwave radiation and upward shortwave radiation, will be found. The second objective of this research is to evaluate dust net DRE in North Atlantic region by using the optimal combination mentioned previously.

  3. Sensor Network-Based and User-Friendly User Location Discovery for Future Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Han, Son N; Crespi, Noel; Khan, Imran

    2016-06-27

    User location is crucial context information for future smart homes where many location based services will be proposed. This location necessarily means that User Location Discovery (ULD) will play an important role in future smart homes. Concerns about privacy and the need to carry a mobile or a tag device within a smart home currently make conventional ULD systems uncomfortable for users. Future smart homes will need a ULD system to consider these challenges. This paper addresses the design of such a ULD system for context-aware services in future smart homes stressing the following challenges: (i) users' privacy; (ii) device-/tag-free; and (iii) fault tolerance and accuracy. On the other hand, emerging new technologies, such as the Internet of Things, embedded systems, intelligent devices and machine-to-machine communication, are penetrating into our daily life with more and more sensors available for use in our homes. Considering this opportunity, we propose a ULD system that is capitalizing on the prevalence of sensors for the home while satisfying the aforementioned challenges. The proposed sensor network-based and user-friendly ULD system relies on different types of inexpensive sensors, as well as a context broker with a fuzzy-based decision-maker. The context broker receives context information from different types of sensors and evaluates that data using the fuzzy set theory. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed system by illustrating a use case, utilizing both an analytical model and simulation.

  4. Sensor Network-Based and User-Friendly User Location Discovery for Future Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ahvar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User location is crucial context information for future smart homes where many location based services will be proposed. This location necessarily means that User Location Discovery (ULD will play an important role in future smart homes. Concerns about privacy and the need to carry a mobile or a tag device within a smart home currently make conventional ULD systems uncomfortable for users. Future smart homes will need a ULD system to consider these challenges. This paper addresses the design of such a ULD system for context-aware services in future smart homes stressing the following challenges: (i users’ privacy; (ii device-/tag-free; and (iii fault tolerance and accuracy. On the other hand, emerging new technologies, such as the Internet of Things, embedded systems, intelligent devices and machine-to-machine communication, are penetrating into our daily life with more and more sensors available for use in our homes. Considering this opportunity, we propose a ULD system that is capitalizing on the prevalence of sensors for the home while satisfying the aforementioned challenges. The proposed sensor network-based and user-friendly ULD system relies on different types of inexpensive sensors, as well as a context broker with a fuzzy-based decision-maker. The context broker receives context information from different types of sensors and evaluates that data using the fuzzy set theory. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed system by illustrating a use case, utilizing both an analytical model and simulation.

  5. Chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2013-06-01

    Password-based authenticated key agreement using smart cards has been widely and intensively researched. Inspired by the semi-group property of Chebyshev maps and key agreement protocols based on chaotic maps, we proposed a novel chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement protocol with smart cards. In our protocol, we avoid modular exponential computing or scalar multiplication on elliptic curve used in traditional authenticated key agreement protocols using smart cards. Our analysis shows that our protocol has comprehensive characteristics and can withstand attacks, including the insider attack, replay attack, and others, satisfying essential security requirements. Performance analysis shows that our protocol can refrain from consuming modular exponential computing and scalar multiplication on an elliptic curve. The computational cost of our protocol compared with related protocols is acceptable.

  6. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  7. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  8. Smart home-based health platform for behavioral monitoring and alteration of diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Abdelsalam; Cook, Diane J; Schmalz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and medical practitioners have long sought the ability to continuously and automatically monitor patients beyond the confines of a doctor's office. We describe a smart home monitoring and analysis platform that facilitates the automatic gathering of rich databases of behavioral information in a manner that is transparent to the patient. Collected information will be automatically or manually analyzed and reported to the caregivers and may be interpreted for behavioral modification in the patient. Our health platform consists of five technology layers. The architecture is designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, to support plug-and-play operation of new devices and components, and to provide remote monitoring and programming opportunities. The smart home-based health platform technologies have been tested in two physical smart environments. Data that are collected in these implemented physical layers are processed and analyzed by our activity recognition and chewing classification algorithms. All of these components have yielded accurate analyses for subjects in the smart environment test beds. This work represents an important first step in the field of smart environment-based health monitoring and assistance. The architecture can be used to monitor the activity, diet, and exercise compliance of diabetes patients and evaluate the effects of alternative medicine and behavior regimens. We believe these technologies are essential for providing accessible, low-cost health assistance in an individual's own home and for providing the best possible quality of life for individuals with diabetes. © Diabetes Technology Society

  9. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  10. SMART on FHIR: a standards-based, interoperable apps platform for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Joshua C; Kreda, David A; Mandl, Kenneth D; Kohane, Isaac S; Ramoni, Rachel B

    2016-09-01

    In early 2010, Harvard Medical School and Boston Children's Hospital began an interoperability project with the distinctive goal of developing a platform to enable medical applications to be written once and run unmodified across different healthcare IT systems. The project was called Substitutable Medical Applications and Reusable Technologies (SMART). We adopted contemporary web standards for application programming interface transport, authorization, and user interface, and standard medical terminologies for coded data. In our initial design, we created our own openly licensed clinical data models to enforce consistency and simplicity. During the second half of 2013, we updated SMART to take advantage of the clinical data models and the application-programming interface described in a new, openly licensed Health Level Seven draft standard called Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR). Signaling our adoption of the emerging FHIR standard, we called the new platform SMART on FHIR. We introduced the SMART on FHIR platform with a demonstration that included several commercial healthcare IT vendors and app developers showcasing prototypes at the Health Information Management Systems Society conference in February 2014. This established the feasibility of SMART on FHIR, while highlighting the need for commonly accepted pragmatic constraints on the base FHIR specification. In this paper, we describe the creation of SMART on FHIR, relate the experience of the vendors and developers who built SMART on FHIR prototypes, and discuss some challenges in going from early industry prototyping to industry-wide production use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  11. A Smart Mobile Lab-on-Chip-Based Medical Diagnostics System Architecture Designed For Evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented knowledge levels in life sciences along with technological advances in micro- and nanotechnologies and microfluidics have recently conditioned the advent of Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices for In-Vitro Medical Testing (IVMT). Combined with smart-mobile technologies, LoCs are pervasively...... giving rise to opportunities to better diagnose disease, predict and monitor personalised treatment efficacy, or provide healthcare decision-making support at the Point-of-Care (PoC). Although made increasingly available to the consumer market, the adoption of LoC-based PoC In-Vitro Medical Testing (IVMT...... for this work. We introduce a smart-mobile and LoC-based system architecture designed for evolvability. By propagating LoC programmability, instrumentation, and control tools to the highlevel abstraction smart-mobile software layer, our architecture facilitates the realisation of new use...

  12. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  13. Swarm-Based Smart City Platform: A Traffic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo CHAMOSO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are proposed as a medium-term option for all cities. This article aims to propose an architecture that allows cities to provide solutions to interconnect all their elements. The study case focuses in locating and optimized regulation of traffic in cities. However, thanks to the proposed structure and the applied algorithms, the architecture is scalable in size of the sensor network, in functionality or even in the use of resources. A simulation environment that is able to show the operation of the architecture in the same way that a real city would, is presented.

  14. An automated and integrated framework for dust storm detection based on ogc web processing services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.; Shea, G. Y. K.; Wong, M. S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-11-01

    Dust storms are known to have adverse effects on public health. Atmospheric dust loading is also one of the major uncertainties in global climatic modelling as it is known to have a significant impact on the radiation budget and atmospheric stability. The complexity of building scientific dust storm models is coupled with the scientific computation advancement, ongoing computing platform development, and the development of heterogeneous Earth Observation (EO) networks. It is a challenging task to develop an integrated and automated scheme for dust storm detection that combines Geo-Processing frameworks, scientific models and EO data together to enable the dust storm detection and tracking processes in a dynamic and timely manner. This study develops an automated and integrated framework for dust storm detection and tracking based on the Web Processing Services (WPS) initiated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The presented WPS framework consists of EO data retrieval components, dust storm detecting and tracking component, and service chain orchestration engine. The EO data processing component is implemented based on OPeNDAP standard. The dust storm detecting and tracking component combines three earth scientific models, which are SBDART model (for computing aerosol optical depth (AOT) of dust particles), WRF model (for simulating meteorological parameters) and HYSPLIT model (for simulating the dust storm transport processes). The service chain orchestration engine is implemented based on Business Process Execution Language for Web Service (BPEL4WS) using open-source software. The output results, including horizontal and vertical AOT distribution of dust particles as well as their transport paths, were represented using KML/XML and displayed in Google Earth. A serious dust storm, which occurred over East Asia from 26 to 28 Apr 2012, is used to test the applicability of the proposed WPS framework. Our aim here is to solve a specific instance of a complex EO data

  15. Integrating Smart Resources in ROS-based systems to distribute services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo MUNERA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots need to manage a lot of sensors and actuators using micro-controllers.To do complexes tasks, a highly computation central unit is also needed. In many cases, a robot is a intelligent distributed system formed with a central unit, which manages and distributes several specific tasks to some micro-controller embedded systems onboard.Now these embedded systems are also evolving to more complex systems that are developed not only for executing simple tasks but offering some advanced algorithmsjust as complex data processing, adaptive execution, or fault-tolerance and alarm rising mechanisms. To manage these types of embedded systems a paradigm, calledSmart Resource has been developed. Smart Resources topology has been raised to manage resources which execution relies on a physical embedded hardware. TheseSmart Resources are defined as a list of distributed services that can configure its execution in order to accomplish a context and quality requirements. In order to provide a more general implementation Smart Resources are integrated into the RobotOperating System (ROS. Paper presents a solution based on the Turtlebot platformrunning ROS. The solution shows how robots can make use of all the functions andmechanisms provided by the ROS and the distribution, reliability and adaptability ofthe Smart Resources. In addition it is also addressed the flexibility and scalability ofimplementation by combining real and simulated devices into the same platform

  16. Dust storm detection using random forests and physical-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network (PNN) to automate dust storm detec- tion process. Their results indicated that PNN provided improved classification performance with reference to MLC. Moreover, in Chacon-Murguıa et al. (2011), an artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed to identify not just ..... sively improve the performance of learning. The.

  17. Computational smart polymer design based on elastin protein mutability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Huang, Wenwen; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L; Buehler, Markus J

    2017-05-01

    Soluble elastin-like peptides (ELPs) can be engineered into a range of physical forms, from hydrogels and scaffolds to fibers and artificial tissues, finding numerous applications in medicine and engineering as "smart polymers". Elastin-like peptides are attractive candidates as a platform for novel biomaterial design because they exhibit a highly tunable response spectrum, with reversible phase transition capabilities. Here, we report the design of the first virtual library of elastin-like protein models using methods for enhanced sampling to study the effect of peptide chemistry, chain length, and salt concentration on the structural transitions of ELPs, exposing associated molecular mechanisms. We describe the behavior of the local molecular structure under increasing temperatures and the effect of peptide interactions with nearest hydration shell water molecules on peptide mobility and propensity to exhibit structural transitions. Shifts in the magnitude of structural transitions at the single-molecule scale are explained from the perspective of peptide-ion-water interactions in a library of four unique elastin-like peptide systems. Predictions of structural transitions are subsequently validated in experiment. This library is a valuable resource for recombinant protein design and synthesis as it elucidates mechanisms at the single-molecule level, paving a feedback path between simulation and experiment for smart material designs, with applications in biomedicine and diagnostic devices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Simulation-based Validation of Smart Grids - Status Quo and Future Research Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbrink, C.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rohjans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Smart grid systems are characterized by high complexity due to interactions between a traditional passive network and active power electronic components, coupled using communication links. Additionally, automation and information technology plays an important role in order to operate and optimize......-based approaches and outlines the necessary future research and development directions in the domain of power and energy systems....

  19. An efficient distributed localisation algorithm for wireless sensor networks: based on smart reference-selection method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Sensor Networks May 2013/ Vol. 13 No.2 An efficient distributed localisation algorithm for wireless sensor networks: based on smart reference-selection method Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz1,* and Gerhard P. Hancke2 1 Advanced Sensor...

  20. Adaptation of the RenalSmart ® web-based application for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation of the RenalSmart ® web-based application for the dietary management of patients with diabetic nephropathy. ... and enhanced to include functions for the nutritional assessment of a patient with diabetic nephropathy, the formulation of a dietary prescription and the development of a meal plan and sample menu.

  1. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Collotta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless network. The approach, by using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, introduces a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC in order to improve a Home Energy Management (HEM scheme, addressing the power load of standby appliances and their loads in different hours of the day. Since the consumer is involved in the choice of switching on/off of home appliances, the approach introduced in this work proposes a fuzzy-based solution in order to manage the consumer feedbacks. Simulation results show that the proposed solution is efficient in terms of reducing peak load demand, electricity consumption charges with an increase comfort level of consumers. The performance of the proposed BLE-based wireless network scenario are validated in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, and jitter and are compared to IEEE 802.15.4 technology.

  2. Development of Smart Phthalocyanine-based Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yun Sang

    Phthalocyanines are versatile functional dyes that have shown great potential in cancer theranostics, especially in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This research work aims to develop "smart" phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers for targeted PDT. This thesis describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of carefully designed phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers. Chapter 1 presents an overview of PDT, including its historical development, photophysical mechanisms, and biological mechanisms. Various classes of photosensitizers are introduced with emphasis putting on phthalocyanines, which exhibit ideal characteristics of photosensitizers for PDT. In recent years, several approaches have been used to develop photosensitizers with higher tumor selectivity and minimal skin photosensitivity after PDT. Activatable photosensitizers can provide a "turn on" mechanism to offer an additional control of the specificity of treatment. Photosensitizers can also work cooperatively with the tumor-targeting groups or anticancer drugs so as to achieve targeted or dual therapy, which can enhance the efficacy of PDT. The novel approaches mentioned above have been widely used and combined to form multi-functional photosensitizing agents. These novel concepts and development of PDT are discussed and illustrated with relevant examples at the end of this chapter. To minimize the prolonged skin photosensitivity, photosensitizers that can only be activated by tumor-associated stimuli have been developed. Due to the abnormal metabolism in tumor tissues, their surface usually exhibits a lower pH compared to that of the normal tissues. Also, the pH difference between the intracellular and the physiological environment provides a pH-activation mechanism. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a pH-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetramer, in which the phthalocyanine units

  3. A smart and versatile theranostic nanomedicine platform based on nanoporphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanpei; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Luo, Yan; Liu, Qiangqiang; Xiao, Wenwu; Guo, Wenchang; Lac, Diana; Zhang, Hongyong; Feng, Caihong; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Walton, Jeffrey H.; Cherry, Simon R.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Kukis, David; Pan, Chongxian; Lam, Kit S.

    2014-08-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles with combined diagnostic and therapeutic functions show great promise towards personalized nanomedicine. However, attaining consistently high performance of these functions in vivo in one single nanoconstruct remains extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the use of one single polymer to develop a smart ‘all-in-one’ nanoporphyrin platform that conveniently integrates a broad range of clinically relevant functions. Nanoporphyrins can be used as amplifiable multimodality nanoprobes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and dual modal PET-MRI. Nanoporphyrins greatly increase the imaging sensitivity for tumour detection through background suppression in blood, as well as preferential accumulation and signal amplification in tumours. Nanoporphyrins also function as multiphase nanotransducers that can efficiently convert light to heat inside tumours for photothermal therapy (PTT), and light to singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Furthermore, nanoporphyrins act as programmable releasing nanocarriers for targeted delivery of drugs or therapeutic radio-metals into tumours.

  4. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...... the screening phase of a HDM intervention study. The visited persons declared to have had a "cold" bedroom the previous winter. HDMs were counted and dust was analysed by ELISA for Der 1 (= Der f 1+ Der p 1+ Der m 1). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find housing conditions associated with high...... HDM levels. Type of housing, mattress age and self-assessed winter bedroom-temperature explained 47% of Der 1. Median concentrations were 3.77 microg Der 1/g and 1 HDM/0.1 g dust. Both immunochemically and microscopically Dermatophagoides farinae was dominant; D. pteronyssinus less frequent...

  5. Development and evaluation of a novel smart device-based application for burn assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Zachary; Tan, James; Bockhold, Jennifer; Ma, Jason; Tran, Nam K

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a novel software application that provides a simple and interactive Lund-Browder diagram for automatic calculation of total body surface area (TBSA) burned, fluid formula recommendations, and serial wound photography on a smart device platform. The software was developed for the iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA) smart device platforms. Ten burns ranging from 5 to 95% TBSA were computer generated on a patient care simulator using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe, San Jose, CA). Burn clinicians calculated the TBSA first using a paper-based Lund-Browder diagram. Following a one-week "washout period", the same clinicians calculated TBSA using the smart device application. Simulated burns were presented in a random fashion and clinicians were timed. Percent TBSA burned calculated by Peregrine vs. the paper-based Lund-Browder were similar (29.53 [25.57] vs. 28.99 [25.01], p=0.22, n=7). On average, Peregrine allowed users to calculate burn size significantly faster than the paper form (58.18 [31.46] vs. 90.22 [60.60]s, pburn resuscitation fluid calculator. We developed an innovative smart device application that enables accurate and rapid burn size assessment to be cost-effective and widely accessible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  7. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M.; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  8. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during the screen......The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...... the screening phase of a HDM intervention study. The visited persons declared to have had a "cold" bedroom the previous winter. HDMs were counted and dust was analysed by ELISA for Der 1 (= Der f 1+ Der p 1+ Der m 1). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find housing conditions associated with high...... HDM levels. Type of housing, mattress age and self-assessed winter bedroom-temperature explained 47% of Der 1. Median concentrations were 3.77 microg Der 1/g and 1 HDM/0.1 g dust. Both immunochemically and microscopically Dermatophagoides farinae was dominant; D. pteronyssinus less frequent...

  9. Implementation of Smart Metering based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Mathew, Lini, Dr.; Alokdeep; Kumar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    From the aspect of saving energy, there is a continuous modification in communication technology and information in order to satisfy all customers demand. Today customers are demanding for accurate energy measurement, timely data and for good customer services. The best solution is smart grid system with various communication technologies which can be cost effective and electrical section to have a bidirectional communication in which information about electrical energy consumption is shared between consumers as well as by utility for remote checking. This paper describes the monitoring of energy consumption with Arduino Uno board and Ethernet using IoT (Internet of Things) concept. This proposed design eliminates human inclusion in the conservation of electricity. The consumer can receive the information about consumption of energy by using IP address on their devices. The web client code is uploaded for checking the client information such as location, content, connection, and disconnection to the web server. This proposed system gives reliable and accurate information regarding electrical energy management system (EMS) through Internet of things (IoT).

  10. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  11. Developing upconversion nanoparticle-based smart substrates for remote temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Marble, Kassie; Alkahtani, Masfer; Hemmer, Philip; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in understanding of nanomaterial behaviors and synthesis have led to their application across a wide range of commercial and scientific applications. Recent investigations span from applications in nanomedicine and the development of novel drug delivery systems to nanoelectronics and biosensors. In this study, we propose the application of a newly engineered temperature sensitive water-based bio-compatible core/shell up-conversion nanoparticle (UCNP) in the development of a smart substrate for remote temperature sensing. We developed this smart substrate by dispersing functionalized nanoparticles into a polymer solution and then spin-coating the solution onto one side of a microscope slide to form a thin film substrate layer of evenly dispersed nanoparticles. By using spin-coating to deposit the particle solution we both create a uniform surface for the substrate while simultaneously avoid undesired particle agglomeration. Through this investigation, we have determined the sensitivity and capabilities of this smart substrate and conclude that further development can lead to a greater range of applications for this type smart substrate and use in remote temperature sensing in conjunction with other microscopy and spectroscopy investigations.

  12. Long-term mechanical properties of smart cable based on FBG desensitized encapsulation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Min

    2014-09-01

    In order to ensure the testing range and long-term reliability of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) used for the smart cable, a smart cable embedded with FBG strain sensors based on the desensitized encapsulation structure was designed. For a smart cable specimen, the fatigue loading experiments with the cycle from 100 thousands to 2 million and 0.95 times nominal breaking cable force ( P b ) were carried out, which tested the long-serving effects of the smart cable. The test results of the static tension loading and unloading during the stepwise fatigue cycle process showed that the encapsulated FBG strain sensors had the good linearity and repeatability. Also all sensors survived after 2 million times fatigue cycle. 0.95 P b static tension test showed that the encapsulated FBG strain sensors embedded inside the cable reached 4.5% testing accuracy in the 0.86 P b working range. After 0.95 P b static tension test, the dissection test was carried out by breaking the force tension. The results showed that the appearances of the encapsulated sensors were good, and the design structures were not changed and damaged.

  13. Identifying Tourist Places of Interest Based on Digital Imprints: Towards a Sustainable Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Encalada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As cities become increasingly complex, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs bring smartness into organisations and communities, contributing to a more competitive tourism destination, i.e., smart tourism destinations. Enhanced information access coupled with a new kind of tourists avid for online content and predisposed to share information on social media, allows for a better understanding of tourist behaviour regarding their spatial distribution in urban destinations. Thus, smart tourism portrays individuals as information makers, refining the available alternatives for tracking their location. Big data analytics is a technology with the potential to develop Smart City services. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of tourists in the city of Lisbon based on data collected from the ‘Panoramio’ social network, we identify the most popular places in the city in a context of tourist visits. This new data largely contributes to understanding the consumption of space within urban tourist destinations and therefore enables us to differentiate the overcrowded places from the ones with potential to grow. This allows decision-makers to imagine new ways of planning and managing towards a sustainable ‘smart’ future.

  14. A current sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance effect: design and potential smart grid applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X

    2012-11-09

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A(-1), linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C(-1) with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids.

  15. Interoperable computerized smart card based system for health insurance and health services applied in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocei, Horia-Delatebea; Stefan, Livia; Dobre, Ioana; Croitoriu, Mihai; Sinescu, Crina; Ovricenco, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 Romania started its health care reform by promulgating the Health Insurance Law. A functional and efficient health care system needs procedures for monitoring and evaluation of the medical services, communication between different service providers and entities involved in the system, integration and availability of the information. The final goal is a good response to the needs and demands of the patients and of the real life. For this project we took into account, on one hand, the immediate need for computerized systems for the health care providers and, on the other hand, the large number of trials and experiments with health smart cards across Europe. Our project will implement a management system based on electronic patient records to be used in all cardiology clinics and will experiment the health smart cards, will promote and demonstrate the capabilities of the smart card technology. We focused our attention towards a specific and also critical category of patients, those with heart diseases, and also towards a critical sector of the health care system--the emergency care. The patient card was tested on a number of 150 patients at a cardiology clinic in Bucharest. This was the first trial of a health smart card in Romania.

  16. A Current Sensor Based on the Giant Magnetoresistance Effect: Design and Potential Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan X. Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A−1, linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C−1 with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids.

  17. Development of SmartStep: an insole-based physical activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system.

  18. Lightweight UDP Pervasive Protocol in Smart Home Environment Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Wijaya; Hannats Hanafi Ichsan, Mochammad; Rizqika Akbar, Sabriansyah; Arwani, Issa

    2017-04-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) technology in a reliable environment was not a problem, but not in an environment where the entire Smart Home network connected locally. Currently employing pervasive protocols using TCP technology, when data transmission is sent, it would be slower because they have to perform handshaking process in advance and could not broadcast the data. On smart home environment, it does not need large size and complex data transmission between monitoring site and monitoring center required in Smart home strain monitoring system. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) technology is quick and simple on data transmission process. UDP can broadcast messages because the UDP did not require handshaking and with more efficient memory usage. LabVIEW is a programming language software for processing and visualization of data in the field of data acquisition. This paper proposes to examine Pervasive UDP protocol implementations in smart home environment based on LabVIEW. UDP coded in LabVIEW and experiments were performed on a PC and can work properly.

  19. A Remote Health Monitoring System for the Elderly Based on Smart Home Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kai; Shao, Minggang; Wu, Shuicai

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a remote health monitoring system for the elderly based on smart home gateway. The proposed system consists of three parts: the smart clothing, the smart home gateway, and the health care server. The smart clothing collects the elderly's electrocardiogram (ECG) and motion signals. The home gateway is used for data transmission. The health care server provides services of data storage and user information management; it is constructed on the Windows-Apache-MySQL-PHP (WAMP) platform and is tested on the Ali Cloud platform. To resolve the issues of data overload and network congestion of the home gateway, an ECG compression algorithm is applied. System demonstration shows that the ECG signals and motion signals of the elderly can be monitored. Evaluation of the compression algorithm shows that it has a high compression ratio and low distortion and consumes little time, which is suitable for home gateways. The proposed system has good scalability, and it is simple to operate. It has the potential to provide long-term and continuous home health monitoring services for the elderly.

  20. Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.

    2006-12-01

    On January 15, 2006, NASA's Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  1. Artificial Intelligent (AI) Based Cascade Multi-Level Inverter for Smart Nano Grid

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chatterji; S. L. Shimi

    2013-01-01

    As wind, solar and other clean and green energy sources gain popularity worldwide, engineers are seeking ways to make renewable energy systems more affordable and to integrate them with existing ac power grids. In the present paper an attempt has been made for integrating the PV arrays to the smart nano grid using an artificial intelligent (AI) based solar powered cascade multilevel inverter. The AI based controller switching scheme has been used for improving the power q...

  2. Smart Contract-Based Access Control for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuanyu; Kasahara, Shoji; Shen, Yulong; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wan, Jianxiong

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates a critical access control issue in the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular, we propose a smart contract-based framework, which consists of multiple access control contracts (ACCs), one judge contract (JC) and one register contract (RC), to achieve distributed and trustworthy access control for IoT systems. Each ACC provides one access control method for a subject-object pair, and implements both static access right validation based on predefined policies and dynami...

  3. A Hybrid Multi-Loop Controlled FACTS-based Smart V2G Battery Chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, Behnam; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible hybrid FACTS based AC-DC interface scheme with Flexible AC Transmission System Neutral Point Switched Filter Compensator (NPSFC) stabilization scheme developed by the Second Author to improve power quality and energy utilization in future Smart Grid-V2G Electric Vehicle (EV) Fast Battery Charging Stations. The FACTS-based filter compensation scheme proposed in this paper is equipped with a novel multi-loop dynamic error driven time de-scaled controller to enhance...

  4. Smart materials-based actuators at the micronano-scale characterization, control, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Smart Materials-Based Actuators at the Micro/Nano-Scale: Characterization, Control, and Applications gives a state of the art of emerging techniques to the characterization and control of actuators based on smart materials working at the micro/nano scale. The book aims to characterize some commonly used structures based on piezoelectric and electroactive polymeric actuators and also focuses on various and emerging techniques employed to control them. This book also includes two of the most emerging topics and applications: nanorobotics and cells micro/nano-manipulation. This book: Provides both theoretical and experimental results Contains complete information from characterization, modeling, identification, control to final applications for researchers and engineers that would like to model, characterize, control and apply their own micro/nano-systems Discusses applications such as microrobotics and their control, design and fabrication of microsystems, microassembly and its automation, nanorobotics and thei...

