Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco
From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)
Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.
Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup
This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...
Barros, Pedro Pita
Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).
This research work examines levels and trends in global agricultural productivity in fifteen European Union countries and four Eastern European countries that have already applied for European Union membership. The study makes use of data collected from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and covers the period 1980-1998. An approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis is used to provide information on the peers of the (inefficient) i-th country and to derive the Malmqui...
Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M. D.; Sandell, L.; Storrick, G. D.; Cavlina, N.
Many emerging markets and smaller size countries are considering the nuclear option and the deployment of their first nuclear reactor(s). However, some of their requirements and available infrastructure are quite different from those of larger countries currently employing nuclear power. Specific considerations might include: a small size electrical grid, in some cases on the order of a few GWe; limited financial resources; no nuclear experience; inadequate availability of necessary material and people infrastructure. Large nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe or greater do not provide best fit. The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor, under development by an international team of eighteen organizations from nine countries led by Westinghouse specifically addresses these needs. IRIS is an advanced PWR with integral configuration that yields a simple design with enhanced safety. The IRIS size is 335 MWe and may be deployed in single or multiple modules. It can fit almost any grid, or a small utility within a larger grid; moreover, it allows incremental power additions as needed. The capital outlay is of the order of hundreds of millions rather than a few billions dollars. Successive construction and operation of multiple modules significantly reduces the required capital resources and capital at risk with generation income from earlier plants offsetting the construction outlays of subsequent ones. This is highly desirable in both developed and emerging markets, but it may be of critical importance to the latter. IRIS safety characteristics allow for licensing with a significantly reduced size of emergency zone, a critical feature for small countries and when cogeneration is desired. In fact, IRIS is designed to produce steam for district heating, water desalination and bio-fuel generation in addition to electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced in February 2008 its intention to contribute to funding the licensing of a 'Grid
N. Noorderhaven (Niels); A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André)
textabstractThis paper deals with differences in the rate of self-employment (business ownership) in 15 European countries for the period 1978-2000, focusing on the influence of dissatisfaction and using the framework of occupational choice. Using two different measures of dissatisfaction, in
This study examines to what extent Europeans find ‘relaxing’ and ‘learning something new’ is important in their leisure time and explains variation in these leisure values by individual and country-level characteristics. These values reflect possible responses to a perceived ‘time crunch’ resulting
Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.
This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the
It is a distinctive feature of European science policy that science is expected to meet economic and broader societal objectives simultaneously. Science should be governed democratically and take significant responsibilities towards the economy, the political system and civil society, but the coherency of these multiple claims is underexplored. Using metrics that emerge from both quantitative and qualitative studies, we examine the interrelatedness of different responsibilities at the level of countries. A total of 33 European Union member states and associated countries are included in the analysis. We find no trade-off between economic and broader societal contributions. Europe is, however, characterised by major divisions in terms of the location of science in society. There is a significant East-West divide, and Europe appears to be far from accomplishing an integrated European Research Area.
In this thesis, the performance of 220 open-end domestic equity mutual funds of european countries (from 'weak' and 'strong' economies) is analyzed for an eight- year period from 1st January 2004 until 31st December 2011, which is then split in two four-year sub periods in order to examine their performance prior to the global financial crisis and after its burst in 2008. In order to compare the mutual funds' performance to that of each country's market, it used as benchmarks the countries' m...
Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin
The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results
Shipman, A R; Clark, A B; Levell, N J
Doubt has been cast on sunlight as the major causative factor for malignant melanoma. We performed statistical analysis of the average annual sunlight hours in 36 European capital cities compared with the country's melanoma mortality rate. A significant inverse proportionality was identified in both men and women, indicating that sun exposure is unlikely to be the strongest factor affecting mortality from malignant melanoma. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.
Rajh, Edo; Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Budak, Jelena; Davcev, Ljupco; Ateljevic, Jovo; Ognjenovic, Kosovka
What (did we do)? A comparative study on the antecedents of EI among young people (students of economics and business) in four selected South East European countries (Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and BiH). Why? Entrepreneurship is positively associated with higher economic development. Analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurship is an obligation...(Grilo and Irigoyen, 2006), because: knowledge of the determinants is crucial for development of better education systems and se...
Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de
To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured
Full Text Available Production and consumption of fossil fuels is one of the major causes of the green house effect, which is in economics known as a form of ecological externality. Fiscal solution, as one way of internalization of externalities, is based on polluters-pay principle and the imposition of tax on emission. Although the implementation of ecological tax was intensified during the previous decade, fiscal revenues are modest and account for only 5% of the total fiscal revenues of the European Union. Taxes on energetic products, accounting for 76%, are dominant among ecological taxes. Since the EU Directive 82/92 imposes minimum excise rates on oil products, during the last decade Central Eastern European countries have increased excise rates on fossil fuels and fully engaged in the field of ecological policy.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relation between degree of economic globalization and the impact of economic crisis for developed and emerging European countries. We measure economic globalization through indexes based on share of external trade in GDP and FDI intensity (% of FDI inflows and outflows divided by GDP. The complexity of current economic and financial crisis could be evaluated through GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment, public debt, budget deficit, balance of payments, exchange rate, etc. For the purpose of this paper we used GDP growth rate as a measure of economic crisis impact on national economies.
Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai
This paper analyses disparity in women’s pay across 25 European countries using EU-SILC 2005. First, the gender pay gap is examined. Next, the impact of parenthood is analysed. We show that women suffer a wage disadvantage compared with men all over Europe, except for Poland. Motherhood usually reinforces the gender gap but most discrimination is sex-related so that it concerns all women as potential mothers. There is no uniform relationship between the parenthood and the gender wage gap.
Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard
In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).
Full Text Available In the last decade, organic agriculture in the Central European countries has experienced significant changes, especially in the transitional countries of the Eastern part of the region. This artical studies the position and development of the organic food comparing the agricultures in the western market and former communist countries. It is distinctive for the whole region that there is an interest of the state policy for stimulating the organic agriculture, aspecially in the areas where share is a large number of unemployed people due to the privatisation proces in industry. The organic type of cattle – raising is a represented branch of agriculture while the activities which demand more investments and working hours (horticulture and viticulture are poorly developed. The aim is to bring more biological varieties in the concept of organic agriculture and preserving the naturally protected areas. Therefore the organic agriculture is fregmently introduced as the only acceptable way of the food production in the areas of buffer zones and national parks preserving the autochthonism of the plants and animals in that way encouraging the development of agroeco-tourism.
Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Poláková, Simona
Roč. 20, č. 6 (2016), s. 1113-1118 ISSN 1366-638X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : farmland biodiversity * land use history * Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-016-9940-4
Bhopal, Raj S.; Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Harding, Seeromanie; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Primatesta, Paola; Rey, Gregoire; Rosato, Michael; Wild, Sarah; Kunst, Anton E.
Background: Important differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by country of birth have been shown within European countries. We now focus on CVD mortality by specific country of birth across European countries. Methods: For Denmark, England and Wales, France, The Netherlands, Scotland
Full Text Available In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to changing and challenging environments. This article presents an overview of best practices for competence assessment and validation in order to identify and select methods that have been effective in various European countries including Romania. The article concludes with a set of „learned lessons” and short recommendations in order to improve the framework of competence assessment in Romanian context. Our findings are useful for the new human resources management that aims toward efficiently usage of the workforce, inside companies and in a global labour market, encouraging flexibility and adaptability.
Brodbeck, Felix C.; Frese, Michael; Akerblom, Steffan; Audia, Guiseppe; Bakacsi, Gyula; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This study sets out to test the assumption that concepts of leadership differ as a function of cultural differences in Europe and to identify dimensions which describe differences in leadership concepts across European countries. Middle-level managers (N = 6052) from 22 European countries rated 112
de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P
The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....
Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)
Full Text Available This article examines the role of place branding in the image forming of certain European countries. The relevance of the article is confirmed by an acute need to identify the factors and branding tools that should be taken into account while a country develops a brand and influences the process of image forming. The purpose of the article is to examine successful examples and failures of the branding strategies of some European countries and cities. The results have to identify similarities and differences in the approach of European countries to promote a certain area as a part of country branding; to determine the key success factors that lead a country to the recognition by the international community.
Abbing-Karahagopian, V; Huerta, C; Souverein, P C
, calculated in a uniform manner, in seven European electronic healthcare databases. METHODS: Annual prevalence per 10,000 person-years (PYs) was calculated for 2001-2009 in databases from Spain, Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom (UK), and the Netherlands. Prevalence data were stratified according to age...
Sabrina de Regt
Full Text Available To date, few studies have been conducted on trendsin authoritarian attitudes,despite the importance of this research in our understanding of undemocraticmovements in society. Studies that have surveyed trends in authoritarianism arealready rather outdated, often based on student samples and conducted in only alimited number of countries. Furthermore, until now, no study had tested whetherthe meaning of authoritarianism is invariant acrosstime. Using theEuropeanValues Study,we examined trends in authoritarianism in 31 European countriesover the last decade (1999-2008, based on representative samples. It was foundthat in many Western European countries, with the exception of the Netherlands,authoritarianism declined significantly over the last decade. However, in some,mostly Eastern European countries, levels of authoritarianism actually increasedsignificantly during the last decade. Changing levels of authoritarianism werelinked to extreme-right and anti-democratic sentiment in European societies.
A discussion is given of a survey regarding the supply of enriched uranium to the countries of the European Community. Costs of enriched uranium imports were not available but import values were calculated using world market prices. (R.L.)
Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian
BACKGROUND: Documenting the distribution of radiotherapy departments and the availability of radiotherapy equipment in the European countries is an important part of HERO - the ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project. HERO has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base...... of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. METHODS: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European...... countries, principally through their national societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy departments and equipment (questionnaire items 26-29), analyzed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis is based...
Nuno Carlos LEITÃO
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of financial development on economic growth applied to European Countries. The initial GDP per capita is negatively correlated with growth of real GDP per capita. Our study shows that there is convergence within European Countries for the period 1990-2009. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hypothesis as international trade and saving encourage the economic growth. The inflation has a negative impact on economic growth as previous studies.
Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)
This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... of statistical sources on men's practices in the ten countries, are presented. This is the second of four articles reviewing critical studies on men in the ten countries through different methods and approaches....
D.N. Ratsiborinskaya (Daria)
textabstractThis article provides an overview of the corporate self-regulation by five European-based multilateral financial institutions where European environmental acquis is applied in investment projects in the third countries. Academic research on environmental standards suffers from a certain
Iryna D. Malytska
Full Text Available Importance of information and communication technologies introduction in education systems is admited by all foreign countries. Information processes, creation of uniform information space, using ICT, become one of priority approaches of the European states and Ukraine development. In the article the international documents of the European Union, the Great Britain, Russia, Ukraine, which form perspective approaches of education systems development are analysed. The priority areas of ICT introduction are outlined by the European countries, the basic tendencies concerning ICT use at schools of the Great Britain are defined, the basic initiatives of the Russian Federation and Ukraine on this problem are considered.
Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana
The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to health......The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...
Niedhammer, I; Sultan-Taïeb, H; Chastang, J-F; Vermeylen, G; Parent-Thirion, A
Although psychosocial work factors are recognized as major occupational risk factors, little information is available regarding the prevalence of exposure to these factors and the differences in exposure between countries. To explore the differences in various psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. The study was based on a sample of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Eighteen psychosocial work factors were studied: low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, job strain, low social support, iso-strain, physical violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, work-family imbalance, long working hours, high effort, job insecurity, low job promotion, low reward and effort-reward imbalance. Covariates were age, number of workers in household, occupation, economic activity, self-employed/employee, public/private sector and part/full time work. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in all psychosocial work factors were observed between countries. The rank of the countries varied according to the exposure considered. However, some countries, especially Denmark, Netherlands and Norway, displayed a significantly lower prevalence of exposure to four factors or more, while some Southern and Eastern countries, especially Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania and Turkey, had a higher prevalence. Differences in psychosocial work exposures were found between countries. This study is the first to compare a large set of psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. These findings may be useful to guide prevention policies at European level.
Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen
This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…
Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary
includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy staffing (questionnaire items 47-60), analysed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis was conducted between February and July 2014, and is based on validated responses from 24 of the 40...... of countries can be distinguished on the basis of available personnel resources and socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: The average personnel figures in Europe are now consistent with, or even more favourable than the QUARTS recommendations, probably reflecting a combination of better availability as such......, in parallel with the current use of more complex treatments than a decade ago. A considerable variation in available personnel and delivered courses per year however persists among the highest and lowest staffing levels. This not only reflects the variation in cancer incidence and socio-economic determinants...
Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.
Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.
Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles
BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national deat...
Friedrich, Peter; Kaltschütz, Anita; Nam, Chang Woon
The idea of fiscal decentralisation has become increasingly fashionable world-wide. In some developed countries the systems of intergovernmental finance have evolved gradually and each country has unique features. Transition countries on different continents have had differing reasons and motivations for such reforms. More recently, the acknowledgement of subsidiarity as the basic principle for the European Un-ion, the introduction of the West German federal system in the eastern part of the ...
Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet
Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.
Humar, L; Sansoni, J
The Bologna Process and the Directives of the European Union have had a profound impact on nursing education in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the similarities and differences within nursing education framework at entry level in 2014 in European countries. A questionnaire was devised by the researchers and distributed via e-mail to the nursing associations/nursing regulatory bodies of 30 European countries. Data were collected from January to May 2014. Responses were received from 21 European Countries. Results indicated that while a completion of 12 years of general education was a requirement to access nursing education in almost all respondent countries, other admission requirements differed between countries. Nursing courses were offered mostly by Faculties of Nursing and Faculties of Health Sciences (in higher education Institutions) and lecturers and management staff were mainly nurses. The results indicated significant different educational requirements for nurse educators. A foreign language was mandatory in half of the respondent countries. Nursing profession was represented at government level in just over half of the respondent countries, often with a Directorate position. The Bologna Process has helped harmonise initial nursing education in Europe but clear standards for nursing education need to be set up. Therefore, the research about the influence of the Bologna process on the development of the nursing profession should be further encouraged.
This article deals with the subject of euthanasia (all its forms) and other end-of-life decisions, such as assisted suicide, withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatments. Among other things, the article will also deal with the issue of the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request. Based on an empirical historical method, the article compares the various selected legal orders. From this analysis, it draws some conclusions that have an impact on ethical discourse. First of all, the terminology is defined in the article, which is very important in this area. Further, German law is being analysed, with emphasis on Nazi Germany. On that basis, the so-called reductio ad Hitlerum argument is rejected. Research continues and is followed by another states, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. By analysing them, the following ethical arguments used in euthanasia debates are examined: the argument of a slippery slope and the argument of respect for autonomy. Finally, the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the Pretty case is also analysed. On this case, we can demonstrate, how insufficient is argument of human dignity. The last part is dedicated to the Czech Republic and its legal order. Firstly, it focuses on the history of the legal regulation of euthanasia, but the main part deals with the current legal situation. In addition to the recent state of affairs, the bill of Death with dignity act is also being examined. At the end of the article it is pointed out that the Czech regulation is insufficient and changes are necessary. However, the proposed bill of Death with dignity act is not the right way to follow. Rather, it may be wise to adopt an amendment to the Penal Code that would introduce the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request.Key words: assisted suicide - euthanasia - Homicide by the Victims Request - medical futility - withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatment.
Le Manach, F.; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, D.; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, D.; Kleisner, K.M.; Standing, A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Zeller, D.; Pauly, D.
The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreem...
Full Text Available This paper explores the fiscal measures adopted in the transition European countries in order toencourage the foreign direct investment. There were analysed six countries: Albania, Macedonia,Moldova, Russian Federation, Union of Serbia and Muntenegro, Ukraine, based on the four criteria:corporate and capital gains tax rates, withholding taxes, tax incentives, foreign tax relief andtransfer pricing rules. Finally, the conclusion is that all the analysed countries offer favourable fiscalconditions for the foreign direct investment. Serbia, Muntenegro, Macedonia and Moldova haveattractive fiscal regimes, showing that the authorities from these countries count on the foreign directinvestment as a solution of solving the social and economic problems.
Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia
'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.
Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca
This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN
Full Text Available We study the impact of the euro on emerging European countriesby investigating three country groups: (1 seventeen Eurozonecountries, (2 seven EU Eastern and Central European (ECEmembers using local currencies, and (3 six EU Candidates. Weanalyze macroeconomic indicators and propose models to investigatewhether similar or different indicators influence sovereigndebt for each group. We find that exports and unemployment arepositively related to sovereign debt while market capitalizationshows negative relation with sovereign debt. We argue that the recentEuropean sovereign debt crisis has raised serious challengesfor the Eurozone, and propose that EU ECE members and eu candidatesdelay the adoption of the euro.
Şipoş Gabriela Lucia
Full Text Available A widely debated topic during the last decades focuses on the companies’ opportunities to acquire corporate competitiveness due to research, innovation and development. Thus, in the context of increased competition and current global challenges, fostering creativity and innovation is a way to boost economic growth and welfare of European countries. New and original ideas, skills, competencies and innovations they all could enable to achieve competitive advantages. Creative ideas and innovative solutions are crucial for the European countries in order to overcome the current economic crisis.
Full Text Available Subject of this paper is focused on the multidisciplinary approach in studying the phenomenon of regionalization, which is conceived as the process of creation of lower administrative and territorial units within a state and transfer of central authorities to these units. Different concepts have been analyzed; the most significant characteristics of definitions: region, regionalization and regionalism have been underlined. Based on the multidisciplinary approach and method, four dominant models of regionalism in Europe have been defined: constitutional, strong, decentralized and administrative one. Regionalization concept has been considered in the dynamic way, within the historical context. Creation of European national states in the period between 17th and 19th century have been analyzed and centralistic state approach based on centralization and hierarchical vision of relations between central government and regions has been explained. Such approach has remained dominant in the territorial policy of national states until the last decades of the 20th century. The paper has presented historical path of regionalization in European countries with dominant models of regionalization e.g. Germany, Italy, France and Scandinavian countries as well as Spain, country with strong regional roots, which dated back more than couple of hundred years. Special attention has been given to analysis of different paths and contents of decentralization in European countries, starting in the 1970’s. Based on the analysis of contents of decentralization and regionalization and its constitutional and legal foundation it has been concluded that these processes represent significant step in further democratization of European countries.