  5. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  6. A Novel Secure IoT-Based Smart Home Automation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; E Alahi, Md Eshrat; Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide noteworthy benefits over traditional approaches for several applications, including smart homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. WSNs are integrated with the Internet Protocol (IP) to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) for connecting everyday life objects to the internet. Hence, major challenges of WSNs include: (i) how to efficiently utilize small size and low-power nodes to implement security during data transmission among several sensor nodes; (ii) how to resolve security issues associated with the harsh and complex environmental conditions during data transmission over a long coverage range. In this study, a secure IoT-based smart home automation system was developed. To facilitate energy-efficient data encryption, a method namely Triangle Based Security Algorithm (TBSA) based on efficient key generation mechanism was proposed. The proposed TBSA in integration of the low power Wi-Fi were included in WSNs with the Internet to develop a novel IoT-based smart home which could provide secure data transmission among several associated sensor nodes in the network over a long converge range. The developed IoT based system has outstanding performance by fulfilling all the necessary security requirements. The experimental results showed that the proposed TBSA algorithm consumed less energy in comparison with some existing methods. PMID:28042831

  7. Fusion of Multi-Vision of Industrial Robot in MAS-Based Smart Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hexi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a fusion method of muti-vision of industrial robot in a smart space based on multi-agent system(MAS, the robotic multi-vision consists of top-view, side-view, front-view and hand-eye cameras, the moving hand-eye provide vision guidance and give the estimation of robot position, other three cameras are used for target recognition and positioning. Each camera is connected to an agent based on an image-processing computer that aims at analyzing image rapidly and satisfying the real-time requirement of data processing. As a learning strategy of robotic vision, a back-propagation neural network(BPNN with 3-layer-architecture is first constructed for each agent and is independently trained as a classifier of target recognition using batch gradient descent method based on the region features extracted from the images of target samples(typical mechanical parts, and then the outputs of trained BPNNs in MAS-based smart space are fused with Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to form a final recognition decision, the experimental results of typical mechanical parts show that fusion of multi-vision can improve the robotic vision accuracy and MAS-based smart space will contribute to the parallel processing of immense image data in robotic multi-vision system.

  8. A Novel Secure IoT-Based Smart Home Automation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; E Alahi, Md Eshrat; Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Wanqing

    2016-12-30

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide noteworthy benefits over traditional approaches for several applications, including smart homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. WSNs are integrated with the Internet Protocol (IP) to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) for connecting everyday life objects to the internet. Hence, major challenges of WSNs include: (i) how to efficiently utilize small size and low-power nodes to implement security during data transmission among several sensor nodes; (ii) how to resolve security issues associated with the harsh and complex environmental conditions during data transmission over a long coverage range. In this study, a secure IoT-based smart home automation system was developed. To facilitate energy-efficient data encryption, a method namely Triangle Based Security Algorithm (TBSA) based on efficient key generation mechanism was proposed. The proposed TBSA in integration of the low power Wi-Fi were included in WSNs with the Internet to develop a novel IoT-based smart home which could provide secure data transmission among several associated sensor nodes in the network over a long converge range. The developed IoT based system has outstanding performance by fulfilling all the necessary security requirements. The experimental results showed that the proposed TBSA algorithm consumed less energy in comparison with some existing methods.

  9. A Novel Secure IoT-Based Smart Home Automation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pirbhulal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs provide noteworthy benefits over traditional approaches for several applications, including smart homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. WSNs are integrated with the Internet Protocol (IP to develop the Internet of Things (IoT for connecting everyday life objects to the internet. Hence, major challenges of WSNs include: (i how to efficiently utilize small size and low-power nodes to implement security during data transmission among several sensor nodes; (ii how to resolve security issues associated with the harsh and complex environmental conditions during data transmission over a long coverage range. In this study, a secure IoT-based smart home automation system was developed. To facilitate energy-efficient data encryption, a method namely Triangle Based Security Algorithm (TBSA based on efficient key generation mechanism was proposed. The proposed TBSA in integration of the low power Wi-Fi were included in WSNs with the Internet to develop a novel IoT-based smart home which could provide secure data transmission among several associated sensor nodes in the network over a long converge range. The developed IoT based system has outstanding performance by fulfilling all the necessary security requirements. The experimental results showed that the proposed TBSA algorithm consumed less energy in comparison with some existing methods.

  10. ABS-SmartComAgri: An Agent-Based Simulator of Smart Communication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks for Debugging in Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magariño, Iván; Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime

    2018-03-27

    Smart communication protocols are becoming a key mechanism for improving communication performance in networks such as wireless sensor networks. However, the literature lacks mechanisms for simulating smart communication protocols in precision agriculture for decreasing production costs. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator of smart communication protocols for efficiently managing pesticides. The simulator considers the needs of electric power, crop health, percentage of alive bugs and pesticide consumption. The current approach is illustrated with three different communication protocols respectively called (a) broadcast, (b) neighbor and (c) low-cost neighbor. The low-cost neighbor protocol obtained a statistically-significant reduction in the need of electric power over the neighbor protocol, with a very large difference according to the common interpretations about the Cohen's d effect size. The presented simulator is called ABS-SmartComAgri and is freely distributed as open-source from a public research data repository. It ensures the reproducibility of experiments and allows other researchers to extend the current approach.

  11. ABS-SmartComAgri: An Agent-Based Simulator of Smart Communication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks for Debugging in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván García-Magariño

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart communication protocols are becoming a key mechanism for improving communication performance in networks such as wireless sensor networks. However, the literature lacks mechanisms for simulating smart communication protocols in precision agriculture for decreasing production costs. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator of smart communication protocols for efficiently managing pesticides. The simulator considers the needs of electric power, crop health, percentage of alive bugs and pesticide consumption. The current approach is illustrated with three different communication protocols respectively called (a broadcast, (b neighbor and (c low-cost neighbor. The low-cost neighbor protocol obtained a statistically-significant reduction in the need of electric power over the neighbor protocol, with a very large difference according to the common interpretations about the Cohen’s d effect size. The presented simulator is called ABS-SmartComAgri and is freely distributed as open-source from a public research data repository. It ensures the reproducibility of experiments and allows other researchers to extend the current approach.

  12. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosols from Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hansell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne dust aerosols worldwide contribute a significant part to air quality problems and, to some extent, regional climatic issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in oceans). Evaluating the direct solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large SIN ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impact, on the other hand, is rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (approx.10 W/sq m) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Although the magnitude of the LW impact is much smaller than that of the shortwave (SW), it can still have a noticeable influence on the energy distribution of Earth-atmosphere system, particularly due to the strong light-absorptive properties commonly found in many terrestrial minerals. The current effort is part of an ongoing research study to perform a global assessment of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) during major field deployments of key dust source regions worldwide. In this work we present results stemming from two previous field deployments: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years, both utilizing NASA Goddard's mobile ground-based facility. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal (16.73degN, 22.93degW), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE), China near the source between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. Due to the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of dust properties during field experiments, a deterministic I-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements (i.e., spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for physical/microphysical, mineralogy, and single-scattering properties) is employed to evaluate dust's local instantaneous SW/LW DARE both at the surface and at the top of

  13. Design of a smart ECG garment based on conductive textile electrode and flexible printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Jianqing

    2017-08-09

    A smart electrocardiogram (ECG) garment system was designed for continuous, non-invasive and comfortable ECG monitoring, which mainly consists of four components: Conductive textile electrode, garment, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB)-based ECG processing module and android application program. Conductive textile electrode and FPCB-based ECG processing module (6.8 g, 55 mm × 53 mm × 5 mm) are identified as two key techniques to improve the system's comfort and flexibility. Preliminary experimental results verified that the textile electrodes with circle shape, 40 mm size in diameter, and 5 mm thickness sponge are best suited for the long-term ECG monitoring application. The tests on the whole system confirmed that the designed smart garment can obtain long-term ECG recordings with high signal quality.

  14. Stress wave communication in concrete: I. Characterization of a smart aggregate based concrete channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Sam; Ji, Qing; Wu, Wenhao; Song, Gangbing; Ding, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we explore the characteristics of a concrete block as a communication medium with piezoelectric transducers. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a piezoceramic material used in smart materials intended for structural health monitoring (SHM). Additionally, a PZT based smart aggregate (SA) is capable of implementing stress wave communications which is utilized for investigating the properties of an SA based concrete channel. Our experiments characterize single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) concrete channels in order to determine the potential capacity limits of SAs for stress wave communication. We first provide estimates and validate the concrete channel response. Followed by a theoretical upper bound for data rate capacity of our two channels, demonstrating a near-twofold increase in channel capacity by utilizing multiple transceivers to form an MIMO system. Our channel modeling techniques and results are also helpful to researchers using SAs with regards to SHM, energy harvesting and stress wave communications.

  15. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seungheon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  16. SmartCampusAAU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all ma...... major mobile platforms (Android, iPhone and Windows Phone) and supports both device- and infrastructure-based positioning. SmartCampusAAU also offers a publicly available OData backend that allows researchers to share radio map and location tracking data.......This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all...

  17. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  18. Very early age concrete hydration characterization monitoring using piezoceramic based smart aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Song, Gangbing; Hou, Shuang; Ji, Qing; Mo, Y L

    2013-01-01

    Very early age (0–20 h) concrete hydration is a complicated chemical reaction. During the very early age period, the concrete condition dramatically changes from liquid state to solid state. This paper presents the authors’ recent research on monitoring very early age concrete hydration characterization by using piezoceramic based smart aggregates. The smart aggregate (SA) transducer is designed as a sandwich structure using two marble blocks and a pre-soldered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patch. Based on the electromechanical property of piezo materials, the PZT patches function as both actuators and sensors. In addition, the marble blocks provide reliable protection to the fragile PZT patch and develop the SA into a robust embedded actuator or sensor in the structure. The active-sensing approach, which involved a pair of smart aggregates with one as an actuator and the other one as a sensor, was applied in this paper’s experimental investigation of concrete hydration characterization monitoring. In order to completely understand the hydration condition of the inhomogeneous, over-cluttering, high-scattering characteristics of concrete (specifically of very early concrete), a swept sine wave and several constant frequency sine waves were chosen and produced by a function generator to excite the embedded actuating smart aggregate. The PZT vibration induced ultrasonic wave propagated through the concrete and was sent to the other smart aggregate sensor. The electrical signal transferred from the smart aggregate sensor was recorded during the test. As the concrete hydration reaction was occurring, the characteristic of the electrical signal continuously changed. This paper describes the successful investigation of the three states (the fluid state, the transition state, and the hardened state) of very early age concrete hydration based on classification of the received electrical signal. Specifically, the amplitude and frequency response of the electrical

  19. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that th...

  20. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  1. Research on Digital Forensic Readiness Design in a Cloud Computing-Based Smart Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the work environments of organizations have been in the process of transitioning into smart work environments by applying cloud computing technology in the existing work environment. The smart work environment has the characteristic of being able to access information assets inside the company from outside the company through cloud computing technology, share information without restrictions on location by using mobile terminals, and provide a work environment where work can be conducted effectively in various locations and mobile environments. Thus, in the cloud computing-based smart work environment, changes are occurring in terms of security risks, such as an increase in the leakage risk of an organization’s information assets through mobile terminals which have a high risk of loss and theft and increase the hacking risk of wireless networks in mobile environments. According to these changes in security risk, the reactive digital forensic method, which investigates digital evidence after the occurrence of security incidents, appears to have a limit which has led to a rise in the necessity of proactive digital forensic approaches wherein security incidents can be addressed preemptively. Accordingly, in this research, we design a digital forensic readiness model at the level of preemptive prevention by considering changes in the cloud computing-based smart work environment. Firstly, we investigate previous research related to the cloud computing-based smart work environment and digital forensic readiness and analyze a total of 50 components of digital forensic readiness. In addition, through the analysis of the corresponding preceding research, we design seven detailed areas, namely, outside the organization environment, within the organization guideline, system information, terminal information, user information, usage information, and additional function. Then, we design a draft of the digital forensic readiness model in the cloud

  2. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  3. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.. In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  4. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced. PMID:29315250

  5. A Multi-Agent-Based Intelligent Sensor and Actuator Network Design for Smart House and Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Hu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The smart-house technology aims to increase home automation and security with reduced energy consumption. A smart house consists of various intelligent sensors and actuators operating on different platforms with conflicting objectives. This paper proposes a multi-agent system (MAS design framework to achieve smart house automation. The novelties of this work include the developments of (1 belief, desire and intention (BDI agent behavior models; (2 a regulation policy-based multi-agent collaboration mechanism; and (3 a set of metrics for MAS performance evaluation. Simulations of case studies are performed using the Java Agent Development Environment (JADE to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  6. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  7. Simulation-Based Approach for Studying the Balancing of Local Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is facing great challenges due to pollution and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. As part of solving these challenges, the use of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles (EVs is rapidly increasing. However, increased dynamics have triggered problems in balancing energy supply and consumption demand in the power systems. The resulting uncertainty and unpredictability of energy production, consumption, and management of peak loads has caused an increase in costs for energy market actors. Therefore, the means for studying the balancing of local smart grids with EVs is a starting point for this paper. The main contribution is a simulation-based approach which was developed to enable the study of the balancing of local distribution grids with EV batteries in a cost-efficient manner. The simulation-based approach is applied to enable the execution of a distributed system with the simulation of a local distribution grid, including a number of charging stations and EVs. A simulation system has been constructed to support the simulation-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out by executing the scenario related to balancing local distribution grids with EV batteries in a step-by-step manner. The evaluation results indicate that the simulation-based approach is able to facilitate the evaluation of smart grid– and EV-related communication protocols, control algorithms for charging, and functionalities of local distribution grids as part of a complex, critical cyber-physical system. In addition, the simulation system is able to incorporate advanced methods for monitoring, controlling, tracking, and modeling behavior. The simulation model of the local distribution grid can be executed with the smart control of charging and discharging powers of the EVs according to the load situation in the local distribution grid. The resulting simulation system can be applied to the study of balancing local smart grids with EV

  8. An Ontology-based Context-aware System for Smart Homes: E-care@home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaie, Marjan; Renoux, Jennifer; Köckemann, Uwe; Kristoffersson, Annica; Karlsson, Lars; Blomqvist, Eva; Tsiftes, Nicolas; Voigt, Thiemo; Loutfi, Amy

    2017-07-06

    Smart home environments have a significant potential to provide for long-term monitoring of users with special needs in order to promote the possibility to age at home. Such environments are typically equipped with a number of heterogeneous sensors that monitor both health and environmental parameters. This paper presents a framework called E-care@home, consisting of an IoT infrastructure, which provides information with an unambiguous, shared meaning across IoT devices, end-users, relatives, health and care professionals and organizations. We focus on integrating measurements gathered from heterogeneous sources by using ontologies in order to enable semantic interpretation of events and context awareness. Activities are deduced using an incremental answer set solver for stream reasoning. The paper demonstrates the proposed framework using an instantiation of a smart environment that is able to perform context recognition based on the activities and the events occurring in the home.

  9. Slovene smart card and IP based health-care information system infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trcek, D; Novak, R; Kandus, G; Suselj, M

    2001-04-01

    Slovenia initiated a nation-wide project to introduce smart cards in the health sector in 1995 and its full-scale deployment started in September 2000. Although the basic aim of the project was to support insurance related procedures, the system was designed in a flexible and open manner to present an infrastructure for the whole health sector. The functionality of the current system is described in this paper along with lessons learned so far. The upgrade of the system is outlined, with emphasis on technical details, the objective being to provide a real-time EDI based environment for a general set of applications in the medical sector, supported by the flexibility and security of modern smart card technologies. Integration with similar systems in other EU countries is discussed.

  10. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shengbo; Ting, Hungkit; Ma, Yingzhuang; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Miwei; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV) devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE) and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading

  11. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Nathali Silva; Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage...

  12. Securing Metering Infrastructure of Smart Grid: A Machine Learning and Localization Based Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Parvez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI of the smart grid facilitates automated metering, control and monitoring of power distribution by employing a wireless network. Due to this wireless nature of communication, there exist potential threats to the data privacy in AMI. Decoding the energy consumption reading, injecting false data/command signals and jamming the networks are some hazardous measures against this technology. Since a smart meter possesses limited memory and computational capability, AMI demands a light, but robust security scheme. In this paper, we propose a localization-based key management system for meter data encryption. Data are encrypted by the key associated with the coordinate of the meter and a random key index. The encryption keys are managed and distributed by a trusted third party (TTP. Localization of the meter is proposed by a method based on received signal strength (RSS using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. The received packets are decrypted at the control center with the key mapped with the key index and the meter’s coordinates. Additionally, we propose the k-nearest neighbors (kNN algorithm for node/meter authentication, capitalizing further on data transmission security. Finally, we evaluate the security strength of a data packet numerically for our method.

  13. Internet of Things based on smart objects technology, middleware and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trunfio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) usually refers to a world-wide network of interconnected heterogeneous objects (sensors, actuators, smart devices, smart objects, RFID, embedded computers, etc) uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols. Beyond such a definition, it is emerging a new definition of IoT seen as a loosely coupled, decentralized system of cooperating smart objects (SOs). A SO is an autonomous, physical digital object augmented with sensing/actuating, processing, storing, and networking capabilities. SOs are able to sense/actuate, store, and interpret information created within themselves and around the neighbouring external world where they are situated, act on their own, cooperate with each other, and exchange information with other kinds of electronic devices and human users. However, such SO-oriented IoT raises many in-the-small and in-the-large issues involving SO programming, IoT system architecture/middleware and methods/methodologies for the development of SO-based applica...

  14. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  15. Constructing activity–mobility trajectories of college students based on smart card transaction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Ebadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use UB card as a convenient source of combined smart transaction data in order to define a campus-wide model for constructing students’ activity–mobility trajectories in time–space dimension. UB Card is a student’s official ID at the University at Buffalo and is used across campus for various activities including Stampedes and Shuttles (on-campus bus system, facilities access, library services, dining, shopping, and etc. Two activity–mobility trajectory construction algorithms are developed. The base algorithm constructs students’ activity–mobility patterns in space–time dimension using a set of smart card transaction data points as the only inputs. The modified individualized algorithm constructs activity–mobility patterns with prior knowledge of students’ previous patterns as they have similar patterns for certain days of the week. A database of 37 students’ travel survey and UB card transactions that contains a period of 5 days have been used to illustrate the results of the study. Three measures of errors have been proposed to capture the time allocation, location deviation, and activity sequences. These errors present an acceptable accuracy (12–25% error ranges for activity types and average 0.04–0.16 miles of error for location predictions and show the potential of inferring activity–mobility behaviors based on smart card transaction type data sets.

  16. Press touch code: A finger press based screen size independent authentication scheme for smart devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranak, M. S. A. Noman; Nor, Nur Nadiah Hanim Binti Mohd; Zamli, Kamal Z.

    2017-01-01

    Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT)—a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple’s MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE’s Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on—is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC). We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:29084262

  17. Press touch code: A finger press based screen size independent authentication scheme for smart devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S A Noman Ranak

    Full Text Available Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT-a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple's MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE's Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on-is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC. We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  18. Press touch code: A finger press based screen size independent authentication scheme for smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranak, M S A Noman; Azad, Saiful; Nor, Nur Nadiah Hanim Binti Mohd; Zamli, Kamal Z

    2017-01-01

    Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT)-a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple's MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE's Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on-is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC). We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Evaluation Index Development for Intelligent Transportation System in Smart Community Based on Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A scientific evaluation index system for intelligent transportation system (ITS can play an important role in guiding the development of ITS for decision makers in smart communities. This study aims to develop a set of performance indicators for the effective evaluation of the transportation system in a smart community in China. The main goals of the developed evaluation index are determined after a careful review of the various index systems implemented by various agencies worldwide. A set of indicators divided into the following six categories are then presented: transport structure, traffic information service, traffic efficiency, traffic safety, energy and pollution reduction, and social inclusion. To further discuss the practical application of the index system, a number of indicators are defined in detail and applied in arterial and public transportation efficiency evaluations based on the available dataset. Results from the index calculation show that the index proposed in this study can be adopted in evaluating the transportation system performance in smart communities based on big data.

  20. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.’s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme. PMID:28441331

  1. Constraints on the Interstellar Dust Flux Based on Stardust at Home Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Westphal, J.; Allen, C.; Anderson, D.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in active particle selection in the Heidelberg Van de r Graaf (VdG) dust accelerator have led to high-fidelity, low-backgro und calibrations of track sizes in aerogel as a function of particle size and velocity in the difficult regime above 10 km sec..1 and sub micron sizes. To the extent that the VdG shots are analogs for inters tellar dust (ISD) impacts, these new measurements enable us to place preliminary constraints on the ISD flux based on Stardust@home data.

  2. A security and privacy preserving e-prescription system based on smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lu, Chung-Fu

    2012-12-01

    In 2002, Ateniese and Medeiros proposed an e-prescription system, in which the patient can store e-prescription and related information using smart card. Latter, Yang et al. proposed a novel smart-card based e-prescription system based on Ateniese and Medeiros's system in 2004. Yang et al. considered the privacy issues of prescription data and adopted the concept of a group signature to provide patient's privacy protection. To make the e-prescription system more realistic, they further applied a proxy signature to allow a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people. This paper proposed a novel security and privacy preserving e-prescription system model based on smart cards. A new role, chemist, is included in the system model for settling the medicine dispute. We further presented a concrete identity-based (ID-based) group signature scheme and an ID-based proxy signature scheme to realize the proposed model. Main property of an ID-based system is that public key is simple user's identity and can be verified without extra public key certificates. Our ID-based group signature scheme can allow doctors to sign e-prescription anonymously. In a case of a medical dispute, identities of the doctors can be identified. The proposed ID-based proxy signature scheme can improve signing delegation and allows a delegation chain. The proposed e-prescription system based on our proposed two cryptographic schemes is more practical and efficient than Yang et al.'s system in terms of security, communication overheads, computational costs, practical considerations.

  3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION MONITORING OF SMART GRID BASED ON SEMANTIC STREAM DATA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kolchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently, the task of improving energy efficiency are addressed mainly through the creation of more efficient devices and appliances, the use of alternative energy sources, application of special additional equipment for power consumption control and other technological methods. All these solutions are quite expensive and often economically difficult to payback. At the same time, the issues of automated integrated analysis of existing data measuring equipment have been poorly known. But just these data contain all the necessary information for finding bottlenecks and failures in the equipment, leading to increased energy consumption. Methods. Methods of web services creation are considered for current state monitoring of electrical networks using CQELS for static and streaming data integration of smart meters. RDF data model is used as the main way of data representation. Results. The architecture of the energy monitoring system (Smart grid based on semantic analysis of the streaming data is proposed. Ontology has been worked out, aimed at information domain model creation, which describes the measurement data and the possible situations for tracking by the system using semantic queries. An example of system operation is shown, and description of the visualization interfaces for streaming data and log of messages is given. Practical relevance. Industrial application of the proposed approach will give the possibility to achieve significant energy efficiency through integrated analysis of smart meters data based on existing infrastructure of test and measurement equipment. An additional effect lies in the ability to create flexible Smart grid monitoring system and visualization of their states by an ontological approach to the domain modeling.

  4. Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June S. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids.

  5. Research and design of smart grid monitoring control via terminal based on iOS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Gong, Li; Chen, Heli; Pan, Guangji

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at a series of problems existing in current smart grid monitoring Control Terminal, such as high costs, poor portability, simple monitoring system, poor software extensions, low system reliability when transmitting information, single man-machine interface, poor security, etc., smart grid remote monitoring system based on the iOS system has been designed. The system interacts with smart grid server so that it can acquire grid data through WiFi/3G/4G networks, and monitor each grid line running status, as well as power plant equipment operating conditions. When it occurs an exception in the power plant, incident information can be sent to the user iOS terminal equipment timely, which will provide troubleshooting information to help the grid staff to make the right decisions in a timely manner, to avoid further accidents. Field tests have shown the system realizes the integrated grid monitoring functions, low maintenance cost, friendly interface, high security and reliability, and it possesses certain applicable value.

  6. On-site Smart Operation and Maintenance System for Substation Equipment Based on Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of substations is crucial for the safety of the electrical grid and power industry. However, for long time, the maintenance teams in the field and the experts in the power companies are divided. The data and expertise exchanges between the on-site maintenance teams and data center are delayed due to the lack of effective communication. This paper introduces an on-site smart operation maintenance system for substation equipment based on mobile network. It is able to establish real-time communication and data exchange channels between the maintenance teams and data center. It consists of an operation and maintenance system platform located on the data center side and smart operation and maintenance boxes with mobile APP which are carried to the field side by the maintenance teams. As the kernel of the system, the smart boxes are bridges between the data center and operation sites. On one hand, it is able to formally upload data to the data center in real-time. One the other hand, the operation and maintenance personnel are able to call for help from the resource on the data center anytime. Using the system proposed in the paper, both efficiency of the operation and maintenance and the normalization of the data can be improved.

  7. Smart CEI Moncloa: An IoT-based Platform for People Flow and Environmental Monitoring on a Smart University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Campana, Manuel; López, Gregorio; Vázquez, Enrique; Villagrá, Víctor A; Berrocal, Julio

    2017-12-08

    Internet of Things platforms for Smart Cities are technologically complex and deploying them at large scale involves high costs and risks. Therefore, pilot schemes that allow validating proof of concepts, experimenting with different technologies and services, and fine-tuning them before migrating them to actual scenarios, are especially important in this context. The IoT platform deployed across the engineering schools of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence represents a good example of a test bench for experimentation with Smart City services. This paper presents the main features of this platform, putting special emphasis on the technological challenges faced and on the solutions adopted, as well as on the functionality, services and potential that the platform offers.

  8. Smart CEI Moncloa: An IoT-based Platform for People Flow and Environmental Monitoring on a Smart University Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alvarez-Campana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things platforms for Smart Cities are technologically complex and deploying them at large scale involves high costs and risks. Therefore, pilot schemes that allow validating proof of concepts, experimenting with different technologies and services, and fine-tuning them before migrating them to actual scenarios, are especially important in this context. The IoT platform deployed across the engineering schools of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence represents a good example of a test bench for experimentation with Smart City services. This paper presents the main features of this platform, putting special emphasis on the technological challenges faced and on the solutions adopted, as well as on the functionality, services and potential that the platform offers.

  9. A Smart Washer for Bolt Looseness Monitoring Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyue Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic based active sensing methods have been researched to monitor preload on bolt connections. However, there is a saturation problem involved with this type of method. The transmitted energy is sometimes saturated before the maximum preload which is due to it coming into contact with flat surfaces. When it comes to flat contact surfaces, the true contact area will easily saturate with the preload. The design of a new type of bolt looseness monitoring sensor, a smart washer, is to mitigate the saturation problem. The smart washer is composed of two annular disks with contact surfaces that are machined into convex and concave respectively, to eliminate the complete flat contact surfaces and to reduce the saturation effect. One piezoelectric patch is bonded on the non-contact surface of each annular disk. These two mating annular disks form a smart washer. One of the two piezoelectric patches serves as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave that propagates through the contact surface; the other one serves as a sensor to detect the propagated waves. The wave energy propagated through the contact surface is proportional to the true contact area which is determined by the bolt preload. The time reversal method is used to extract the peak of the focused signal as the index of the transmission wave energy; then, the relationship between the signal peak and bolt preload is obtained. Experimental results show that the focused signal peak value changes with the bolt preload and presents an approximate linear relationship when the saturation problem is experienced. The proposed smart washer can monitor the full range of the rated preload.

  10. A Community-Based Approach to Leading the Nation in Smart Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    Project Objectives The AEP Ohio gridSMART® Demonstration Project (Project) achieved the following objectives: • Built a secure, interoperable, and integrated smart grid infrastructure in northeast central Ohio that demonstrated the ability to maximize distribution system efficiency and reliability and consumer use of demand response programs that reduced energy consumption, peak demand, and fossil fuel emissions. • Actively attracted, educated, enlisted, and retained consumers in innovative business models that provided tools and information reducing consumption and peak demand. • Provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) information to evaluate technologies and preferred smart grid business models to be extended nationally. Project Description Ohio Power Company (the surviving company of a merger with Columbus Southern Power Company), doing business as AEP Ohio (AEP Ohio), took a community-based approach and incorporated a full suite of advanced smart grid technologies for 110,000 consumers in an area selected for its concentration and diversity of distribution infrastructure and consumers. It was organized and aligned around: • Technology, implementation, and operations • Consumer and stakeholder acceptance • Data management and benefit assessment Combined, these functional areas served as the foundation of the Project to integrate commercially available products, innovative technologies, and new consumer products and services within a secure two-way communication network between the utility and consumers. The Project included Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Management System (DMS), Distribution Automation Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR), Volt VAR Optimization (VVO), and Consumer Programs (CP). These technologies were combined with two-way consumer communication and information sharing, demand response, dynamic pricing, and consumer products, such as plug-in electric vehicles and smart appliances. In addition, the Project

  11. School-based eating disorder prevention: a pilot effectiveness trial of teacher-delivered Media Smart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M

    2015-02-01

    This pilot study tested teacher-delivered Media Smart, a school-based eating disorder prevention program that has achieved significant benefits when delivered by health professionals. Two Grade 7 classes (N = 51; M age = 12.43 years) participated, with one randomly allocated to Media Smart (n = 27; 67% girls) and the other to a control condition of usual lessons (n = 24; 37% girls). Program feasibility was assessed by teacher self-report, whereas student self-report of shape and weight concern (primary outcome variable) and seven additional risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program and 6-month follow up. Teacher ratings of program feasibility revealed that 25 of the 29 (86.2%) program activities were taught with 96% of activities rated as either highly (19 activities) or moderately (5 activities) valuable for students. Mixed model analyses were conducted using a 2 (group: Media Smart, control) × 2 (time: post-program, 6-month follow up) × 2 (gender: girls, boys) design, with baseline scores as a covariate. A not-significant trend for group favouring Media Smart was observed for shape and weight concern (Cohen's d effect size [d] = 0.32), whereas significant effects were found for feelings of ineffectiveness (d = 0.52) and weight-related peer teasing (d = 0.68). The program was feasible for teacher delivery and showed some promising results, supporting a more substantial randomized-controlled effectiveness trial. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. SmartHome: a domotic framework based on smart sensing and actuator network to reduce energy wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; De Rango, Floriano; Falbo, Domenico; Barletta, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Domestic environment and human interaction with services supplied by domotic devices is going to be a very interesting application field. With a domotic system is possible to achieve great interaction between human beings, environments and smart devices. The enhancing of these interactions is the main goal of this work whose intent is to improve the classic concept of domotics. The framework we developed can be used for several application fields such as lighting, heating, conditioning or water management and energy consumption. In particular, the proposed system can optimize energy consumptions by rising awareness to users that have full control of their house and the possibility to save money and reduce the impact of the energetic consumes to the earth, matching the new "green" motto requirements. In this way, the overall system wants to match the central concept of Internet Of Things (IoT) as well. From this point of view a complex automation system with smart devices make possible a more efficient way to produce, follow and manage domotic policies. Following the spread of IoT, for this work we designed and implemented new plug-and-play and ready-to-use smart devices that are part of a complex automation system that offers a user-friendly web application and allows users to control and interact with different plans of their house in order to make life more comfortable and be aware of their energy consumptions. Control and awareness arc the two key points that led us to develop the proposed system.

  14. An empirical model to predict road dust emissions based on pavement and traffic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Elio; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio

    2017-11-08

    The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables. We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 μm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions

  15. Towards a conceptual framework of OSH risk management in smart working environments based on smart PPE, ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórski, Daniel; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Okrasa, Małgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in domains of ambient intelligence (AmI), Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems (CPS), ubiquitous/pervasive computing, etc., have led to numerous attempts to apply ICT solutions in the occupational safety and health (OSH) area. A literature review reveals a wide range of examples of smart materials, smart personal protective equipment and other AmI applications that have been developed to improve workers' safety and health. Because the use of these solutions modifies work methods, increases complexity of production processes and introduces high dynamism into thus created smart working environments (SWE), a new conceptual framework for dynamic OSH management in SWE is called for. A proposed framework is based on a new paradigm of OSH risk management consisting of real-time risk assessment and the capacity to monitor the risk level of each worker individually. A rationale for context-based reasoning in SWE and a respective model of the SWE-dedicated CPS are also proposed.

  16. Study on smart city construction of Jiujiang based on IOT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeliang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Qin; Yan, Tao

    2017-06-01

    At present, with the technology of the Internet of things (IOT), building smart city is forming a powerful wave of city, which promotes economic and social development of city. This paper expounds the connotation of smart city, explores the social and economic significance of the construction of smart city, analyzes the present situation of smart city construction in Jiujiang, studies the basic principles development altar get and key construction projects, and puts forward relevant of Jiujiang smart city construction, and puts forward relevant proposals about smart construction in Jiujiang, Jiangxi.

  17. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  18. A novel approach for UI charge reduction using AMI based load prioritization in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Pujara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available System frequency is vital part for power system balance. As per India Electricity Grid code frequency should be in the range of 49.5 Hz–50.5 Hz. Deviation from above mentioned range is charged as Unscheduled Interchange (UI charge. This paper proposes a new method for load and frequency control based on control of third parameter of three-part Availability Based Tariff (ABT i.e. Unscheduled Interchange charges. New circuit is designed considering prioritization of load and using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI under Smart Grid environment.

  19. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  20. Global Scale Attribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Dust Sources and their Emission Rates Based on MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1 deg) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  1. Biometrics and smart card based applications for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishanth Reddy, J.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biometrics has emerged as a convenient, foolproof and well-accepted technology for identification around the globe. Nucleonix has developed innovative solutions based on finger scan biometrics for various industries. This paper closely looks into the application areas for the nuclear industry and how it will benefit this industry, in terms of identification, access control, security of PCs and applications, attendance, machinery usage control and other custom applications. (author)

  2. Progress in triboluminescence-based smart optical sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawale, David O.; Dickens, Tarik; Sullivan, William G.; Okoli, Okenwa I.; Sobanjo, John O.; Wang, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research work has been done in recent times to apply the triboluminescence (TL) phenomenon for damage detection in engineering structures. Of particular note are the various attempts to apply it in the detection of impact damages in composites and aerospace structures. This is because TL-based sensor systems have a great potential for wireless, in-situ and distributed (WID) structural health monitoring when fully developed. This review article highlights development and the current state-of-the-art in the application of TL-based sensor systems. The underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for triboluminescence, particularly in zinc sulfide manganese, a highly triboluminescent material, are discussed. The challenges militating against the full exploitation and field application of TL sensor systems are also identified. Finally, viable solutions and approaches to address these challenges are enumerated. - Highlights: → The underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for triboluminescence. → State-of-the-art in the development and application of TL-based sensor systems. → The challenges militating against the full exploitation and field application of TL sensor systems are identified. → Viable solutions and approaches to address these challenges are enumerated.

  3. Smart Agent Based Mobile Tutoring and Querying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With our busy schedules today and the rising cost of education there is a need to find a convenient and cost effective means of maximizing our educational/training experiences. New trends in the delivery/access of information are becoming more technology based in all areas of society with education being no exception. The ubiquitous use of mobile devices has led to a boom in m-commerce. Mobile devices provide many services in commercial environments such as mobile banking, mobile purchasing, mobile learning, etc. It is therefore fitting that we seek to use mobile devices as a platform in delivering our convenient and cost effective solution. The proposed agent based Mobile tutoring system seeks to provide a student with a rich learning experience that will provide them with the relevant reading material based on their stage of development which allows them to move at their own pace. The system will allow the user to be able to ask certain questions and get explanations as if they were interacting with a human tutor but with the added benefit of being able to do this anytime in any location via their mobile phone.

  4. Mediterranean intense desert dust outbreaks and their vertical structure based on remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gkikas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to describe the vertical structure of the intense Mediterranean dust outbreaks, based on the use of satellite and surface-based retrievals/measurements. Strong and extreme desert dust (DD episodes are identified at 1°  ×  1° spatial resolution, over the period March 2000–February 2013, through the implementation of an updated objective and dynamic algorithm. According to the algorithm, strong DD episodes occurring at a specific place correspond to cases in which the daily aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550 nm exceeds or equals the long-term mean AOD550 nm (Mean plus two standard deviations (SD, which is also smaller than Mean+4 × SD. Extreme DD episodes correspond to cases in which the daily AOD550 nm value equals or exceeds Mean+4 × SD. For the identification of DD episodes, additional optical properties (Ångström exponent, fine fraction, effective radius and aerosol index derived by the MODIS-Terra & Aqua (also AOD retrievals, OMI-Aura and EP-TOMS databases are used as inputs. According to the algorithm using MODIS-Terra data, over the period March 2000–February 2013, strong DD episodes occur more frequently (up to 9.9 episodes year−1 over the western Mediterranean, while the corresponding frequencies for the extreme ones are smaller (up to 3.3 episodes year−1, central Mediterranean Sea. In contrast to their frequency, dust episodes are more intense (AODs up to 4.1, over the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the northern African coasts. Slightly lower frequencies and higher intensities are found when the satellite algorithm operates based on MODIS-Aqua retrievals, for the period 2003–2012. The consistency of the algorithm is successfully tested through the application of an alternative methodology for the determination of DD episodes, which produced similar features of the episodes' frequency and intensity, with just slightly higher

  5. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h −1 to 70 km h −1 , the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement. (paper)

  6. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybrid...... haracteristics of microgrids, an event-triggered hybrid control, including three kinds of switching controls, is designed to intelligently reconstruct operation mode when the security stability assessment indexes or the constraint conditions are violated. The validity of proposed control scheme is demonstrated...

  7. Smart Camera Based on Embedded HW/SW Coprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mauvilet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an image acquisition and a processing system based on a new coprocessor architecture designed for CMOS sensor imaging. The system exploits the full potential CMOS selective access imaging technology because the coprocessor unit is integrated into the image acquisition loop. The acquisition and coprocessing architecture are compatible with the majority of CMOS sensors. It enables the dynamic selection of a wide variety of acquisition modes as well as the reconfiguration and implementation of high-performance image preprocessing algorithms (calibration, filtering, denoising, binarization, pattern recognition. Furthermore, the processing and data transfer, from the CMOS sensor to the processor, can be operated simultaneously to increase achievable performances. The coprocessor architecture has been designed so as to obtain a unit that can be configured on the fly, in terms of type and number of chained processing stages (up to 8 successive predefined preprocessing stages, during the image acquisition process that can be defined by the user according to each specific application requirement. Examples of acquisition and processing performances are reported and compared to classical image acquisition systems based on standard modular PC platforms. The experimental results show a considerable increase of the achievable performances.

  8. Smart Camera Based on Embedded HW/SW Coprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Julien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes an image acquisition and a processing system based on a new coprocessor architecture designed for CMOS sensor imaging. The system exploits the full potential CMOS selective access imaging technology because the coprocessor unit is integrated into the image acquisition loop. The acquisition and coprocessing architecture are compatible with the majority of CMOS sensors. It enables the dynamic selection of a wide variety of acquisition modes as well as the reconfiguration and implementation of high-performance image preprocessing algorithms (calibration, filtering, denoising, binarization, pattern recognition. Furthermore, the processing and data transfer, from the CMOS sensor to the processor, can be operated simultaneously to increase achievable performances. The coprocessor architecture has been designed so as to obtain a unit that can be configured on the fly, in terms of type and number of chained processing stages (up to 8 successive predefined preprocessing stages, during the image acquisition process that can be defined by the user according to each specific application requirement. Examples of acquisition and processing performances are reported and compared to classical image acquisition systems based on standard modular PC platforms. The experimental results show a considerable increase of the achievable performances.

  9. Identifying Tourist Places of Interest Based on Digital Imprints : Towards a Sustainable Smart City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encalada, Luis; Boavida-Portugal, Ines; Ferreira, Carlos Cardoso; Rocha, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    As cities become increasingly complex, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) bring smartness into organisations and communities, contributing to a more competitive tourism destination, i.e., smart tourism destinations. Enhanced information access coupled with a new kind of tourists avid

  10. Smart Waste Collection System Based on Location Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Jensen, Michael; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the benefits of such a system, in comparison to a traditional sectorial waste collection approaches, also including economic factors. A realistic scenario is set up by using Open Data from the city of Copenhagen, highlighting the opportunities created by this type of initiatives for third parties...... (IoT) integration with data access networks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), combinatorial optimization, and electronic engineering can contribute to improve cities’ management systems. We present a waste collection solution based on providing intelligence to trashcans, by using an IoT prototype...... embedded with sensors, which can read, collect, and transmit trash volume data over the Internet. This data put into a spatio-temporal context and processed by graph theory optimization algorithms can be used to dynamically and efficiently manage waste collection strategies. Experiments are carried out...

  11. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-12-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology.

  12. Carbon-based smart nanomaterials in biomedicine and neuroengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina M. Monaco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for advanced biomimetic materials that are capable of offering a scaffold for biological tissues during regeneration or of electrically connecting artificial devices with cellular structures to restore damaged brain functions is at the forefront of interdisciplinary research in materials science. Bioactive nanoparticles for drug delivery, substrates for nerve regeneration and active guidance, as well as supramolecular architectures mimicking the extracellular environment to reduce inflammatory responses in brain implants, are within reach thanks to the advancements in nanotechnology. In particular, carbon-based nanostructured materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanodiamonds (NDs, have demonstrated to be highly promising materials for designing and fabricating nanoelectrodes and substrates for cell growth, by virtue of their peerless optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this review we discuss the state-of-the-art in the applications of nanomaterials in biological and biomedical fields, with a particular emphasis on neuroengineering.

  13. Smart nanoporous preconcentrator of explosives based on MOF5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Lewis, James

    2009-03-01

    We present investigations of interactions of explosive molecules RDX and TATP with metal organic framework MOF-5, using DFTY based ab-initio simulation method FIREBALL. Energetics studies in bulk shows that only one of the binding sites of RDX in MOF-5 suggested by quantum chemistry calculations confirm. The absorption site is on a linker of the framework through 2-(OH) bond. However, surface interactions are stronger, with significantly higher binding barriers. We confirmed two adsorption sites on the surface: one with the linker and the other on a connector of the framework through 3-(OH) bonds. The stronger interactions on the surface suggest importance of size, and surfaces of MOF nanoparticles in precontentrating the explosive molecules in the framework. Ab-initio Molecular Dynamics simulations show that the absorption of the RDX in MOF-5 is highly sensitive to temperatures, suggesting high diffusion rates for the explosive molecules at room temperature.

  14. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology. (paper)

  15. Simulating the dust effect on the energy performance of photovoltaic generators based on experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kapsali, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the least analyzed side effects of atmospheric air pollution is the degradation of PV-panels' performance due to the deposition of solid particles varying in composition, size and type. In the current study, the experimental data concerning the effect of three representative air pollutants (i.e. red soil, limestone and carbonaceous fly-ash particles) on the energy performance of PV installations are analyzed. According to the results obtained, a considerable reduction of PVs' energy performance is recorded, depending strongly on particles' composition and source. Subsequently, a theoretical model has been developed in order to be used as an analytical tool for obtaining reliable results concerning the expected effect of regional air pollution on PVs' performance. Furthermore, experimental results concerning the dust effect on PVs' energy yield in an aggravated - from air pollution - urban environment are used to validate the proposed theoretical model. -- Highlights: → The effect of dust deposition on PVs energy efficiency is experimentally examined. → Based on the results, a considerable reduction of PVs energy performance is recorded. → The effect strongly depends on the dust composition and on the type of the pollutant. → A theoretical model is developed for predicting the dust deposition effect on PVs energy yield. → The model is validated on the basis of experiments conducted in urban environment.

  16. A New Dusts Sensor for Cultural Heritage Applications Based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Proietti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new sensor for the detection and analysis of dusts (seen as powders and fibers in indoor environments, especially designed for applications in the field of Cultural Heritage or in other contexts where the presence of dust requires special care (surgery, clean rooms, etc.. The presented system relies on image processing techniques (enhancement, noise reduction, segmentation, metrics analysis and it allows obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information on the accumulation of dust. This information aims to identify the geometric and topological features of the elements of the deposit. The curators can use this information in order to design suitable prevention and maintenance actions for objects and environments. The sensor consists of simple and relatively cheap tools, based on a high-resolution image acquisition system, a preprocessing software to improve the captured image and an analysis algorithm for the feature extraction and the classification of the elements of the dust deposit. We carried out some tests in order to validate the system operation. These tests were performed within the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Museums, showing the good performance of the proposed sensor in terms of execution time and classification accuracy.

  17. The cost of respirable coal mine dust: an analysis based on new black lung claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.; Lichtman, K. [US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    1997-12-01

    The article provides summation of the monetary costs of new compensation claims associated with levels of unmitigated respirable coal mine dust and the resultant lung disease known as black lung and compares these compensation costs to the cost of dust control technology research by the US Bureau of Mines. It presents an analysis of these expenditures and projects these costs over the period from 1991 to 2010, based on projected future new claims which are assumed to be approved for federal and state benefit payment. Since current and future dust control research efforts cannot change past claim histories, a valid comparison of future research spending with other incurred costs must examine only the cost of future new claims. The bias of old claim costs was eliminated in this analysis by examining only claims since 1980. The results estimate that for an expected 339 new approved claims annually from 1991 to 2010, the Federal Trust Fund costs will be 985 million dollars. During this same period, state black lung compensation is estimated to be 18.2 billion dollars. The Bureau of Mines dust control research expenditures are estimated as 0.44% of the projected future black lung-related costs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Thielemans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the benefits and possible drawbacks of a DC-based lighting infrastructure for powering Light Emitting Diode (LED-lamps. It also evaluates the efforts needed for integrating the so called smart lighting and other sensor/actuator based control systems, and compares existing and emerging solutions. It reviews and discusses published work in this field with special focus on the intelligent DC-based infrastructure named EDISON that is primarily dedicated to lighting, but is applicable to building automation in general. The EDISON “PowerLAN” consists of a DC-based infrastructure that offers telecommunication abilities and can be applied to lighting retrofitting scenarios for buildings. Its infrastructure allows simple and efficient powering of DC-oriented devices like LED lamps, sensors and microcontrollers, while offering a wired communication channel. This paper motivates the design choices for organizing DC lighting grids and their associated communication possibilities. It also shows how the EDISON based smart lighting solution is evolving today to include new communication technologies and to further integrate other parts of building management solutions through the OneM2M (Machine to Machine service bus.

  19. Energy Management in Smart Cities Based on Internet of Things: Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Moharana, Akshaya Kumar; Leung, Victor C M

    2017-12-05

    Around the globe, innovation with integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) with physical infrastructure is a top priority for governments in pursuing smart, green living to improve energy efficiency, protect the environment, improve the quality of life, and bolster economy competitiveness. Cities today faces multifarious challenges, among which energy efficiency of homes and residential dwellings is a key requirement. Achieving it successfully with the help of intelligent sensors and contextual systems would help build smart cities of the future. In a Smart home environment Home Energy Management plays a critical role in finding a suitable and reliable solution to curtail the peak demand and achieve energy conservation. In this paper, a new method named as Home Energy Management as a Service (HEMaaS) is proposed which is based on neural network based Q -learning algorithm. Although several attempts have been made in the past to address similar problems, the models developed do not cater to maximize the user convenience and robustness of the system. In this paper, authors have proposed an advanced Neural Fitted Q -learning method which is self-learning and adaptive. The proposed method provides an agile, flexible and energy efficient decision making system for home energy management. A typical Canadian residential dwelling model has been used in this paper to test the proposed method. Based on analysis, it was found that the proposed method offers a fast and viable solution to reduce the demand and conserve energy during peak period. It also helps reducing the carbon footprint of residential dwellings. Once adopted, city blocks with significant residential dwellings can significantly reduce the total energy consumption by reducing or shifting their energy demand during peak period. This would definitely help local power distribution companies to optimize their resources and keep the tariff low due to curtailment of peak demand.

  20. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  1. Energy Management in Smart Cities Based on Internet of Things: Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya Mahapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the globe, innovation with integrating information and communication technologies (ICT with physical infrastructure is a top priority for governments in pursuing smart, green living to improve energy efficiency, protect the environment, improve the quality of life, and bolster economy competitiveness. Cities today faces multifarious challenges, among which energy efficiency of homes and residential dwellings is a key requirement. Achieving it successfully with the help of intelligent sensors and contextual systems would help build smart cities of the future. In a Smart home environment Home Energy Management plays a critical role in finding a suitable and reliable solution to curtail the peak demand and achieve energy conservation. In this paper, a new method named as Home Energy Management as a Service (HEMaaS is proposed which is based on neural network based Q-learning algorithm. Although several attempts have been made in the past to address similar problems, the models developed do not cater to maximize the user convenience and robustness of the system. In this paper, authors have proposed an advanced Neural Fitted Q-learning method which is self-learning and adaptive. The proposed method provides an agile, flexible and energy efficient decision making system for home energy management. A typical Canadian residential dwelling model has been used in this paper to test the proposed method. Based on analysis, it was found that the proposed method offers a fast and viable solution to reduce the demand and conserve energy during peak period. It also helps reducing the carbon footprint of residential dwellings. Once adopted, city blocks with significant residential dwellings can significantly reduce the total energy consumption by reducing or shifting their energy demand during peak period. This would definitely help local power distribution companies to optimize their resources and keep the tariff low due to curtailment of peak demand.

  2. Smart Images Search based on Visual Features Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Image search engines attempt to give fast and accurate access to the wide range of the huge amount images available on the Internet. There have been a number of efforts to build search engines based on the image content to enhance search results. Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems have achieved a great interest since multimedia files, such as images and videos, have dramatically entered our lives throughout the last decade. CBIR allows automatically extracting target images according to objective visual contents of the image itself, for example its shapes, colors and textures to provide more accurate ranking of the results. The recent approaches of CBIR differ in terms of which image features are extracted to be used as image descriptors for matching process. This thesis proposes improvements of the efficiency and accuracy of CBIR systems by integrating different types of image features. This framework addresses efficient retrieval of images in large image collections. A comparative study between recent CBIR techniques is provided. According to this study; image features need to be integrated to provide more accurate description of image content and better image retrieval accuracy. In this context, this thesis presents new image retrieval approaches that provide more accurate retrieval accuracy than previous approaches. The first proposed image retrieval system uses color, texture and shape descriptors to form the global features vector. This approach integrates the yc b c r color histogram as a color descriptor, the modified Fourier descriptor as a shape descriptor and modified Edge Histogram as a texture descriptor in order to enhance the retrieval results. The second proposed approach integrates the global features vector, which is used in the first approach, with the SURF salient point technique as local feature. The nearest neighbor matching algorithm with a proposed similarity measure is applied to determine the final image rank. The second approach

  3. Context-Based Energy Disaggregation in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Paradiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of energy conservation and optimization in residential environments by providing users with useful information to solicit a change in consumption behavior. Taking care to highly limit the costs of installation and management, our work proposes a Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM approach, which consists of disaggregating the whole-house power consumption into the individual portions associated to each device. State of the art NILM algorithms need monitoring data sampled at high frequency, thus requiring high costs for data collection and management. In this paper, we propose an NILM approach that relaxes the requirements on monitoring data since it uses total active power measurements gathered at low frequency (about 1 Hz. The proposed approach is based on the use of Factorial Hidden Markov Models (FHMM in conjunction with context information related to the user presence in the house and the hourly utilization of appliances. Through a set of tests, we investigated how the use of these additional context-awareness features could improve disaggregation results with respect to the basic FHMM algorithm. The tests have been performed by using Tracebase, an open dataset made of data gathered from real home environments.

  4. Model predictive control for a smart solar tank based on weather and consumption forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Bacher, Peder; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    and the heat consumption in a residential house. The storage tank provides heat in periods where there is low solar radiation and stores heat when there is surplus solar heat. The forecasts of consumption patterns were based on data obtained from meters in a group of single-family houses in Denmark. The tank...... the storage tank to serve a smart energy system in which flexible consumers are expected to help balance fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar. Through simulations, the impact of applying Economic MPC shows annual electricity cost savings up to 25-30%....

  5. Review on Variable Emissivity Materials and Devices Based on Smart Chromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, FengPei; Wang, Hao; Zhang, ShengJun; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Variable emissivity material (VEM) can dynamically vary its emissivity and infrared radiation under certain conditions, which may find potential applications in infrared stealth/camouflage, solar thermal collector, spacecraft thermal control, and smart energy-saving windows. In this paper, the variable emissivity materials and devices based on electrochromism and thermochromism are introduced. The basic principle and present status of the research in these fields are overviewed. Four kinds of representative VEMs are extensively summarized, which are tungsten trioxides (WO3), conducting polymers (CPs), perovskite oxides (A_{1-{x}}B_{{x}}MO3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2). Finally, specific issues confronted with electrochromic and thermochromic materials and devices are prospected.

  6. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase. PMID:27983654

  7. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Shin Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  8. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-12-14

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  9. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  10. A robust and novel dynamic-ID-based authentication scheme for care team collaboration with smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Chen, Chia-Chen; Chang, Pei-Yu

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, users/patients may gain desired medical services on-line because of the rapid development of computer network technologies. Conventional healthcare services are provided by a single server. However, care team collaboration by integrating services is the key to improve financial and clinical performance. How a user/patient accesses desired medical services provided by multiple servers becomes a challenge to realize care team collaboration. User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In this paper, we first discuss the perceived security drawbacks of pervasive smart-card-based remote user authentication schemes. Then, we propose a novel dynamic-ID-based user authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) for multi-server environment with smart cards. The proposed scheme ensures user anonymity and computational efficiency and complies with essential requirements of a secure smart-card-based authentication scheme for multi-server environment to enable care team collaboration.

  11. Smart City Services over a Future Internet Platform Based on Internet of Things and Cloud: The Smart Parking Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lanza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the effectiveness of city services and assisting on a more sustainable development of cities are two of the crucial drivers of the smart city concept. This paper portrays a field trial that leverages an internet of things (IoT platform intended for bringing value to existing and future smart city infrastructures. The paper highlights how IoT creates the basis permitting integration of current vertical city services into an all-encompassing system, which opens new horizons for the progress of the effectiveness and sustainability of our cities. Additionally, the paper describes a field trial on provisioning of real time data about available parking places both indoor and outdoor. The trial has been carried out at Santander’s (Spain downtown area. The trial takes advantage of both available open data sets as well as of a large-scale IoT infrastructure. The trial is a showcase on how added-value services can be created on top of the proposed architecture.

  12. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. PMID:25258730

  13. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  14. A multi-agent based distributed energy management scheme for smart grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Bharat Menon; Srinivasan, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    A multi-agent system based distributed EMS (energy management system) is proposed in this paper to perform optimal energy allocation and management for grids comprising of renewables, storage and distributed generation. The reliable and efficient operation of smart grids is slackened due to the presence of intermittent renewables. As the load demand and renewables are uncertain throughout the day, an energy management system is essential to ensure grid stability and achieve reductions in operation costs and CO 2 emissions. The main objectives of the proposed algorithm is to maintain power balance in the system and to ensure long cycle life for storage units by controlling their SOC (state of charge). The proposed EMS scheme is tested and validated on a practical test system, which replicates a small-scale smart grid with a variety of distributed sources, storage devices, loads, power electronic converters, and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. This system is also connected to the utility grid and the power exchange is controlled with the help of a battery system through a fuzzy based decision-making framework. The proposed algorithm is also extensively verified and tested using a series of sensitivity analyses and benchmarking with existing algorithms. - Highlights: • An agent-based decentralized algorithm is proposed to perform energy management. • The multi-agent system approach eliminates the possibility of single point failures. • Adaptive fuzzy systems make the decision making more reliable, flexible and robust. • The algorithm is extensively tested and validated using sensitivity and verification analyses.