E I Kharchenko
Overcoming gender inequality is a serious challenge for many countries all over the world. Different reforms aiming at reduction of gender inequality are often a necessary condition for joining international alliances and associations. The article presents an example of comparative analysis of gender statuses in European partnership countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Russian Federation (1) on the one hand, and Iceland - on the other hand due to the latter leading po...
Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.
David Vávra; Inci Ötker; Barry Topf; Zbigniew Polanski
This paper reviews the experiences of a number of European countries in coping with capital inflows. It describes the nature of the inflows, their implications for macroeconomic and financial stability, and the policy responses used to cope with them. The experiences suggest that as countries become more integrated with international financial markets, there is little room to regulate capital flows effectively. The most effective ways to deal with capital inflows would be to deepen the financ...
Diana Ioana POPA
The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...
Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs
Claes, Rita; Quintanilla, S. Antonio R.
Explores initial careers of two target groups of young adults in seven European countries. Career patterns were constructed through cluster analysis on data gathered via self-report. Six career patterns were identified. Offers suggestions for further research and implications for career counseling, career education, and organizational career…
Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...
Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.
The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is
The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has conducted a number of cross-national studies in which Western European countries participated. Results from the Second International Mathematics Study regarding the content and outcomes of this study in some Western
Smyth, Fiona; Shevlin, Michael; Buchner, Tobias; Biewer, Gottfried; Flynn, Paula; Latimier, Camille; Šiška, Jan; Toboso-Martín, Mario; Rodríguez Díaz, Susana; Ferreira, Miguel A. V.
This paper seeks to compare the evolution of inclusive education policy in the four countries of an EU-funded research project (QualiTYDES) operating under the shared policy environment of the UN, EU and European Commission. A shared policy cannot of course be assumed to result in common legislative or provisional outcomes at national level. The…
Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan
This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...
Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.
This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different
P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)
textabstractThis paper focuses on individual and country-level circumstances shaping friendships between young and old to gain insight into conditions for intergenerational solidarity. Using European Social Survey data, findings show that relatively few people have cross-age friendships (18%
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda
Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we
Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë
Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Compulsory schooling laws, which determine an individual's minimum level of education, can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel database that includes information for 31 European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950 and 1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9 %. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. A variety of empirical tests indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.
Full text: Practice and implementation of radiation protection in European countries and in majority of other countries all over the world relies on common principles and recommendations established by international organisations. These principles and recommendations were incorporated in national legislation ensuring similar and compatible standards of protection for occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. One of the basic requirements derived from international recommendations is also formal request for training of occupationally exposed workers. The final goals of the training are defined only indirectly through standards of safety and protection. Therefore national regulation regarding radiation protection training in particular country is a result of general approach to education and training, historical circumstances, influence and importance of nuclear technology and other factors influencing health protection and national well-being in general. The result is variety of national regulations ranging from very stringent and detailed to rather general and flexible. Nevertheless, results of implemented training do not differ sufficiently to significantly affect achieved standards of radiation protection. According to available information European countries implement radiation protection training in dissimilar ways. Institutions and organisations involved, as well as form and duration of training varies from country to country. Therefore, it is not possible to determine common rules just by reviewing radiation protection training in different countries. It is the intention of this contribution to analyse and discuss available information regarding radiation protection training and point out the necessity of international co-operation in this field, especially in the sense of the future trends. (author)
Bak, Jesper; Aggernæs, Karin Helle
Background: In 2008, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) criticized the use of mechanical restraint in Denmark and referred to it as ill-treatment. What do other European countries do better? To answer this question, we...... the smallest amount of physical coercion. Only Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark had comparable representative data on coercion. Conclusions: Norway used less physical restraint than Denmark. We could not find any obvious reasons for the differences in the use of physical restraint. Clinical implications...
van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard
Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913
Kojola, Ilpo; Hallikainen, Ville; Helle, Timo; Swenson, Jon E
One of the classic approaches in environmental economics is the environmental Kuznets curve, which predicts that when a national economy grows from low to medium levels, threats to biodiversity conservation increase, but they decrease when the economy moves from medium to high. We evaluated this approach by examining how population densities of the brown bear (Ursus arctos), gray wolf (Canis lupus), and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were related to the national economy in 24 European countries. We used forest proportions, the existence of a compensation system, and country group (former socialist countries, Nordic countries, other countries) as covariates in a linear model with the first- and the second-order polynomial terms of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Country group was treated as a random factor, but remained insignificant and was ignored. All models concerning brown bear and wolf provided evidence that population densities decreased with increasing GDP, but densities of lynx were virtually independent of GDP. Models for the wolf explained >80% of the variation in densities, without a difference between the models with all independent variables and the model with only GDP. For the bear, the model with GDP alone accounted for 10%, and all three variables 33%, of the variation in densities. Wolves exhibit a higher capacity for dispersal and reproduction than bear or lynx, but still exists at the lowest densities in wealthy European countries. We are aware that several other factors, not available for our models, influenced large carnivore densities. Based on the pronounced differences among large carnivore species in their countrywide relationships between densities and GDP, and a strikingly high relationship for the gray wolf, we suggest that our results reflected differences in political history and public acceptance of these species among countries. The compensation paid for the damages caused by the carnivores is not a key to higher carnivore
Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Salomon, Joshua A; Turner, Heather; Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Speybroeck, Niko; Polinder, Suzanne; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Havelaar, Arie H; Haagsma, Juanita A
Abstract Background In 2015, new disability weights (DWs) for infectious diseases were constructed based on data from four European countries. In this paper, we evaluated if country, age, sex, disease experience status, income and educational levels have an impact on these DWs. Methods We analyzed paired comparison responses of the European DW study by participants’ characteristics with separate probit regression models. To evaluate the effect of participants’ characteristics, we performed correlation analyses between countries and within country by respondent characteristics and constructed seven probit regression models, including a null model and six models containing participants’ characteristics. We compared these seven models using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results According to AIC, the probit model including country as covariate was the best model. We found a lower correlation of the probit coefficients between countries and income levels (range rs: 0.97–0.99, P European countries. We recommend future researches studying the effect of other characteristics of respondents on health assessment. PMID:29020343
Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P
Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.
Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel
The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.
Frédéric Le Manach
Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.
Standardization plays an important role in library and information science (LIS), because it gives rules to identify, classify, access, select, exploit, communicate, exchange and preserve information. Standards are developed by national, European and international organizations. The objective of the study is to present the situation of standardization in library and information science in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. The research covered Technical Committees that take the problems of LIS, their cooperation with European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The second part of the study is an analysis of LIS standards published in the last 10 years. Data on published documents were gathered from online standards directories. The documents were searched using International Classification for Standards. Retrieved standards were analyzed for their origin and status. The research illustrates the changes in the national standardization, most popular topics and the growing importance of international cooperation in standardization.
Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.
Tashiro, Manabu; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kubota, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hidetada; Moser, E.
Clinical diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. Therefore, sociomedical evaluation is very important for spread of clinical PET. In this report, sociomedical situation in European and Asia-Oceanian countries, especially concerning transportation of 18 F-FDG and reimbursement of medical costs for clinical PET indications, is reported. It seems that UK, Germany and Belgium are the most advanced in clinical PET in Europe. In these countries, many PET investigations are reimbursed though systems are different among the countries. In UK, both public and private insurance gives authorization for clinical PET to some extent. In Germany, private health insurance companies give authorization but public insurance has not. In Belgium, private health insurance does not exist and public insurance gives authorization for clinical PET. Other European countries seem to be in transitional stages. Transportation of 18 F-FDG has been already started in almost every country in Europe and Asia-Oceania. In Japan, neither transportation of FDG nor full reimbursement of clinical PET has not started yet and this situation seems to be exceptional. To promote clinical PET in Japan, there is the need of at least establishing a list of clinical indications for PET investigations and establishing commercial-based 18 F-FDG supplying system. They could be regarded as a kind of infrastructure for spread of clinical PET. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness.
Full Text Available Relative to non-food items, food tends to be cheaper in rich, as compared with poorEuropean countries. This tendency cannot be explained in terms of cost developments or foreign-trade considerations. A positive explanation proposed focuses on demand-income-supply interaction. An analysis of a cross-country price-augmented modification of Engel Law, econometrically specified, indicates that the relative price offood is related positively to the supply of food items and negatively to that of non-food items. This finding is consistent with "agricultural price scissors", and also casts a different light on the nature of economic development and structural change.
Cunado, Juncal; Gracia, Fernando Perez de
This paper analyzes the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact of oil prices on inflation and industrial production indexes for many European countries using quarterly data for the period 1960-1999. First, we test for cointegration allowing for structural breaks among the variables. Second, and in order to account for the possible non-linear relationships, we use different transformation of oil price data. The main results suggest that oil prices have permanent effects on inflation and short run but asymmetric effects on production growth rates. Furthermore, significant differences are found among the responses of the countries to these shocks. (Author)
Teske, H.; Janke, R.
This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS
This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable development and public health quite strongly correlate, being connected and conditioned by one another. This paper therein attempts to offer a representation of Europe’s current situation of sustainable development in the area of public health. Methods A dataset on sustainable development in the area of public health consisting of 31 European countries (formally proposed by the European Union Commission and EUROSTAT has been used in this paper in order to evaluate said issue for the countries listed thereof. A statistical method which synthesizes several indicators into one quantitative indicator has also been utilized. Furthermore, the applied method offers the possibility to obtain an optimal set of variables for future studies of the problem, as well as for the possible development of indicators. Results According to the results obtained, Norway and Iceland are the two foremost European countries regarding sustainable development in the area of public health, whereas Romania, Lithuania, and Latvia, some of the European Union’s newest Member States, rank lowest. The results also demonstrate that the most significant variables (more than 80% in rating countries are found to be “healthy life years at birth, females” (r2 = 0.880, “healthy life years at birth, males” (r2 = 0.864, “death rate due to chronic diseases, males” (r2 = 0.850, and “healthy life years, 65, females” (r2 = 0.844. Conclusions Based on the results of this paper, public health represents a precondition for sustainable development, which should be continuously invested in and improved. After the assessment of the dataset, proposed by EUROSTAT in order to evaluate progress towards the agreed goals of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS, this paper offers an improved set of variables, which it is hoped, may initiate further studies concerning this problem.
Seke, Kristina; Petrovic, Natasa; Jeremic, Veljko; Vukmirovic, Jovanka; Kilibarda, Biljana; Martic, Milan
Sustainable development and public health quite strongly correlate, being connected and conditioned by one another. This paper therein attempts to offer a representation of Europe's current situation of sustainable development in the area of public health. A dataset on sustainable development in the area of public health consisting of 31 European countries (formally proposed by the European Union Commission and EUROSTAT) has been used in this paper in order to evaluate said issue for the countries listed thereof. A statistical method which synthesizes several indicators into one quantitative indicator has also been utilized. Furthermore, the applied method offers the possibility to obtain an optimal set of variables for future studies of the problem, as well as for the possible development of indicators. According to the results obtained, Norway and Iceland are the two foremost European countries regarding sustainable development in the area of public health, whereas Romania, Lithuania, and Latvia, some of the European Union's newest Member States, rank lowest. The results also demonstrate that the most significant variables (more than 80%) in rating countries are found to be "healthy life years at birth, females" (r2 = 0.880), "healthy life years at birth, males" (r2 = 0.864), "death rate due to chronic diseases, males" (r2 = 0.850), and "healthy life years, 65, females" (r2 = 0.844). Based on the results of this paper, public health represents a precondition for sustainable development, which should be continuously invested in and improved.After the assessment of the dataset, proposed by EUROSTAT in order to evaluate progress towards the agreed goals of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), this paper offers an improved set of variables, which it is hoped, may initiate further studies concerning this problem.
Potârcă, Gina; Mills, Melinda
Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we engage in the first cross-national analysis of race-related partner preferences and examine the link between contextual factors and ethnic selectivity. We provide a unique test of contact, conflict, a...
Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...
Full Text Available Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting The aim of the paper is to bring closer Country-by-Country Reporting and outline possible future amendments of the introduced anti-tax avoidance measures. The article presents the motives of implementing the international CbC initiative, aimed at increasing transparency of the biggest multinational enterprises, with particular emphasis on the specificity of the European Union. Part 2 of the paper analyses the Euro-pean legal bases for companies’ financial reporting. It also gives an overview of the main findings of Directive 2016/881, which implements Country-by-Country Reporting and allows for the exchange of information between tax authorities. Part 3 deals with the national perspective, presenting the CbC solu-tions implemented to the Polish legal system; the paper also attempts to assess the potential impact of tax information disclosures, both from the perspective of taxpayers and the tax administration. The final part presents conclusions and tries to draft future developments of the Country-by-Country Reporting system. In the paper, the following research methods have been used: critical analysis and deduction, with partic-ular reference to the source materials and legal acts, as well as the reports of the European Commission, consulting companies, and NGOs. Although the article deals with tax matters, CbC Reporting is an im-portant and relevant issue from the point of view of researchers and accounting specialists. Reporting this phenomenon is part of the accounting science as a universal tool for recording economic phenomena. The author examined all relevant sources and took into account all important factors in order to obtain a com-prehensive picture of CbC Reporting and to prepare a paper that may serve as a reference for future research.
Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.
Postma, Maarten; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V; Leidl, R M; Tolley, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Jager, Johannes C
This paper compares AIDS hospital care in several European-Union countries. For this purpose hospital-care utilisation studies on inpatient days and outpatient contacts were analysed in a generic approach controlling for severity stages of AIDS. Lifetime hospital-care needs for AIDS are derived,
Tanja Van der Lippe
Full Text Available Background: Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. Objective: This study aims to improve our understanding of the meaning of cohabitation by examining disagreements within marital and cohabiting relationships. We examine variations in couples' disagreements about housework, paid work and money by country and gender. Methods: The data come from the 2004 European Social Survey. We selected respondents living in a heterosexual couple relationship and aged between 18 and 45. In total, the study makes use of data from 22 European countries and 9,657 people. Given that our dependent variable was dichotomous, we estimated multilevel logit models, with (1 disagree and (0 never disagree. Results: We find that cohabitors had more disagreements about housework, the same disagreements about money, but fewer disagreements about paid work than did married people. These findings could not be explained by socio-economic or demographic measures, nor did we find gender or cross-country differences in the association between union status and conflict. Conclusions: Cohabiting couples have more disagreements about housework but fewer disagreements about paid work than married people. There are no gender or cross-country differences in these associations. The results provide further evidence that the meaning of cohabitation differs from that of marriage, and that this difference remains consistent across nations.
Lehmkuhl, Markus; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo; Petkova, Kristina; Trench, Brian
This article explores the factors that influence the volume and structure of science programming by European television broadcasters, focussing on differences among channel patterns. It proposes three factors as relevant to understanding differences in science programming: A) the segmentation/fragmentation of television markets; B) the presence of middle sized commercial channels; C) the dependency of public service TV channels on commercial income (trading/advertising). We identified countries whose channel patterns encourage a varied picture of science - namely Sweden, Finland and Germany. They are distinguished from those which show a less differentiated picture and present a smaller volume of science content on television - such as Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, we identified countries whose channel patterns don't encourage a varied picture of science - namely Spain, Greece, Bulgaria and Estonia - and these countries present their small volume of science content at off-peak hours, in contrast to patterns in Great Britain and Ireland.
Benzer, Werner; Rauch, Bernhard; Schmid, Jean-Paul
AIM: Results from EuroCaReD study should serve as a benchmark to improve guideline adherence and treatment quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2.054 CR patients in 12 European countries were derived from 69 centres. 76% were male. Indication for CR...
Detiček, Andreja; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja
The number of authorized orphan and non-orphan medicines for rare diseases has increased in Europe. Patient access to these medicines is affected by high costs, weak efficacy/safety evidence, and societal value. European health care systems must determine whether paying for expensive treatments for only a few patients is sustainable. This study aimed to evaluate patient access to orphan and non-orphan medicines for rare diseases in 22 European countries during 2005 to 2014. Medicines for rare diseases from the Orphanet list, authorized during 2005 to 2014, were searched for in the IMS MIDAS Quarterly Sales Data, January 2005 - December 2014 (IQVIA, Danbury, CT). The following three measures were determined for each country: number of available medicines, median time to continuous use, and medicine expenditure. A medicine was considered available if uninterrupted sales within a 1-year period were detected. From 2005 to 2014, 125 medicines were authorized and 112 were found in the search. Of those, between 70 (63%) and 102 (91%) were available in Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, and the Scandinavian countries. These countries were also the fastest to enable continuous use (3-9 mo). Only 27% to 38% of authorized medicines were available in Greece, Ireland, Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia, which took 1 to 2.6 years to begin continuous use. A country's expenditure on medicines for rare diseases in 2014 ranged between €0.2 and €31.9/inhabitant. Patient access to medicines for rare diseases varies largely across Europe. Patients in Germany, Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, France, and the United Kingdom can access larger numbers of medicines in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Consumers are considered, within the European vision, the “life force” of the economy. Although the technological means are increasingly available, both European SMEs and consumers are still suspicious of conducting cross-border trade. Single European market has the potential to become the largest market in the world. Currently, it remains largely fragmented along national borders, forming 27 mini-markets. The European Commission’s aim is to achieve a more integrated internal market such that consumers from each Member State have an equally high level of confidence in products, traders, selling methods, as well as consumer protection – no matter where they decide to make their purchases within the EU. The paper presents a secondary analysis of data regarding the many differences in terms of Europeans’ consumption patterns for different product categories (as a percentage of total expenditures. For example, the share of household budget used to purchase food is highest in our country and lowest in Luxembourg.. Also, the largest proportion of family budget allocated for utilities (water, electricity, gas we find in Bulgaria, and for cultural activities – in Austria.
Full Text Available This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.
Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J
. Setting: 10 European countries. Participants: 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Measurements: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum...... biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically......, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Limitations: Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Conclusion: Coffee...
Full Text Available The global organic market is increasing constantly, organic sales reaching over USD 5 billion per year. Organic Monitor estimates that international sales amounted to about USD 38.6 billion in 2006, more than the double of USD 18 billion in 2000. The organic demand is concentrated in North America and Europe, these two regions comprising 97% of the global revenues. The European organic food and beverage market is the largest and most complex in the world, evaluated at USD 20 billion in 2006. Many European countries offer grants to organic farms to support organic production. This production-oriented strategy will have guaranteed success if the market structures and the marketing channels will be able to face the rapidly increasing demand and if the sellers adapt their products, sales channels and prices to the consumers’ demand.