  15. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT, researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  16. Reverse Circulation Drilling Method Based on a Supersonic Nozzle for Dust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce dust generated from drilling processes, a reverse circulation drilling method based on a supersonic nozzle is proposed. The suction performance is evaluated by the entrainment ratio. A series of preliminary laboratory experiments based on orthogonal experimental design were conducted to test the suction performance and reveal the main factors. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to thoroughly understand the interaction mechanism of the flows. The Schlieren technique was further carried out to reveal the flow characteristic of the nozzle. The results show that the supersonic nozzle can significantly improve the reverse circulation effect. A high entrainment ratio up to 0.76 was achieved, which implied strong suction performance. The CFD results agreed well with experimental data with a maximum difference of 17%. This work presents the great potential for supersonic nozzles and reverse circulation in dust control, which is significant to protect the envrionment and people’s health.

  17. Attacking of SmartCard-Based Banking Applications with JavaScript-Based Rootkits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußmeyer, Daniel; Gröbert, Felix; Schwenk, Jörg; Wegener, Christoph

    Due to recent attacks on online banking systems and consequent soaring losses through fraud, different methods have been developed to ensure a secure connection between a bank and its customers. One method is the inclusion of smart card readers into these schemes, which come along with different benefits, e.g., convenience and costs, and endangerments, especially on the security side.

  18. Reduction of peak energy demand based on smart appliances energy consumption adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powroźnik, P.; Szulim, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper the concept of elastic model of energy management for smart grid and micro smart grid is presented. For the proposed model a method for reducing peak demand in micro smart grid has been defined. The idea of peak demand reduction in elastic model of energy management is to introduce a balance between demand and supply of current power for the given Micro Smart Grid in the given moment. The results of the simulations studies were presented. They were carried out on real household data available on UCI Machine Learning Repository. The results may have practical application in the smart grid networks, where there is a need for smart appliances energy consumption adjustment. The article presents a proposal to implement the elastic model of energy management as the cloud computing solution. This approach of peak demand reduction might have application particularly in a large smart grid.

  19. A comprehensive WSN-based approach to efficiently manage a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-10-10

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators-mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices-making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach.

  20. A Comprehensive WSN-Based Approach to Efficiently Manage a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Martinez-Sandoval

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid (SG is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today’s electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators—mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices—making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach.

  1. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of CNT-Based Smart Tips for Synchrotron Assisted STM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of chemical composition along with imaging at the atomic level provides critical information towards fundamental understanding of the surface of materials and, hence, yields the capability to design new materials by tailoring their ultimate functionalities. Synchrotron X-ray assisted scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM is a promising new technique to achieve real space chemically specific atomic mapping. Chemical sensitivity of SX-STM relies on excitation of core electrons by incident X-rays when their energy is tuned to an absorption edge of a particular element. However, along with core-level electrons, photoelectrons are also excited, which yield additional current and interfere with the tunneling current. To reduce the background photoelectron current and to improve ultimate resolution of SX-STM, we have developed and fabricated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT basedsmart tips” using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and focused ion beam milling. The newly developed CNT-based smart tips, characterized step by step by scanning electron microscopy (SEM during the fabrication process, demonstrate good performance and provide opportunity for realizing atomic chemical mapping.

  3. A Real-Time Digital Solver for Smart Substation Based on Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingda Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the simulation scale of smart substation, a simulation model of the inlet-outlet line unit, as described by the 0/108 S conductance for multivalued coefficients pre-storage is presented in this paper. As a part of orders decomposition, the address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients can reduce the computational burden of processing elements. For the convenience of the generalization of the real-time digital solver based on FPGA (FRTDS, FPGA: Field–Programmable Gate Array, the address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients is matched with the guide word, the formation module of sampled value (SV packet, and the resolution module of generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE packet are associated with the application identification (APPID in the Ethernet frame. The address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients, the formation module of SV packet, and the resolution module of GOOSE packet are reconstructed via the orders. A hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation platform for smart substation is built based on the novel FRTDS. A case is given to demonstrate the simulation calculating capability and the hardware-in-the-loop ability of the novel FRTDS.

  4. Flow Orientation Analysis for Major Activity Regions Based on Smart Card Transit Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing public movement in transportation networks in a city is significant in understanding the life of citizen and making improved city plans for the future. This study focuses on investigating the flow orientation of major activity regions based on smart card transit data. The flow orientation based on the real movements such as transit data can provide the easiest way of understanding public movement in the complicated transportation networks. First, high inflow regions (HIRs are identified from transit data for morning and evening peak hours. The morning and evening HIRs are used to represent major activity regions for major daytime activities and residential areas, respectively. Second, the directional orientation of flow is then derived through the directional inflow vectors of the HIRs to show the bias in directional orientation and compare flow orientation among major activity regions. Finally, clustering analysis for HIRs is applied to capture the main patterns of flow orientations in the city and visualize the patterns on the map. The proposed methodology was illustrated with smart card transit data of bus and subway transportation networks in Seoul, Korea. Some remarkable patterns in the distribution of movements and orientations were found inside the city. The proposed methodology is useful since it unfolds the complexity and makes it easy to understand the main movement patterns in terms of flow orientation.

  5. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  6. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  7. Density-Based Statistical Clustering: Enabling Sidefire Ultrasonic Traffic Sensing in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Lücken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic routing is a central challenge in the context of urban areas, with a direct impact on personal mobility, traffic congestion, and air pollution. In the last decade, the possibilities for traffic flow control have improved together with the corresponding management systems. However, the lack of real-time traffic flow information with a city-wide coverage is a major limiting factor for an optimum operation. Smart City concepts seek to tackle these challenges in the future by combining sensing, communications, distributed information, and actuation. This paper presents an integrated approach that combines smart street lamps with traffic sensing technology. More specifically, infrastructure-based ultrasonic sensors, which are deployed together with a street light system, are used for multilane traffic participant detection and classification. Application of these sensors in time-varying reflective environments posed an unresolved problem for many ultrasonic sensing solutions in the past and therefore widely limited the dissemination of this technology. We present a solution using an algorithmic approach that combines statistical standardization with clustering techniques from the field of unsupervised learning. By using a multilevel communication concept, centralized and decentralized traffic information fusion is possible. The evaluation is based on results from automotive test track measurements and several European real-world installations.

  8. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  9. Medium- and long-term electric power demand forecasting based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhanmeng; Li, Xiyuan; Li, Xizhong; Hu, Qinghe; Zhang, Haiyang; Cui, Pengjie

    2017-08-01

    Based on the smart city, this paper proposed a new electric power demand forecasting model, which integrates external data such as meteorological information, geographic information, population information, enterprise information and economic information into the big database, and uses an improved algorithm to analyse the electric power demand and provide decision support for decision makers. The data mining technology is used to synthesize kinds of information, and the information of electric power customers is analysed optimally. The scientific forecasting is made based on the trend of electricity demand, and a smart city in north-eastern China is taken as a sample.

  10. Power system voltage stability and agent based distribution automation in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Phuc

    2011-12-01

    Our interconnected electric power system is presently facing many challenges that it was not originally designed and engineered to handle. The increased inter-area power transfers, aging infrastructure, and old technologies, have caused many problems including voltage instability, widespread blackouts, slow control response, among others. These problems have created an urgent need to transform the present electric power system to a highly stable, reliable, efficient, and self-healing electric power system of the future, which has been termed "smart grid". This dissertation begins with an investigation of voltage stability in bulk transmission networks. A new continuation power flow tool for studying the impacts of generator merit order based dispatch on inter-area transfer capability and static voltage stability is presented. The load demands are represented by lumped load models on the transmission system. While this representation is acceptable in traditional power system analysis, it may not be valid in the future smart grid where the distribution system will be integrated with intelligent and quick control capabilities to mitigate voltage problems before they propagate into the entire system. Therefore, before analyzing the operation of the whole smart grid, it is important to understand the distribution system first. The second part of this dissertation presents a new platform for studying and testing emerging technologies in advanced Distribution Automation (DA) within smart grids. Due to the key benefits over the traditional centralized approach, namely flexible deployment, scalability, and avoidance of single-point-of-failure, a new distributed approach is employed to design and develop all elements of the platform. A multi-agent system (MAS), which has the three key characteristics of autonomy, local view, and decentralization, is selected to implement the advanced DA functions. The intelligent agents utilize a communication network for cooperation and

  11. A Fuzzy-Based Approach for Sensing, Coding and Transmission Configuration of Visual Sensors in Smart City Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Collotta, Mario; Pau, Giovanni; Duran-Faundez, Cristian

    2017-01-05

    The advance of technologies in several areas has allowed the development of smart city applications, which can improve the way of life in modern cities. When employing visual sensors in that scenario, still images and video streams may be retrieved from monitored areas, potentially providing valuable data for many applications. Actually, visual sensor networks may need to be highly dynamic, reflecting the changing of parameters in smart cities. In this context, characteristics of visual sensors and conditions of the monitored environment, as well as the status of other concurrent monitoring systems, may affect how visual sensors collect, encode and transmit information. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based approach to dynamically configure the way visual sensors will operate concerning sensing, coding and transmission patterns, exploiting different types of reference parameters. This innovative approach can be considered as the basis for multi-systems smart city applications based on visual monitoring, potentially bringing significant results for this research field.

  12. Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  13. Security Analysis and Enhancements of an Effective Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwa An

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das’s authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das’s authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das’s authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  14. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  15. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies’ granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications.

  16. A smart base restraint for wind turbines to mitigate undesired effects due to structural vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Spizzuoco, M.

    2016-01-01

    to control tower forces. The application of a semi-active (SA) control system is herein proposed and discussed. Its aim is to limit bending moment demand at the base of a wind turbine by relaxing the base restraint of the turbine's tower, without increasing the top displacement. This is done thanks...... to the sharp increase of the dissipated energy in selected intervals of time and an adaptive change in tower dynamic properties. This SA control system reproduces a variable restraint at the base that changes in real time its mechanical properties according to the instantaneous response of the turbine's tower....... This smart restraint is made of a central smooth hinge, elastic springs and SA magnetorheological dampers driven by a control algorithm properly designed for the specific application. A commercial 105 m tall wind turbine has been assumed as a case study. Several numerical simulations have been performed...

  17. A time series based sequence prediction algorithm to detect activities of daily living in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufuzzaman, M; Reaz, M B I; Ali, M A M; Rahman, L F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of smart homes is to create an intelligent environment adapting the inhabitants need and assisting the person who needs special care and safety in their daily life. This can be reached by collecting the ADL (activities of daily living) data and further analysis within existing computing elements. In this research, a very recent algorithm named sequence prediction via enhanced episode discovery (SPEED) is modified and in order to improve accuracy time component is included. The modified SPEED or M-SPEED is a sequence prediction algorithm, which modified the previous SPEED algorithm by using time duration of appliance's ON-OFF states to decide the next state. M-SPEED discovered periodic episodes of inhabitant behavior, trained it with learned episodes, and made decisions based on the obtained knowledge. The results showed that M-SPEED achieves 96.8% prediction accuracy, which is better than other time prediction algorithms like PUBS, ALZ with temporal rules and the previous SPEED. Since human behavior shows natural temporal patterns, duration times can be used to predict future events more accurately. This inhabitant activity prediction system will certainly improve the smart homes by ensuring safety and better care for elderly and handicapped people.

  18. Smart tetrazole-based antibacterial nanoparticles as multifunctional drug carriers for cancer combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerzadeh, Elham; Salehi, Roya; Mahkam, Mehrdad

    2017-12-01

    Due to multidrug resistance of cancer tissues and immune-suppression of cancerous patients during chemotherapy in one hand and the use of tetrazole derivatives in medicine because of its anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties, on the other, we were encouraged to design novel smart antibacterial nanocomposites-based polymer of tetrazole as dual anticancer drug delivery systems. The structures of nanocomposites characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, FESEM-EDX, and TGA analyzes and antibacterial activity of smart carriers were evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against some bacteria and fungi. Then, the pH-responsive manner of both nanocomposites was proved by checking their release profiles at pH of the physiological environment (pH 7.4) and pH of tumor tissues (mildly acidic). Finally, the potential antitumoral activity of these nanocomposite systems against MCF7 cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay and cell cycle studies. The results demonstrated that the novel developed nanocomposites not only meet our expectations about simultaneous release of two anticancer drugs according to the predicted profile but also showed antibacterial and anticancer properties in vitro experimental. Moreover, it was proved that these carriers have tremendous potential in multifunctional drug delivery in cancer therapy.

  19. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Gil, David; Sirvent-Llamas, Alejandro

    2015-06-10

    Information Technology and Communications (ICT) is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for obtaining, representing and providing the flow and movement of people in densely populated geographical areas. In order to accomplish these tasks, we propose the design of a smart sensor network based on RFID communication technologies, reliability patterns and integration techniques. Contrary to other proposals, this system represents a comprehensive solution that permits the acquisition of user information in a transparent and reliable way in a non-controlled and heterogeneous environment. This knowledge will be useful in moving towards the design of smart cities in which decision support on transport strategies, business evaluation or initiatives in the tourism sector will be supported by real relevant information. As a final result, a case study will be presented which will allow the validation of the proposal.

  20. A New Controller for a Smart Walker Based on Human-Robot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, Carlos; Caldeira, Eliete; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Carelli, Ricardo

    2016-07-19

    This paper presents the development of a smart walker that uses a formation controller in its displacements. Encoders, a laser range finder and ultrasound are the sensors used in the walker. The control actions are based on the user (human) location, who is the actual formation leader. There is neither a sensor attached to the user's body nor force sensors attached to the arm supports of the walker, and thus, the control algorithm projects the measurements taken from the laser sensor into the user reference and, then, calculates the linear and angular walker's velocity to keep the formation (distance and angle) in relation to the user. An algorithm was developed to detect the user's legs, whose distances from the laser sensor provide the information necessary to the controller. The controller was theoretically analyzed regarding its stability, simulated and validated with real users, showing accurate performance in all experiments. In addition, safety rules are used to check both the user and the device conditions, in order to guarantee that the user will not have any risks when using the smart walker. The applicability of this device is for helping people with lower limb mobility impairments.

  1. Piezoelectric-based smart sensing system for I-beam structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Tzuyang; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the I-beam has become one of the most important engineering structural components being applied in areas such as mechanical, civil, and constructional engineering. To ensure safety and proper maintenance, an effective and accurate structural health monitoring method/system for I-beams is urgently needed. This paper proposes a smart sensing system for I-beam crack detection that is based on the energy diffusivity (attenuation) between two individual piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Sensor (one of the PZTs) responses are analyzed and applied to characterize the health status of the I-beam. Lab experiments are carried out for effective evaluation of this approach in structural health monitoring. The characteristics of crack distribution are studied by calculating and analyzing the energy diffusivity variation of the sensor responses to artificially cuttings to the I-beam. Moreover, instead of utilizing an actuator and a sensor, the system employs a couple of PZTs sensors, which offer the potential for in-field, in situ sensing with the sensor arrays. This smart sensing system can be applied in railway, metro, and iron-steel structures for I-beam health monitoring applications.

  2. A Hilbert Transform-Based Smart Sensor for Detection, Classification, and Quantification of Power Quality Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque A. Osornio-Rios

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Power quality disturbance (PQD monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources of several disturbances which can have different magnitudes and appear at different times. In order to avoid equipment damage and estimate the damage severity, they have to be detected, classified, and quantified. In this work, a smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of PQD is proposed. First, the Hilbert transform (HT is used as detection technique; then, the classification of the envelope of a PQD obtained through HT is carried out by a feed forward neural network (FFNN. Finally, the root mean square voltage (Vrms, peak voltage (Vpeak, crest factor (CF, and total harmonic distortion (THD indices calculated through HT and Parseval’s theorem as well as an instantaneous exponential time constant quantify the PQD according to the disturbance presented. The aforementioned methodology is processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA. Besides, the proposed smart sensor performance is validated and tested through synthetic signals and under real operating conditions, respectively.

  3. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Gil, David; Sirvent-Llamas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology and Communications (ICT) is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for obtaining, representing and providing the flow and movement of people in densely populated geographical areas. In order to accomplish these tasks, we propose the design of a smart sensor network based on RFID communication technologies, reliability patterns and integration techniques. Contrary to other proposals, this system represents a comprehensive solution that permits the acquisition of user information in a transparent and reliable way in a non-controlled and heterogeneous environment. This knowledge will be useful in moving towards the design of smart cities in which decision support on transport strategies, business evaluation or initiatives in the tourism sector will be supported by real relevant information. As a final result, a case study will be presented which will allow the validation of the proposal. PMID:26067195

  4. A System of Driving Fatigue Detection Based on Machine Vision and Its Application on Smart Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeng Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving fatigue is one of the most important factors in traffic accidents. In this paper, we proposed an improved strategy and practical system to detect driving fatigue based on machine vision and Adaboost algorithm. Kinds of face and eye classifiers are well trained by Adaboost algorithm in advance. The proposed strategy firstly detects face efficiently by classifiers of front face and deflected face. Then, candidate region of eye is determined according to geometric distribution of facial organs. Finally, trained classifiers of open eyes and closed eyes are used to detect eyes in the candidate region quickly and accurately. The indexes which consist of PERCLOS and duration of closed-state are extracted in video frames real time. Moreover, the system is transplanted into smart device, that is, smartphone or tablet, due to its own camera and powerful calculation performance. Practical tests demonstrated that the proposed system can detect driver fatigue with real time and high accuracy. As the system has been planted into portable smart device, it could be widely used for driving fatigue detection in daily life.

  5. A robust and effective smart-card-based remote user authentication mechanism using hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  6. Design of a Mobile Brain Computer Interface-Based Smart Multimedia Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Lin, Bor-Shing; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user’s physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user’s physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user’s EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user’s state and music sorted by listener’s preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user’s EEG feature may positively improve the user’s attention state. PMID:25756862

  7. Design of a mobile brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Lin, Bor-Shing; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-03-06

    Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user's physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user's physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user's EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user's state and music sorted by listener's preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user's EEG feature may positively improve the user's attention state.

  8. A starfish robot based on soft and smart modular structure (SMS) actuated by SMA wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hu; Dong, Erbao; Alici, Gursel; Mao, Shixin; Min, Xu; Liu, Chunshan; Low, K H; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-09

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and locomotion of a starfish robot whose locomotion principle is derived from a starfish. The starfish robot has a number of tentacles or arms extending from its central body in the form of a disk, like the topology of a real starfish. The arm, which is a soft and composite structure (which we call the smart modular structure (SMS)) generating a planar reciprocal motion with a high speed of response upon the actuation provided by the shape memory alloy (SMA) wires, is fabricated from soft and smart materials. Based on the variation in the resistance of the SMA wires during their heating, an adaptive regulation (AR) heating strategy is proposed to (i) avoid overheating of the SMA wires, (ii) provide bending range control and (iii) achieve a high speed of response favorable to successfully propelling the starfish robot. Using a finite-segment method, a thermal dynamic model of the SMS is established to describe its thermal behavior under the AR and a constant heating strategy. A starfish robot with five SMS tentacles was tested with different control parameters to optimize its locomotion speed. As demonstrated in the accompanying video file, the robot successfully propelled in semi-submerged and underwater environments show its locomotion ability in the multi-media, like a real starfish. The propulsion speed of the starfish robot is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of those reported in the literature-thanks to the SMS controlled with the AR strategy.

  9. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  10. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Torres-Pacheco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities.

  11. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio Mora-Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology and Communications (ICT is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for obtaining, representing and providing the flow and movement of people in densely populated geographical areas. In order to accomplish these tasks, we propose the design of a smart sensor network based on RFID communication technologies, reliability patterns and integration techniques. Contrary to other proposals, this system represents a comprehensive solution that permits the acquisition of user information in a transparent and reliable way in a non-controlled and heterogeneous environment. This knowledge will be useful in moving towards the design of smart cities in which decision support on transport strategies, business evaluation or initiatives in the tourism sector will be supported by real relevant information. As a final result, a case study will be presented which will allow the validation of the proposal.

  12. Design of a Mobile Brain Computer Interface-Based Smart Multimedia Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user’s physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user’s physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user’s EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user’s state and music sorted by listener’s preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user’s EEG feature may positively improve the user’s attention state.

  13. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme. PMID:24892078

  14. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In this paper, we investigate compact and efficient food image recognition methods, namely low-level and mid-level approaches. Considering the real application scenario where only limited and noisy data are available, we first proposed a superpixel based Linear Distance Coding (LDC framework where distinctive low-level food image features are extracted to improve performance. On a challenging small food image dataset where only 12 training images are available per category, our framework has shown superior performance in both accuracy and robustness. In addition, to better model deformable food part distribution, we extend LDC’s feature-to-class distance idea and propose a mid-level superpixel food parts-to-class distance mining framework. The proposed framework show superior performance on a benchmark food image datasets compared to other low-level and mid-level approaches in the literature.

  15. A detailed characterization of the Saharan dust collected during the Fennec campaign in 2011: in situ ground-based and laboratory measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Lima, Adriana; Vanderlei Martins, J; Remer, Lorraine A; Todd, Martin; Marsham, John H; Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Ryder, Claire L; Cavazos-Guerra, Carolina; Artaxo, Paulo; Colarco, Peter; Washington, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Millions of tons of mineral dust are lifted by the wind from arid surfaces and transported around the globe every year. The physical and chemical properties of the mineral dust are needed to better constrain remote sensing observations and are of fundamental importance for the understanding of dust atmospheric processes. Ground-based in situ measurements and in situ filter collection of Saharan dust were obtained during the Fennec campaign in the central Sahara in 2011. This paper presents re...

  16. The research and implementation of nuclear science and technology literature processing system based on smart client technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shufeng

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear literature processing, namely cataloging, subject indexing and abstracting, is one of the highly specialized work, the quality and speed of literature processing have an important impact on the building of information resources in nuclear field. Firstly, the system's overall functionality was determined through the analysis of system requirements and the difficulties we meet with were pointed out. Secondly, the function of collaborative collecting and processing of nuclear literature is realized using smart client technology, achieve the purpose of providing a network platform to the literature processing specialists located in different places, therefore the out source of nuclear literature collecting and processing can be done. The article comprises three aspects: needs analysis and overall functional design, smart client technical presentations, Net platform based on smart client technology, nuclear literature processing system implementation. (author)

  17. Design of the smart home system based on the optimal routing algorithm and ZigBee network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dengying; Yu, Ling; Wang, Fei; Xie, Xiaoxia; Yu, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    To improve the traditional smart home system, its electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control are studied. In this paper, we study the electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control to improve the traditional smart home system. First, ZigBee is used to replace the traditional electric wiring. Second, a network is built to connect lots of wireless sensors and facilities, thanks to the capability of ZigBee self-organized network and Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (GA-PSOA) to search for the optimal route. Finally, when the smart home system is connected to the internet based on the remote server technology, home environment and facilities could be remote real-time controlled. The experiments show that the GA-PSOA reduce the system delay and decrease the energy consumption of the wireless system.

  18. A smart thermo- and pH-responsive microfiltration membrane based on three-dimensional inverse colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Song, Qianqian; Cong, Hailin; Xu, Xiaodan; Han, Dongwei; Geng, Zhongmin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Usman, Muhammad

    2017-09-21

    In this paper, a thermo- and pH-responsive microfiltration membrane was prepared based on three-dimensional (3D) inverse colloidal crystals (ICC). To manufacture the smart ICC membrane, the typical thermo-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and pH-responsive methacrylic acid (MAA) were polymerized inside silica colloidal crystals. The smart ICC membranes were characterized by SEM, IR and contact angle measurements. Moreover, the permeability of smart microfiltration membrane was carried out by the KCl diffusion tests. The result showed that effective diameter of the polymer ICC membrane can be reversible tuned by temperature and pH. Besides, the functional ICC membrane showed outstanding temperature- and pH-responsive gating property, which was applied to separate particles of different sizes. The savvy environment-responsive gating membranes have potential uses in filtration, separation, purification, sensor and other applications.

  19. Smart controller based scaler rate-meter for gamma column scanning application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narender Reddy, J.; Dhanajay Reddy, Y.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A smart, controller based Scaler Rate-meter with scintillation probe for Gamma column scanning has been developed and made available. Designed to have advanced features with state-of-art electronic devices, hardware features include built-in adj. HV, amplifier- SCA, controller based data acquisition card, LCD display module for visualization of, HV set, preset and elapsed times, counts/count rate, column height and other programmable parameters. User interface is through a built-in programmable key pad, for instrument control, data acquisition, storage. Powerful embedded software provides all the above functions. Unit has capability to store up to 5000 readings. Data readings stored can be downloaded into a PC/lap top to generate a plot of count rate Vs column height, which is a signature for the column under study. Scintillation Probe design facilitates connection to the main unit through a single cable, permitting lengths up to 30 meters from the main unit. (author)

  20. Robust optimization based energy dispatch in smart grids considering demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassourou, M.; Puig, V.; Blesa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss the application of robust optimization to the problem of economic energy dispatch in smart grids. Robust optimization based MPC strategies for tackling uncertain load demands are developed. Unexpected additive disturbances are modelled by defining an affine dependence between the control inputs and the uncertain load demands. The developed strategies were applied to a hybrid power system connected to an electrical power grid. Furthermore, to demonstrate the superiority of the standard Economic MPC over the MPC tracking, a comparison (e.g average daily cost) between the standard MPC tracking, the standard Economic MPC, and the integration of both in one-layer and two-layer approaches was carried out. The goal of this research is to design a controller based on Economic MPC strategies, that tackles uncertainties, in order to minimise economic costs and guarantee service reliability of the system.

  1. A Reputation-based Distributed District Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test a distributed algorithm providing Energy Consumption Schedules (ECS in smart grids for a residential district. The goal is to achieve a given aggregate load prole. The NP-hard constrained optimization problem reduces to a distributed unconstrained formulation by means of Lagrangian Relaxation technique, and a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a Quantum inspired Particle Swarm with Levy flights. A centralized iterative reputation-reward mechanism is proposed for end-users to cooperate to avoid power peaks and reduce global overload, based on random distributions simulating human behaviors and penalties on the eective ECS diering from the suggested ECS. Numerical results show the protocols eectiveness.

  2. A secure smart-card based authentication and key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    A smart-card based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems enables patients, doctors, nurses, health visitors and the medicine information systems to establish a secure communication platform through public networks. Zhu recently presented an improved authentication scheme in order to solve the weakness of the authentication scheme of Wei et al., where the off-line password guessing attacks cannot be resisted. This investigation indicates that the improved scheme of Zhu has some faults such that the authentication scheme cannot execute correctly and is vulnerable to the attack of parallel sessions. Additionally, an enhanced authentication scheme based on the scheme of Zhu is proposed. The enhanced scheme not only avoids the weakness in the original scheme, but also provides users' anonymity and authenticated key agreements for secure data communications.

  3. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  4. Design of external sensors board based on Bluetooth interface of smart phones for structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yaping; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of new information technology, the Internet of Things(IoT) is based on intelligent perception, recognition technology, ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous network integration, and it is known as the third wave of the development of information industry in the world after the computer and the Internet. And Smart Phones are the general term for a class of mobile phones with a separate operating system and operational memory, in which the third-party service programs including software, games, navigation, et.al, can be installed. Smart Phones, with not only sensors but also actuators, are widely used in the IoT world. As the current hot issues in the engineering area, Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also facing new problems about design ideas in the IoT environment. The development of IoT, wireless sensor network and mobile communication technology, provides a good technical platform for SHM. Based on these facts, this paper introduces a kind of new idea for Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Phones Technique. The system is described in detail, and the external sensor board based on Bluetooth interface is designed, the test based on Smart Phones is finished to validate the implementation and feasibility. The research is preliminary and more tests need to be carried out before it can be of practical use.

  5. New environmental policy instruments to realize forest expansion in Flanders (northern Belgium): A base for smart regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossum, Van P.; Ledene, L.; Arts, B.J.M.; Vreese, De R.; Langenhove, Van G.; Verheyen, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current instrument mix, designs options for smart regulation and estimates the support base of new instruments for the forest expansion policy in Flanders (northern Belgium). The framework applied is a combination of theories on instrument choice (ICT), policy transfer and

  6. An RFID-Based Smart Nest Box: An Experimental Study of Laying Performance and Behavior of Individual Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ying-Ren; Chen, Yu-Xian

    2018-03-14

    This study designed a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based Internet of Things (IoT) platform to create the core of a smart nest box. At the sensing level, we have deployed RFID-based sensors and egg detection sensors. A low-frequency RFID reader is installed in the bottom of the nest box and a foot ring RFID tag is worn on the leg of individual hens. The RFID-based sensors detect when a hen enters or exits the nest box. The egg-detection sensors are implemented with a resistance strain gauge pressure sensor, which weights the egg in the egg-collection tube. Thus, the smart nest box makes it possible to analyze the laying performance and behavior of individual hens. An evaluative experiment was performed using an enriched cage, a smart nest box, web camera, and monitoring console. The hens were allowed 14 days to become accustomed to the experimental environment before monitoring began. The proposed IoT platform makes it possible to analyze the egg yield of individual hens in real time, thereby enabling the replacement of hens with egg yield below a pre-defined level in order to meet the overall target egg yield rate. The results of this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed RFID-based smart nest box in monitoring the egg yield and laying behavior of individual hens.

  7. An RFID-Based Smart Nest Box: An Experimental Study of Laying Performance and Behavior of Individual Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ren Chien

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study designed a radio-frequency identification (RFID-based Internet of Things (IoT platform to create the core of a smart nest box. At the sensing level, we have deployed RFID-based sensors and egg detection sensors. A low-frequency RFID reader is installed in the bottom of the nest box and a foot ring RFID tag is worn on the leg of individual hens. The RFID-based sensors detect when a hen enters or exits the nest box. The egg-detection sensors are implemented with a resistance strain gauge pressure sensor, which weights the egg in the egg-collection tube. Thus, the smart nest box makes it possible to analyze the laying performance and behavior of individual hens. An evaluative experiment was performed using an enriched cage, a smart nest box, web camera, and monitoring console. The hens were allowed 14 days to become accustomed to the experimental environment before monitoring began. The proposed IoT platform makes it possible to analyze the egg yield of individual hens in real time, thereby enabling the replacement of hens with egg yield below a pre-defined level in order to meet the overall target egg yield rate. The results of this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed RFID-based smart nest box in monitoring the egg yield and laying behavior of individual hens.

  8. The Effect of Distance Education Applications Based on Smart Board on Students' Achievement and Skills in Pattern Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoz, Nadir; Gursoy, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of distance education applications based on smart board in teaching pattern preparation techniques and its contribution to students' achievement and skills. An experimental model with a pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 34 students who attended the department of Ready-Made…

  9. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  10. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  11. Depression as a moderator of benefit from Media Smart: a school-based eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if baseline depression moderated response to Media Smart, an 8-lesson school-based program previously found to achieve a long-term risk reduction effect in young adolescents. 540 Grade 8 students (M age = 13.62 years, SD = .37) from 4 schools participated with 11 classes receiving the Media Smart program (126 girls; 107 boys) and 13 comparison classes receiving their normal lessons (147 girls; 160 boys). Shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, ineffectiveness, and perceived pressure were the outcome variables. Moderation was indicated by significant interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Control) × moderator (high depression; low depression) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 2.5-year follow-up), with baseline entered as a covariate. Such effects were found for shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness and perceived pressure. Post-hoc testing found high depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower than their control counterparts at post-program on shape and weight concern, media internalization and dieting, whereas low depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower on shape and weight concern at 2.5-year follow-up. Media Smart achieved a reduction in eating disorder risk factors for high-depression participants and a reduced rate of growth in risk factor scores for low-depression participants. Trial registry name: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration identification number: ACTRN12608000545369. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Voltage-Based Control of a Smart Transformer in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandoorn, T. L.; De Kooning, J. D. M.; Meersman, B.

    2013-01-01

    For the islanded operation of a microgrid, several control strategies have been developed. For example, voltage-based droop control can be implemented for the active power control of the generators and the control of the active loads. One of the main advantages of a microgrid is that it can...... be implemented as a controllable entity within the electrical network. This requires the ability of the utility grid to control or influence the power exchange with the microgrid by communicating with only one unit. However, little research has been conducted on controlling the power transfer through the point...... of common coupling. This paper addresses this issue by introducing the concept of a smart transformer (ST) at the point of common coupling. This unit controls the active power exchange between a microgrid and the utility grid dependent on the state of both networks and other information communicated...

  13. TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other): Programming Smart Spaces Based on IoT Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaeseok; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Choi, Sung-Chan; Kim, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things allows things in the world to be connected to each other and enables them to automate daily tasks without human intervention, eventually building smart spaces. This article demonstrates a prototype service based on the Internet of Things, TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other). We present the full details on the system architecture and the software platforms for IoT servers and devices, called Mobius and &Cube, respectively, complying with the globally-applicable IoT standards, oneM2M, a unique identification scheme for a huge number of IoT devices, and service scenarios with an intuitive smartphone app. We hope that our approach will help developers and lead users for IoT devices and application services to establish an emerging IoT ecosystem, just like the ecosystem for smartphones and mobile applications. PMID:27043578

  14. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  15. OOK power model based dynamic error testing for smart electricity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Chen, Jingxia; Yuan, Ruiming; Jia, Xiaolu; Zhu, Meng; Jiang, Zhenyu

    2017-02-01

    This paper formulates the dynamic error testing problem for a smart meter, with consideration and investigation of both the testing signal and the dynamic error testing method. To solve the dynamic error testing problems, the paper establishes an on-off-keying (OOK) testing dynamic current model and an OOK testing dynamic load energy (TDLE) model. Then two types of TDLE sequences and three modes of OOK testing dynamic power are proposed. In addition, a novel algorithm, which helps to solve the problem of dynamic electric energy measurement’s traceability, is derived for dynamic errors. Based on the above researches, OOK TDLE sequence generation equipment is developed and a dynamic error testing system is constructed. Using the testing system, five kinds of meters were tested in the three dynamic power modes. The test results show that the dynamic error is closely related to dynamic power mode and the measurement uncertainty is 0.38%.

  16. How We Do It: A DIY Smart Phone based ENT Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Duvvi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method of preparing a smart phone based ENT endoscopy for OPD clinic and for on call ENT to provide emergency ENT care in Accident and Emergency department when required. In our experience, this method is efficient, economical and ensures mobility and flexibility of remote visual inspection and documentation. This aids in better care for patients especially where there is no easy access to traditional ENT treatment room facility. This provides a fast and cost-effective solution to simultaneously view capture and save photos and videos with a smartphone and, if required, send these pictures to oncall Consultant. This enables quicker identification, documentation and support regardless of location.

  17. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Millar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  18. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  19. A primary study on the performance of piezoceramic based smart aggregate under various compressive stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Antai; Zhao, Yanru; Du, Chengcheng

    2017-10-01

    The reliability of piezoceramic based smart aggregate (SA) used for damage detection of concrete structures has already been validated by laboratory tests. However, the in situ concrete members are generally under a big range of stress levels, and the performance of SA under various compressive stresses is still unclear. In this study, an electronic universal testing machine was employed to apply different stresses on the SAs. The received signals of SA sensor accompanying with different drive signals were recorded. The experimental results show that the amplitude of received signals increases firstly, and then tends to be stable with stress. This enhancement is mainly induced by the decrease in thickness of epoxy resin layer caused by compressive stress. It indicates that the change of load applied on monitored concrete members embedded with SAs may lead to a change in monitoring signal amplitude even in elastic range, but it does not stand for the change of health state of monitored concrete member.

  20. [Smart card systems in health care (protection, key-functions, divided data bases, applications)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P

    1999-04-25

    Barely more than 15 years have passed since electronic memory cards appeared, their popularity has grown rapidly (first of all as a cash-saving device and later for other purposes, as well). This is due also to the growing interest towards development of the intelligence of information systems for the follow-up of patients' health condition and medical care in countries with a highly developed health and insurance system (need for the creation of data bases divided for individuals) and also to their commitment towards a better control of the quality and costs of health care. We can come to the conclusion that the aim of research, development and the creation of systems in health informatics is to prevent illness and to give a direct informatic support to medical and nursing activity carried out in the patients' interests. The smart card and the surrounding application systems are certainly the appropriate means for the achievement of these aims.

  1. TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other): Programming Smart Spaces Based on IoT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaeseok; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Choi, Sung-Chan; Kim, Jaeho

    2016-04-01

    The Internet of Things allows things in the world to be connected to each other and enables them to automate daily tasks without human intervention, eventually building smart spaces. This article demonstrates a prototype service based on the Internet of Things, TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other). We present the full details on the system architecture and the software platforms for IoT servers and devices, called Mobius and &Cube, respectively, complying with the globally-applicable IoT standards, oneM2M, a unique identification scheme for a huge number of IoT devices, and service scenarios with an intuitive smartphone app. We hope that our approach will help developers and lead users for IoT devices and application services to establish an emerging IoT ecosystem, just like the ecosystem for smartphones and mobile applications.

  2. TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other: Programming Smart Spaces Based on IoT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things allows things in the world to be connected to each other and enables them to automate daily tasks without human intervention, eventually building smart spaces. This article demonstrates a prototype service based on the Internet of Things, TTEO (Things Talk to Each Other. We present the full details on the system architecture and the software platforms for IoT servers and devices, called Mobius and &Cube, respectively, complying with the globally-applicable IoT standards, oneM2M, a unique identification scheme for a huge number of IoT devices, and service scenarios with an intuitive smartphone app. We hope that our approach will help developers and lead users for IoT devices and application services to establish an emerging IoT ecosystem, just like the ecosystem for smartphones and mobile applications.

  3. Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupelli, Daniela; Pasquale Nicoletta, Fiore; Vivacqua, Marco; Formoso, Patrizia [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Manfredi, Sabrina; De Filpo, Giovanni; Chidichimo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    The control of sunlight can be achieved either by electrochromic or polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) smart windows. We have recently shown that it is possible to homeotropically align fluid mixtures of low molecular mass liquid crystal with a negative dielectric anisotropy, and a liquid crystalline monomer, in order to obtain electrically switchable chromogenic devices. They are new materials useful for external glazing. In fact, they are not affected by the classical drawbacks of PDLCs. In this paper we present a new self-switchable glazing technology based on the light-controlled transmittance in a PDLC device. The self-adjusting chromogenic material, which we obtain, is able to self-increase its scattering as a function of the impinging light intensity. The relationship between the electro-optical response and the physical-chemical properties of the components has been also investigated. (author)

  4. Agent-Based Smart Grid Market Simulation with Connection to Real Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Gomes, Luis

    2015-01-01

    resources, so that realistic scenarios with palpable influence on real resources can be simulated. The SG simulator is also connected to the Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets (MASCEM), which provides a solid framework for the simulation of restructured electricity markets. Taking......The consensus behind Smart Grids (SG) as one of the most promising solutions for the massive integration of renewable energy sources in power systems has led to the practical implementation of several prototypes and pilots that aim at testing and validating SG methodologies. The urgent need...... to accommodate such resources of distributed and intermittent nature and the impact that a deficient management of energy sources has on the global population require that alternative solutions are experimented. This paper presents a multi-agent based SG simulation platform that is connected to physical...

  5. Smart MCI Tracking and Tracing System Based on Colored Active RFID TriageTags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Hsiang Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With regards of quick response, its importance can’t be ingored during the mass‐casualty incident (MCI event. This paper focuses on the application of a mass‐casualty incidents system in tracking and tracing with the use of the colored active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID triage tag to make information of each vicim visual at the base of operations as soon as possible. Its main funtion mentioned in this paper is to traige the victims with the means of active colored tag. Meanwhile, the injuried information will be saved as data in PDA reader. In the process of the victim’s arrival in the hospital emergency department and the treatment data sheet will be sent back by the hospital information system, so that this system will get the RFID triage tag ID. This system of tracing and tracking is called as a smart MCIs management system.

  6. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  8. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S paradigm.

  9. A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-11-25

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide 'best' car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm.

  10. Wireless network system based multi-non-invasive sensors for smart home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa Ahmed, Rudhwan

    There are several techniques that have been implemented for smart homes usage; however, most of these techniques are limited to a few sensors. Many of these methods neither meet the needs of the user nor are cost-effective. This thesis discusses the design, development, and implementation of a wireless network system, based on multi-non-invasive sensors for smart home environments. This system has the potential to be used as a means to accurately, and remotely, determine the activities of daily living by continuously monitoring relatively simple parameters that measure the interaction between users and their surrounding environment. We designed and developed a prototype system to meet the specific needs of the elderly population. Unlike audio-video based health monitoring systems (which have associated problems such as the encroachment of privacy), the developed system's distinct features ensure privacy and are almost invisible to the occupants, thus increasing the acceptance levels of this system in household environments. The developed system not only achieved high levels of accuracy, but it is also portable, easy to use, cost-effective, and requires low data rates and less power compared to other wireless devices such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, wireless USB, Ultra wideband (UWB), or Infrared (IR) wireless. Field testing of the prototype system was conducted at different locations inside and outside of the Minto Building (Centre for Advanced Studies in Engineering at Carleton University) as well as other locations, such as the washroom, kitchen, and living room of a prototype apartment. The main goal of the testing was to determine the range of the prototype system and the functionality of each sensor in different environments. After it was verified that the system operated well in all of the tested environments, data were then collected at the different locations for analysis and interpretation in order to identify the activities of daily living of an occupant.

  11. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  12. Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006: comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm, with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1. The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%. Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51 than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36. A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.

  13. Influence of Desert Dust Intrusions on Ground-based and Satellite Derived Ultraviolet Irradiance in Southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Anton, Manuel; Valenzuela, Antonio; Roman, Roberto; Lyamani, Hassan; Arola, Antti; Olmo, Francisco J.; Alados-Arboledas

    2012-01-01

    The desert dust aerosols strongly affect propagation of solar radiation through the atmosphere, reducing surface irradiance available for photochemistry and photosynthesis. This paper evaluates effects of desert dust on surface UV erythemal irradiance (UVER), as measured by a ground-based broadband UV radiometer and retrieved from the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) at Granada (southern Spain) from January 2006 to December 2010. The dust effects are characterized by the transmittance ra tio of the measured UVER to the corresponding modeled clear sky value. The transmittance has an exponential dependency on aerosol optical depth (AOD), with minimum values of approximately 0.6 (attenuation of approximately 40%). The OMI UVER algorithm does not account for UV aerosol absorption, which results in overestimation of the ground-based UVER especially during dust episodes with a mean relative difference up to 40%. The application of aerosol absorption post-correction method reduces OMI bias up to approximately 13%. The results highlight great effect of desert dust on the surface UV irradiance in regions like southern Spain, where dust intrusions from Sahara region are very frequent.

  14. Characterization of the Temporal-Spatial Variability of Trans-Atlantic Dust Transport Based on CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Atlantic dust transport has important implications for human and ecosystem health, the terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycle, weather systems, and climate. A reliable assessment of these influences requires the characterization of dust distributions in three dimensions and over long time periods. We provide an observation-based multiyear estimate of trans-Atlantic dust transport by using a 7-year (2007 - 2013) lidar record from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. We estimate that on a basis of the 7-year average and integration over 10S - 30N, 182 Tg a-1 dust leaves the coast of North Africa at 15W, of which 132 Tg a-1 and 43 Tg a-1 reaches 35W and 75W, respectively. These flux estimates have an overall known uncertainty of (45 - 70). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 - 48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8 - 50) kg ha-1 a-1. This imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006 - 0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 - 39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which is comparable to the loss of phosphorus to rainfall. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the magnitude of total dust transport and its meridional and vertical distributions. The observed large interannual variability of annual dust transport is highly anti-correlated with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index. Comparisons of CALIPSO measurements with surface-based observations and model simulations will also be discussed.

  15. Design and preliminary assessment of a smart textile for respiratory monitoring based on an array of Fiber Bragg Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, C; Ciocchetti, M; Di Tomaso, G; Saccomandi, P; Caponero, M A; Polimadei, A; Formica, D; Schena, E

    2016-08-01

    Comfortable and easy to wear smart textiles have gained popularity for continuous respiratory monitoring. Among different emerging technologies, smart textiles based on fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several advantages, like Magnetic Resonance (MR)-compatibility and good metrological properties. In this paper we report on the development and assessment of an MR-compatible smart textiles based on FOSs for respiratory monitoring. The system consists of six fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors glued on the textile to monitor six compartments of the chest wall (i.e., right and left upper thorax, right and left abdominal rib cage, and right and left abdomen). This solution allows monitoring both global respiratory parameters and each compartment volume change. The system converts thoracic movements into strain measured by the FBGs. The positioning of the FBGs was optimized by experiments performed using an optoelectronic system. The feasibility of the smart textile was assessed on 6 healthy volunteers. Experimental data were compared to the ones estimated by an optoelectronic plethysmography used as reference. Promising results were obtained on both breathing period (maximum percentage error is 1.14%), inspiratory and expiratory period, as well as on total volume change (mean percentage difference between the two systems was ~14%). The Bland-Altman analysis shows a satisfactory accuracy for the parameters under investigation. The proposed system is safe and non-invasive, MR-compatible, and allows monitoring compartmental volumes.

  16. Paper-based smart microfluidics for education and low-cost diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current centralised healthcare models pose many challenges, particularly for developing countries such as South Africa, where travel and time costs make it difficult for patients to seek healthcare, even when urgently needed. To address this issue, point-of-care (PoC tests, which are performed at or near the site of clinical care, have gained popularity and are actively being developed. Microfluidic systems, in which small volumes of fluids can be processed, provide an ideal platform on which to develop PoC diagnostic solutions. Specifically, the emerging field of paper-based microfluidics, with advantages such as low-cost, disposability and minimal external equipment requirements, provides unique opportunities for addressing healthcare issues in developing countries. This work explores the field of paper-based microfluidics, with step-by-step instructions on the design, manufacture and testing processes to realise paper-based devices towards diagnostic applications. Paper-based microfluidic and electronic components are presented, as well as the integration of these components to provide smart paper-based devices. This serves as an educational tool, enabling both beginners and experts in the field to fast-track development of unique paper-based solutions towards PoC diagnostics, with emphasis on the South African context, where both the need for and impact of these solutions are great.

  17. Emotion recognition based on customized smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, emotion recognition has become a hot topic in human-computer interaction. If computers could understand human emotions, they could interact better with their users. This paper proposes a novel method to recognize human emotions (neutral, happy, and angry using a smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer. Methods: In this study, a total of 123 participants were instructed to wear a customized smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer that can track and record their movements. Firstly, participants walked two minutes as normal, which served as walking behaviors in a neutral emotion condition. Participants then watched emotional film clips to elicit emotions (happy and angry. The time interval between watching two clips was more than four hours. After watching film clips, they walked for one minute, which served as walking behaviors in a happy or angry emotion condition. We collected raw data from the bracelet and extracted a few features from raw data. Based on these features, we built classification models for classifying three types of emotions (neutral, happy, and angry. Results and Discussion: For two-category classification, the classification accuracy can reach 91.3% (neutral vs. angry, 88.5% (neutral vs. happy, and 88.5% (happy vs. angry, respectively; while, for the differentiation among three types of emotions (neutral, happy, and angry, the accuracy can reach 81.2%. Conclusions: Using wearable devices, we found it is possible to recognize human emotions (neutral, happy, and angry with fair accuracy. Results of this study may be useful to improve the performance of human-computer interaction.

  18. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  19. Shape-memory-alloy-based smart knee spacer for total knee arthroplasty: 3D CAD modelling and a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arvind; Callejas, Miguel A; Acharyya, Amit; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh

    2018-03-22

    This study introduced a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based smart knee spacer for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Subsequently, a 3D CAD model of a smart tibial component of TKA was designed in Solidworks software, and verified using a finite element analysis in ANSYS Workbench. The two major properties of the SMA (NiTi), the pseudoelasticity (PE) and shape memory effect (SME), were exploited, modelled, and analysed for a TKA application. The effectiveness of the proposed model was verified in ANSYS Workbench through the finite element analysis (FEA) of the maximum deformation and equivalent (von Mises) stress distribution. The proposed model was also compared with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based spacer for the upper portion of the tibial component for three subjects with body mass index (BMI) of 23.88, 31.09, and 38.39. The proposed SMA -based smart knee spacer contained 96.66978% less deformation with a standard deviation of 0.01738 than that of the corresponding PMMA based counterpart for the same load and flexion angle. Based on the maximum deformation analysis, the PMMA-based spacer had 30 times more permanent deformation than that of the proposed SMA-based spacer for the same load and flexion angle. The SME property of the lower portion of the tibial component for fixation of the spacer at its position was verified by an FEA in ANSYS. Wherein, a strain life-based fatigue analysis was performed and tested for the PE and SME built spacers through the FEA. Therefore, the SMA-based smart knee spacer eliminated the drawbacks of the PMMA-based spacer, including spacer fracture, loosening, dislocation, tilting or translation, and knee subluxation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  1. Education and Public Outreach for Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Bryan J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.

    2006-12-01

    On January 15, 2006, NASA’s Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  2. Patient perceptions regarding the use of smart devices for medical photography: results of a patient-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Potdar, Nayana A; Dadia, Suchit; Aulakh, Simranjeet; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2018-03-06

    To assess patient perceptions regarding medical photography and the use of smart devices, namely mobile phones and tablets for medical photography. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 280 consecutive adult patients who presented to the oculoplastics clinic at a tertiary eye care centre. The responses were tabulated and analysed. Of the 280 patients surveyed, 68% felt that medical photography had a positive impact on their understanding of their illnesses and 72% felt that the use of smartphones for medical photography was acceptable. Respondents below the age of 40 years were more likely to approve of the use of mobile phones for photography as compared to those over 40. Most patients (74%) preferred a doctor to be the person photographing them. While a majority approved of doctors and trainee physicians having access to their photographs, they felt non-physician healthcare personnel should not have access to clinical photographs. Also, 72% of the respondents felt that the patient's consent should be taken before using their photographs. It was noted that patient identification and breach of confidentiality could be some of the potential issues with using smart devices as cameras in the clinic. Clinical photography in general and, specifically, using smart devices for clinical photographs have gained acceptance among patients. The outcomes of this study may be utilized to create policy guidelines for the use of smart devices as photography tools in the clinics. The findings of this survey can also help to create standardized, uniform patient consent forms for clinical photography.

  3. "Smart Forms" in an Electronic Medical Record: documentation-based clinical decision support to improve disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Linder, Jeffrey A; Palchuk, Matvey B; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Li, Qi; Postilnik, Anatoly; Middleton, Blackford

    2008-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) integrated within Electronic Medical Records (EMR) hold the promise of improving healthcare quality. To date the effectiveness of CDSS has been less than expected, especially concerning the ambulatory management of chronic diseases. This is due, in part, to the fact that clinicians do not use CDSS fully. Barriers to clinicians' use of CDSS have included lack of integration into workflow, software usability issues, and relevance of the content to the patient at hand. At Partners HealthCare, we are developing "Smart Forms" to facilitate documentation-based clinical decision support. Rather than being interruptive in nature, the Smart Form enables writing a multi-problem visit note while capturing coded information and providing sophisticated decision support in the form of tailored recommendations for care. The current version of the Smart Form is designed around two chronic diseases: coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. The Smart Form has potential to improve the care of patients with both acute and chronic conditions.

  4. Predictive Abuse Detection for a PLC Smart Lighting Network Based on Automatically Created Models of Exponential Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Andrysiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic elements of a Smart City is the urban infrastructure management system, in particular, systems of intelligent street lighting control. However, for their reliable operation, they require special care for the safety of their critical communication infrastructure. This article presents solutions for the detection of different kinds of abuses in network traffic of Smart Lighting infrastructure, realized by Power Line Communication technology. Both the structure of the examined Smart Lighting network and its elements are described. The article discusses the key security problems which have a direct impact on the correct performance of the Smart Lighting critical infrastructure. In order to detect an anomaly/attack, we proposed the usage of a statistical model to obtain forecasting intervals. Then, we calculated the value of the differences between the forecast in the estimated traffic model and its real variability so as to detect abnormal behavior (which may be symptomatic of an abuse attempt. Due to the possibility of appearance of significant fluctuations in the real network traffic, we proposed a procedure of statistical models update which is based on the criterion of interquartile spacing. The results obtained during the experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the presented misuse detection method.

  5. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI SMART CARD INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Agus Swastika; Siti Saibah Pua Luka; Yanno Dwi Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity to development smart card -based application is quite large as the need for smart card technology in various fields of both business and government agencies and BUMN. One brand that is widely used smart card is a smart card type from a vendor production NFC ACR122U ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) because prices are relatively affordable, but fairly tough. At the Thesis is done, the ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) as a manufacturer of smart card vendor type ...

  6. Smart Device-Based Notifications to Promote Healthy Behavior Related to Childhood Obesity and Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century and it is a threat to the life of people according to World Health Organization. In this scenario, family environment is important to establish healthy habits which help to reduce levels of obesity and control overweight in children. However, little efforts have been focused on helping parents to promote and have healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we present two smart device-based notification prototypes to promote healthy behavior with the aim of avoiding childhood overweight and obesity. The first prototype helps parents to follow a healthy snack routine, based on a nutritionist suggestion. Using a fridge magnet, parents receive graphical reminders of which snacks they and their children should consume. The second prototype provides a graphical reminder that prevents parents from forgetting the required equipment to practice sports. Prototypes were evaluated by nine nutritionists from three countries (Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain. Evaluations were based on anticipation of use and the ergonomics of human–system interaction according to the ISO 9241-210. Results show that the system is considered useful. Even though they might not be willing to use the system, they would recommend it to their patients. Based on the ISO 9241-210 the best ranked features were the system’s comprehensibility, the perceived effectiveness and clarity. The worst ranked features were the system’s suitability for learning and its discriminability.

  7. Evaluation of HeartSmarts, a Faith-Based Cardiovascular Health Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Naa-Solo; Duran, Pedro A; Andersen, Holly S; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2017-02-01

    In order to effectively address cardiovascular disease among African Americans, evidence-based health information must be disseminated within a context aligned with the values and beliefs of the population. Faith-based organizations play a critical role in meeting the religious and spiritual needs of many African Americans. Additionally, faith-based organizations can be effective in health promotion. A manual was created by incorporating biblical scriptures relating to health messages drawn from existing health manuals oriented toward African Americans. Lay health educators active in their churches participated in a 12-week training to learn the basics of cardiovascular disease and methods for delivering the program to their congregations' members. After the completion of the training, these lay health educators recruited participants from their respective churches and administered their own 12-week HeartSmarts program. Measurements of participants' systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), height (in.), weight (lbs.), and waist circumference (in.) were taken, and cardiovascular disease knowledge assessments (based on 20 open-ended questions) were administered at the start and end of the 12-week programs. Fourteen predominantly African American churches in NYC participated. Of the 221 participants, 199 completed the program. There were significant reductions in pretest and posttest total participant averages for systolic BP (4.48 mmHg, p health assessment scores had an average increase of 12.74 correct responses (p health messages and reducing cardiovascular risk among African Americans.