E I Kharchenko
Full Text Available Overcoming gender inequality is a serious challenge for many countries all over the world. Different reforms aiming at reduction of gender inequality are often a necessary condition for joining international alliances and associations. The article presents an example of comparative analysis of gender statuses in European partnership countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Russian Federation (1 on the one hand, and Iceland - on the other hand due to the latter leading position in the Global Gender Gap ranking. This ranking as well as the results of the comparative analysis can be useful for lecturers in the courses on gender inequality, international comparative studies and others. The author provides a definition of the concept “gender inequality”, an overview of existing methodological approaches to the international gender inequality measurement and interpretation. Based on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI author describes men and women positions in the countries mentioned above in such socially important fields as politics, economy, education, and life expectancy; provides her own explanations of the current situation and perspectives for its development. The study shows that for all the countries under consideration the most problematic are (1 political sphere in the terms of women’s empowerment and (2 the sphere of healthcare from the point of quality and duration of men’s lives. The most unproblematic field from the comparative gender analysis point of view is educational sphere. According to the results of the comparative analysis, the most egalitarian country seems to be Moldova, while the least egalitarian - Azerbaijan. This article is based on the data of the International project ReSET «European visions and divisions: comparative studies in improving of teaching sociology” (supported by OSI HESP in 2010-2012.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the national and regional (NUTS-2 employment performance and convergence for various aggregations of 27 European countries (EU-25, plus Romania and Bulgaria, mainly using the three employment rates (total, female, older worker adopted by the European Employment Strategy (EES. At the national level, this analysis confirmed the existence of considerable differences in employment performance between and within the various country aggregations. Empirical analysis highlighted the remarkable net job creations in the EU-15 (and EMU-12 for the period 1997-2003, accompanied by a (national convergence for all three employment indicators. As regards total employment rates, significant converging trends also emerge at the regional level for both EU-15 and EMU-12 aggregations. In the eight Central European Countries, new EU members (8 CEC-NM, a diverging trend in the total employment rate began in 1999, whereas converging dynamics were limited to the employment rate of older workers in the period 1998-2001. Regional analyses showed significant diverging dynamics in the total employment rates (1999-2003 for the eight CEC-NM regions. At the national level of analyses, the relationship between “progress in transition” and employment performance was also briefly examined. Results show that a simple, stable correlation does not exist. However, a weak U-shaped relationship existing in 1998 shifted downward and evolved toward a positive link in 2003. The main results of cluster analysis of the 53 regions of the ten CECs confirmed a high level of regional labour market diversification, and the fact that sector structure affects employment performance significantly
Dall’Ora, Chiara; Simon, Michael; Ball, Jane; Lindqvist, Rikard; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Tishelman, Carol; Aiken, Linda H.
Background: Despite concerns as to whether nurses can perform reliably and effectively when working longer shifts, a pattern of two 12- to 13-hour shifts per day is becoming common in many hospitals to reduce shift to shift handovers, staffing overlap, and hence costs. Objectives: To describe shift patterns of European nurses and investigate whether shift length and working beyond contracted hours (overtime) is associated with nurse-reported care quality, safety, and care left undone. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 31,627 registered nurses in general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. Results: A total of 50% of nurses worked shifts of ≤8 hours, but 15% worked ≥12 hours. Typical shift length varied between countries and within some countries. Nurses working for ≥12 hours were more likely to report poor or failing patient safety [odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13–1.76], poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.10–1.53), and more care activities left undone (RR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.09–1.16). Working overtime was also associated with reports of poor or failing patient safety (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.51–1.86), poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.23–1.42), and more care left undone (RR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.27–1.31). Conclusions: European registered nurses working shifts of ≥12 hours and those working overtime report lower quality and safety and more care left undone. Policies to adopt a 12-hour nursing shift pattern should proceed with caution. Use of overtime working to mitigate staffing shortages or increase flexibility may also incur additional risk to quality. PMID:25226543
Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E.; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P.
The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the
Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.; Mielck, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia
Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan
This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....
Garcia, L.; Cores, A.; Formoso, A.; Babich, A.
The incessant increase of the competitivity of the metallurgical industry implies the necessity of the optimization of the resources and raw materials used. This affects in the same way the iron making in blast furnace and its principal fuel, metallurgical coke. It is from here the importance of the development of the techniques which facilitate improvements in the operation parameters in the blast furnace. This article is dedicated to the latest developments applicated on blast furnace process in the countries of European Community. (Author) 24 refs
Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.
Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.
Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.
Full Text Available The unemployment can be considered as one of the main economic problems. The aim of this article is to examine the differences in male and female unemployment rates in selected European countries and to predict their future trends by using different statistical forecasting models. Furthermore, the impact of adding a new data point on the selection of the most appropriate statistical forecasting model and on the overall forecasting errors values is also evaluated. Male and female unemployment rates are observed for twelve European countries in the period from 1991 to 2014. Four statistical forecasting models have been selected and applied and the most appropriate model is considered to be the one with the lowest overall forecasting errors values. The analysis has shown that in the period from 1991 to 2014 the decreasing trend of unemployment rates in the short-run is forecasted for more Eastern Balkan than the EU-28 countries. An additional data point for male and female unemployment rates in 2014 led to somewhat smaller forecasting errors in more than half of the observed countries. However, the additional data point does not necessarily improve forecasting performances of the used statistical forecasting models.
Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco
Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.
Full Text Available This study utilizes Panel Logit Models applied to a set of macroeconomic, financial, and political variables to estimate the debt rescheduling probabilities of 15 Eastern European countries during the transition period from 1990-2005. These transition economies became a very attractive region for foreign investment. Specifically, the region became the largest recipient of net non-FDI flows among all emerging market regions in 2005. Therefore, it is relevant for policy makers and institutional and private foreign investors to investigate factors that influence debt rescheduling probabilities, as these may directly affect the size of and return on investments in these countries. Our findings suggest that policy efforts focused on reducing government expenditure, attracting foreign direct investment, increasing export revenues, and keeping a good repayment record result in low debt rescheduling probabilities and, in turn, decrease the cost of debt for these countries. This is a common finding for all countries in the sample, including those that have become EU members.
Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout
Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.
Full Text Available The LIBER MARC Harmonization Task Force has its origins in an initiative of the past President of LIBER, Professor Elmar Mittler from the Göttingen State and University Library. Professor Mittler asked Dr Elisabeth Niggemann from Die Deutsche Bibliothek to take part in the meeting of the MARC Harmonization Coordinating Committee in Ottawa in May 2001. Following that meeting the LIBER MARC Harmonization Task Force was founded at the LIBER Annual Conference in July 2001 in London. The LIBER MARC Harmonization Task Force held its first meeting on 14 January 2002 at Die Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main, with the aim of gaining an overview of format activities in Europe. The group's aim was to concentrate on European developments and to build up stronger cooperation in the library world in order to strengthen Europe's international influence. The LIBER MARC Harmonization Task Force held a second meeting at the IFLA 2002 Conference in Glasgow and discussed the first draft of its report and recommendations to LIBER. After final discussion within the group, this report has been further revised and was submitted to LIBER. The aim of the report is to give an overview of format activities in European countries and to make recommendations to LIBER regarding the use and development of data formats in Europe. The annex includes reports on migration activities from different countries. The report is based on information on data formats collected and compiled on the basis of a questionnaire distributed to the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL. Cataloguing issues were further discussed at the 1st IFLA Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code held in Frankfurt in July 2003. Further meetings will be held at the IFLA conferences in Buenos Aires (2004 and Seoul (2006.
Full Text Available Social trust in education is at least partly rooted in the legitimacy of the principal institutions which organise the social order, such as the political system, democracy and economy. Easton formulated the theoretical justification for this hypothesis in the 1960s, while empirical confirmation was delayed until the first decade of this century, when the data was collected in the European Social Survey. The results of ESS confirmed the hypothesis that trust in education is influenced by the legitimacy of the more fundamental state institutions but the mechanisms of this effect vary across Europe. In countries where schools are autonomous and control over them is located at community level, trust in education becomes independent from social support for the state. However, in countries where education is considered to be a government agency, strongly shaped by political goals, people tend to evaluate education together with other state institutions. The ESS data also provide insight into factors determining trust in education at the level of the individual. Surprisingly, the lowest degree of trust was shown by the upper classes, including the educated, whom the education system had benefited most. This is not conducive to the involvement of such people in countries that are building their educational resources.
Schmid, G.; Schaumann, P.
International negotiations on greenhouse gas reduction targets at Kyoto presented a severe problem to the public: How can the burden of global limitation of greenhouse gases be shared by the countries in a proper way without delaying the indispensable cutting of emissions. The paper presents a critical review of the results of Kyoto, some basic thoughts on equity rules and a model-based analysis on the reduction of CO 2 , the major greenhouse gas, in thirteen EU countries covering 99% of EU CO 2 emissions. Both, reduction targets and economic burden are presented for selected equity rules. The authors used the models and model results elaborated by national teams from 13 European countries. (Author)
Glachant, J.-M.; Finon, D.
In 1988, the European Commission floated the idea of liberalising the power sector as the key to improving competition and creating jobs in Western Europe, and many reforms have taken place since then. This book examines and evaluates those changes drawing on 12 specific countries. An introductory chapter presents an overview of the typology of institutional structure, approaches to reform, industrial response and progress. The heart of the book looks at three separate areas, viz. the northerners, western-central, and southern and Latin Europe. A dozen chapters by 21 writers present an analysis of the issues faced in dealing with the reforms. The book discusses price convergence and why this cannot be forced. Both practical and academic perspectives are dealt with
Pag-Kuhn, S.; Schmuck, O.
The volume presents material illustrating European environmental policy and the situation in the various countries, and is intended among others for use as a teaching aid at school or in adult courses. A documentation of newspaper articles and other material is the center piece of the volume, arranged by environmental problems and cases, covering also basic text parts from the fields of law and politics. The six main subjects dealt with include: Pollution of the Rhine river, the Sandoz accident; - Nuclear power, Chernobyl and Cattenom; - Forest decline, acid rain and motor vehicle off-gas; - Toxic waste, Seveso and no end to be seen; - Agriculture and ecology; - Environmental impact statement, an EC Directive. The documentation has been selected so as to reflect a broad spectrum of political opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de
Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J
The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women
Andrew J. Smith
Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.
Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna
Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.
Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.
Diana Ioana POPA
Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.
Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.
Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US
Gullo, Lucio; Migliori, Marina; Oláh, Attila; Farkas, Gyula; Levy, Philippe; Arvanitakis, Constantine; Lankisch, Paul; Beger, Hans
In recent years, many advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis that have lead to a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality; however, knowledge of the etiology and of the relation between etiology and mortality is far from complete. To obtain a more comprehensive view of the etiology and mortality of acute pancreatitis in Europe than has been given by previous single-center studies. The study comprised 1,068 patients in five European countries who were admitted to hospitals for acute pancreatitis from January 1990 to December 1994. Data for each patient were collected on a standardized form. Of the 1,068 patients (692 men, 376 women; mean age, 52.8 years; range, 10-95 years), 589 had edematous pancreatitis, and 479 the necrotic form. Cholelithiasis (37.1%) and alcohol (41.0%) were the most frequent etiologic factors. In Germany, cholelithiasis and alcohol occurred with similar frequency (34.9 and 37.9%, respectively); in Hungary, alcohol predominates over cholelithiasis (60.7 vs. 24.0%); in France, a small predominance of alcohol was seen (38.5 vs. 24.6%); and in Greece and Italy, there was a clear predominance of cholelithiasis over alcohol (71.4 vs. 6.0% and 60.3 vs. 13.2%, respectively). The differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and alcohol between Greece and Italy and the other countries were statistically significant (p relationship between mortality and age.
László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael
Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wieske, R.C.N.; Nijnuis, M.G.; Carmiggelt, B.C.; Wagenaar-Fischer, M.M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.
Objective To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Method Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. Results The greatest
Виктория Александровна Цокова
Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55
Nappi, R E; Palacios, S; Panay, N; Particco, M; Krychman, M L
The aim of the European REVIVE survey was to achieve a better understanding of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a chronic and progressive condition after menopause. We investigated perceptions, experiences and needs in terms of sexual and vaginal health in a sample of European postmenopausal women. An online internet based survey was conducted in Italy, Germany, Spain and the UK with a total surveyed sample of 3768 postmenopausal women (age: 45-75 years). The most common VVA symptom was vaginal dryness (70%). VVA has a significant impact on the ability to be intimate (62%), to enjoy sexual intercourse (72%) and to feel sexual spontaneity (66%). Postmenopausal women with VVA are sexually active (51%), but their sexual drive is reduced. Health-care professionals (HCPs) have discussed VVA with postmenopausal women (62%), but they initiated the conversation only in 10% of the cases. The most common treatments for VVA are over-the-counter, non-hormonal, local vaginal products. Thirty-two per cent of postmenopausal women were naïve to any kind of treatment, whereas discussion with the HCP was relevant to be on current treatment (60% of postmenopausal women that discussed VVA with a HCP vs. 23% who did not). The top reasons for poor compliance with vaginal treatments were: not bothersome enough symptoms (18%); vaginal changes not therapeutically reversed (18%); relief from VVA symptoms (17%). Approximately 45% were satisfied with treatment. The most frequent disliked aspects of treatment were the route of administration or the messiness. The fear of hormones was common in postmenopausal women using vaginal prescription products. The European REVIVE survey confirmed that VVA symptoms are frequent in postmenopausal women and demonstrates a significant impact on quality of life and sexual life. However, the condition is still under-diagnosed and under-treated, with a high rate of dissatisfaction for actual available treatments in the four European countries surveyed. The
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the changes taking place in housing markets in selected European countries and in the USA. The basic research period covers the years 1998-2009. However, wherever availability of data allowed so, we covered with our research also the years 1963-2010. The development of domestic housing markets is determined both by specific features of local markets and by macroeconomic factors influencing the economic situation. The availability of capital to finance investment is of primary importance for the changes taking place in housing markets. This factor can be expressed by the volume of mortgage debt related to GDP and inflation and the level of interest rates on mortgage loans. The evaluation of the changes occurring in domestic housing markets was based on the identification of such structural characteristics as: the volume of the housing stock, the number of ready-to-use flats, the number of issued building permits, the indices of housing prices, and the number of transactions concerning purchase of flats or houses.
Full Text Available Industrial fluctuations are closely related to the evolution of relative prices of produced goods and resources involved in production activity. Industrial fluctuations, as an expression of forces manifested in the real economy, are caused by changes in individuals’ consumption and investment decisions, produced within expansionary monetary policies. The ease of obtaining a bank loan in the context of decreasing interest rates and of larger amounts of money caused an increase in individuals’ demand for goods resulted from longer, capital intensive production processes. The rise in prices of intermediate and capital goods in a faster pace compared to the increase in prices of consumer goods is doubled by the increase of the share of higher order industries in the structure of production. The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in industrial structure of Eastern Europe countries within the policies of quick access to monetary resources. The analyzed states (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania are part of the European Union and have autonomous monetary policies, meaning that they have not yet adopted the common currency. In all economies analyzed, we find approximately the same patterns of monetary expansion and industrial fluctuations.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the future occupational structure of the labour force in European members of the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD. Occupational structure forecasts allow researchers to evaluate the quality of job openings and, consequently, overall future labour market performance. Identification of demand for certain occupations in Europe can facilitate assessment of whether processes occurring in the Russian labour market are consistent with global trends. The paper discusses the methodology of labour force forecasting and basic research approaches to the prediction of occupational structure changes. It emphasizes the dynamics of demand for representatives of certain occupations in Europe by identifying the fastest growing and declining occupations and suggests possible reasons for changing demand. The paper demonstrates that the main occupational trend over the next decade will consist in the increasing importance of professionals, as well as technicians and associate professionals. The increase in demand for health professionals and representatives of occupations providing scientific and technological innovation will be most significant. At the same time, it is expected that demand for elementary occupations will also rise. This process will evolve simultaneously with the decrease in the total number of skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar occupations due to globalization and the reduction of industrial production in developed economies. The ongoing “mechanization” of many job functions will not eliminate the need for occupations such as cleaners, labourers, domestic servants or personal workers. The need for these jobs allow employees with low levels of education to enter the labour market rather than depending on the social benefit system. Another tendency for all countries with developed economies will be reduced demand for many whitecollar occupations as modern computer technologies and the automation of many
Kozelj, M.; Stritar, A.
The paper presents legal background and recent activities of international organisations in the field of radiation protection training in Europe. Approach to radiation protection training in some European countries has been also presented. Because of legal requirements and necessity to harmonise and standardise training, European countries are taking first steps. Slovenia must not stay away from this process. (author)
Priebe, S; Badesconyi, A; Fioritti, A; Hansson, L; Kilian, RT; Torres-Gonzales, F; Turner, T; Wiersma, D
Objective To establish whether reinstitutionalisation is occurring in mental health care mid, if so, with What variations between Western European countries. Design Comparison of data on changes in service provision. Setting Six European countries with different traditions of mental health care that
Kairiene, Igne; Pasauliene, Ramune; Lipunova, Nadezda; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Rageliene, Lina; Rascon, Jelena
The reported treatment outcomes of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries are inferior to those in Northern/Western Europe. We hypothesized that recent survival rates could be comparable to the current standards and performed a population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Lithuania, a small Eastern European country. Children 80% in high-income countries. The difference in survival rates between Northern/Western and Eastern European countries as well as between high- and middle-/low-income countries is as much as 20%. Recently, the 5-year event-free survival rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has reached > 60% in high-income countries. The survival rates for myeloproliferative diseases were the lowest in Eastern European countries. • The reported inferior survival rates were calculated based on outcome data of patients treated until 2007. The recent survival rates in Eastern European countries are unknown. What is New: • Being a small Eastern European country, Lithuania has experienced good economic growth during the last decade. We hypothesized that economic growth and gain of experience could result in better survival rates of children treated for cancer in our country in recent years. • A population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood AML treated in Lithuania in the recent years was performed for the first time. The survival rates of childhood AML in Lithuania are comparable to those of other high-income countries. Current survival rates of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries could be comparable to the best current standards contributing to better European survival rates of childhood cancer in general.