  8. Refining Wi-Fi Based Indoor Localization with Li-Fi Assisted Model Calibration in Smart Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qian; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Ge, Zhenhao; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing number of information technologies utilized in buildings to advance the idea of "smart buildings". Among various potential techniques, the use of Wi-Fi based indoor positioning allows to locate and track smartphone users inside a building, therefore, location-aware intelligent solutions can be applied to control and of building operations. These location-aware indoor services (e.g., path finding, internet of things, location based advertising) dem...

  9. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.

    2016-11-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.

  10. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs, and to ......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve...... their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production...

  11. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  12. Smart Textile Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Respiratory Monitoring: Design and Preliminary Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchetti, Marco; Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Caponero, Michele A; Polimadei, Andrea; Formica, Domenico; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-09-14

    Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR) examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT). FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period (TR), duration of inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) phases, as well as left and right UT volumes, were assessed on four healthy volunteers. The comparison of results obtained by the proposed system and an optoelectronic plethysmography highlights the high accuracy in the estimation of TR, TI, and TE: Bland-Altman analysis shows mean of difference values lower than 0.045 s, 0.33 s, and 0.35 s for TR, TI, and TE, respectively. The mean difference of UT volumes between the two systems is about 8.3%. The promising results foster further development of the system to allow routine use during MR examinations.Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR) examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT). FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period (TR

  13. Smart Textile Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Respiratory Monitoring: Design and Preliminary Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciocchetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT. FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period (TR, duration of inspiratory (TI and expiratory (TE phases, as well as left and right UT volumes, were assessed on four healthy volunteers. The comparison of results obtained by the proposed system and an optoelectronic plethysmography highlights the high accuracy in the estimation of TR, TI, and TE: Bland-Altman analysis shows mean of difference values lower than 0.045 s, 0.33 s, and 0.35 s for TR, TI, and TE, respectively. The mean difference of UT volumes between the two systems is about 8.3%. The promising results foster further development of the system to allow routine use during MR examinations.Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT. FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period

  14. Determining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at Lampedusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Daniela; di Sarra, Alcide; Brogniez, Gérard; Denjean, Cyrielle; De Silvestri, Lorenzo; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Formenti, Paola; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Mallet, Marc; Pace, Giandomenico; Sferlazzo, Damiano M.

    2018-03-01

    Detailed measurements of radiation, atmospheric and aerosol properties were carried out in summer 2013 during the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) campaign in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) experiment. This study focusses on the characterization of infrared (IR) optical properties and direct radiative effects of mineral dust, based on three vertical profiles of atmospheric and aerosol properties and IR broadband and narrowband radiation from airborne measurements, made in conjunction with radiosonde and ground-based observations at Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean. Satellite IR spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) are also included in the analysis. The atmospheric and aerosol properties are used as input to a radiative transfer model, and various IR radiation parameters (upward and downward irradiance, nadir and zenith brightness temperature at different altitudes) are calculated and compared with observations. The model calculations are made for different sets of dust particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index (RI), derived from observations and from the literature. The main results of the analysis are that the IR dust radiative forcing is non-negligible and strongly depends on PSD and RI. When calculations are made using the in situ measured size distribution, it is possible to identify the refractive index that produces the best match with observed IR irradiances and brightness temperatures (BTs). The most appropriate refractive indices correspond to those determined from independent measurements of mineral dust aerosols from the source regions (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) of dust transported over Lampedusa, suggesting that differences in the source properties should be taken into account. With the in situ size distribution and the most appropriate refractive index the estimated dust IR radiative forcing

  15. IoT-Based User-Driven Service Modeling Environment for a Smart Space Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoan-Suk; Rhee, Woo-Seop

    2014-01-01

    The existing Internet environment has been extended to the Internet of Things (IoT) as an emerging new paradigm. The IoT connects various physical entities. These entities have communication capability and deploy the observed information to various service areas such as building management, energy-saving systems, surveillance services, and smart homes. These services are designed and developed by professional service providers. Moreover, users' needs have become more complicated and personalized with the spread of user-participation services such as social media and blogging. Therefore, some active users want to create their own services to satisfy their needs, but the existing IoT service-creation environment is difficult for the non-technical user because it requires a programming capability to create a service. To solve this problem, we propose the IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment to provide an easy way to create IoT services. Also, the proposed environment deploys the defined service to another user. Through the personalization and customization of the defined service, the value and dissemination of the service is increased. This environment also provides the ontology-based context-information processing that produces and describes the context information for the IoT-based user-driven service. PMID:25420153

  16. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Serroukh, Ibrahim; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application. PMID:22164040

  17. Optimisation of sensing time and transmission time in cognitive radio-based smart grid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fu, Yuli; Yang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive radio (CR)-based smart grid (SG) networks have been widely recognised as emerging communication paradigms in power grids. However, a sufficient spectrum resource and reliability are two major challenges for real-time applications in CR-based SG networks. In this article, we study the traffic data collection problem. Based on the two-stage power pricing model, the power price is associated with the efficient received traffic data in a metre data management system (MDMS). In order to minimise the system power price, a wideband hybrid access strategy is proposed and analysed, to share the spectrum between the SG nodes and CR networks. The sensing time and transmission time are jointly optimised, while both the interference to primary users and the spectrum opportunity loss of secondary users are considered. Two algorithms are proposed to solve the joint optimisation problem. Simulation results show that the proposed joint optimisation algorithms outperform the fixed parameters (sensing time and transmission time) algorithms, and the power cost is reduced efficiently.

  18. Semantic Agent-Based Service Middleware and Simulation for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Hu, Haixiao; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-12-21

    With the development of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology, a variety of embedded and mobile devices is integrated to interact via the platform of the Internet of Things, especially in the domain of smart cities. One of the primary challenges is that selecting the appropriate services or service combination for upper layer applications is hard, which is due to the absence of a unified semantical service description pattern, as well as the service selection mechanism. In this paper, we define a semantic service representation model from four key properties: Capability (C), Deployment (D), Resource (R) and IOData (IO). Based on this model, an agent-based middleware is built to support semantic service enablement. In this middleware, we present an efficient semantic service discovery and matching approach for a service combination process, which calculates the semantic similarity between services, and a heuristic algorithm to search the service candidates for a specific service request. Based on this design, we propose a simulation of virtual urban fire fighting, and the experimental results manifest the feasibility and efficiency of our design.

  19. IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment for a smart space management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoan-Suk; Rhee, Woo-Seop

    2014-11-20

    The existing Internet environment has been extended to the Internet of Things (IoT) as an emerging new paradigm. The IoT connects various physical entities. These entities have communication capability and deploy the observed information to various service areas such as building management, energy-saving systems, surveillance services, and smart homes. These services are designed and developed by professional service providers. Moreover, users' needs have become more complicated and personalized with the spread of user-participation services such as social media and blogging. Therefore, some active users want to create their own services to satisfy their needs, but the existing IoT service-creation environment is difficult for the non-technical user because it requires a programming capability to create a service. To solve this problem, we propose the IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment to provide an easy way to create IoT services. Also, the proposed environment deploys the defined service to another user. Through the personalization and customization of the defined service, the value and dissemination of the service is increased. This environment also provides the ontology-based context-information processing that produces and describes the context information for the IoT-based user-driven service.

  20. Development of Smart Grid for Community and Cyber based Landslide Hazard Monitoring and Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Fathani, T. F.; Fukuoka, H.; Andayani, B.

    2012-12-01

    A Smart Grid is a cyber-based tool to facilitate a network of sensors for monitoring and communicating the landslide hazard and providing the early warning. The sensor is designed as an electronic sensor installed in the existing monitoring and early warning instruments, and also as the human sensors which comprise selected committed-people at the local community, such as the local surveyor, local observer, member of the local task force for disaster risk reduction, and any person at the local community who has been registered to dedicate their commitments for sending reports related to the landslide symptoms observed at their living environment. This tool is designed to be capable to receive up to thousands of reports/information at the same time through the electronic sensors, text message (mobile phone), the on-line participatory web as well as various social media such as Twitter and Face book. The information that should be recorded/ reported by the sensors is related to the parameters of landslide symptoms, for example the progress of cracks occurrence, ground subsidence or ground deformation. Within 10 minutes, this tool will be able to automatically elaborate and analyse the reported symptoms to predict the landslide hazard and risk levels. The predicted level of hazard/ risk can be sent back to the network of electronic and human sensors as the early warning information. The key parameters indicating the symptoms of landslide hazard were recorded/ monitored by the electrical and the human sensors. Those parameters were identified based on the investigation on geological and geotechnical conditions, supported with the laboratory analysis. The cause and triggering mechanism of landslide in the study area was also analysed in order to define the critical condition to launch the early warning. However, not only the technical but also social system were developed to raise community awareness and commitments to serve the mission as the human sensors, which will

  1. Development of magnetorheological elastomers based on Deproteinised natural rubber as smart damping materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nik Intan Nik; Kamaruddin, Shamsul

    2017-12-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are composite materials consist of micron-sized magnetizable particles carbonyl iron particles [CIPs]) embedded in a soft elastomer matrix. MRE technology offers variable stiffness and damping properties under the influence of a magnetic field. Herein, the feasibility of incorporating a new generation specialty rubber, Pureprena as a matrix for MREs was investigated. Pureprena or Deproteinised Natural Rubber (DPNR) is a specialty natural rubber that has good dynamic properties, particularly with respect to damping parameters. DPNR was compounded with 60 wt% of CIPs to fabricate MREs. The performance of the DPNR-based MRE was measured in terms of tensile strength, dynamic properties, and magnetorheological (MR) effect and compared with polyisoprene (IR)-based MRE with the same amount of CIPs. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) showed that the loss factor in the glass transition region of the DPNR-based MRE was higher than that of the IR-based MRE, indicating better damping properties. Further investigation was undertaken using a servo-hydraulic testing machine to characterise the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the dynamic properties (e.g. damping coefficient) of MREs at zero magnetic fields. The results demonstrate that DPNR-based MREs possess a comparable damping coefficient to that of IR-based MREs. In addition, MR effect, which relates to the ratio between elastic modulus with applied magnetic field (on-state) to the same modulus without applied fields (off-state), was measured using a parallel plate rheometer. As a result, DPNR-based MREs have improved MR effect than that of IR-based MREs. Moreover, variable stiffness is obtained when the magnetic field was increased to 0.8T. Loss factor or tan δ of MREs was found to vary against different magnetic fields. Finally, MREs with varied stiffness and damping were found to have potential as active control devices for smart damping materials.

  2. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems : A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available

  3. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  4. Efficient storage of healthcare data in XML-based smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündem, T I; Armağan, O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present storage structures for efficiently processing XML path queries on healthcare data stored in smart cards using XML format. In the design of the storage structures that we present, properties of healthcare data and fundamental types of queries on the healthcare data are taken into account as well as the constraints of the smart cards. We compare the space and time efficiency of the proposed storage structures for various types of queries.

  5. Adaptive software architecture based on confident HCI for the deployment of sensitive services in Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-03-25

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature.

  6. Adaptive Software Architecture Based on Confident HCI for the Deployment of Sensitive Services in Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature. PMID:25815449

  7. The Internet- and Digital Signature-Based Prescription Order Communication System Using Synchronized Smart Cards in the 2-Way Type Terminal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Won

    2001-01-01

    ...) based on the Internet between the hospital and the pharmacy, on the public-key infrastructure, and on the concurrently parallel co-operation with both medical professional's and patient's smart cards...

  8. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howser, Rachel; Moslehy, Yashar; Gu, Haichang; Dhonde, Hemant; Mo, Y. L.; Ayoub, Ashraf; Song, Gangbing

    2011-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity.

  9. Rotor-bearing vibration control system based on fuzzy controller and smart actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Borges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most rotating machines, especially those mounted on flexible shafts and bearings when it starts operating, tend to pass through critical speeds, ie speeds that can cause the system to resonate the mechanical structure. Hence it is a constant concern for finding effective methods to mitigate the effect of vibration when passing through such speeds. Currently, it has been studied applications of materials made from special alloys as actuators in dynamic systems, in order to reduce the vibrations in a frequency range related to the resonance region. In this direction, it is the use of components made of active materials such as Shape Memory Alloys (SMA, considered "smart", able to recover its original shape when the change in temperature and/or mechanical stress, and as the main characteristics, its high damping capacity, due to the increased levels of vibration. This paper presents a rotor-bearing vibration control system based on actuators SMA coil springs. A fuzzy controller has been used for control the vibration of the system based on the measuring of critical speeds. The experimental results of the operation of the system shown their effectiveness being obtained reductions of up to 60% in amplitude, during the passage through the resonance region.

  10. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  11. Smart device-based testing for medical students in Korea: satisfaction, convenience, and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate respondents’ satisfaction with smart device-based testing (SBT, as well as its convenience and advantages, in order to improve its implementation. The survey was conducted among 108 junior medical students at Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea, who took a practice licensing examination using SBT in September 2015. The survey contained 28 items scored using a 5-point Likert scale. The items were divided into the following three categories: satisfaction with SBT administration, convenience of SBT features, and advantages of SBT compared to paper-and-pencil testing or computer-based testing. The reliability of the survey was 0.95. Of the three categories, the convenience of the SBT features received the highest mean (M score (M= 3.75, standard deviation [SD]= 0.69, while the category of satisfaction with SBT received the lowest (M= 3.13, SD= 1.07. No statistically significant differences across these categories with respect to sex, age, or experience were observed. These results indicate that SBT was practical and effective to take and to administer.

  12. Smart sustainable bottle (SSB) system for E. coli based recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaopeng; Carstensen, Bettina; Rinas, Ursula

    2014-11-05

    Recombinant proteins are usually required in laboratories interested in the protein but not in the production process itself. Thus, technical equipment which is easy to handle and straight forward protein production procedures are of great benefit to those laboratories. Companies selling single use cultivation bags and bioreactors are trying to satisfy at least part of these needs. However, single-use systems can contribute to major costs which might be acceptable when "good manufacturing practices" are required but not acceptable for most laboratories facing tight funding. The assembly and application of a simple self-made "smart sustainable bottle" (SSB) system for E. coli based protein production is presented. The core of the SSB system is a 2-L glass bottle which is operated at constant temperature, air flow, and stirrer speed without measurement and control of pH and dissolved oxygen. Oxygen transfer capacities are in the range as in conventional bioreactors operated at intermediate aeration rates and by far exceed those found in conventional shaking flasks and disposable bioreactors. The SSB system was applied for the production of various recombinant proteins using T7-based expression systems and a defined autoinduction medium. The production performance regarding amount and solubility of proteins with robust and delicate properties was as good as in state-of-the-art stirred tank commercial bioreactors. The SSB system represents a low cost protein production device applicable for easy, effective, and reproducible recombinant protein production.

  13. Smart sensors development based on a distributed bus for microsystems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Carles; Lorente, Bibiana

    2003-04-01

    Our main objective in this work has been to develop a comunication system applicable between sensors and actuators and the data processing circuitry inside the microsystem in order to develop a flexible and modular architecture. This communication system is based on the use of a dedicated sensor bus composed by only two wires (a bidirectional data line and a clock line for sincronization). The basic philosophy of this development has been to create an IP model with VHDL for the bus driver that can be added to the sensor or the actuator to create an smart device that could be easily plugged with the other componets of the microsystem architecture. This methodology can be applied to a high integrated microsystem based on an extensively use of microelectronics technologies (ASICs, SoCs & MCMs). The reduced number of wires is an extraordinary advatage because produce a minimal interconnection between all the components and as a consequence the size of the microinstrument becomes smaller. The second aspect that we have considered in this development has been to reach a communication protocol that permits to built-up a very simple but robust bus driver interface that minimize the circuit overhead. This interconnection system has been applied to biomedical and aerospatial microsystems applications.

  14. A Smart Web-Based Geospatial Data Discovery System with Oceanographic Data as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovering and accessing geospatial data presents a significant challenge for the Earth sciences community as massive amounts of data are being produced on a daily basis. In this article, we report a smart web-based geospatial data discovery system that mines and utilizes data relevancy from metadata user behavior. Specifically, (1 the system enables semantic query expansion and suggestion to assist users in finding more relevant data; (2 machine-learned ranking is utilized to provide the optimal search ranking based on a number of identified ranking features that can reflect users’ search preferences; (3 a hybrid recommendation module is designed to allow users to discover related data considering metadata attributes and user behavior; (4 an integrated graphic user interface design is developed to quickly and intuitively guide data consumers to the appropriate data resources. As a proof of concept, we focus on a well-defined domain-oceanography and use oceanographic data discovery as an example. Experiments and a search example show that the proposed system can improve the scientific community’s data search experience by providing query expansion, suggestion, better search ranking, and data recommendation via a user-friendly interface.

  15. Towards Cost and Comfort Based Hybrid Optimization for Residential Load Scheduling in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a smart grid, several optimization techniques have been developed to schedule load in the residential area. Most of these techniques aim at minimizing the energy consumption cost and the comfort of electricity consumer. Conversely, maintaining a balance between two conflicting objectives: energy consumption cost and user comfort is still a challenging task. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to minimize the electricity cost and user discomfort while taking into account the peak energy consumption. In this regard, we implement and analyse the performance of a traditional dynamic programming (DP technique and two heuristic optimization techniques: genetic algorithm (GA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO for residential load management. Based on these techniques, we propose a hybrid scheme named GAPSO for residential load scheduling, so as to optimize the desired objective function. In order to alleviate the complexity of the problem, the multi dimensional knapsack is used to ensure that the load of electricity consumer will not escalate during peak hours. The proposed model is evaluated based on two pricing schemes: day-ahead and critical peak pricing for single and multiple days. Furthermore, feasible regions are calculated and analysed to develop a relationship between power consumption, electricity cost, and user discomfort. The simulation results are compared with GA, BPSO and DP, and validate that the proposed hybrid scheme reflects substantial savings in electricity bills with minimum user discomfort. Moreover, results also show a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption.

  16. In vivo absorption of steroidal hormones from smart polymer based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibao; Pederson, Daniel; Oak, Mayura; Singh, Jagdish

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop smart polymer based controlled delivery systems to deliver steroidal hormones after single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at predetermined rates over extended period of time. In vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and testosterone (TSN) were investigated from the thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymeric controlled delivery systems. A selective, reliable, and rapid method for determination of serum LNG concentration was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (HPLC-MS-MS with APCI), while TSN in serum samples was detected and quantified by a competitive immunoassay. The delivery systems controlled the absorption of LNG in rabbits up to 6 weeks from thermosensitive and approximately 4 weeks from phase sensitive polymeric delivery systems. In vivo study of TSN delivery systems in castrated rabbits controlled the release of TSN for at least 2 months from both thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymers. Thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer formulations significantly (p < 0.05) increased relative bioavailability of steroidal hormones compared to control. In conclusion, thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer based delivery systems controlled the release in vivo in rabbits for longer duration after single s.c. injection. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. Price-based Energy Control for V2G Networks in the Industrial Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and global warming call for a new industrial revolution in production and distribution of renewable energy. Distributed power generation will be well developed in the new smart electricity distribution grid, in which robust power distribution will be the key technology. In this paper, we present a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G network for energy transfer, in which distributed renewable energy helps the power grid balance demand and supply. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs will act as transporters of electricity for distributed renewable energy dispatching. We formulate and analyze the V2G network within the theoretical framework of complex network. We also employ the generalized synchronization method to study the dynamic behavior of V2G networks. Furthermore, we develop a new price-based energy control method to stimulate the PHEV's behavior of charging and discharging. Simulation results indicate that the V2G network can achieve synchronization and each region is able to balance energy supply and demand through price-based control.

  18. Wireless Hydrogen Smart Sensor Based on Pt/Graphene-Immobilized Radio-Frequency Identification Tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Oh, Jungkyun; Jun, Jaemoon; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-08-25

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus, appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen-gas leak detection and surveillance systems are needed; additionally, the ability to monitor large areas (e.g., cities) via wireless networks is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we introduce a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based wireless smart-sensor system, composed of a Pt-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO)-immobilized RFID sensor tag and an RFID-reader antenna-connected network analyzer to detect hydrogen gas. The Pt_rGOs, produced using a simple chemical reduction process, were immobilized on an antenna pattern in the sensor tag through spin coating. The resulting Pt_rGO-based RFID sensor tag exhibited a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas at unprecedentedly low concentrations (1 ppm), with wireless communication between the sensor tag and RFID-reader antenna. The wireless sensor tag demonstrated flexibility and a long lifetime due to the strong immobilization of Pt_rGOs on the substrate and battery-independent operation during hydrogen sensing, respectively.

  19. SysGRID: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 Standard Based Engineering Tool for Smart Grid Automation Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The so called Smart Grid is said to be distributed in nature with an accompanying control architecture which is made up of a heterogeneous network of controllers communicating in a peer-to-peer manner. The paper proposes a novel computer-aided model-based system engineering process for the design of a Smart Grid applications from the initial design specification through to the validation of the control system and hardware deployment. The process is supported by the SysGRID tool, which plays the roles of a system configurator and device configurator adopted from the International Standard IEC 61850. SysGRID supports system-level design of automation logic in the form of function block networks compliant with the international standard IEC 61499. The capabilities of SysGRID are demonstrated through the process of designing a distributed protection application based on IEC 61850 and the resultant validation process in a close-loop co-simulation.

  20. SmartWeld/SmartProcess - intelligent model based system for the design and validation of welding processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchner, J.

    1996-04-01

    Diagrams are presented on an intelligent model based system for the design and validation of welding processes. Key capabilities identified include `right the first time` manufacturing, continuous improvement, and on-line quality assurance.

  1. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  2. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  3. Environmental Degradation of Nickel-Based Superalloys Due to Gypsiferous Desert Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    mortar and pestle to a fine powder. • PTI Arizona Test Dust A2 A size standard artificial dust (64% of particles ᝺ µm and 100%  µm...loaded into a Carver Incorporated 10 ton hydraulic press as shown in Figure 5.1. 94 Figure 5.1: To prevent cross- contamination on test coupons, the dusts ...then quartered so each test coupon could be loaded with multiple test dusts , as shown in Figure 5.2, without worry of cross contamination . For all

  4. Smart textile sensing system for human respiration monitoring based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chang-yun; Li, Hong-qiang; Song, Hui-chao; Xu, Fan-jie

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable aid to diagnosis and treatment. As the doctor cannot accompany the patient, it is essential that the patient be monitored remotely to avoid the risk of respiration being impaired by anesthetic drugs or upper airway obstruction. A smart wearable textile sensing system is described in this paper. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with polymer encapsulation has been woven into an elastic bandage to detect the respiration motion. According to the strain principle of FBG, the breathing rate and intensity can be obtained by measuring the variety of FBG reflected wavelength. In order to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity, a FBG temperature sensor has also been woven into the bandage to achieve the temperature compensation computing. Based on the tunable Fabry-Perot filter wavelength demodulated theory, wavelength measuring method and data processing arithmetic have been presented, and the system with ARM microprocessor has been designed to process and display the breathing information. The experiments to the system have proved that the wavelength measuring range is about 40nm, the resolution of wavelength can arrive at 2pm, and the sampling rate is 5Hz.

  5. Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.

  6. Study on New Smart Transformer Terminal Unit Based on ARM and GPRS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution transformer is one of the most important power equipments in distribution network, whose running state exercises a great influence on the stability of the network. Transformer Terminal Unit (TTU is an effective device to monitor the running state of transformers in the distribution automation system. In this paper, we study a new smart TTU which uses ARM7 series chip as processor, equipped with ATT7022B based electric meter module and GPRS module for remote data transmission control. We focus on the corresponding hardware, software design and the measurement principle of harmonics of TTU. The new TTU can measure the electric parameters of the distribution transformer precisely. Taking advantage of the powerful ARM processor, it can analyze harmonic of the power line effectively. Due to the always-on-line feature of GPRS, TTU can achieve reliable communication with the remote terminal and the master station. Compared with other similar units, the new unit outperforms in terms of real-time, precision and reliability, which can fully meet with the high-speed development of distribution automation system.

  7. Investigation on IMCP based clustering in LTE-M communication for smart metering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Vishal Deshpande

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Machine to Machine (M2M is foreseen as an emerging technology for smart metering applications where devices communicate seamlessly for information transfer. The M2M communication makes use of long term evolution (LTE as its backbone network and it results in long-term evolution for machine type communication (LTE-M network. As huge number of M2M devices is to be handled by single eNB (evolved Node B, clustering is exploited for efficient processing of the network. This paper investigates the proposed Improved M2M Clustering Process (IMCP based clustering technique and it is compared with two well-known clustering algorithms, namely, Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchical (LEACH and Energy Aware Multihop Multipath Hierarchical (EAMMH techniques. Further, the IMCP algorithm is analyzed with two-tier and three-tier M2M systems for various mobility conditions. The proposed IMCP algorithm improves the last node death by 63.15% and 51.61% as compared to LEACH and EAMMH, respectively. Further, the average energy of each node in IMCP is increased by 89.85% and 81.15%, as compared to LEACH and EAMMH, respectively.

  8. Artificial Intelligence-Based Semantic Internet of Things in a User-Centric Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart city (SC technologies can provide appropriate services according to citizens’ demands. One of the key enablers in a SC is the Internet of Things (IoT technology, which enables a massive number of devices to connect with each other. However, these devices usually come from different manufacturers with different product standards, which confront interactive control problems. Moreover, these devices will produce large amounts of data, and efficiently analyzing these data for intelligent services. In this paper, we propose a novel artificial intelligence-based semantic IoT (AI-SIoT hybrid service architecture to integrate heterogeneous IoT devices to support intelligent services. In particular, the proposed architecture is empowered by semantic and AI technologies, which enable flexible connections among heterogeneous devices. The AI technology can support very implement efficient data analysis and make accurate decisions on service provisions in various kinds. Furthermore, we also present several practical use cases of the proposed AI-SIoT architecture and the opportunities and challenges to implement the proposed AI-SIoT for future SCs are also discussed.

  9. An IoT-cloud Based Wearable ECG Monitoring System for Smart Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Zhou, Qihao; Lei, Lei; Zheng, Kan; Xiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Public healthcare has been paid an increasing attention given the exponential growth human population and medical expenses. It is well known that an effective health monitoring system can detect abnormalities of health conditions in time and make diagnoses according to the gleaned data. As a vital approach to diagnose heart diseases, ECG monitoring is widely studied and applied. However, nearly all existing portable ECG monitoring systems cannot work without a mobile application, which is responsible for data collection and display. In this paper, we propose a new method for ECG monitoring based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) techniques. ECG data are gathered using a wearable monitoring node and are transmitted directly to the IoT cloud using Wi-Fi. Both the HTTP and MQTT protocols are employed in the IoT cloud in order to provide visual and timely ECG data to users. Nearly all smart terminals with a web browser can acquire ECG data conveniently, which has greatly alleviated the cross-platform issue. Experiments are carried out on healthy volunteers in order to verify the reliability of the entire system. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system is reliable in collecting and displaying real-time ECG data, which can aid in the primary diagnosis of certain heart diseases.