Full Text Available The article investigates contemporary trends of innovation policy of European countries, describes the essence of contemporary mechanisms and tools for supporting local innovative development. The following most powerful tools for facilitating scientific and technical and innovative business activity are discovered: direct support of private R&D, financing of innovative enterprises, governmental and private cooperative scientific and research projects. A trend is identified for decreasing the share of institutional financing of R&D, and increasing of weight of competitive financing of academic institutions. A conclusion is made as for spreading of technologies commercialization processes support, especially on final stages thereof; the share of these has increased in respect of governmental programs focused on early stages of scientific and research projects. An insight is that within the last two decades the tools for facilitating local innovative business activities have been diversified in the EU: alongside with long-term collaborative governmental and private R&D and initiatives for developing innovative science intensive clusters, short-term tools have been significantly spread, such as innovation projects vouchers and science intensive start-ups support. Given that, it is established that traditionally developed toolkit for supporting small and medium enterprises is being complimented with scaled programs of large companies direct financing. A general trend is identified for increasing the weight of collaborative programs, while the share of individual subsidies and grants for R&D and that of companies innovative activity has substantially decreased. Higher effectiveness of start-ups facilitation measures is concluded, as well as that of venture investments, in comparison with individual subsidies. The leading role of start-ups in EU economy is determined by a range of advantages originating from dynamic process of formation thereof
Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.
Background 'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of 'compassionate use' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726/2004/EC is clear on the intentions of 'compassionate use' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that 'compassionate use' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for 'compassionate use' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions 'Compassionate use' is a misleading term and should be replaced with 'expanded access'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes. PMID:21073691
Full Text Available European leaders' rhetoric on third-country migration ranges from a discourse extolling the benefits of a United Europe, to one upholding Europe’s repute as a bastion of fundamental human rights, to yet another one out of which the continent emerges as a repressive fortress. Third-country migration not only engages the EU's efforts, but also those exerted by non-EU immigrantstowardsintegrating and becoming more open to their European host culture. This paper will be focusing both on the EU's commitment to honing its third-country migration policies, as well as on the non-EU immigrants' potential and limitations when it comes to their assimilation/integration into EU countries, in particular, Romania. Methodologically this paper uses the content analysis of European leaders’ discourses and also the qualitative analysis of data collected from 40 interviews carried out with non-EU immigrants into Romania. Another methodological tool will consist in an analysis of official EU documents. What will be pursued is the way in which the EU official documents reflect the shared interest proved by European leaders concerning the immigration processes. It will touch upon how the integration processes reclaims on the one hand permanent exchanges between the host European society and non European immigrant and on the other hand sustained efforts from these two parts in order to meet their needs and recognise their limits, in terms of economic, professional and social resources.
Lay, C.; Rigottier-Gois, L.; Holmstrom, K.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Collins, M.D.; Thiel, R.; Namsolleck, P.; Blaut, M.; Dore, J.
The composition of the colonic microbiota of 91 northern Europeans was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 18 phylogenetic probes. On average 75% of the bacteria were identified, and large interindividual variations were observed. Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum
Iakovleva, T.A.; Kolvereid, L.; M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); Sørhaug, Ø
textabstractThis qualitative study among 591 business students from four European countries investigated cross-country differences in the kind of barriers people perceive to business start-up. In line with institutional theory, the most important perceived barriers in all countries related to
Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.
The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)
Blundell, John E.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Boyland, Emma
Over the last 10 years the prevalence of obesity across the European continent has in general been rising. With the exception of a few countries where a levelling-off can be perceived, albeit at a high level, this upward trend seems likely to continue. However, considerable country to country var...
Seniori Costantini, Adele; Gallo, Federica; Pega, Frank; Saracci, Rodolfo; Veerus, Piret; West, Robert
This article is part of a series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association, aimed at describing population health and epidemiological resources in the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. It covers 32 of the 53 WHO European countries, namely the Western European countries, the Balkan countries and the Baltic countries. The burdens of mortality and morbidity and the patterns of risk factors and inequalities have been reviewed in order to identify health priorities and challenges. Literature and internet searches were conducted to stock-take epidemiological teaching, research activities, funding and scientific productivity. These countries have among the highest life expectancies worldwide. However, within- and between-country inequalities persist, which are largely due to inequalities in distribution of main health determinants. There is a long tradition of epidemiological research and teaching in most countries, in particular in the Western European countries. Cross-national networks and collaborations are increasing through the support of the European Union which fosters procedures to standardize educational systems across Europe and provides funding for epidemiological research through framework programmes. The number of Medline-indexed epidemiological research publications per year led by Western European countries has been increasing. The countries accounts for nearly a third of the global epidemiological publication. Although population health has improved considerably overall, persistent within- and between-country inequalities continue to challenge national and European health institutions. More research, policy and action on the social determinants of health are required in the region. Epidemiological training, research and workforce in the Baltic and Balkan countries should be strengthened. European epidemiologists can play pivotal roles and must influence legislation concerning production and access to high-quality data. © The
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Geyer, Siegfried
The analyses focus on three aims: (1) to explore the associations between education and emotional support in 22 European countries, (2) to explore the associations between emotional support and self-rated health in the European countries, and (3) to analyse whether the association between education and self-rated health can be partly explained by emotional support. The study uses data from the European Social Survey 2003. Probability sampling from all private residents aged 15 years and older was applied in all countries. The European Social Survey includes 42,359 cases. Persons under age 25 were excluded to minimise the number of respondents whose education was not complete. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Perceived emotional support was assessed by the availability of a confidant with whom one can discuss intimate and personal matters with. Self-rated health was used as health indicator. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses show that emotional support is positively associated with education among women and men in most European countries. However, the magnitude of the association varies according to country and gender. Emotional support is positively associated with self-rated health. Again, gender and country differences in the association were observed. Emotional support explains little of the educational differences in self-rated health among women and men in most European countries. Results indicate that it is important to consider socio-economic factors like education and country-specific contexts in studies on health effects of emotional support.
The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Measurement characteristics are compared across representative consumer samples from 25 European countries (total N = 37,592) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest....... Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi......-circumplex hypothesised by the theory of basic human values....
Onishi, Taku; Tsukamoto, Katsura; Matsumaru, Naoki; Waki, Takashi
Efforts to promote the development of pediatric pharmacotherapy include regulatory frameworks and close collaboration between the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. We characterized the current status of pediatric clinical trials conducted in the United States by the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the involvement of the European Union member countries, to clarify the industry perspective. Data on US pediatric clinical trials were obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov . Binary regression analysis was performed to identify what factors influence the likelihood of involvement of European Union countries. A total of 633 US pediatric clinical trials that met inclusion criteria were extracted and surveyed. Of these, 206 (32.5%) involved a European Union country site(s). The results of binary regression analysis indicated that attribution of industry, phase, disease area, and age of pediatric participants influenced the likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries in US pediatric clinical trials. Relatively complicated or large pediatric clinical trials, such as phase II and III trials and those that included a broad age range of participants, had a significantly greater likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries ( P European Union countries, and (3) feasibility of clinical trials is mainly concerned by pharmaceutical industry for pediatric drug development. Additional incentives for high marketability may further motivate pharmaceutical industry to develop pediatric drugs.
Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.
This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)
The article deals with the problem of forming education managers' professional competency in the context of European integration educational processes. The peculiarities of education managers' competences as well as directions of their professional training in motivational, cognitive and metacognitive spheres have been theoretically justified. The…
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø
to the amounts of antimicrobial agents used in food animal production in those countries. Similar genes were found to encode resistance in the different countries, but the tet(L) and let(S) genes were more frequently found among isolates from Spain. A recently identified transferable copper resistance gene......Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which corresponds...... was found in all copper-resistant isolates from the different countries....
Mackenbach, Johan P; Stirbu, Irina; Roskam, Albert-Jan R
, such as tuberculosis and hypertension. Data on self-assessed health, smoking, and obesity according to education and income were obtained from health or multipurpose surveys. For each country, the association between socioeconomic status and health outcomes was measured with the use of regression-based inequality...... by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care.......BACKGROUND: Comparisons among countries can help to identify opportunities for the reduction of inequalities in health. We compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe. METHODS: We obtained data on mortality according...
Borovecki, Ana; ten Have, Henk; Oreskovic, Stiepan
This paper surveys the situation regarding bioethical issues in the European transitional societies. It aims at exploring past, present and future characteristics of bioethics in the European countries in transitions, analysing similarities, differences and common themes together with the historical development of bioethics. By carefully studying articles published since the early 1990s, one can perceive a number of bioethical issues, varying from specificities for certain countries to similar problems for all transitional European societies. It seems that more than 15 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Central and Eastern European societies were able to achieve significant improvements in the development of bioethics. However, looking at the bioethical issues important for European transitional societies, it seems that the invisible wall between eastern and western European societies is still there and that it will take years to remove it.
Pampuri, O.; Czabanowska, K.; Hysa, B.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.
Pampuri O, Czabanowska K, Hysa B, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country (Original research). SEEJPH 2015, posted: 10 February 2015. DOI 10.12908/SEEJPH-2014-40
Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor
Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.
Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.
In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)
Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas
Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the
Requena, G; Abbing-Karahagopian, V; Huerta, C
Hip fractures represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Multinational studies using a common methodology are scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) and trends of hip/femur fractures over the period 2003-2009 in five European countries. The study was performed using seven......, P European countries. With the exception of Denmark, no decreasing trend was observed over the study period....
textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with life-domains are highest in North-Western Europe, medium in Southern Europe and lowest in the East-European nations. Cultural measurement bias is unlikely to be involved. The country differences in average ...
Bonsang, E.D.M.; van Soest, A.
Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with life or happiness). We use anchoring vignettes to correct for potential differences in response scales across countries. The results highlight a large variation in self-reported income satisfaction,...
van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.
Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate
Demarest, Stefaan; van Oyen, Herman; Roskam, Albert-Jan; Cox, Bianca; Regidor, Enrique; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.
The aim of this study was to assess the patterns of socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in the different member states of the European Union. Comparable data on subjects aged 16-64 years derived from national health interview surveys from 15 European countries were
M. Schuring (Merel); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractObjectives: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Methods: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590
Gysels, M.; Evans, N.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.
Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence
Gysels, M.; Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.
Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence
Bonsang, Eric; van Soest, Arthur
Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with life or happiness). We use anchoring vignettes to…
Bonsang, E.; van Soest, A.H.O.
Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with
Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.
BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore,
Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. METHODS: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects
Croft, J.; Legaure, C.
The aim of this paper is to set the scene for this, the 6th European ALARA Network (EAN) Workshop, the topic of which is Occupational Exposure Optimisation in the Medical Field and Radiopharmaceutical Industry. As with previous Workshops, apart from providing a forum for the exchange of information and experiences, it has an objective, the identification of recommendations to the European Commission, regulatory bodies and other involved parties. The previous five Workshops have rise to some 35 recommendations. Stemming from these several new projects have been started. For example. . The nd Workshop on Good Practices in Industry and Research identified the need to improve the mechanisms for improving feedback and learning the lessons from accidents and incidents. This lead to an EC pilot study, European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange Project (EURAIDE) which is covered in a later paper. . The 3rd Workshop on Managing Internal Internal Exposure gave rise to an EC project: Strategies and Methods for Optimisation of Internal Exposure (SMOPIE) of workers from industrial processes involving naturally occurring radioactive material. . The 5th Workshop Industrial Radiography-Improvements in Radiation Protection has give rise to an EC supported Joint Working Group from EAN and the European Non-Destructive Testing Society to take forward improvements in industrial radiography. The progress of these initiative can be followed in the EAN newsletter. It is to be hoped that the recommendations from this Workshop, will similarly lead to useful programmes of work. . In order to facilitate the development of recommendations, the Workshop Programme includes two sessions where participants will split into a number of Working Groups to develop ideas. These will be reported on in the final session of the programme and we will attempt to bring together the strands into a coherent set of recommendations. As a further aid to this process this paper briefly reviews the
Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő
The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...
Lewer, Dan; O'Reilly, Claire; Mojtabai, Ramin; Evans-Lacko, Sara
Prescribing of antidepressants varies widely between European countries despite no evidence of difference in the prevalence of affective disorders. To investigate associations between the use of antidepressants, country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems. We used Eurobarometer 2010, a large general population survey from 27 European countries, to measure antidepressant use and regularity of use. We then analysed the associations with country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems. Higher country spending on healthcare was strongly associated with regular use of antidepressants. Beliefs that mentally ill people are 'dangerous' were associated with higher use, and beliefs that they 'never recover' or 'have themselves to blame' were associated with lower and less regular use of antidepressants. Contextual factors, such as healthcare spending and public attitudes towards mental illness, may partly explain variations in antidepressant use and regular use of these medications. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Chauvin , Pierre; Parizot , Isabelle; Simonnot , Nathalie
Through our national programmes we meet people in Europe who have fled extreme poverty, violent armies and police forces, conflict areas and disasters. A tiny minority of the children, women and men whom we try to support when we work in their countries end up coming here. After migration journeys which are very often long, dangerous and exhausting, many find themselves without permission to stay in the country, forced into the shadows of our towns and cities. At home, as abroad, Médecins du ...
V V Fadeyev
Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults is estimated to be 1–2% for overt hypothyroidism and 7–10% for subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in elder women. Considering high prevalence of hypothyroidism and negative consequences of nontreated hypothyroidism for health, we conducted the work which aim was the assessment of consumption of thyroid hormones in Russia in comparison with the countries of Europe. The aim of this analysis, in turn, is the approximate estimation of hypodiagnostics of hypothyroidism in our country.
Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.
The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.
Leisyte, Liudvika; Westerheijden, Don F.
How are stakeholders represented in higher education institutions' decision-making bodies that influence the quality of education, and are their viewpoints taken into account? This paper addresses this question taking into account the empirical evidence from eight countries in Europe. Findings indicate that formal barriers are largely absent, that…
Patricea Elena BERTEA
Full Text Available Social trust or the belief that others will not harm us or will look after us, if possible, is a concept of interest for many scientists coming from different areas. It can be important for economists, for sociologists, for psychologists or health researchers. Differences in social trust can predict differences in economic development as well. The present study aims to compare the levels of social trust from Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland. To do that, we will use data from the European Social Survey, the 2008 round.
Lehmkuhl, Markus; Boyadjieva, Pepka; Cunningham, Yvonne; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo
Beginning with a differentiation of science programmes into five different editorial concepts, this article explores the audience reach of science on television in 10 European countries with a special emphasis on young audiences aged between 14 and 29 years. In relation to the share of this age group in the entire population, science programmes in all countries reach a considerably smaller proportion of younger viewers. Specific preferences for science content on television do not seem to be relevant in explaining aggregated viewing behaviours especially of young audiences. Unlike all other segments, the young science viewer segment is almost intangible as an aggregated group, as a definable segment of a mass audience that can be targeted by science programme makers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.
On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.
Barreiro, Susana; Schelhaas, Mart Jan; Kändler, Gerald; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Colin, Antoine; Bontemps, Jean Daniel; Alberdi, Iciar; Condés, Sonia; Dumitru, Marius; Ferezliev, Angel; Fischer, Christoph; Gasparini, Patrizia; Gschwantner, Thomas; Kindermann, Georg; Kjartansson, Bjarki; Kovácsevics, Pál; Kucera, Milos; Lundström, Anders; Marin, Gheorghe; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Packalen, Tuula; Redmond, John; Sacchelli, Sandro; Sims, Allan; Snorrason, Arnór; Stoyanov, Nickola; Thürig, Esther; Wikberg, Per Erik
Key message: This analysis of the tools and methods currently in use for reporting woody biomass availability in 21 European countries has shown that most countries use, or are developing, National Forest Inventory-oriented models whereas the others use standwise forest inventory--oriented
Prättälä, Ritva; Hakala, Samu; Roskam, Albert-Jan R.; Roos, Eva; Helmert, Uwe; Klumbiene, Jurate; van Oyen, Herman; Regidor, Enrique; Kunst, Anton E.
OBJECTIVE: The relationship of socio-economic status and vegetable consumption is examined in nine European countries. The aim is to analyse whether the pattern of socio-economic variation with regard to vegetable consumption is similar in all studied countries with high v. low vegetable
Jeliazkova, Margarita I.
This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2008 some mortality decline is observed in several European countries including Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. We hypothesized that this decline could be caused by decreased alcohol use facilitated by both economic recession and alcohol taxation. This study aimed to check this hypothesis.METHODS: Besides the abovementioned countries which suffered from the economic recession and have increased alcohol excise taxes, we considered data from the WHO-Euro mortality database for Poland which did not suffer from GDP decline and Ireland which decreased alcohol excise in 2009. Both per capita GDP growth change (from -18% in Latvia to +2% in Poland and alcohol excise change (from -20% in Ireland to +60% in Ukraine compared to 2008 rates were considered as independent variables. The outcome was percentage of real mortality decline compared to 2009 extrapolation of 2000-2008 trends, which were built using linear regression separately for major groups of death causes earlier shown to have changed in 2009. Population groups aged 30-59 were considered as those whose mortality declined most.RESULTS: Ten percent increase in alcohol excise taxes was associated with 9.4% decline in respiratory mortality from expected rate, 5.7% decline in causes of death related to nervous system, 4.9% decline in external causes of death, 4.8% decline in circulatory system deaths, 3.5% decline in infectious diseases as causes of death. Cardiovascular mortality decline was marginally associated with measurements of economic crisis (0.7% decline per 1% GDP fall.DISCUSSION: During the economic recession, the portion of all-causes mortality that has declined is most likely alcohol-related. Death causes that have mostly declined during the recession are more strongly associated with alcohol taxation than with GDP fall. Cardiovascular deaths decline related to the economic crisis could have been related to diet changes including smaller proportion of fatty and
Vogler, Sabine; Kilpatrick, Kate; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din
To compare prices of medicines, both originators and generics, in New Zealand and 16 European countries. Ex-factory price data as of December 2012 from New Zealand and 16 European countries were compared for a basket of 14 medicines, most of which were at least partially funded by the state in the 17 countries. Five medicines had, at least in some countries, generic versions on the market whose prices were also analyzed. Medicine price data for the 16 European countries were provided by the Pharma Price Information service. New Zealand medicine prices were retrieved from the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule. Unit prices converted into euro were compared at the ex-factory price level. For the 14 medicines surveyed, considerable price differences at the ex-factory price level were identified. Within the European countries, prices in Greece, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Spain ranked at the lower end, whereas prices in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden were at the upper end. The results for New Zealand compared with Europe were variable. New Zealand prices were found in the lowest quartile for five medicines and in the highest quartile for seven other products. Price differences between the originator products and generic versions ranged from 0% to 90% depending on the medicine and the country. Medicine prices varied considerably between European countries and New Zealand as well as among the European countries. These differences are likely to result from national pricing and reimbursement policies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
V V Fadeyev; T B Morgunova
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults is estimated to be 1–2% for overt hypothyroidism and 7–10% for subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in elder women. Considering high prevalence of hypothyroidism and negative consequences of nontreated hypothyroidism for health, we conducted the work which aim was the assessment of consumption of thyroid hormones in Russia in comparison with the countries of Europe. The aim of this analys...
Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.
This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)
Hoffmann, Kristina; de Gelder, Rianne; Hu, Yannan
different European countries between 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Nationally representative survey data from 15 European countries were harmonized and used in a meta-regression of trends in prevalence and educational inequalities in obesity between 1990 and 2010. Educational inequalities were estimated by means...... of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios in men and women aged 30-64 years. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of obesity was found for all countries, except for Ireland (among men) and for France, Hungary, Italy and Poland (among women). Meta-regressions showed...
of overweight in European children. Thus, overweight was significantly increased among 13 y olds of both sexes in Finland, Ireland, and Greece, and in Portuguese girls. Among 15 y olds, the prevalence of overweight was significantly increased in Greek boys, and in Danish and Portuguese girls. On the contrary......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods and results used and conclusions found in available published papers on childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. SURVEYS: This paper compares the two available published papers on the prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in Europe....... The first paper was published in November 2003 and was based on 20 previously conducted surveys performed from 1992 to 2001. The other paper was published in January 2004 and was based on data from the WHO collaborative survey 'Health Behaviour in School Children', which collected the data in 1997...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.
Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Sylvia; Pasman, H Roeline; Higginson, Irene; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert
Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces) and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries). The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for the improvement of EoL care in the future.
Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Sylvia; Pasman, H. Roeline; Higginson, Irene; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert
Aim Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. Methods We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces) and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. Results A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries). The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. Conclusion This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for the improvement of Eo
Full Text Available AIM: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries. METHODS: We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages. We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type (reviews, original studies, opinion pieces and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: A total of 868 papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. The frequencies of themes varied considerably between countries. Sub-themes reflected issues characteristic for specific countries (e.g. culture-specific disclosure in the southern European countries. The work from the seven European countries concentrates on cultural traditions and identities, and there was almost no evidence on ethnic minorities. CONCLUSION: This scoping review is the first comparative exploration of the cultural differences in the understanding of EoL care in these countries. The diverse body of evidence that was identified on socio-cultural issues in EoL care, reflects clearly distinguishable national cultures of EoL care, with differences in meaning, priorities, and expertise in each country. The diverse ways that EoL care is understood and practised forms a necessary part of what constitutes best evidence for
Hřebíčková, M. (Martina); Graf, S. (Sylvie)
In the chapter, we provide an overview of the current research on the accuracy of national stereotypes and introduce results of a research project on national stereotypes in five Central European countries. National stereotypes were operationalized as personality traits of typical country representatives. In Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia, we measured stereotypes from ingroup as well as outgroup perspectives. Each typical country representative was rated by people ...
Full Text Available This paper extends the available datasets on the use of macroprudential policies in CEE countries, and provides an econometric assessment of the effectiveness of these policies in mitigating financial stability risks associated with excessive credit growth before the global financial crisis. The model results imply that macroprudential policies were more effective in slowing credit to households than credit to the non-financial corporate sector, mainly because the latter had access to nonbank and cross-border credit in addition to domestic bank credit.
Sander, Gen; Scandurra, Alessio; Kamenska, Anhelita; MacNamara, Catherine; Kalpaki, Christina; Bessa, Cristina Fernandez; Laso, Gemma Nicolás; Parisi, Grazia; Varley, Lorraine; Wolny, Marcin; Moudatsou, Maria; Pontes, Nuno Henrique; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia; Libianchi, Sandro; Antypas, Tzanetos
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners. Where harm reduction services have been available and easily accessible in prison settings for some time, better health outcomes have been observed, including significantly reduced rates of HIV and HCV incidence. While the provision of harm reduction in each of these countries' prisons varies considerably, certain key themes and lessons can be distilled, including around features of an enabling environment for harm reduction, resource allocation, collection of disaggregated data, and accessibility of services.
Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of
Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of
Wackerbauer, Johann [Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: email@example.com
Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to
Abstract Textbook analysis is seen as a major element for studying environmental education addressing pupils, being image analysis rather relevant when studying textbooks written in 11 languages. We analysed 25 textbooks from 14 countries addressed to 14-16 years old pupils, focusing on: (i) local and foreign/global images; (ii) urban/rural and nature images; (iii) negative impact, human management and the beauty of nature; and (iv) men and women in images with negative and positiv...
...] Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States AGENCY... measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and..., Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. In this document, we refer to them as the European Union (EU) and other countries...
Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Radbruch, Lukas; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris
In Europe, volunteers have an important role in the delivery of palliative care. As part of the EU co-funded Europall project, 4 aspects of volunteering in palliative care were studied for 7 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain). These included (1) involvement of volunteers in palliative care, (2) organization of palliative care volunteering, (3) legal regulations concerning volunteering, and (4) education and training of palliative care volunteering. A literature search combined with an interview study. Information from the scientific literature, and country-specific policy documents were obtained and completed, along with data of consecutive semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of palliative care in the participating countries. In all countries, volunteers appeared to be involved in palliative care, yet their involvement across health care settings differed per country. England, for example, has the highest number of volunteers whereas Spain has the lowest number. Volunteering is embedded in law and regulations in all participating countries except for England and the Netherlands. In all participating countries, training programs are available and volunteers are organized, both on a national and a regional level. This study provides a descriptive overview of volunteer work in palliative care in 7 European countries, with a focus on the organizational aspects. Further research should concentrate on the roles and responsibilities of volunteers in the care for the terminally ill in different European health systems. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc
We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.
Within the framework of the second evaluation memorandum on climate policy in the Netherlands an overview is given of the climate policy in 15 other countries of the European Union. The overview is mainly based on progress reports on greenhouse gases emission, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and a database of policy and measures in the field of climatic change, maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Next to EU Directives as an important base for policy in the 15 countries, the the covenant on CO2 emission for new cars between ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) and the European Commission is considered to be an important agreement for climate policy in the EU counties [nl
Dreger, Stefanie; Gerlinger, Thomas; Bolte, Gabriele
Nature and extent of welfare regimes and social policies are important determinants of health and health inequalities. This study examines the association of gender and mental wellbeing in European countries and investigates whether type of welfare regime plays a role in this association. Data of 19 366 women and 14 338 men of the third round of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011-12) was used to analyse mental wellbeing, assessed by the World Health Organization 5-Mental Wellbeing Index. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the association between gender and good mental wellbeing first at country-level, and secondly the between country variation was analysed and welfare regimes were included as explanatory variables. We observed cross-national variation in good mental wellbeing. At country levels gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were observed in 7 out of 26 countries. In analyses considering all countries together gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were identified independent of further individual socio-demographic variables and independent of the welfare regimes that people lived in [women vs. men: OR = 0.76; (95% CI = 0.71-0.81)]. Gender inequalities in good mental wellbeing were not modified by welfare regimes. There are cross-national differences in good mental wellbeing between European countries. Gender inequalities with a lower prevalence of good mental wellbeing among women are common in European countries. This study suggests that welfare regimes do not modify these gender inequalities in mental wellbeing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Radik N. Hamitov
Full Text Available Traditionally it is believed that the birthplace of the jury trial creation is England, but the issue of the birthplace location of this particular form of popular participation in the criminal justice administration is not yet fully resolved by the historical science. The continental lawyers were particularly interested in the jury trial among other institutions of English law, in which the English themselves identified the stronghold of the country's law and order, its political and civil freedom. It is not difficult to see that the main role was not played by the judges, but by the community representatives in this form of justice administration. Since then the community has been gaining more and more importance in England as a state body in the matter of justice administration, and the initial forms of its activity have being further developed in this direction. This works investigates roots of jury trial by basing on such methods as historical, systemic, formally logical, concrete-historical, comparative legal analysis method. The authors, in turn, come to the conclusion that the jury trial has its roots still in the Ancient States, but the classical modern model owes its origin to England.
Zelei, Tam?s; Moln?r, M?ria J.; Szegedi, M?rta; Kal?, Zolt?n
Background In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. Objectives To e...
Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J
The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Demetrovics, Zsolt
To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). High schools in 23 countries. A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. The frequency of drunkenness. We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.
We now know that efficient public policies for cancer control need to be global and take into account each and all the factors involved: economics and level of development, style of life and risk factors, access to screening, effectiveness of the care-providing system. A very simple scorecard is proposed, based on publicized public health indicators, which allows a comparison between European countries. We extracted 49 indicators from public databases and literature concerning 22 European countries. We made correlation calculations in order to identify relevant indicators from which a global score was extracted. Using a hierarchical clustering method we were then able to identify subsets of homogeneous countries. A 7 indicator scorecard was drawn up: national gross product, scientific production, smoking rate, breast screening participating rate, all cancer mortality rate (male population), 5 years relative survival for colorectal cancer and life expectancy at birth. A global score shows: 1) the better positioned countries: Switzerland, Sweden, Finland and France; 2) the countries where cancer control is less effective: Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Three subsets of countries with a fairly similar profile were identified: a high level of means and results group; a high level of means but a medium level of results group; and a low level of means and results group. This work emphasizes dramatically heterogeneous situations between countries. A follow-up, using a reduced but regularly updated set of public health indicators, would help induce an active European policy for cancer control.
Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)
Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar
in the Netherlands. Despite the variation between Western European countries, a common finding was a much higher consistency between intentions and actual consumption behavior as compared to Poland. The differences are discussed in terms of their implications for supply chain management, product supply...... a deeper understanding of the preferences, motives and usage patterns of Polish seafood consumers. The aim of the study was to fill this gap. Representative consumer samples from Poland (N = 1000) and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain; total N = 3800) were surveyed...
Thomsen, Andreas V.; Schwensen, Jakob F.; Bossi, Rossana
BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI) has been seen, caused, in particular, by cosmetic products and paints. A study from 2015 showed that 93.0% of paints bought in five European countries contained MI. New regulations have been discussed for paints...... in the EU, which may have influenced this market. OBJECTIVES: To re-evaluate the use and concentrations of MI and four other isothiazolinones in water-based wall paints. METHODS: Water-based white wall paints (n = 60) were purchased in retail stores in five European countries: Denmark, France, Germany...
Kozak, M.; Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.
Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.
Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P
The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases. © 2011 Stirbu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Park, Jungwook; Ratti, Ronald A.
Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)
Gerard de Vries
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months’ evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients’ emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. Conclusion We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of
Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin; Pala, Valeria
Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary...... patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES....... Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing...
Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.
HILAL YILDIRIR KESER
Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.
Full Text Available The present paper examines modes of immigrants' labor market incorporation into European societies with specific emphasis on the role played by immigrant status (i.e. first-generation immigrants, immigrant descendants and native born without migrant background, region of origin, and gender. The data were obtained from the European Union Labour Forces Survey 2008 Ad-Hoc Module for France, Belgium, UK and Sweden. In order to supplement the results from the country-specific analysis, we replicated the analysis using pooled data from the five rounds of the European Social Survey conducted between 2002 and 2010, for nine 'old immigration' Western European countries together. The analysis centered on two aspects of incorporation: labor force status and occupation. Multinominal, binary logistic as well as linear probability regression models were estimated. The findings suggest that in all countries non-European origin is associated with greater disadvantage in finding employment not only among first-generation immigrants, but also among sons and daughters of immigrants (i.e. second-generation. Moreover, the relative employment disadvantage among immigrant men of non-European origin is especially pronounced in the second-generation. The likelihood of attaining a high-status job is influenced mostly by immigrant status, regardless of region of origin and gender. The results of the study reveal that patterns of labor force incorporation vary considerably across origin groups and across generations. The patterns do not vary as much across countries, despite cross-country differences in welfare state regimes, migration integration policy and composition of migration flows.
Al-Rahamneh, Moad J; Al-Rahamneh, Anas; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés
The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alphaEuropean Union decreased overall in 2000-2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina
This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...
de Jong Birgitta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella is an infectious agents causing numerous cases of illness each year, and thereby having significant economic impact. Using returning Swedish travellers we estimated the burden of salmonellosis in different European countries. Methods From the Swedish database on notifiable communicable diseases 15,864 cases with travel-associated salmonellosis acquired in Europe from 1997–2003 were retrieved. These cases were compared to a dataset from the same years on 14,171 randomly selected Swedish residents, with a history of recent overnight travel in Europe. Distribution of salmonellosis in returning travellers and the distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis was analysed for different member states in the European Union, associated and candidate countries. The risk of being notified with a salmonella infection after return from each European country/region was calculated, and compared with official reporting data rom these countries. Using Norway as reference country, we could 1 construct comparable incidence estimates and 2 calculate the "under-reporting" in each country compared to Norway. Results The highest burden of salmonellosis was estimated for Bulgaria (2741/100,000, followed by Turkey with 2344/100 000 and Malta with 2141/100 000. S. Enteritidis is the dominating serotype, 66.9 % of all cases and phage type 4 accounts for 37.5 % of the S. Enteritidis cases Conclusion Using returning tourists as a sentinel population can provide a useful base for comparison of disease burdens in different countries/regions. Focusing prevention of salmonellosis to prevention of egg and poultry associated S. Enteritidis infection will have a major impact from a public health perspective and will significantly lower the burden of disease in most European countries.
Full Text Available Innovativeness is one of the key determinants of total output and welfare used by contemporary economists to measure economic performance. The aim of the article is to assess the position of European Union (EU countries in terms of selected indicators characterizing their potential for innovativeness. This paper proposes the application of taxonomic tools for the study of the differentiation within the level of fundamentals of innovativeness in EU countries on the basis of the chosen model
Zvezdanović Lobanova Jelena
Full Text Available This paper deals with the economic effect of cross-border mergers and acquisitions on GDP per capita in European transition countries for the 2000- 2014 period. Our analysis shows that cross-border mergers and acquisitions have a negative effect on GDP per capita in the current period, whereas their lagged level positively impacts output performance. We found that transition countries characterized by a higher quality of institutional setting have achieved a positive impact on GDP per capita.
The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip
Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia
The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living...... circumstances. The phenomenon of alcohol consumption within these countries and cultures is compared in order to gain a better understanding of similarities and differences....
Bastos, Joana; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Gouveia, Joaquim; Coleman, Michel P; Lunet, Nuno
Inequalities in cancer incidence, mortality and survival represent a major challenge for public health. Addressing this challenge requires complex and multidisciplinary approaches. Sharing successful experiences from across Europe may therefore be of benefit. We describe the state of the art of cancer control structures in the 27 European Union countries, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, at the beginning of 2008. Information on cancer plans, cancer registries, cancer screening, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and smoking restrictions in each country was identified through PubMed, the official websites of national and international organizations and Google searches. Experts and/or health authorities from each country completed and validated the information. Sixteen countries had implemented national cancer plans in 2008. Twenty four countries had population-based cancer registries with 100% coverage. The exceptions were Greece and Luxembourg (no population-based registry yet), France, Italy and Spain (<50%), and Switzerland (62%). In 9 countries, population coverage of breast cancer screening was 100% with participation ranging from 26 to 87%; 8 countries did not have organized programmes. Seven countries had cervical cancer screening programmes with 100% coverage with participation ranging from 10 to 80%; 8 countries had no organized programme. Nine countries had announced national HPV vaccination policies by early 2008. Six countries had organized colorectal cancer screening programmes. Five countries had complete bans on smoking in public places. There is wide international heterogeneity in cancer control structures in Europe. This provides considerable scope and motivation for cooperation and sharing of experience.
Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa
To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke
Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis...... was used to analyse intercorrelations between the items. Results: The items ‘blackouts' (men and women) and ‘guilt and remorse' (women) are the most frequently reported consequences. Gender differences tended to be smaller for ‘guilt and remorse' and ‘concern of others', and largest for ‘morning drinking...
Full Text Available The specialization of Marketing refers not only on specific focus on some domains, but, also, to its adaptation on regional issues. During the globalization process, marketers adapted their activity to new trends, such as: standardization, integrated distribution, production transfer, comparative advantage, etc. The common aspects of some regional markets determined the marketers to approach differently some homogeneous regions in the World economy. In this sense, the article intends to establish the main differences and the common aspects of a very important area in the European economy – The South East of Europe.
Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen
Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out to what extent the accession countries will be able to benefit from an increase in the quality of foreign direct investments (FDIs that they receive due to EU membership. Although there will be some investment in new affiliates resulting in greenfield subsidiaries, transnational companies (TNCs may divest their operations in response to better location advantages elsewhere in the EU (as Spain and Portugal are experiencing because their low-cost advantages are eroded. In many Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, the share of foreign ownership in total capital stock is already typically much higher than in older EU member states, but we can already observe a trend of relocating TNCs’ subsidiaries to other emerging countries in order to diminish the costs, in the context of the present crisis and we believe that this trend will continue in the future, especially in the crisis context when the inceptive burden is heavy for governments. The conclusion of this paper is that the CEE countries haven’t faced quite similar conditions as the Southern European countries that acceded to the EU in the ‘80s. So, their benefits have considerably diminished and the present crisis didn’t help them at all to reduce their economic gaps comparing to the developed European countries.
Full Text Available A proper understanding of the "details" of the pension system in our country can only be known if the essential, defining characteristics of pension systems in European Union countries and most developed countries in the world. Among the defining elements of any pension scheme among the most important are (a the share of social contributions and (2 tax base. In the present social security contributions will be applied in the following countries are not EU Member States: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, Japan, United States of America. For a better comparison and social security contributions are presented in Romania. In the vast majority of these countries (a base contributions is the gross income, (2 are used to calculate the progressive contribution rates for retirement, particularly in most developed countries, (3 pension contribution is supported both by the employee (employee and employer, almost equally.
Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association
Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto
sector still play a key role for the most of the considered countries and configurations. Germany, Italy and Spain present the most favorable conditions for a profitable installation of PV systems. Furthermore, the initial investment heavily affects the plant profitability of all the studied scenarios. For such a parameter, significant returns to scale lead to an increase in the installed plant power, so that high rated power plants generally outperform the smaller ones. Such evidences, together with further relevant outcomes which can potentially drive the future investments in the solar PV systems in the European Union, are discussed in this paper
Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.
The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…
Ranieri, Maria; Fabbro, Francesco
This paper presents the main findings of an action-research study that took place in seven European countries in order to develop effective educational responses to prevent and combat discrimination. The study entailed the design of media and citizenship education activities, their implementation in the different educational contexts and the…
K. Van Hedel (Karen); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio); M. Bopp (Matthias); S. Esnaola; K. Kovács (Katalin); P. Martikainen (Pekka); E. Regidor (Enrique); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractAims: Labour force activity and marriage share some pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the USA and six European countries. Methods: We used
Kroneman, M.; Essen, G.A. van; Paget, J.
This paper examines influenza vaccine coverage using a population base of an average of 2300 persons in each of four European countries (Germany, Spain, Poland and Sweden). The reasons for non-vaccination of those in the high-risk groups were explored by questionnaire. The vaccine coverage rate
Markovina, J.; Stewart-Knox, B.J.; Rankin, A.; Gibney, M.; Almeida, M.D.V.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Kuznesof, S.A.; Poínhos, R.; Panzone, L.; Frewer, L.J.
This analysis has been conducted to explore the validity and reliability of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) across 9 European countries. Variation in the factor structure and the perceived importance of food choice motives have been compared cross-nationally. Volunteers (N = 9381) were recruited
This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE) in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and…
Erp van - Baart, M.-A.; Couet, C.; Cuadrado, C.; Kafatos, A.; Stanley, J.; Poppel, G. van
The fatty acid composition of bakery products from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in cookies and biscuits ranged from <1 to 28%.Transfatty acids content in sweet pastry ranged from practically 0 to 33%. Croissants and
Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van
The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that
Lepianka, D.; Gelissen, J.; van Oorschot, W.
In this contribution we describe and explain the differences in popular poverty attributions that exist within and between 28 European countries. On the basis of the existing literature we distinguish five predictors: awareness of the existence of poverty, personal experience of disadvantage,
Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia
The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living...
Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim
Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, H.
The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled
Präg, Patrick; Subramanian, S V
The US shows a distinct health disadvantage when compared to other high-income nations. A potential lever to reduce this disadvantage is to improve the health situation of lower socioeconomic groups. Our objective is to explore how the considerable within-US variation in health inequalities compares to the health inequalities across other Western countries. Representative survey data from 44 European countries and the US federal states were obtained from the fourth wave of the European Values Study (EVS) and the 2008 wave of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using binary logistic regression, we analyze different forms of educational inequalities in self-rated health (SRH), adjusted for age and sex. The extent of educational inequalities in SRH varies considerably over European countries and US states; with US states in general showing greater inequality, however, differences between US states and European countries are less clear than commonly assumed. The US has considerable differences in educational inequalities in SRH across geographic locations. To understand the reasons for the US health disadvantage, comparative research has to take into account the vast variation in health inequalities within the US.
A review deals with results on using multifunctional educational facilities, choice of their optimal number with simulation of NPP sites in European countries. The role of instructors, the content of educational program, tasks of individual retraining are considered. Cost benefit analysis is made. 5 refs
Bousquet, J.; Agache, I; Anto, J M
Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim w...
Hamunen, K.; Laitinen-Parkkonen, P.; Paakkari, P.
Objective: The objective of this paper was to analyse opioid consumption in a number European countries using different sources of data. Methods: Data were extracted from the United Nations' International Narcotics Control Board Report (INCB) 2003 and from the registers of the national health aut...
This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…
Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard
OBJECTIVE: To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. METHODS: Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in
Priebe, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Gaddini, Andrea; Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Munk-Jorgensen, Povl; Walsh, Dermot; Wiersma, Durk; Wright, Donna
Objective: Although mental health reforms in the 20th century were characterized by deinstitutionalization, previous research suggested a new era of reinstitutionalization in six European countries between 1990 and 2002. This study aimed to establish whether there has been a trend in Europe toward
In the article, the importance of studying foreign experience in order to improve quality of future Masters' training in higher education institutions has been justified. The main peculiarities of training Masters in Technology education in European countries, namely, in Germany, Sweden and France have been outlined. It has been revealed that…
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Aro, A.; Antoine, J.M.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Reykdal, O.; Poppel, G. van
The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with
Kuntsche, E.N.; Gabhainn, S.N.; Roberts, C.; Windlin, B.; Vieno, A.; Bendtsen, P.; Hublet, A.; Tynjälä, J.; Välimaa, R.; Dankulincová, Z.; Aasvee, K.; Demetrovics, Z.; Farkas, J.; Sluijs, W. van der; Gaspar de Matos, M.; Mazur, J.; Wicki, M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the structure and endorsement of drinking motives and their links to alcohol use among 11- to 19-year-olds from 13 European countries. Method: Confirmatory factor analysis, latent growth curves, and multiple regression models were conducted, based on
Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan
This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study demonstrates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take into a...
Weber, Bernhard A.
Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa
Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change c...
This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs
Berra, S.; Tebé, C.; Erhart, M.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Auquier, P.; Detmar, S.; Herdman, M.; Alonso, J.; Rajmil, L.
Objective: To examine the association between use of health care services and health status, sociodemographic, and health care system characteristics in children and adolescents from 11 European countries. Research Design: Cross-sectional surveys in representative samples included using phone or
Lassen, K; Hannemann, P; Ljungqvist, O
Evidence for optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery is abundant. By avoiding fasting, intravenous fluid overload, and activation of the neuroendocrine stress response, postoperative catabolism is reduced and recovery enhanced. The specific measures that can be used routinely include...... in colorectal cancer surgery in five northern European countries: Scotland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway....
This paper analyzed elementary teacher education (hereafter 'TED') programs in the top performing European (TIMSS) countries to help inform future elementary TED policy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodological emphasis revolved around how much emphasis should be placed on general content knowledge (GCK), as opposed to general pedagogical…
Hughes, Anna; Thomas, Edward
Although the European Union encourages professional mobility, the practice of continuing professional development (CPD) in pharmacy and law in various countries shows that cultural differences may hinder cross-border mobility. It is also surprising that universities are relatively little involved in CPD. (SK)
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.
Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark
Hnedina Kateryna V.
Full Text Available A review of the financial instruments used in the European countries to modernize the electric energy industry has been undertaken. A review of the European practices indicates that financial support for the electric energy industry modernization projects is financed by such instruments, mechanisms and incentives as «green» tariff, «green» certificates and «quota obligations», «green» bonds, auctions, concessional lending, grants, investment subsidies. Venture capital investment is a common form of financing for electric energy industry modernization in the European countries. It has been determined that «green» bonds are an effective instrument that allows to accumulate significant amounts of funds and direct them to the renewable energy industry. Nowadays a significant number of renewable energy industry projects in the EU countries have already been implemented at the expense of the funds obtained from the «green» bonds issue. «Green» bonds are a pivotal promising financial instrument for the modernization of electric energy industry in the European countries. Formation of the mechanism for their issue in Ukraine, taking account of the foreign practice of creating a market of «green bonds», will allow to accumulate the financial resources that are necessary for development of the renewable energy industry.
Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki
This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,
Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be
Linares, Jose Jesus Gazquez; Diaz, Adolfo Javier Cangas; Fuentes, Maria del Carmen Perez; Acien, Francisca Lucas
The objective of the present study was to explore, in three European countries (Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic), teachers' perception of the prevalence of different problematic aspects related to coexistence in schools, and of how they are personally affected by these aspects. The results reveal a high prevalence of fights, insults and…
Bartels, J.; Groot, M.J.; Kyriakidi, A.; Lans, van der I.A.
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present future fruit consumption trends in four European countries using expert interviews. Experts from both outside and within the food fruit sector in Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain were asked to elaborate on the trend factors that have influenced
Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina
This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive
Legrand, Sara‐Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van
The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands...
Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der
Objective: To determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in 6 European countries. Methods: Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands, between 2007...
Homoniuk, Olena; Pokudina, Larysa
The article touches on the peculiarities of future finance and economics specialists' training in educational establishments of Western Europe and Ukraine. The problem of higher economic education has been considered. The experience of higher economic education organization in developed European countries has been generalized. The peculiarities of…
Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen
This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign
van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja
This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well as…
In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…
During the last decade, in many European countries large investments were made to foster the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education with the expectation that ICT would make teaching and learning more effective. This would, for example, become evident in scores obtained by students in the Programme for International…
Sommer, H. M.; H??g, B. Borck; Larsen, L. S.; S??rensen, A. I V; Williams, N.; Merga, J. Y.; Cerd??-Cu??llar, M.; Urdaneta, S.; Dolz, R.; Wieczorek, K.; Osek, J.; David, B.; Hofshagen, M.; Jonsson, M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Bolder, N.; Rosenquist, H.
This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning
Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr
This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning prod...
Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu
Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the leading factors used in the evaluation of a country’s economic development is energy consumption. Because of economic growth, demand for energy is also increasing. In this study, the emerging European countries’ (the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Turkey and the CIS countries’ (Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan electricity consumption has been forecasted for five years period (2015-2019. In the study, GM(1,1 Rolling Model, which is developed in the framework of Grey System Theory is used as a mathematical model for real-time forecasting. The results of the study show that there will not be a significant change in electricity demand in this two area during the 2015-2109 period.
Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... of dietary intake using a computerised standardised 24-hour recall interview. Crude means, means and standard errors adjusted by age, season and day of the week were calculated, stratified by centre and gender. SETTING: Twenty-seven redefined centres in the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC...... study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white...
Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.
In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)
Kendrovski, Vladimir; Baccini, Michela; Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Wolf, Tanja; Paunovic, Elizabet; Menne, Bettina
Under future warming conditions, high ambient temperatures will have a significant impact on population health in Europe. The aim of this paper is to quantify the possible future impact of heat on population mortality in European countries, under different climate change scenarios. We combined the heat-mortality function estimated from historical data with meteorological projections for the future time laps 2035-2064 and 2071-2099, developed under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. We calculated attributable deaths (AD) at the country level. Overall, the expected impacts will be much larger than the impacts we would observe if apparent temperatures would remain in the future at the observed historical levels. During the period 2071-2099, an overall excess of 46,690 and 117,333 AD per year is expected under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively, in addition to the 16,303 AD estimated under the historical scenario. Mediterranean and Eastern European countries will be the most affected by heat, but a non-negligible impact will be still registered in North-continental countries. Policies and plans for heat mitigation and adaptation are needed and urgent in European countries in order to prevent the expected increase of heat-related deaths in the coming decades.
Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de
Votruba, J.; Milev, N.; Kostrzewa, J.; Binig, A.V.
The present paper intends to demonstrate the financial, geographical and qualitative dimensions of the PHARE transfer of know-how in the energy field. Also it emphasizes the efforts made to improve the international cooperation, to ensure the realization of certain objectives of continental interest and for the harmonization of the national interests in a common European policy in the energy sector. Since its inception the efforts of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Program (MEP) aimed at three strategic targets: development of energy supply, improvement of energy efficiency and environment protection. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs
Faulkner, K.; Werduch, A.
The contribution of interventional cardiology procedures to the population dose in Europe is poorly known. The estimation of the population dose from these procedures requires knowledge of both the typical dose received by patients and an estimate of the number of procedures undertaken annually. Data on the number of cardiology procedures in various European countries are available on the internet for a number of countries. However, this data set is incomplete or out of date. This paper describes the statistical analysis undertaken to estimate the number of interventional cardiology procedures in a number of European countries for 2007. Estimates of the number of procedures are given. On average, the number of cardiac catheterizations per million population is 5346, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is 1599 and 1214 stent procedures. In addition, there are an estimated 973 pacemaker insertions per million population. (authors)
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Roberts, Chris
ABSTRACT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the structure and endorsement of drinking motives and their links to alcohol use among 11- to 19-year-olds from 13 European countries. Method: Confirmatory factor analysis, latent growth curves, and multiple regression models were conducted......, based on a sample of 33,813 alcohol-using students from Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Wales who completed the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF). Results: The findings confirmed...... European countries. The results confirmed that, across countries, social motives were strongly positively related to drinking frequency, enhancement motives were strongly positively related to frequency of drunkenness, and conformity motives were negatively related to both alcohol outcomes. Against our...
Van Oostvoom, F.; Van Harmelen, T.
The study concerns the evaluation of the potential of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) locations, both in industry and district heating with a heat demand of at least 20 GJ/h or ca. 1 MWe capacity. In fact 58 Hungarian locations were analyzed on scope and profitability for investment in CHP, using financial accounting models and criteria such as Internal Rate of Return and Pay-back Period. Due to the already existing favourable infrastructure in East European countries the present expectations in Hungary about the CHP capacity to be developed in the future are very optimistic (1300 up till 2000 MWe in the year 2000). Clearly there exist an overoptimism concerning the possibilities of increasing the energy efficiency in former East-European countries by investment in cogeneration. A more financially and economic attractive way for efficiency improvements is promoting energy saving in these countries and thus avoiding investments in supply technologies. 6 refs
Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele
Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...
Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees
The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated information. During the survey period from January 2010 to February 2011, 89 measures were identified in 23 of the 33 countries surveyed which were implemented to contain public medicines expenditure. Price reductions, changes in the co-payments, in the VAT rates on medicines and in the distribution margins were among the most common measures. More than a dozen countries reported measures under discussion or planned, for the remaining year 2011 and beyond. The largest number of measures were implemented in Iceland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Greece, Spain and Portugal, which were hit by the crisis at different times. Cost-containment has been an issue for high-income countries in Europe - no matter if hit by the crisis or not. In recent months, changes in pharmaceutical policies were reported from 23 European countries. Measures which can be implemented rather swiftly (e.g. price cuts, changes in co-payments and VAT rates on medicines) were among the most frequent measures. While the "crisis countries" (e.g. Baltic states, Greece, Spain) reacted with a bundle of measures, reforms in other countries (e.g. Poland, Germany) were not directly linked to the crisis, but also aimed at containing public spending. Since further reforms are under way, we recommend that the monitoring exercise is continued.
Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli
Travel behaviour comparison among countries has become interesting to understand structural differences in travel behaviour between countries which are important to help developing more sustainable transport policies. To that end, National Travel Surveys (NTS’s) are the most suitable tool. The aim...... of this paper is to compare travel behaviour among 11 European counties using NTS’s. A post-harmonization process is developed to overcome methodological differences between the surveys and to isolate the differences in travel behaviour. Travel behaviour is measured as mileage, time use, and trips per trip...... for Spain to 54 km for Sweden and 52 km for Finland, If only trips shorter than 100 km are included the variation is on par with the variation for time use. The minimum mileage is still made by Spaniards with around 23 km whereas the maximum mileage is made by Belgians with 37 km and by Danes with 35 km per...
Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Arends, Joop E; Ozaras, Resat; Corti, Giampaolo; Santos, Lurdes; Boesecke, Christoph; Ustianowski, Andrew; Duberg, Ann-Sofi; Ruta, Simona; Salkic, Nermin N; Husa, Petr; Lazarevic, Ivana; Pineda, Juan A; Pshenichnaya, Natalia Yurievna; Tsertswadze, Tengiz; Matičič, Mojca; Puca, Edmond; Abuova, Gulzhan; Gervain, Judit; Bayramli, Ramin; Ahmeti, Salih; Koulentaki, Mairi; Kilani, Badreddine; Vince, Adriana; Negro, Francesco; Sunbul, Mustafa; Salmon, Dominique
Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. A survey including 20-item questionnaire was sent to experts in viral hepatitis. Countries were evaluated according to their income categories by the World Bank stratification. Experts from 26 countries responded to the survey. As of May 2016, HCV prevalence was reported as low (≤1%) in Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK; intermediate (1-4%) in Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Kosovo, Greece, Kazakhstan, Romania, Russia, Serbia and high in Georgia (6.7%). All countries had national guidelines except Albania, Kosovo, Serbia, Tunisia, and UK. Transient elastography was available in all countries, but reimbursed in 61%. HCV-RNA was reimbursed in 81%. PegIFN/RBV was reimbursed in 54% of the countries. No DAAs were available in four countries: Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Serbia, and Tunisia. In others, at least one DAA combination with either PegIFN/RBV or another DAA was available. In Germany and the Netherlands all DAAs were reimbursed without restrictions: Sofosbuvir and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir were free of charge in Georgia. Prevalence of HCV is relatively higher in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries. DAAs are not available or reimbursed in many Eurasia and European countries. Effective screening and access to care are essential for reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grave, Kari; Greko, Christina; Kvaale, Mari K; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Mackay, David; Muller, Arno; Moulin, Gerard
To identify trends and patterns of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09 in order to document the situation. Existing sales data, in tonnes of active ingredients, of veterinary antimicrobial agents by class were collected from nine European countries in a standardized manner for the years 2005-09 (one country for 2006-09). A population correction unit (PCU) is introduced as a proxy for the animal population potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The sales data are expressed as mg of active substance/PCU. Data coverage was reported to be 98%-100% for the nine countries. Overall, sales of veterinary antimicrobials agents, in mg/PCU, declined during the reporting period in the nine countries. Substantial differences in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the nine countries are observed. The major classes sold were penicillins, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The sales accounted for by the various veterinary antimicrobial agents have changed substantially for most countries. An increase in the sales of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were observed for the majority of the countries. Through re-analysis of existing data by application of a harmonized approach, an overall picture of the trends in the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in the nine countries was obtained. Notable differences in trends in sales between the countries were observed. Further studies, preferably including data by animal species, are needed to understand the factors that explain these observations.
Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.
European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and secure supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted an energy policy for Europe, which was supported by several documents on different aspects of energy and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and contemporary view of energy interchanges between states was not available. In a previous work of the same authors, energy import/export interchanges between European States were used to develop a geographic overview at one-glance. In this paper, the enhanced Interchange Energy Network (IEN) is investigated from a modelling point of view, as a Small-World Net, by supposing that connections can exist between States with a probability depending also on economic/political relations between countries. -- Highlights: ► Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. ► Panel data from 1996 to 2008 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. ► The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small-World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. ► Interesting behavioural features as outcome derived, as shown for the case example of the Germany.
Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Grau Eriksen, Jesper; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno; Willich, Normann; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Magrini, Stefano; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Untereiner, Michel; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Sladowski, Krystol; Lurdes Trigo, Maria; Šegedin, Barbara; Rodriguez, Aurora; Lagerlund, Magnus; Pastoors, Bert; Hoskin, Peter; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cleries Soler, Ramon
Documenting the distribution of radiotherapy departments and the availability of radiotherapy equipment in the European countries is an important part of HERO - the ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project. HERO has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, principally through their national societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy departments and equipment (questionnaire items 26-29), analyzed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis is based on validated responses from 28 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. There were 2192 linear accelerators, 96 dedicated stereotactic machines, and 77 cobalt machines reported in the 27 countries where this information was available. A total of 12 countries had at least one cobalt machine in use. There was a median of 0.5 simulator per MV unit (range 0.3-1.5) and 1.4 (range 0.4-4.4) simulators per department. Of the 874 simulators, a total of 654 (75%) were capable of 3D imaging (CT-scanner or CBCT-option). The number of MV machines (cobalt, linear accelerators, and dedicated stereotactic machines) per million inhabitants ranged from 1.4 to 9.5 (median 5.3) and the average number of MV machines per department from 0.9 to 8.2 (median 2.6). The average number of treatment courses per year per MV machine varied from 262 to 1061 (median 419). While 69% of MV units were capable of IMRT only 49% were equipped for image guidance (IGRT). There was a clear relation between socio-economic status, as
Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M.; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno
Background: Documenting the distribution of radiotherapy departments and the availability of radiotherapy equipment in the European countries is an important part of HERO – the ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project. HERO has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. Methods: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, principally through their national societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy departments and equipment (questionnaire items 26–29), analyzed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis is based on validated responses from 28 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). Results: A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. There were 2192 linear accelerators, 96 dedicated stereotactic machines, and 77 cobalt machines reported in the 27 countries where this information was available. A total of 12 countries had at least one cobalt machine in use. There was a median of 0.5 simulator per MV unit (range 0.3–1.5) and 1.4 (range 0.4–4.4) simulators per department. Of the 874 simulators, a total of 654 (75%) were capable of 3D imaging (CT-scanner or CBCT-option). The number of MV machines (cobalt, linear accelerators, and dedicated stereotactic machines) per million inhabitants ranged from 1.4 to 9.5 (median 5.3) and the average number of MV machines per department from 0.9 to 8.2 (median 2.6). The average number of treatment courses per year per MV machine varied from 262 to 1061 (median 419). While 69% of MV units were capable of IMRT only 49% were equipped for image guidance (IGRT). There was a clear
Grave, Kari; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Muller, Arno; Greko, Christina; Moulin, Gerard; Mackay, David
To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of packages sold) according to a standardized protocol and template and presented in a harmonized manner. These data were calculated to express amounts sold, in metric tonnes, of active ingredient of each package. A population correction unit (PCU) was applied as a proxy for the animal biomass potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The indicator used to express sales was milligrams of active substance per PCU. Substantial variations in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the countries were observed. The proportion of sales, in mg/PCU, of products applicable for treatment of groups or herds of animals (premixes, oral powders and oral solution) varied considerably between the countries. Some countries reported much lower sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents than others, when expressed as mg/PCU. Sales patterns varied between countries, particularly with respect to pharmaceutical forms. Further studies are needed to understand the factors that explain the observed differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyse the poverty level changes in the chosen European Union countries in years 2006-2014. The poverty and inequality issue gained a global dimension. Income inequality in most countries is significantly higher than thirty years ago. Analysis was based on the statistical data source The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC for four countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia and the method of the data analysis has been used. The Gini coefficient and a people at-risk-of- poverty or social exclusion indexes were used for this analysis. Differences in the level of poverty depends on the following determinants: the age, the territorial location, the size of the town and the most frequent activity status. Results of research shows that main groups exposed to the poverty in the chosen EU countries are above all unemployed persons and their families, young persons, children and inhabitants of towns, suburbs and rural areas. Inhabitants from outlying districts, far from the capital city of the country are threatened with the higher level of poverty in each analysed country. The results of the research prove that the poverty at different levels afflict different social groups.
A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.
Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.
Moga Aura Carmen
Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie
While the use of climate taxes in Norway has not been increasing much recently, many European countries have shown an increasing interest in taxing their factories. There is also increasing interest within the EU centrally for such ''green'' taxes. The report briefly reviews the use of green taxes in some European countries. The focus is on some of the ''green'' (and rich) nations within the EU, namely Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, as theses countries have had the most rapid increase in the use of taxis in their climate policies in the 1990s. In addition, Great Britain is also discussed, where the use of green taxes has recently been implemented as a climate policy. A main objective of the report has been to introduce a comparative perspective into the Norwegian debate on green taxes and climate. In Norway, some actors have described the attempts to go in for the use of taxes as a means towards the industry as distinctively Norwegian. The report concludes that taxes on the manufacturing industries are used increasingly often in important European countries. The report may also add background material to the current debate in Norway on gas power plants
Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.
Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.
Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan
Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.
Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees
Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy
Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)
The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)
Kiejna, A; Frydecka, D; Adamowski, T; Bickel, H; Reynish, E; Prince, M; Caracciolo, B; Fratiglioni, L; Georges, J
To determine the availability and the consistency of prevalence findings of epidemiological studies on cognitive impairment and dementia conducted in Eastern and Middle Europe. We adopted a stepwise multimethod study approach consisting of iterative literature searches for epidemiological articles published between 1990 and 2006 and subsequent data analyses of published material, reanalyses of existing accessible epidemiological data sets and expert inquiries in Eastern and Middle European countries. Systematic computer-assisted searches used the keywords: "dementia", "Alzheimer", "cognitive impairment", "incidence", "prevalence", "epidemiology" in combination with the name of the relevant countries or "Europe" in English and Polish language. We supplemented the literature search with a review of the references in the articles that were identified during the initial search. We were able to find few regional and country-specific epidemiological studies of various kinds (population-based, cohort, cross-sectional studies) and conducted on different restricted population groups of patients (from neurological units, out-patients units, residential homes). No studies were identified from most of the countries taken under consideration and the ones we found were characterized by an immense diversity with a considerable degree of clinical and methodological variations. The few studies that there are suggest prevalence rates of dementia in Eastern Europe similar to those in Western Europe. There is strong need for epidemiological studies in Eastern and Middle Europe, as well as for greater coordination and standardization of methods to improve the quality and comparability of epidemiological data to determine the prevalences' rates of dementia in all the EU countries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zeitlin, Jennifer; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Piedvache, Aurelie
AIM: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. METHODS: We generated country-specific and common European intrauterine growth references for 11 European countries, according to Gardosi...... with lower term birthweights (39.9%) - Portugal, Italy and France - and higher term birthweights, namely Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden (28.9%; p third...
Kunst, Anton E; Bos, Vivian; Lahelma, Eero
BACKGROUND: Changes over time in inequalities in self-reported health are studied for increasingly more countries, but a comprehensive overview encompassing several countries is still lacking. The general aim of this article is to determine whether inequalities in self-assessed health in 10...... Germany, Austria, Italy, and Spain. The proportion of respondents with self-assessed health less than 'good' was measured in relation to educational level and income level. Inequalities were measured by means of age-standardized prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Socioeconomic inequalities...... in self-assessed health showed a high degree of stability in European countries. For all countries together, the ORs comparing low with high educational levels remained stable for men (2.61 in the 1980s and 2.54 in the 1990s) but increased slightly for women (from 2.48 to 2.70). The ORs comparing extreme...
Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall
Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities...... of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic...... product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years...
Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.
Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els
AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...
Full Text Available This paper is an illustration of certain specifications in the conservative discourse in a certain European western countries. Each one of the countries from the western hemisphere has its particular peculiarities that determine the usage of the political operation by the conservative parties. Certainly, the complexity of the conservative ideology study has been enriching with the perception of the most basic practices in the political activity of the right parties in some western countries. This paper consists of a short definition about the conservatism followed by its primary and secondary principles. Then, continues to an individual cases in a three highly developed European countries where as a sample are taken the most significant parties in the conservative and Christian Democrat ideology. The conservatism as a political ideology has been formed in the middle of the XVII century as a resistance towards the shifts and the challenges that were under influence of the enlightenment, industrialization and the urbanization. If the conservatism as a political theory, ideology and practice originates from the countries with foregoing activities, logically emerges a need to study their characteristics. The author’s intention is to represent the traits creating the content of that ideology and activity, what are the distinction marks that would be the most appealing of the certain country, as well as to prove the link with the parties from the conservative family on a European level. The study of the conservatism as a political ideology in the modern ideological- doctrinal spectrum would be certainly impossible if there is no closer look to those paradigms.
Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis
Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.
Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Te Velde, Saskia; Petrova, Stefka; Duleva, Vesselka; Krawinkel, Michael; Behrendt, Isabel; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kristjansdottir, Asa; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta; Lien, Nanna; Lynch, Christel; Ehrenblad, Bettina; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Ribic, Cirila Hlastan; Simčic, Irena; Roos, Eva
To examine which factors act as mediators between parental educational level and children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in ten European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected in ten European countries participating in the PRO GREENS project (2009). Schoolchildren completed a validated FFQ about their daily F&V intake and filled in a questionnaire about availability of F&V at home, parental facilitation of F&V intake, knowledge of recommendations about F&V intake, self-efficacy to eat F&V and liking for F&V. Parental educational level was determined from a questionnaire given to parents. The associations were examined with multilevel mediation analyses. Schools in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. Eleven-year-old children (n 8159, response rate 72%) and their parents. In five of the ten countries, children with higher educated parents were more likely to report eating fruits daily. This association was mainly mediated by knowledge but self-efficacy, liking, availability and facilitation also acted as mediators in some countries. Parents' education was positively associated with their children's daily vegetable intake in seven countries, with knowledge and availability being the strongest mediators and self-efficacy and liking acting as mediators to some degree. Parental educational level correlated positively with children's daily F&V intake in most countries and the pattern of mediation varied among the participating countries. Future intervention studies that endeavour to decrease the educational-level differences in F&V intake should take into account country-specific features in the relevant determinants of F&V intake.
Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina
Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of
Vergauwen, Jorik; Neels, Karel; Wood, Jonas
Several studies have looked into the socio-economic gradients of cohabitation and non-marital fertility. According to the theory of the Second Demographic Transition, highly educated individuals can be considered as forerunners in the Western European spread of non-marital family forms after the 1970s. In Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), however, research has provided evidence for a Pattern of Disadvantage where those with the lowest education have been the most likely to adopt such family forms. Hitherto, few studies have considered the educational gradient of the intentions underlying these behaviors. This contribution uses information on marriage and fertility intentions from the Generations and Gender Surveys for seven European countries to assess educational differentials. In Western Europe we observe no strong educational gradients in marriage intentions at any childbearing stage (before, during or following). In CEE countries, however, less educated cohabitors more frequently choose for cohabitation during childbearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spitters, Hilde P.E.M.; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru
the main stakeholders involved and their position and relations in the policymaking process. The Netherlands and Denmark were the most similar and both differed most from Romania, especially at the level of accountability of the local public authorities for local HEPA policymaking. The categories...... of these European country cases. Methods: A systems analysis of the local HEPA policymaking process was performed in three European countries involved in the 'REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity' (REPOPA) project, resulting in three schematic models showing the main stakeholders...... of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. Conclusions: A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique...
Manski, Richard; Moeller, John
In this review we consider oral-health access among older adults within and between the USA and various European countries with regard to possible primary financial and modifiable secondary non-financial factors. For older adults, the likelihood of using dental services has been associated, in the health literature, with a multiplicity of factors. These factors are traditionally classified into predisposing, enabling and need categories, and can be further classified into modifiable and non-modifiable subcategories. This raises the question of which single factor or group of factors has the most influence in keeping older adults from seeking care, and how these influences might differ between the USA and various other (European) countries. As it turns out, there is variation in the magnitude of effects across certain measurable potential barriers, but generally it takes a combination of characteristics associated with non-use to have a substantial impact. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.
Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.
This paper measures technology (TG) and environmental efficiency technology gaps (EETGs) in 25 European countries over two distinct periods 2002 and 2008 examining the possible effect of adopted environmental regulations and the Kyoto protocol commitments on environmental efficiency technology gaps. However, the introduction of the metafrontier in our analysis puts into our discussion the role of heterogeneous technologies and its effect on the above-mentioned measures. Employing a directional distance function, we investigate whether there is an actual difference, in terms of environmental efficiency and efficiency performance, among European countries considering the technological frontiers under which they operate. The construction of individual frontiers has been realized employing a large number of variables that are highly correlated with countries' learning and absorbing capacity, new technological knowledge and using economic theory and classical frontier discrimination like developed vs. developing, North vs. South and participation in the Eurozone or not. The overall results indicate a crucial role of heterogeneous technologies for technology gaps in both periods. Moreover, a significant decrease for both measures, although in different percent, has been recorded emphasizing the key role of knowledge spillovers. -- Highlights: •We estimate technology gaps (TGs) for 25 EU countries in two distinct periods. •We estimate environmental efficiency technology gaps (EETGs). •We consider countries' technological capabilities with R&D, innovation and eco-innovation. •We test the effect of different frontier constitutions on TGs-EETGs. •We denote the specific role of knowledge spillovers
Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.
Medical Anthropology deals with the anthropological conditions of health, illness and health care in different societies and cultures, and has to be distinguished in that respect from Social and Industrial Medicine in German language countries which could be considered a kind of official and governmental medicine. While in North America Medical Anthropology has been established at nearly all universities and medical colleges during the last 25 years, corresponding activities in Germany and most other European countries have not reached university level up to now. After referring to general anthropology during the period of enlightenment and to philosophical and medical anthropology in the first half of our century, both to be considered forerunners of medical anthropology in german-speaking countries, an outline of medical anthropology in German-speaking countries, an outline of medical anthropology in the USA is given followed by a survey of questions and problems with which medical anthropology in German-speaking and other European countries has to cope, and would be confronted after the opening of the EC Market in 1993. The article concludes by briefly going into the circumstance of teaching medical anthropology in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Bousquet, J; Agache, I; Anto, J M; Bergmann, K C; Bachert, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Bousquet, P J; D'Amato, G; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Eller, E; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Haahtela, T; Hellings, P W; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kuna, P; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Mösges, R; Murray, R; Nekam, K; Onorato, G; Papadopoulos, N G; Samolinski, B; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Thibaudon, M; Tomazic, P; Triggiani, M; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T; Sheikh, A
Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google and reflects the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared Google Trends terms related to allergy and rhinitis in all European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland from 1 January 2011 to 20 December 2016. The aim was to assess whether the same terms could be used to report the seasonal variations of allergic diseases. Using the Google Trend 5-year graph, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all countries apart from Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta. Different terms were found to demonstrate seasonality depending on the country - namely 'hay fever', 'allergy' and 'pollen' - showing cultural differences. A single set of terms cannot be used across all European countries, but allergy seasonality can be compared across Europe providing the above three terms are used. Using longitudinal data in different countries and multiple terms, we identified an awareness-related spike of searches (December 2016). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jore, S.; Viljugrein, H.; Brun, E.
The objective of this study was to examine incidences of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, and to describe seasonal variation and long-term trends by comparing longitudinal surveillance data in six Northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands). Due...... and then removing this effect from the data. Long-term trends were fitted to the de-seasonalized time series. The incidence of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks and incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans showed a concordant seasonality for all the countries. There was a strong association between...
This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)
Kurnoga, Nataša; Slišković, Ana
Computer and mobile technology, Internet use and e-commerce have grown enormously in recent years. The main aim of this paper was to analyse the e-commerce of Croatia, the European Union (EU) countries and the post-transition EU countries. Due to technological progress, the paper among other things, analyses the trend of online purchase at the Croatian and the EU level. The analysis revealed the presence of a linear trend. Furthermore, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were u...
Bjørnskov, Christian; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Pedersen, Peder J.
by exploiting a long and complete time-series from the Eurobarometer Survey, 1973-2002 allowing an examination of trends in life satisfaction across 15 European countries employing a modified version of Kendall's Tau. Our results show that while current GDP growth does not affect trends in well......-being, accelerations in GDP growth do. In addition, faster GDP growth and faster growth of government consumption than in neighbouring countries induces positive trends in life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of aspirations theory and the theory of reference group comparisons. ...
Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary; Borras, Josep M; Dunscombe, Peter; Slotman, Ben; Malicki, Julian; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Grau, Cai; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Coucke, Philippe; Gabrovski, Roumen; Vosmik, Milan; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Dejean, Catherine; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Back, Carlo; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Trigo, Maria Lurdes; Šegedin, Barbara; Palacios, Amalia; Pastoors, Bert; Beardmore, Charlotte; Erridge, Sara; Smyth, Gaile; Cleries Soler, Ramon
The ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (HERO) project has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The first milestone was to assess the availability of radiotherapy resources within Europe. This paper presents the personnel data collected in the ESTRO HERO database. An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy staffing (questionnaire items 47-60), analysed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis was conducted between February and July 2014, and is based on validated responses from 24 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. Averages and ranges for personnel numbers per million inhabitants are 12.8 (2.5-30.9) for radiation oncologists, 7.6 (0-19.7) for medical physicists, 3.5 (0-12.6) for dosimetrists, 26.6 (1.9-78) for RTTs and 14.8 (0.4-61.0) for radiotherapy nurses. The combined average for physicists and dosimetrists is 9.8 per million inhabitants and 36.9 for RTT and nurses. Radiation oncologists on average treat 208.9 courses per year (range: 99.9-348.8), physicists and dosimetrists conjointly treat 303.3 courses (range: 85-757.7) and RTT and nurses 76.8 (range: 25.7-156.8). In countries with higher GNI per capita, all personnel categories treat fewer courses per annum than in less affluent countries. This relationship is most evident for RTTs and nurses. Different clusters of countries can be distinguished on the basis of available personnel resources and socio-economic status. The average personnel figures in Europe are now consistent with, or even more favourable than
Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela
Purpose Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim ofthis study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthierand environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods...... from48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmarkfor dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (80...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze mothers’ working time patters across 22 European countries. The focu was on three questions: how much mothers prefer to work, how much they actually work, and to what degree their preferred and actual working times are (inconsistent with each other. The focus was on cross-national differences in mothers’ working time patterns, comparison of mothers’ working times to that of childless women and fathers, as well as on individual- and country-level factors that explain the variation between them. In the theoretical background, the departure point was an integrative theoretical approach where the assumption is that there are various kinds of explanations for the differences in mothers’ working time patterns – namely structural, cultural and institutional – , and that these factors are laid in two levels: individual- and country-levels. Data were extracted from the European Social Survey (ESS 2010 / 2011. The results showed that mothers’ working time patterns, both preferred and actual working times, varied across European countries. Four clusters were formed to illustrate the differences. In the full-time pattern, full-time work was the most important form of work, leaving all other working time forms marginal. The full-time pattern was perceived in terms of preferred working times in Bulgaria and Portugal. In polarised pattern countries, full-time work was also important, but it was accompanied by a large share of mothers not working at all. In the case of preferred working times, many Eastern and Southern European countries followed it whereas in terms of actual working times it included all Eastern and Southern European countries as well as Finland. The combination pattern was characterised by the importance of long part-time hours and full-time work. It was the preferred working time pattern in the Nordic countries, France, Slovenia, and Spain, but Belgium, Denmark, France, Norway, and Sweden
Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana
The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...