  10. Artificial Intelligence-Based Semantic Internet of Things in a User-Centric Smart City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Lu, Yueming; Gao, Hui; Cao, Ruohan

    2018-04-26

    Smart city (SC) technologies can provide appropriate services according to citizens’ demands. One of the key enablers in a SC is the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, which enables a massive number of devices to connect with each other. However, these devices usually come from different manufacturers with different product standards, which confront interactive control problems. Moreover, these devices will produce large amounts of data, and efficiently analyzing these data for intelligent services. In this paper, we propose a novel artificial intelligence-based semantic IoT (AI-SIoT) hybrid service architecture to integrate heterogeneous IoT devices to support intelligent services. In particular, the proposed architecture is empowered by semantic and AI technologies, which enable flexible connections among heterogeneous devices. The AI technology can support very implement efficient data analysis and make accurate decisions on service provisions in various kinds. Furthermore, we also present several practical use cases of the proposed AI-SIoT architecture and the opportunities and challenges to implement the proposed AI-SIoT for future SCs are also discussed.

  11. Smart synthesis of high performance thermosets based on ortho-(amide-co-imide functional benzoxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatsuo eIshida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High performance thermosets via amide-imide functional benzoxazine resins as precursors have been synthesized. The structures of synthesized monomers have been confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR. Among these two benzoxazine monomers, the ortho-amide-imide functional benzoxazine resin shows powerful features both in the synthesis of benzoxazine monomers and the properties of the corresponding thermosets. For the cross-linked poly(amide-co-imide based on ortho-amide-imide functional benzoxazine, a smart route is adopted to develop a more thermally stable cross-linked poly(benzoxazole-co-imide. Besides, the poly(benzoxazole-co-imide can also undergo a further thermal treatment to form polybenzoxazole. Furthermore, a main-chain type ortho-functional polybenzoxazine with amide-co-imide and benzoxazine groups as repeating units has also been prepared. Both the ortho-amide-imide functional benzoxazine and main-chain type polybenzoxazine resins show the possibility to form high performance thermosets with low cost and easy processability .

  12. A Deformable Smart Skin for Continuous Sensing Based on Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visentin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a low-cost, adaptable, and flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as a smart skin over both stiff and deformable media. The sensor can be easily adapted for use in applications related to the fields of robotics, rehabilitation, or costumer electronic devices. In order to remove most of the stiff components that block the flexibility of the sensor, we based the sensing capability on the use of a tomographic technique known as Electrical Impedance Tomography. The technique allows the internal structure of the domain under study to be inferred by reconstructing its conductivity map. By applying the technique to a material that changes its resistivity according to applied forces, it is possible to identify these changes and then localise the area where the force was applied. We tested the system when applied to flat and curved surfaces. For all configurations, we evaluate the artificial skin capabilities to detect forces applied over a single point, over multiple points, and changes in the underlying geometry. The results are all promising, and open the way for the application of such sensors in different robotic contexts where deformability is the key point.

  13. A Deformable Smart Skin for Continuous Sensing Based on Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, adaptable, and flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as a smart skin over both stiff and deformable media. The sensor can be easily adapted for use in applications related to the fields of robotics, rehabilitation, or costumer electronic devices. In order to remove most of the stiff components that block the flexibility of the sensor, we based the sensing capability on the use of a tomographic technique known as Electrical Impedance Tomography. The technique allows the internal structure of the domain under study to be inferred by reconstructing its conductivity map. By applying the technique to a material that changes its resistivity according to applied forces, it is possible to identify these changes and then localise the area where the force was applied. We tested the system when applied to flat and curved surfaces. For all configurations, we evaluate the artificial skin capabilities to detect forces applied over a single point, over multiple points, and changes in the underlying geometry. The results are all promising, and open the way for the application of such sensors in different robotic contexts where deformability is the key point. PMID:27854325

  14. Bio-inspired motion detection in an FPGA-based smart camera module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, T; Roechter, F; Moeller, R; Lindemann, J P

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects, despite their relatively coarse vision and tiny nervous system, are capable of carrying out elegant and fast aerial manoeuvres. Studies of the fly visual system have shown that this is accomplished by the integration of signals from a large number of elementary motion detectors (EMDs) in just a few global flow detector cells. We developed an FPGA-based smart camera module with more than 10 000 single EMDs, which is closely modelled after insect motion-detection circuits with respect to overall architecture, resolution and inter-receptor spacing. Input to the EMD array is provided by a CMOS camera with a high frame rate. Designed as an adaptable solution for different engineering applications and as a testbed for biological models, the EMD detector type and parameters such as the EMD time constants, the motion-detection directions and the angle between correlated receptors are reconfigurable online. This allows a flexible and simultaneous detection of complex motion fields such as translation, rotation and looming, such that various tasks, e.g., obstacle avoidance, height/distance control or speed regulation can be performed by the same compact device

  15. Smart nanopaper based on cellulose nanofibers with hybrid PEDOT:PSS/polypyrrole for energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Makara; Pèlach, M Àngels; Pellicer, Neus; Tarrés, Joaquim A; Bun, Kim Ngun; Vilaseca, Fabiola

    2017-06-01

    In the current work, flexible, lightweight, and strong conductive nanopapers based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and/or polypyrrole (PPy) were prepared by following a mixing and in situ chemical polymerization method. A successful homogeneous coating of PEDOT:PSS on cellulose nanofibers occurred by means hydrogen-bonding interactions between the hydroxyl functionalized CNF and the electronically charged PEDOT:PSS, as shown by FTIR spectra. The electrical conductivity and the specific capacitance of CNF-PEDOT:PSS nanopapers were 2.58Scm -1 and 6.21Fg -1 , respectively. Further coating of PPy produced a substantial improvement on the electrical conductivity (10.55Scm -1 ) and the specific capacitance (315.5Fg -1 ) of the resulting CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper. A synergistic phenomenon between both conductive polymers supported the high electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of the ternary formulation. Moreover, CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper showed higher mechanical properties and it was more flexible than the nanopaper containing only polypyrrole conducting polymer (CNF-PPy). It is concluded that the good mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the ternary formulation can apply for smart nanopaper in flexible electronics and energy storage devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of the Smart pH Sensor Based on Ion Selection Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture pH is one of the important indicators which affect cultivation objects’ healthy growth, whether pH value is normal or not would affect the survival of cultured objects. The traditional pH detecting method has poor stability and reliability, a smart pH sensor which is based on ion selective electrode has been designed in this paper, it adopts positive and negative double power to solve the problem of power supply, the self-excited prevented and impedance matching circuit has been designed to eliminate the self-excited oscillation circuit's influence on the measurement accuracy. The filter circuit has been designed to prevent the interference of the power frequency noise signal effectively, the zero and range adjustment circuit has been designed to expand the scope of the sensor. The temperature compensation correction model has been proposed to solve the problem of temperature compensation. The experiment results have shown that the developed sensor has good stability, reliability, and suitable for pH monitoring in aquaculture water quality.

  17. A Dynamic Enhancement With Background Reduction Algorithm: Overview and Application to Satellite-Based Dust Storm Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.; Bankert, Richard L.; Solbrig, Jeremy E.; Forsythe, John M.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Grasso, Lewis D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Enhancement Background Reduction Algorithm (DEBRA) applicable to multispectral satellite imaging radiometers. DEBRA uses ancillary information about the clear-sky background to reduce false detections of atmospheric parameters in complex scenes. Applied here to the detection of lofted dust, DEBRA enlists a surface emissivity database coupled with a climatological database of surface temperature to approximate the clear-sky equivalent signal for selected infrared-based multispectral dust detection tests. This background allows for suppression of false alarms caused by land surface features while retaining some ability to detect dust above those problematic surfaces. The algorithm is applicable to both day and nighttime observations and enables weighted combinations of dust detection tests. The results are provided quantitatively, as a detection confidence factor [0, 1], but are also readily visualized as enhanced imagery. Utilizing the DEBRA confidence factor as a scaling factor in false color red/green/blue imagery enables depiction of the targeted parameter in the context of the local meteorology and topography. In this way, the method holds utility to both automated clients and human analysts alike. Examples of DEBRA performance from notable dust storms and comparisons against other detection methods and independent observations are presented.

  18. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Lilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3–4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer. Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug’s cuticle.

  19. Design for CubeSat-based dust and radiation studies at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ashish; Krishnamoorthy, Siddharth; Swenson, Travis; West, Stephen; Li, Alan; Crew, Alexander; Phillips, Derek James; Screve, Antoine; Close, Sigrid

    2017-07-01

    Europa is one of the icy moons of Jupiter and the possibility of an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust makes it one of the most fascinating destinations for exploration in the solar system. NASA's Europa Multiple Flyby Mission (EMFM, formerly Europa Clipper) is slated to visit the icy moon in a timeframe near the year 2022 to study the habitability of Europa. CubeSats carried along by the primary mission can supplement the measurements made, at a relatively low cost, and with the added benefits of involving students at universities in this challenging endeavor. Further, such a mission holds the key to extending the applicability of CubeSats to interplanetary missions. In this paper, we present the design of the Europa Radiation and Dust Observation Satellite (ERDOS), a 3U CubeSat designed to be deployed by the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission to carry out measurements of the radiation and dust environment, before impacting Europa's surface. We present a detailed design for a CubeSat-based secondary mission, and discuss the science goals that may be accomplished by such a mission. Further, we discuss results from a comprehensive analysis of various engineering challenges associated with an interplanetary CubeSat mission, such as radiation shielding and thermal environment control. Our results show that a short duration CubeSat-based flyby mission is feasible when the CubeSat is carried on board the primary mission until the Jovian system is reached. Such a flyby mission can provide important supplementary information to the primary mission about Europa's environment at a closer range and lead to a substantial increase in scientific knowledge about surface processes on Europa.

  20. TwitterSensing: An Event-Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization Exploiting Social Media in Smart City Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Duran-Faundez, Cristian; Andrade, Daniel C; Rocha-Junior, João B; Peixoto, João Paulo Just

    2018-04-03

    Modern cities are subject to periodic or unexpected critical events, which may bring economic losses or even put people in danger. When some monitoring systems based on wireless sensor networks are deployed, sensing and transmission configurations of sensor nodes may be adjusted exploiting the relevance of the considered events, but efficient detection and classification of events of interest may be hard to achieve. In Smart City environments, several people spontaneously post information in social media about some event that is being observed and such information may be mined and processed for detection and classification of critical events. This article proposes an integrated approach to detect and classify events of interest posted in social media, notably in Twitter , and the assignment of sensing priorities to source nodes. By doing so, wireless sensor networks deployed in Smart City scenarios can be optimized for higher efficiency when monitoring areas under the influence of the detected events.

  1. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks.

  2. Towards second-generation smart card-based authentication in health information systems: the secure server model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, J; Hallberg, N; Timpka, T

    2001-01-01

    Conventional smart card-based authentication systems used in health care alleviate some of the security issues in user and system authentication. Existing models still do not cover all security aspects. To enable new protective measures to be developed, an extended model of the authentication process is presented. This model includes a new entity referred to as secure server. Assuming a secure server, a method where the smart card is aware of the status of the terminal integrity verification becomes feasible. The card can then act upon this knowledge and restrict the exposure of sensitive information to the terminal as required in order to minimize the risks. The secure server model can be used to illuminate the weaknesses of current approaches and the need for extensions which alleviate the resulting risks.

  3. Design and Implementation of Android Based Wearable Smart Locator Band for People with Autism, Dementia, and Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wearable smart locator band is an electronic device which can be worn on the wrist of the children to monitor and keep an eye on them. As the number of mishaps with children is increasing, it is a must to keep them safe. This also helps reducing crime rates. The research study proposed the development of a wearable smart locator band that helps keeping track of kids. The developed device includes an AVR microcontroller (ATmega8515, global positioning system (GPS, global system for mobile (GSM, and switching unit and the monitoring unit includes Android mobile device in parent’s hand with web based Android application as well as location indicated on a Google Map. This development is very useful for senior people and individuals suffering from memory diseases. This device, hence, behaves as a communication interface between wearer and caregiver.

  4. TwitterSensing: An Event-Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization Exploiting Social Media in Smart City Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Costa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern cities are subject to periodic or unexpected critical events, which may bring economic losses or even put people in danger. When some monitoring systems based on wireless sensor networks are deployed, sensing and transmission configurations of sensor nodes may be adjusted exploiting the relevance of the considered events, but efficient detection and classification of events of interest may be hard to achieve. In Smart City environments, several people spontaneously post information in social media about some event that is being observed and such information may be mined and processed for detection and classification of critical events. This article proposes an integrated approach to detect and classify events of interest posted in social media, notably in Twitter, and the assignment of sensing priorities to source nodes. By doing so, wireless sensor networks deployed in Smart City scenarios can be optimized for higher efficiency when monitoring areas under the influence of the detected events.

  5. Damping vibration analysis of smart piezoelectric polymeric nanoplates on viscoelastic substrate based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    This paper develops a nonlocal strain gradient plate model for damping vibration analysis of smart piezoelectric polymeric nanoplates resting on visco-Pasternak medium. For more accurate analysis of piezoelectric nanoplate, the proposed theory contains two scale parameters related to the nonlocal and strain gradient effects. Viscoelastic effect is considered based on Kelvin-Voit model. Governing equations of a nonlocal strain gradient smart nanoplate on viscoelastic substrate are derived via Hamilton’s principle. Galerkin’s method is implemented to solve the governing equations. Effects of different factors such as viscoelasticity, nonlocal parameter, length scale parameter, applied voltage and Winkler-Pasternak parameters on damping vibration characteristics of a nanoplate are studied.

  6. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jiannan Zheng; Z. Jane Wang; Chunsheng Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In t...

  7. Electricity theft: Overview, issues, prevention and a smart meter based approach to control theft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depuru, Soma Shekara Sreenadh Reddy; Wang Lingfeng; Devabhaktuni, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Non-technical loss (NTL) during transmission of electrical energy is a major problem in developing countries and it has been very difficult for the utility companies to detect and fight the people responsible for theft. Electricity theft forms a major chunk of NTL. These losses affect quality of supply, increase load on the generating station, and affect tariff imposed on genuine customers. This paper discusses the factors that influence the consumers to steal electricity. In view of these ill effects, various methods for detection and estimation of the theft are discussed. This paper proposes an architectural design of smart meter, external control station, harmonic generator, and filter circuit. Motivation of this work is to deject illegal consumers, and conserve and effectively utilize energy. As well, smart meters are designed to provide data of various parameters related to instantaneous power consumption. NTL in the distribution feeder is computed by external control station from the sending end information of the distribution feeder. If a considerable amount of NTL is detected, harmonic generator is operated at that feeder for introducing additional harmonic component for destroying appliances of the illegal consumers. For illustration, cost-benefit analysis for implementation of the proposed system in India is presented. - Research Highlights: → Discusses several cases, issues and setbacks in the design of smart meters. → Evaluates socio-economic, infrastructural, political and power quality issues. → Proposes a smart meter that overcame several setbacks in implementation. → Proposes a smart meter that chastises appliances of illegal consumers.

  8. Landscape Design Process of Lakewood Nava Park BSD City Based on Smart Growth Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, M. Z.; Kaswanto, R. L.

    2017-10-01

    A comfortable and green housing area in a city is a must for the people live in a city. The rapid development in a city caused greater need for land. This problem happens simultaneously with environmental problem globally such as growing number of people, pollution, excessive exploitation of resource, and decreasing in ethic of land uses. The design of Lakewood Nava Park BSD City prioritizes on pedestrian and walkable environment to apprehend those problems. Lakewood Nava Park is a landscape design project conducted by landscape consultant company, Sheils Flynn Asia. The concept of Smart Growth used as a recommendation for Lakewood Nava Park design. Smart Growth is a city planning and transportation theory which expand a city into a walkable city. The method used on this research is a comparison between landscape design process and Booth theory, also analyze ten principle concept of Smart Growth at the project. Generally, the comparison between design process and Booth theory resulted a slight difference in term and separate phase. The analysis result from Smart Growth concept is around 70% has been applied, and the rest 30% applied after the design has been built. By using Smart Growth principle, the purpose of Lakewood Nava Park design can be applied well.

  9. Capitalized design of smart medicine box for elderly person based on quality function deployment (QFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Brina Cindy; Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Widodo, Rusminto Tjatur

    2017-11-01

    The elderly who has a particular disease need to take some medicines in everyday with correct dosages and appropriate by time schedules. However, the elderly frequently forget to take medicines because of their memory weakened. Consequently, the product innovation of elderly healthcare is required for helping elderly takes some medicine more easily. This research aims to develop a smart medicine box by applying quality function deployment method. The first step is identifying elderly requirements through an ethnographic approach by interviewing thirty-two of elderly people as respondents. Then, the second step is translated elderly requirements to technical parameter for designing a smart medicine box. The smart box design is focused on two main requirements which have highest importance rating including alarm reminder for taking medicine and automatic medicine box. Finally, the prototype design has been created and tested by using usability method. The result shown that 90% from ten respondents have positive respond on the feature of smart medicine box. The voice of alarm reminder smart medicine box is easy to understand by elderly people for taking medicines.

  10. An Accurate and Efficient User Authentication Mechanism on Smart Glasses Based on Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, mobile devices (such as smart phones and wearable devices have become indispensable to almost everyone, and people store personal data in devices. Therefore, how to implement user authentication mechanism for private data protection on mobile devices is a very important issue. In this paper, an intelligent iris recognition mechanism is designed to solve the problem of user authentication in wearable smart glasses. Our contributions include hardware and software. On the hardware side, we design a set of internal infrared camera modules, including well-designed infrared light source and lens module, which is able to take clear iris images within 2~5 cm. On the software side, we propose an innovative iris segmentation algorithm which is both efficient and accurate to be used on smart glasses device. Another improvement to the traditional iris recognition is that we propose an intelligent Hamming distance (HD threshold adaptation method which dynamically fine-tunes the HD threshold used for verification according to empirical data collected. Our final system can perform iris recognition with 66 frames per second on a smart glasses platform with 100% accuracy. As far as we know, this system is the world’s first application of iris recognition on smart glasses.

  11. Data Distribution Service-Based Interoperability Framework for Smart Grid Testbed Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Youssef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a communication and control infrastructure for smart grid operation. The proposed infrastructure enhances the reliability of the measurements and control network. The advantages of utilizing the data-centric over message-centric communication approach are discussed in the context of smart grid applications. The data distribution service (DDS is used to implement a data-centric common data bus for the smart grid. This common data bus improves the communication reliability, enabling distributed control and smart load management. These enhancements are achieved by avoiding a single point of failure while enabling peer-to-peer communication and an automatic discovery feature for dynamic participating nodes. The infrastructure and ideas presented in this paper were implemented and tested on the smart grid testbed. A toolbox and application programing interface for the testbed infrastructure are developed in order to facilitate interoperability and remote access to the testbed. This interface allows control, monitoring, and performing of experiments remotely. Furthermore, it could be used to integrate multidisciplinary testbeds to study complex cyber-physical systems (CPS.

  12. Pre feasibility assesment of smart off shore NPP (ONPP) of gravity based-structure type for Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahala M Lumbanraja; Dharu Dewi

    2017-01-01

    The SMART ONPP GBS-type is a small power (100 MWe) pressurized water reactor, and located at offshore site. This technology was developed based on existing SMART nuclear technology & offshore drilling technology with a gravity-based type of structure. This is a response to the post-Fukushima accident, Japan (2011), to improve the safety system, overcome the land limitations, and minimize the public resistance to NPP cases in the inland. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pre-feasibility of the implementation of GBS NPP in Indonesia both in terms of technological feasibility and regulation. The method used is literature review and continued with descriptive analysis. The result shows that SMART ONPP are worth considering because they offer improved aspects of safety, offshore tread availability, and better public acceptance. So far, this NPP can not be implemented in Indonesia because it is hampered by Government Regulation No. 2 year 2014 regarding Licensing of Nuclear Installation Safety and Security which stipulates that site is an inland location and NPP built in Indonesia should be proven. (author)

  13. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sajid Khan; Mina Woo; Kichan Nam; Prakash K. Chathoth

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged o...

  14. Smart-card-based automatic meal record system intervention tool for analysis using data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2010-04-01

    The Smart-card-based Automatic Meal Record system for company cafeterias (AutoMealRecord system) was recently developed and used to monitor employee eating habits. The system could be a unique nutrition assessment tool for automatically monitoring the meal purchases of all employees, although it only focuses on company cafeterias and has never been validated. Before starting an interventional study, we tested the reliability of the data collected by the system using the data mining approach. The AutoMealRecord data were examined to determine if it could predict current obesity. All data used in this study (n = 899) were collected by a major electric company based in Tokyo, which has been operating the AutoMealRecord system for several years. We analyzed dietary patterns by principal component analysis using data from the system and extracted 5 major dietary patterns: healthy, traditional Japanese, Chinese, Japanese noodles, and pasta. The ability to predict current body mass index (BMI) with dietary preference was assessed with multiple linear regression analyses, and in the current study, BMI was positively correlated with male gender, preference for "Japanese noodles," mean energy intake, protein content, and frequency of body measurement at a body measurement booth in the cafeteria. There was a negative correlation with age, dietary fiber, and lunchtime cafeteria use (R(2) = 0.22). This regression model predicted "would-be obese" participants (BMI >or= 23) with 68.8% accuracy by leave-one-out cross validation. This shows that there was sufficient predictability of BMI based on data from the AutoMealRecord System. We conclude that the AutoMealRecord system is valuable for further consideration as a health care intervention tool. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Email based remote access and surveillance system for smart home infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooshkar Rajiv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of Internet of Things in public domain, people expect fast, reliable and on-demand home security via the Internet. However, existing remote home surveillance systems place a very rigid constraint on authentication and require customized hardware and software. In this paper we have proposed an ingenious and reliable internet based, home access system for smart homes that can be easily deployed on generic hardware. The proposed architecture uses popular email service providers to notify and update the user about the home access. It sends an email to the owner with the attached picture of the person who is at the door. It also incorporates a protected mechanism to give access of the door to a remote user by responding to that email. It essentially means that we can view and give access to the person at our door via sending and receiving an email. Furthermore, an image processing based mechanism has also been incorporated to provide access without email, to few selected personnel who are trusted by the owner. It works by capturing and comparing the visitor's image with the stored images in the database. Perceptual hashing or fingerprint matching algorithm is used for comparison purposes. Similarity percentage based on hamming distance was evaluated, and the similarity threshold for providing access was set. The simulations were performed in rigorous environment. The efficiency of the hashing algorithm was found to be 97% at the similarity threshold of 95%. The results validate that the average latency is only 155 ms with low standard deviation. The CPU utilization remained quite low with a minimum value of 10 MHz and a maximum value of 30 MHz when the payload size of the sent mail was increased to 1500 kB. Thus, the proposed system can be used for developing a larger low power infrastructure.

  16. Use of Monte Carlo analysis in a risk-based prioritization of toxic constituents in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary L; Belleggia, Giuliana

    2017-12-01

    Many chemicals have been detected in house dust with exposures to the general public and particularly young children of potential health concern. House dust is also an indicator of chemicals present in consumer products and the built environment that may constitute a health risk. The current analysis compiles a database of recent house dust concentrations from the United States and Canada, focusing upon semi-volatile constituents. Seven constituents from the phthalate and flame retardant categories were selected for risk-based screening and prioritization: diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a pentabrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-99), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Monte Carlo analysis was used to represent the variability in house dust concentration as well as the uncertainty in the toxicology database in the estimation of children's exposure and risk. Constituents were prioritized based upon the percentage of the distribution of risk results for cancer and non-cancer endpoints that exceeded a hazard quotient (HQ) of 1. The greatest percent HQ exceedances were for DEHP (cancer and non-cancer), BDE-99 (non-cancer) and TDCIPP (cancer). Current uses and the potential for reducing levels of these constituents in house dust are discussed. Exposure and risk for other phthalates and flame retardants in house dust may increase if they are used to substitute for these prioritized constituents. Therefore, alternative assessment and green chemistry solutions are important elements in decreasing children's exposure to chemicals of concern in the indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  18. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions....

  19. Ground-Based Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Dust Aerosol Properties in Chinese Deserts near Hexi Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One-year observation of dust aerosol properties near Hexi Corridor was obtained from polarimetric measurements by ground-based sunphotometer in the county of Minqin in northwestern China from March 2012 to February 2013. We observed an annual mean AOD of 0.22±0.22 at 0.50 μm and Ångström exponents of 0.1–1.0 fitting a bimode normal distribution centered at 0.18 and 0.50, respectively. The effective radii of fine (0.13–0.17 μm and coarse (2.49–3.49 μm modes were found stable at all seasons together with the appearance of a third mode of particle radius at 0.4–1.0 μm when AOD was larger than 0.6. It is noticeable that the real (1.5–1.7 and imaginary (0.0005 to 0.09 parts of complex refractive indices were higher than other studies performed in other desert regions of China, while single scattering albedo was relatively lower (~0.84–0.89 at wavelengths of 0.44, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.02 μm. This is partially due to calcite or hematite in the soil in Minqin or the influence of anthropogenic aerosols containing carbon. Moreover, from our novel polarimetric measurement, the scattering phase function (F11 and degree of linear polarization for incident unpolarized light (-F12/F11 of dust aerosols were also obtained within this deserted area.

  20. Data Mining Techniques for Detecting Household Characteristics Based on Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gajowniczek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to discover the structure of home appliances usage patterns, hence providing more intelligence in smart metering systems by taking into account the usage of selected home appliances and the time of their usage. In particular, we present and apply a set of unsupervised machine learning techniques to reveal specific usage patterns observed at an individual household. The work delivers the solutions applicable in smart metering systems that might: (1 contribute to higher energy awareness; (2 support accurate usage forecasting; and (3 provide the input for demand response systems in homes with timely energy saving recommendations for users. The results provided in this paper show that determining household characteristics from smart meter data is feasible and allows for quickly grasping general trends in data.

  1. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  2. DNA-Cryptography-Based Obfuscated Systolic Finite Field Multiplier for Secure Cryptosystem in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaobo; Chen, Pingxiuqi; Shao, Qiliang; Basha Shaik, Nazeem; Xie, Jiafeng

    2017-05-01

    The elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) provides much stronger security per bits compared to the traditional cryptosystem, and hence it is an ideal role in secure communication in smart grid. On the other side, secure implementation of finite field multiplication over GF(2 m ) is considered as the bottle neck of ECC. In this paper, we present a novel obfuscation strategy for secure implementation of systolic field multiplier for ECC in smart grid. First, for the first time, we propose a novel obfuscation technique to derive a novel obfuscated systolic finite field multiplier for ECC implementation. Then, we employ the DNA cryptography coding strategy to obfuscate the field multiplier further. Finally, we obtain the area-time-power complexity of the proposed field multiplier to confirm the efficiency of the proposed design. The proposed design is highly obfuscated with low overhead, suitable for secure cryptosystem in smart grid.

  3. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  4. Managing medical and insurance information through a smart-card-based information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudakis, C; Gritzalis, S

    2000-08-01

    The continuously increased mobility of patients and doctors, in conjunction with the existence of medical groups consisting of private doctors, general practitioners, hospitals, medical centers, and insurance companies, pose significant difficulties on the management of patients' medical data. Inevitably this affects the quality of the health care services provided. The evolving smart card technology can be utilized for the implementation of a secure portable electronic medical record, carried by the patient herself/himself. In addition to the medical data, insurance information can be stored in the smart card thus facilitating the creation of an "intelligent system" supporting the efficient management of patient's data. In this paper we present the main architectural and functional characteristics of such a system. We also highlight how the security features offered by smart cards can be exploited in order to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the medical data stored in the patient cards.

  5. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  6. Load management of smart household appliances and electric vehicles. A model-based analysis; Lastmanagement mit intelligenten Haushaltsgeraeten und Elektrofahrzeugen. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaschub, Thomas; Paetz, Alexandra-Gwyn; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)

    2012-07-01

    We analyze the load-shifting potentials of households with automatic demand management based on dynamic pricing. Therefore, we developed an optimizing model with 1000 households, equipped with smart appliances and electric vehicles. The results show that the load-shifting potentials of household appliances are relatively low compared to those of electric vehicles. However, their impact is remarkable - especially if all households were equipped with smart appliances. (orig.)

  7. Smart Kundassery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Smart Kundassery. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 8 Issue 1 January 2003 pp 4-14 General Article. On the Glitter of a Meteor · Smart Kundassery · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  8. Usability Testing For Android Based Application “Jogja Smart Tourism”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwati; Djati Widodo, Imam

    2017-06-01

    The android based application “Jogja Smart Tourism (JST)” is designed to help everyone who visited Yogyakarta to enjoy their travel. As new application, it is need to be tested for its usability before launched. Usability testing will show how easy user interfaces are to used. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the result of usability testing for application JST based on five characteristics: learnability, effectiveness, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. About 30 respondents were involved to test the usability of this application. Learnability and effectiveness is calculated from some task that should be finished by respondents, and the rest aspects are calculated from questionnaires that should be answered after simulation. There are 14 functions bound in this usability testing. The result shows total usability level is in 81.75%. Learnability testing shows that 98.8% of respondent could finish the task successfully with 87.5% in efficiency. The memorability level of respondents is good (84.5%) where their ability to fix the errors is 71.5%. And the last for satisfaction level of application interface is 66.25%. Low level of satisfaction occurred because most of respondent felt uncomfortable with landscape interface of application because they should turn their mobile phone while using JST application and also it happened because the lack of using picture and colour inside the application. Both of these becomes important note for the improvement of further applications where the interface in a portrait version is more comfort the use and also utilization of colour and the image will be the main focus to improve customer satisfaction.

  9. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip. Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane and digital (NIOS II processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  10. Optical flow in a smart sensor based on hybrid analog-digital architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system's performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  11. Protein functionalized carbon nanotubes-based smart lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Solanki, Pratima R; Srivastava, Saurabh; Singh, Samer; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2015-03-18

    A label-free impedimetric lab on a chip (iLOC) is fabricated using protein (bovine serum albumin) and antiapolipoprotein B functionalized carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide (CNT-NiO) nanocomposite for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) detection. The antiapolipoprotein B (AAB) functionalized CNT-NiO microfluidic electrode is assembled with polydimethylsiloxane rectangular microchannels (cross section: 100 × 100 μm). Cytotoxicity of the synthesized CNTs, NiO nanoparticles, and CNT-NiO nanocomposite has been investigated in the presence of lung epithelial cancer A549 cell line using MTT assay. The CNT-NiO nanocomposite shows higher cell viability at a concentration of 6.5 μg/mL compared to those using individual CNTs. The cell viability and proliferation studies reveal that the toxicity increases with increasing CNTs concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been used to quantify the functional groups present on the CNT-NiO electrode surface before and after proteins functionalization. The binding kinetic and electrochemical activities of CNT-NiO based iLOC have been conducted using chronocoulometry and impedance spectroscopic techniques. This iLOC shows excellent sensitivity of 5.37 kΩ (mg/dL)(-1) and a low detection limit of 0.63 mg/dL in a wide concentration range (5-120 mg/dL) of LDL. The binding kinetics of antigen-antibody interaction of LDL molecules reveal a high association rate constant (8.13 M(-1) s(-1)). Thus, this smart nanocomposite (CNT-NiO) based iLOC has improved stability and reproducibility and has implications toward in vivo diagnostics.

  12. Intelligent Smart Cloud Computing for Smart Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    The cloud computing technology causes much attention in IT field. The developments using this technology have done actively. The cloud computing is more evolved than the existing offer. So, the current cloud computing only has a process that responds user requirements when users demand their needs. For intelligently adapting the needs, this paper suggests a intelligent smart cloud model that is based on 4S/3R. This model can handle intelligently to meet users needs through collecting user's behaviors, prospecting, building, delivering, and rendering steps. It is because users have always mobile devices including smart phones so that is collecting user's behavior by sensors mounted on the devices. The proposed service model using intelligent smart cloud computing will show the personalized and customized services to be possible in various fields.

  13. Smart houses for a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.J. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Karnouskos, S.; Weidlich, A. [SAP Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, (Germany); Nestle, D.; Strauss, P. [The Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik ISET, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N. [Institute Computers Communications Systems ICCS, National Technical University of Athens NTUA, Athens (Greece); Buchholz, B.; Drenkard, S. [MVV Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lioliou, V. [Public Power Corporation PPC, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Innovative technologies and concepts will emerge as we move towards a more dynamic, service-based, market-driven infrastructure, where energy efficiency and savings can be facilitated by interactive distribution networks. A new generation of fully interactive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure has to be developed to support the optimal exploitation of the changing, complex business processes and to enable the efficient functioning of the deregulated energy market for the benefit of citizens and businesses. The architecture of such distributed system landscapes must be designed and validated, standards need to be created and widely supported, and comprehensive, reliable IT applications will need to be implemented. The collaboration between a smart house and a smart grid is a promising approach which, with the help of ICT can fully unleash the capabilities of the smart electricity network.

  14. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  15. Hospital automation system RFID-based: technology embedded in smart devices (cards, tags and bracelets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Gustavo H P; Paz de Araujo, Carlos A; Bezerra, Heitor U; Junior, Helio B A; Xavier, Marcelo Araujo; de Souza, Vinicius S V; de M Valentim, Ricardo A A; Morais, Antonio H F; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Brandao, Glaucio B

    2008-01-01

    RFID is a technology being adopted in many business fields, especially in the medical field. This work has the objective to present a system for automation of a hospital clinical analysis laboratory. This system initially uses contactless smart cards to store patient's data and for authentication of hospital employees in the system. The proposed system also uses RFID tags stuck to containers containing patient's collected samples for the correct identification of the patient who gave away the samples. This work depicts a hospital laboratory workflow, presents the system modeling and deals with security matters related to information stored in the smart cards.

  16. Sunlight-driven eco-friendly smart curtain based on infrared responsive graphene oxide-polymer photoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeladhar; Raturi, Parul; Singh, J P

    2018-02-27

    Photomechanical actuation is the conversion of light energy into mechanical energy through some smart materials. Infrared-responsive smart materials have become an emerging field of research due to easy availability and eco-friendly nature of their stimulus in the form of sunlight, which contains about 50% of near-infrared(nIR) making these materials useful at macro-scale photoactuator applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of highly versatile nIR triggered photoactuators based on graphene oxide/polycarbonate bilayers that offers fast, low-cost fabrication, large deflection, reversible actuation and wavelength-selective response. The photoactuators are realized by vacuum filtration of graphene oxide/water dispersion through polycarbonate membrane resulting graphene oxide/polymer bilayer structure. The photoactuation response was measured in the form of deflection from equilibrium position as a result of infrared-irradiation. The deflection is caused by the generated thermal stress at the interface of bilayers due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient as a results of nIR absorption by graphene oxide and subsequent temperature rise. A maximum deflection of 12 mm (circular-shaped structure with diameter 28 mm) with corresponding bending curvature of 0.33 cm -1 was shown by this photoactuator for illumination intensity of 106 mW/cm 2 . Few applications of these photoactuators such as sunlight-driven smart curtain, infrared actuated curtain and self-folding box are also demonstrated.

  17. Provable Secure and Efficient Digital Rights Management Authentication Scheme Using Smart Card Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the concept of ubiquitous computing is firstly proposed by Mark Weiser, its connotation has been extending and expanding by many scholars. In pervasive computing application environment, many kinds of small devices containing smart cart are used to communicate with others. In 2013, Yang et al. proposed an enhanced authentication scheme using smart card for digital rights management. They demonstrated that their scheme is secure enough. However, Mishra et al. pointed out that Yang et al.’s scheme suffers from the password guessing attack and the denial of service attack. Moreover, they also demonstrated that Yang et al.’s scheme is not efficient enough when the user inputs an incorrect password. In this paper, we analyze Yang et al.’s scheme again, and find that their scheme is vulnerable to the session key attack. And, there are some mistakes in their scheme. To surmount the weakness of Yang et al.’s scheme, we propose a more efficient and provable secure digital rights management authentication scheme using smart card based on elliptic curve cryptography.

  18. Electro-thermal vibration of a smart coupled nanobeam system with an internal flow based on nonlocal elasticity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabakhshian, V.; Shooshtari, A.; Karimi, M., E-mail: karimi_mh@yahoo.com

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nonlinear vibration and stability of a fluid-conveying nanotube (FCNT), elastically coupled to a smart piezoelectric polymeric beam (PPB) is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Euler–Bernoulli beam model and energy approach. In order to obtain an active instability control of FCNT, the PPB is longitudinally polarized as an actuator while in the absence of an imposed electric field it is also possible to be used as an alarm biosensor. Simulating the above smart coupled nanobeam system alike the double nanobeam systems (which are relatively developed by other authors) leads to obtain nonlinear differential equations of motion. The linear natural and damping frequencies are achieved by ignoring all the system nonlinearities which are then considered to obtain nonlinear frequencies using an iterative method. The effects of geometric nonlinearity, small scale parameter, coupled medium constants, Knudsen number, temperature change, aspect ratio and external applied voltage on critical flow velocity are studied in details. It is concluded that applying an electric voltage on PPB will increase the stability of FCNT. It is hoped that this research will provide a new approach to smart instability control of FCNTs which is no yet reported.

  19. CreditCoin: A Privacy-Preserving Blockchain-Based Incentive Announcement Network for Communications of Smart Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lun

    2018-01-23

    The vehicular announcement network is one of the most promising utilities in the communications of smart vehicles and in the smart transportation systems. In general, there are two major issues in building an effective vehicular announcement network. First, it is difficult to forward reliable announcements without revealing users\\' identities. Second, users usually lack the motivation to forward announcements. In this paper, we endeavor to resolve these two issues through proposing an effective announcement network called CreditCoin, a novel privacy-preserving incentive announcement network based on Blockchain via an efficient anonymous vehicular announcement aggregation protocol. On the one hand, CreditCoin allows nondeterministic different signers (i.e., users) to generate the signatures and to send announcements anonymously in the nonfully trusted environment. On the other hand, with Blockchain, CreditCoin motivates users with incentives to share traffic information. In addition, transactions and account information in CreditCoin are tamper-resistant. CreditCoin also achieves conditional privacy since Trace manager in CreditCoin traces malicious users\\' identities in anonymous announcements with related transactions. CreditCoin thus is able to motivate users to forward announcements anonymously and reliably. Extensive experimental results show that CreditCoin is efficient and practical in simulations of smart transportation.

  20. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  1. A new model for Mars atmospheric dust based upon analysis of ultraviolet through infrared observations from Mariner 9, Viking, and Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; McMillan, W. W.; Rousch, T.

    1995-01-01

    We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff)variance-0.8 micron), smaller particle size (r(sub mode)-0.02 microns) distribution coupled with a "palagonite-like" composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micron absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt r(sub eff)variance= 0.4 micron, r(sub mode)= 0.40 micron dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971 - 1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 microns are analyzed to retrieve 9-micron dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences. These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-microns extinction opacity ratio (> or equal to 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-microns opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions and compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micron absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep absorptions at 20 microns which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8- to 9-micron

  2. Ecogrid EU - a large scale smart grids demonstration of real time market-based integration of numerous small DER and DR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Nyeng, Preben; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Ecogrid EU project, which is a large-scale demonstration project on the Danish island Bornholm. It provides Europe a fast track evolution towards smart grid dissemination and deployment in the distribution network. Objective of Ecogrid EU is to illustrate th...... customers will be equipped with demand response devices with smart controllers and smart meters, allowing them to respond to real-time prices based on their pre-programmed demand-response preferences.......This paper provides an overview of the Ecogrid EU project, which is a large-scale demonstration project on the Danish island Bornholm. It provides Europe a fast track evolution towards smart grid dissemination and deployment in the distribution network. Objective of Ecogrid EU is to illustrate...

  3. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  4. A Radar-Based Smart Sensor for Unobtrusive Elderly Monitoring in Ambient Assisted Living Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Diraco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation, this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing. The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase, with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively.

  5. A Radar-Based Smart Sensor for Unobtrusive Elderly Monitoring in Ambient Assisted Living Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraco, Giovanni; Leone, Alessandro; Siciliano, Pietro

    2017-11-24

    Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation), this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing). The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase), with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively.

  6. PULSE-SMART: Pulse-Based Arrhythmia Discrimination Using a Novel Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMANUS, David D; Chong, Jo Woon; Soni, Apurv; Saczynski, Jane S; Esa, Nada; Napolitano, Craig; Darling, Chad E; Boyer, Edward; Rosen, Rochelle K; Floyd, Kevin C; Chon, Ki H

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and dangerous rhythm abnormality. Smartphones are increasingly used for mobile health applications by older patients at risk for AF and may be useful for AF screening. To test whether an enhanced smartphone app for AF detection can discriminate between sinus rhythm (SR), AF, premature atrial contractions (PACs), and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). We analyzed two hundred and nineteen 2-minute pulse recordings from 121 participants with AF (n = 98), PACs (n = 15), or PVCs (n = 15) using an iPhone 4S. We obtained pulsatile time series recordings in 91 participants after successful cardioversion to sinus rhythm from preexisting AF. The PULSE-SMART app conducted pulse analysis using 3 methods (Root Mean Square of Successive RR Differences; Shannon Entropy; Poincare plot). We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy of the app for AF, PAC, and PVC discrimination from sinus rhythm using the 12-lead EKG or 3-lead telemetry as the gold standard. We also administered a brief usability questionnaire to a subgroup (n = 65) of app users. The smartphone-based app demonstrated excellent sensitivity (0.970), specificity (0.935), and accuracy (0.951) for real-time identification of an irregular pulse during AF. The app also showed good accuracy for PAC (0.955) and PVC discrimination (0.960). The vast majority of surveyed app users (83%) reported that it was "useful" and "not complex" to use. A smartphone app can accurately discriminate pulse recordings during AF from sinus rhythm, PACs, and PVCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Unconventional optical imaging using a high-speed neural network based smart sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasmith, William W.

    2006-05-01

    The advancement of neural network methods and technologies is finding applications in many fields and disciplines of interest to the defense, intelligence, and homeland security communities. Rapidly reconfigurable sensors for real or near-real time signal or image processing can be used for multi-functional purposes such as image compression, target tracking, image fusion, edge detection, thresholding, pattern recognition, and atmospheric turbulence compensation to name a few. A neural network based smart sensor is described that can accomplish these tasks individually or in combination, in real-time or near real-time. As a computationally intensive example, the case of optical imaging through volume turbulence is addressed. For imaging systems in the visible and near infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the atmosphere is often the dominant factor in reducing the imaging system's resolution and image quality. The neural network approach described in this paper is shown to present a viable means for implementing turbulence compensation techniques for near-field and distributed turbulence scenarios. Representative high-speed neural network hardware is presented. Existing 2-D cellular neural network (CNN) hardware is capable of 3 trillion operations per second with peta-operations per second possible using current 3-D manufacturing processes. This hardware can be used for high-speed applications that require fast convolutions and de-convolutions. Existing 3-D artificial neural network technology is capable of peta-operations per second and can be used for fast array processing operations. Methods for optical imaging through distributed turbulence are discussed, simulation results are presented and computational and performance assessments are provided.

  8. A NEW UBIQUITOUS-BASED INDOOR POSITIONING SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM EXTRA HARDWARE USING SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hassany Pazoky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the position has been an ambition in many areas such as science, military, business, etc. GPS was the realization of this wish in 1970s. Technological advances such as ubiquitous computing, as a conquering perspective, requires any service to work for any user, any place, anytime, and via any network. As GPS cannot provide services in indoor environments, many scientists began to develop indoor positioning systems (IPS. Smart phones penetrating our everyday lives were a great platform to host IPS applications. Sensors in smart phones were another big motive to develop IPS applications. Many researchers have been working on the topic developing various applications. However, the applications introduced lack simplicity. In other words, they need to install a step counter or smart phone on the ankle, which makes it awkward and inapplicable in many situations. In the current study, a new IPS methodology is introduced using only the usual embedded sensors in the smart phones. The robustness of this methodology cannot compete with those of the aforementioned approaches. The price paid for simplicity was decreasing robustness and complicating the methods and formulations. However, methods or tricks to harness the errors to an acceptable range are introduced as the future works.

  9. Research of a smart cutting tool based on MEMS strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Shao, YW; Hu, T. J.; Zhang, Q.; Ge, X. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting force is an important factor that affects machining accuracy, cutting vibration and tool wear. Machining condition monitoring by cutting force measurement is a key technology for intelligent manufacture. Current cutting force sensors exist problems of large volume, complex structure and poor compatibility in practical application, for these problems, a smart cutting tool is proposed in this paper for cutting force measurement. Commercial MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) strain gauges with high sensitivity and small size are adopted as transducing element of the smart tool, and a structure optimized cutting tool is fabricated for MEMS strain gauge bonding. Static calibration results show that the developed smart cutting tool is able to measure cutting forces in both X and Y directions, and the cross-interference error is within 3%. Its general accuracy is 3.35% and 3.27% in X and Y directions, and sensitivity is 0.1 mV/N, which is very suitable for measuring small cutting forces in high speed and precision machining. The smart cutting tool is portable and reliable for practical application in CNC machine tool.

  10. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin K. Atiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both solutions are too expensive for practical applications of smart meters. It is proposed that the recursive pyramid algorithm is more suitable for smart meter implementation because it requires only word size storage of L × Log (N-L, where L is the length of filter. We also investigated the effect of varying different system parameters, such as the sampling rate, dc offset, phase offset, linearity error in current and voltage sensors, analog to digital converter resolution, and number of harmonics in a non-sinusoidal system, on the reactive energy measurement using DWT. The error analysis is depicted in the form of the absolute difference between the measured and the true value of the reactive energy.

  11. A Practise-based Theory of SEIDET Smart Community Centre Model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available , as it is designed using the international studies and theories. This paper presents the design of the smart community centre model. The design is described using Practice Theory concepts towards an empirical study that will be conducted using the General...

  12. Crowding Valuation in Urban Tram and Bus Transportation based on Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, M.D.; Cats, O.; Yu, S; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Crowding in public transport can be of major influence on passengers’ travel experience and therefore affect route and mode choice. Therefore, it is important to understand how crowding in urban public transport is perceived by passengers. The availability of individual smart card transactions

  13. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  14. Global-scale attribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources and their emission rates based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1°) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  15. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Chen, Jyun-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim’s devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM) which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts. PMID:29036900

  16. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Yeh, Kuo-Hui; Chen, Jyun-Fu

    2017-10-14

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim's devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM) which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts.

  17. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cho Cha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim’s devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts.

  18. DC-based smart PV-powered home energy management system based on voltage matching and RF module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H Sabry

    Full Text Available The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances' consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances' energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11-123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results.

  19. DC-based smart PV-powered home energy management system based on voltage matching and RF module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Ahmad H; Hasan, W Z W; Ab Kadir, Mza; Radzi, M A M; Shafie, S

    2017-01-01

    The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances' consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances' energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11-123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results.

  20. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged over the past few years as a subset of the smart city concept, aiming to provide tourists with solutions that address specific travel related needs. Dubai is an emerging tourism destination that has implemented smart city and smart tourism platforms to engage various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to identify best practices related to Dubai’s smart city and smart tourism. In so doing, Dubai’s mission and vision along with key dimensions and pillars are identified in relation to the advancements in the literature while highlighting key resources and challenges. A Smart Tourism Dynamic Responsive System (STDRS framework is proposed while suggesting how Dubai may able to enhance users’ involvement and their overall experience.

  1. Raising Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    21 December 2003Dust storms are a common occurrence on the extremely arid planet, Mars. However, very rarely do we get to see the actual process of dust being lifted off the martian surface to feed these dust storms. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image captures some of the dust-raising process in action. The picture shows a shallow trough with large, ripple-like dunes on its floor. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. Puffy, billowy clouds of dust obscure some of the surface from view. Closer inspection shows streamers of dust, streaking from left/upper left toward right/lower right, down near the surface of the planet. It is in these streamers that dust is being lifted from the ground. This image is located near 29.6oS, 73.1oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  2. Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Ji; Wu, Tingting; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-12-01

    The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg -1 , with an average of 115.9 mg kg -1 , which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.

  3. A portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform that measures transmitted light intensities of nanosubstrates using an ambient light sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Xu, Fangxiang; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Liangrong; Yu, Shiting; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-21

    Plasmonic nanosensors may be used as tools for diagnostic testing in the field of medicine. However, quantification of plasmonic nanosensors often requires complex and bulky readout instruments. Here, we report the development of a portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform (PNRP) for accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. This device operates by transmitting excitation light from a LED through a nanosubstrate and measuring the intensity of the transmitted light using the ambient light sensor of a smart phone. The device is a cylinder with a diameter of 14 mm, a length of 38 mm, and a gross weight of 3.5 g. We demonstrated the utility of this smart phone-based PNRP by measuring two well-established plasmonic nanosensors with this system. In the first experiment, the device measured the morphology changes of triangular silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs) in an immunoassay for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the second experiment, the device measured the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aptamer-based assay for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The results from the smart phone-based PNRP were consistent with those from commercial spectrophotometers, demonstrating that the smart phone-based PNRP enables accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors.

  4. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  5. Metal-dusting resistance of uncoated and coated iron and nickel base materials against metal-dusting in heat treatment furnaces with carbonaceous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingries, Mirko; Ackermann, Helen; Lucka, Klaus; Hoja, Timo; Mehner, Andeas; Zoch, Hans-Werner; Altena, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Metal-Dusting is a well-known corrosion problem that occurs in carburizing atmospheres in industrial thermal processing plants. In literature almost no quantitative data on the metal dusting resistance of typical alloys employed in industrial furnaces are available. Therefore, a series of experiments with uncoated and sol gel ZrO 2 coated high temperature materials was conducted in order to quantify their metal dusting behaviour under conditions close to those in case hardening furnaces. The experimental results show a strong influence of the surface conditions on the alloys resistance and a noticeable enhancement of the resistance by sol gel coatings. (orig.)

  6. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  7. Waste stabilization/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Fernandez Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). School of Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and class F fly ash have been processed for studying the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. Compressive strength tests and leaching tests for determining the efficiency of heavy metal immobilisation have been carried out. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classic Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. Compressive strength values far better than those achieved by hydraulic S/S methods were easily obtained by geopolymer solids at 28 days. Regarding leachability, the geopolymer S/S solids also manifested in general a better behaviour, showing very promising results. 40 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  8. An Algorithm Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Implemented in A Smart Clothing System For Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Kursun Bahadir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to overcome navigation concerns of visually impaired people, an algorithm based on neuro-fuzzy controller composed of multi-layer fuzzy inference systems (FIS for obstacle avoidance was developed and it was implemented in a smart clothing system. The success of the proposed algorithm was tested in real environment and it was compared with one layer FIS. Results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of guiding user to a right orientation and it presented better results than the one layer FIS.

  9. FPGA-based fused smart-sensor for tool-wear area quantitative estimation in CNC machine inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are of great relevance nowadays, when there is a constant claim for better productivity with high quality at low cost. The contribution of this work is the development of a fused smart-sensor, based on FPGA to improve the online quantitative estimation of flank-wear area in CNC machine inserts from the information provided by two primary sensors: the monitoring current output of a servoamplifier, and a 3-axis accelerometer. Results from experimentation show that the fusion of both parameters makes it possible to obtain three times better accuracy when compared with the accuracy obtained from current and vibration signals, individually used.

  10. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  11. Service architecting and dynamic composition in pervasive smart ecosystems for the Internet of things based on sensor network technology

    OpenAIRE

    Familiar Cabero, Miguel Santos

    2014-01-01

    Why pervasive awareness and Ambient Intelligence are perceived by a great part of the academia and industry as a massive revolution in the short-term? In our best knowledge, a cornerstone of this thought is based on the fact that the ultimate nature of the smart environment paradigm is not in the technology itself, but on a people-centered approach. Perhaps, is in this apparently simple conception where precisely lies the boldness of this promising vision, which has been consolidated in recen...

  12. Editorial: What is Smart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Hämmerli, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    When discussing Smart Cities, Smart Grid, Smart Mobility and Smart everything, we have to reflect what this means in terms of investment and return. Which options for surveillance and Big Data applications are created? What is really desirable?

  13. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  14. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-erdene Byambasuren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  15. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-02-19

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  16. Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate reservo...... reservoirs. This study shows that addition of water and crude oil on calcite fines leads to formation of soluble oil emulsions in the water phase. Formation of these emulsions and its implication in EOR has been experimentally analyzed.......Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate...

  17. Multi-Layer Real-Time Support for JVM-based Smart Phone Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEO, E.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Java virtual machine (JVM architecture provides smart phone systems stability and security by sandboxing third-party applications and controlling their behavior. However, the JVM layer hinders applications from notifying the operating system scheduler about their timeliness requirements; therefore, applications sometimes fail to respond on time. In order to improve the responsiveness of smart phone applications, this paper proposes two schemes. First, for existing applications that cannot be rebuilt, we modify the kernel scheduler to value task priorities over fairness. Second, we propose cross-layer real-time support APIs to deliver applications' priorities to the kernel scheduler, which will help developers to add real-time scheduling support to their applications. Our prototype demonstrates that the suggested schemes dramatically improve response times and throughputs of prioritized applications.

  18. Wifi-based smart car for toxic gas monitoring in large-scale petrochemical plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Lei; Zeng, Junlin; Li, Kailiang; Huo, Zhiqiang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wu, Xianjun; Sun, Huilin

    2015-01-01

    Providing complete monitoring on the concentration of various toxic gases in large-scale petrochemical plants is critical, since it serious affects the safely producing activities and first line workers' lives. Safe production environment can enhance the productivity and keep high profits of enterprises. In this paper, we present a newly developed mobile car with WIFI wireless communication to smartly monitor and track the concentration of various toxic gases.

  19. A Critical Assessment of Cost-Based Nash Methods for Demand Scheduling in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Najy, Waleed K. A.; Crandall, Jacob W.; Zeineldin, H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Demand-side management (DSM) is becoming an increasingly important component of the envisioned smart grid. The ability to improve the efficiency of energy use in the power system by altering demand is widely viewed as being not merely promising but in fact essential. However, while the advantages of DSM are clear, arriving at an efficient implementation has so far proven to be less straightforward. There have recently been many proposals put forth in the literature to tackle the demand schedu...

  20. Forecasting Behavior in Smart Homes Based on Sleep and Wake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Cook, Diane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of this research is to use smart home technology to assist people who are recovering from injuries or coping with disabilities to live independently. Objective We introduce an algorithm to model and forecast wake and sleep behaviors that are exhibited by the participant. Furthermore, we propose that sleep behavior is impacted by and can be modeled from wake behavior, and vice versa. Methods This paper describes the Behavior Forecasting (BF) algorithm. BF consists of 1) defining numeric values that reflect sleep and wake behavior, 2) forecasting wake and sleep values from past behavior, 3) analyzing the effect of wake behavior on sleep and vice versa, and 4) improving prediction performance by using both wake and sleep scores. Results The BF method was evaluated with data collected from 20 smart homes. We found that regardless of the forecasting method utilized, wake behavior and sleep behavior can be modeled with a minimum accuracy of 84%. Additionally, normalizing the wake and sleep scores drastically improves the accuracy to 99%. Conclusions The results show that we can effectively model wake and sleep behaviors in a smart environment. Furthermore, wake behaviors can be predicted from sleep behaviors and vice versa. PMID:27689555