This study analyzes the determinants of cash holdings for the accommodation industry in Southern European countries (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal) using a sample of 5964 firms during the period 2003-2011. A fixed-effects panel data model revealed that larger companies, higher leveraged, where most debt is short-term and that maintain better relationships with financial institutions exhibit lower cash to assets ratios. Liquid assets substitutes, capital expenditures and asset tangibility ...
San-Julián, R.; Campo, M. M.; Nute, G.; Montossi, F.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Guerrero, L.; Oliver, M. A.; Sañudo, C.
The main goal of this study was to characterize and compare the organoleptic quality of beef from Uruguay and from three European countries. In Uruguay, 40 Hereford steers were raised exclusively under grazing conditions up to either two or three years old. Meat samples were aged for 20 days, matching commercial conditions. In Europe, one commercial local beef type, with two ageing times (7 and 20 days), from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom were compared with Uruguayan beef samples, usi...
Grunert , Klaus G.; Fernández-Celemín , Laura; Wills , Josephine M.; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann , Stefan; Nureeva , Liliya
Abstract Aim The goal of the study was to investigate the use of nutrition information on food labels and understanding of guideline daily amount (GDA) front-of-pack nutrition labels in six European countries. Subjects and methods In-store observations and in-store interviews were conducted in major retailers in the UK (n?=?2019), Sweden (n?=?1858), France (n?=?2337), Germany (n?=?1963), Poland (n?=?1800) ...
Piasna, A.; Plagnol, A.
There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors. The article addresses this gap by examining how family life stages are related to particular aspects of job quality among employed women in 27 European countries. The central argument of the analysis is that high-quality jobs are conducive to both transitions to motherhood and employment after chi...
Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková
There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...
Patalay, P.; Giese, L.; Stanković, M.; Curtin, C.; Moltrecht, B.; Gondek, D.
Background: Although schools are a key setting for the provision of mental health support for young people, little is known about the facilitators and barriers for providing such support. This study aimed to collect information from schools in 10 European countries regarding the priority given to mental health support for students, existence of a mental health-related school policy, links with relevant external agencies, schools’ perceptions on whether they are providing sufficient mental hea...
Patalay, P.; Gondek, D.; Moltrecht, B.; Giese, L.; Curtin, C.; Stankovi?, M.; Savka, N.
Background. The role of schools in providing community-based support for children's mental health and well-being is widely accepted and encouraged. Research has mainly focused on designing and evaluating specific interventions and there is little data available regarding what provision is available, the focus and priorities of schools and the professionals involved in providing this support. The current study presents these data from schools in 10 European countries. Methods. Online survey of...
Introduction The Guidelines for the FCTC Article 6 state: When establishing their levels of taxation, Parties should make tobacco products less affordable over time in order to reduce consumption. The objective is to estimate the impact of changes in tobacco affordability on tobacco consumption and tobacco excise revenues in 2011-2014 in 28 European Union countries. Material and Methods Tobacco affordability index was calculated using the Eurostat data on harmonized consumer price i...
Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Malard, Lucile; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle
The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. The study was based on data from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010 including 33,443 employees, 16,512 men and 16,931 women, from 34 European countries. Well-being was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, role stressors, work hours, job influence and freedom, job promotion, job insecurity, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination and violence at work, and work-life imbalance. The associations between these factors and well-being were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Different models were performed including interaction tests. When all 25 psychosocial work factors were studied simultaneously in the same model with adjustment variables, 13 showed a significant association with poor well-being among both genders: quantitative demands, demands for hiding emotions, low possibilities for development, low meaning of work, low role conflict, low quality of leadership, low social support, low sense of community, job insecurity, low job promotion, work-life imbalance, discrimination, and bullying. The association with low sense of community on poor well-being was particularly strong. A large number of psychosocial work factors were associated with poor well-being. Almost no country and occupational differences were found in these associations. This study gave a first European overview and could be useful to inform cross-national policy debate.
Baxa, Jaromír; Plašil, M.; Vašíček, B.
Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-130 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian model averaging * Central European countries * Inflation Dynamics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/baxa-0449816.pdf
This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest ...
Dilshodjon Alidjonovich Rakhmonov
Full Text Available Government’s policy in financing social sphere is becoming more and more topical. In this regard, managing pension system effectively, conducting research basing on “income distribution through the time” principle in its financing is of particular significance. In this article the possibility of applying the experience of European Union countries in the level of coverage of population by the pension plan and its development in Uzbekistan.
I examine the relation between bureaucratic corruption ('to get things done') and firm performance in Central and Eastern European countries. While previous re- search relies on data from the BEEPS survey, which suffers from excessive non- reporting of corporate performance, I combine the information on bribery practices from the BEEPS with reliable firm performance data from the Amadeus database. The estimates, identified from within-firm variation, suggest that bureaucratic cor- ruption neg...
Chang Woon Nam; Doina Radulescu
This study compares incentive effects of various tax depreciation methods currently adopted in European transition economies. In these countries straight-line, geometric-degressive and accelerated depreciation measures are quite popular in combination with different corporate tax rates. Their generosity is determined on the basis of Samuelsonâ€™s true economic depreciation. For this purpose, the present value model is applied under the particular consideration of different financial structure...
Christofides, Louis N.; Michael, Maria
We estimate the public-private sector pay gap for 27 European countries, using the 2008 EU SILC. The coefficients of conditional (on personal and job characteristics) public sector controls give a first impression on wage differences, while decompositions into explained and unexplained components (also accounting for selectivity) allow for a more complete analysis, which helps to identify possible causes of the gap. Regional patterns exist. Separate subsample decompositions based on age, educ...
Lappa, Evagelia; Chaleplioglou, Artemis; Cognetti, Gaetana; Della Seta, Maurella; Napolitani Cheyne, Federica; Juan-Quilis, Veronica; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Laura; Lopes, Sílvia; Murphy, Jeannette
This is the fourth in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in four Southern European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Future issues will track trends in Latin America and Central Europe. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)
Villalba, Elena; Casas, Isabel; Abadie, Fabienne
conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...... mechanisms, interoperable information systems, policy commitment, engaged professionals, national investments and funding programmes, and incentives and financing. Conclusion: In those cases which provided evidence of success beyond the pilot stage, we observed a promising trend: awareness and introduction...
Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio
The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.
Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.
Bull, Fiona; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Arlotti, Alberto; Juričan, Andrea Backović; Belander, Olov; Martin, Brian; Martin-Diener, Eva; Marques, Ana; Mota, Jorge; Vasankari, Tommi; Vlasveld, Anita
Physical inactivity is one of the four leading behavioural risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD). Like tobacco control, increasing levels of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) will require a national policy framework providing direction and a clear set of actions. Despite frequent calls, there has been insufficient progress on policy development in the majority of countries around the world. This study sought and summarised national HEPA policy in seven European countries (Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Switzerland). Data collection used a policy audit tool (PAT), a 27-item instrument structured into four sections. All countries reported some legislation or policy across the sectors of education, sport and health. Only some countries reported supportive policy in the transport and environment sectors. Five countries reported a stand-alone HEPA policy and six countries reported national recommendations. HEPA prevalence targets varied in magnitude and specificity and the presence of other relevant goals from different sectors highlighted the opportunity for joint action. Evaluation and the use of scientific evidence were endorsed but described as weak in practice. Only two countries reported a national multisector coordinating committee and most countries reported challenges with partnerships on different levels of policy implementation. Bringing together the key components for success within a national HEPA policy framework is not simple. This in-depth policy audit and country comparison highlighted similarities and differences and revealed new opportunities for consideration by other countries. These examples can inform countries within and beyond Europe and guide the development of national HEPA policy within the NCD prevention agenda. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.
A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs
Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to envisage the impact of global financial (GFC and European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC on foreign exchange markets of emerg- ing countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEEC countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, poland and Serbia. The daily returns of exchange rates on Czech Republic koruna (CZK, Hungarian forint (HuF, Romanian lea (RoL, polish zloty (pLZ and Serbian dinar (RSD, all against the Euro are analyzed during the period from 3rd January 2000 to15th April 2013, in respect. To examine the impact of global financial crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, dummy variables were adopted. overall results imply that global financial crisis has no impact on exchange rate returns in selected CEEC countries, while European sovereign debt crisis inf luencing in depreciation of polish zloty by 8% and Roma- nian lea by 6%. obtained results by our calculation, imply that global financial crisis increased enhanced volatility on exchange rate returns of Czech koruna, Romanian lea and polish zloty. Moreover, results of empirical analysis imply that this impact has the strongest inf luence in volatility on exchange rate returns of polish zloty.
Knies, Saskia; Candel, Math J J M; Boonen, Annelies; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, Andre J H A; Severens, Johan L
When national pharmacoeconomic guidelines are compared, different recommendations are identified on how to identify, measure and value lost productivity, leading to difficulties when comparing lost productivity estimates across countries. From a transferability point of view, the question arises of whether differences between countries regarding lost productivity are the result of using different calculation methods (methodological differences) or of other between-country differences. When lost productivity data differ significantly across countries, the transferability of lost productivity data across countries is hindered. The objective of this study was to investigate whether country of residence has a significant influence on the quantity of lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders. Confounding factors that might differ between countries were corrected for, while the methodology used to identify and measure lost productivity was kept the same. This question was investigated by means of an online questionnaire filled out by 200 respondents with a rheumatic disorder per country in four European countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and France. In addition to those regarding lost productivity, the questionnaire contained questions about patient characteristics, disability insurance, disease characteristics, quality of life and job characteristics as these variables are expected to influence lost productivity in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. The data were analysed by regression analyses, in which different components - being absent in last 3 months, number of days absent and presenteeism - of lost productivity were the main outcome measures and other variables, such as gender, impact of disease, shift work, job control, partial disability and overall general health, were corrected for. The results showed that country sometimes has a significant influence on lost productivity and that other variables such as, for example, age
Jarčuška, Peter; Janičko, Martin; Barták, Miroslav; Gavurová, Beáta; Vagašová, Tatiana
The concept of amenable mortality is intended to assess health care system performance. It is defined as "premature deaths that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective health care". The purpose of paper is to analyse differences in amenable mortality across European Union countries and to determine the associations between amenable mortality and life expectancy at birth. This is a cross-country and time trend analysis. Data on deaths by cause, and five-year age groups were obtained from the World Health Organization database for the 20 European Union countries, throughout the period from 2002 to 2013. The rates of amenable mortality were expressed by the age-standardised death rates per 100,000 inhabitants. We applied the method of direct standardisation using the European Standard Population. Throughout the explored period, the statistically significant variations of the age-standardised death rates in a relation to the European Union average fluctuated from 78.7 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 72.4-84.9) in France to 374.3 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 350.8-397.7) in Latvia. The leading causes of amenable mortality were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and colorectal cancer that accounted for, respectively, 42.2%, 19.5%, and 11.3% of overall amenable mortality. As expected, statistically significant strong negative relationship (R 2 =0.95; ρ=-0.98) between amenable mortality and life expectancy at birth was proved by linear regression. The concept has several limitations relating to the selection of causes of death and setting age threshold over time, not consideration actually available health care resources in each country, as well as differences in the prevalence of diseases among countries. We found an explicit divide in amenable mortality rates between more developed countries of Western, Northern and Southern Europe, and less developed countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Increasing of amenable mortality may
Full Text Available This submitted article identifies relations between the degree of decentralization and economic imbalances on the basis of a cluster (exploratory analysis. Two indicators have been chosen for measuring economic inequalities: an indicator of dispersion of regional GDP per capita as representative of the performance imbalances within countries (it measures the economic development gap among regions in European countries; and a multidimensional inequality-adjusted human development index as representative of inequalities in the distribution of wealth in the countries. Decentralization is measured by means of a decentralization index, which contains both quantitative and qualitative components. Although groups of countries characterised by a high degree of decentralization do not necessarily show the lowest degrees of economic imbalances, it is however possible to conclude that the countries in groups with a higher degree of decentralization are among those countries with more favourable values of the economic imbalances indicators monitored. As a part of the research, two clusters of countries were identified which are identical in their degree of decentralization, but differ in the results connected with economic imbalances. The differences are caused by different institutional qualities in the two groups.
Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Jack-Waugh, Anna; Tolson, Debbie; Hellström, Amanda; de Abreu, Wilson; Pesjak, Katja
The World Health Organization has identified developing the knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals who are involved in dementia care as a priority. Most healthcare professionals lack the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to provide high quality dementia care. While dementia education amongst most UK university health and social care programmes is inconsistent, we know little about the provision of dementia education in European universities. To examine the provision of accredited higher education on dementia in European countries, to illustrate that it is highly variable despite universities being the major provider of education for healthcare professionals internationally. An exploratory research design was used. The providers of higher education undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the Czech Republic, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Higher Education Institutions who provide undergraduate and postgraduate education in the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and gerontology in six European countries. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Researchers in each country conducted an internet-based search using the websites of Higher Education Institutions to identify existing accredited dementia education. These searches revealed a lack of dementia education in undergraduate health and social care study programmes. Three of the six countries offered postgraduate study programmes on dementia. There was a significant variation amongst the countries in relation to the provision of dementia education at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral levels. Dementia is a global challenge and educating and upskilling the workforce is a policy imperative. To deliver the best dementia care, investment in interprofessional evidence-based education is required if we are to respond effectively and compassionately to the needs of people living with dementia and their
Shuba M. V.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the degree of interdependence of stock markets in separate countries of the European Union, namely: France, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary on the basis of studying the changes in stock indexes, as well as determining the existence of tendencies of approximating the dynamics of the national stock index «PFTS Index» to the corresponding dynamics of stock indexes in surveyed countries. The article analyzes the dynamics of changes in stock indices in the UK (FTSE, Germany (DAX 30, France (CAC 40 and pan-European ones (EURO STOXX 50, as well as changes in stock indices in Poland (WIG 20, Czech Republic (PX, Hungary (BUX. Calculations of the coefficients of pair correlation between changes in stock indices in the studied countries have been performed. The calculation results show a substantial connection between the indicators of changes in stock indices and allow to make a conclusion that in the dynamics of stock indices of national stock markets of the studied EU countries some common trends are observed, moreover, in the behavior of the considered indices common local trends are noticed as well. The author calculated the coefficient of pair correlation between the indicators of changes in the national stock index «PFTS Index» and the stock indices of the «old» and «new» EU countries. The calculations showed that the PFTS Index does not demonstrate a high level of correlation with stock indices of the «old» EU countries and has a tendency of approaching the corresponding dynamics of stock indices of the «new» EU countries.
Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim
Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.
Pinto da Costa, M; Giurgiuca, A; Holmes, K; Biskup, E; Mogren, T; Tomori, S; Kilic, O; Banjac, V; Molina-Ruiz, R; Palumbo, C; Frydecka, D; Kaaja, J; El-Higaya, E; Kanellopoulos, A; Amit, B H; Madissoon, D; Andreou, E; Uleviciute-Belena, I; Rakos, I; Dragasek, J; Feffer, K; Farrugia, M; Mitkovic-Voncina, M; Gargot, T; Baessler, F; Pantovic-Stefanovic, M; De Picker, L
There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country. Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration. A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have 'ever' considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it 'now', at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%). A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zelei, Tamás; Molnár, Mária J; Szegedi, Márta; Kaló, Zoltán
In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. To explore and summarize the recent scientific evidence on value drivers related to the health technology assessment of ODs with a special focus on the perspective of third party payers in CEE countries. The review aims to list all potentially relevant value drivers in the reimbursement process of orphan drugs. A systematic literature review was performed; PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant publications until April 2015. Extracted data were summarized along key HTA elements. From the 2664 identified publications, 87 contained relevant information on the evaluation criteria of orphan drugs, but only 5 had direct information from the CEE region. The presentation of good clinical evidence seems to play a key role especially since this should be the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses, which have more importance in resource-constrained economies. Due to external price referencing of pharmaceuticals, the relative budget impact of orphan drugs is expected to be higher in CEE than in Western European (WE) countries unless accessibility of patients remains more limited in poorer European regions. Equity principles based on disease prevalence and non-availability of alternative treatment options may increase the price premium, however, societies must have some control on prices and a rationale based on multiple criteria in reimbursement decisions. The evaluation of orphan medicines should include multiple criteria to appropriately measure the clinical added value of orphan
Matee, Mecky I; Manyando, Christine; Ndumbe, Peter M; Corrah, Tumani; Jaoko, Walter G; Kitua, Andrew Y; Ambene, Herman Pa; Ndounga, Mathieu; Zijenah, Lynn; Ofori-Adjei, David; Agwale, Simon; Shongwe, Steven; Nyirenda, Thomas; Makanga, Michael
European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was founded in 2003 by the European Parliament and Council. It is a partnership of 14 European Union (EU) member states, Norway, Switzerland, and Developing Countries, formed to fund acceleration of new clinical trial interventions to fight the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis (TB) in the sub-Saharan African region. EDCTP seeks to be synergistic with other funding bodies supporting research on these diseases. EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts. The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached 150 m euros, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities. While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to
Full Text Available The study of human capital relevance to economic growth is becoming increasingly important taking into account its relevance in many of the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN. This paper conducted a panel regression analysis of selected SE European countries and Scandinavian countries using the Granger causality test and pooled panel regression. In order to test the relevance of human capital on economic growth, several human capital proxy variables were identified. Aside from the human capital proxy variables, other explanatory variables were selected using stepwise regression while the dependant variable was GDP. This paper concludes that there are significant structural differences in the economies of the two observed panels. Of the human capital proxy variables observed, for the panel of SE European countries only life expectancy was statistically significant and it had a negative impact on economic growth, while in the panel of Scandinavian countries total public expenditure on education had a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth. Based upon these results and existing studies, this paper concludes that human capital has a far more significant impact on economic growth in more developed economies.
Šidagytė, Rasa; Eglīte, Maija; Salmi, Anne; Šorytė, Dovilė; Vanadziņš, Ivars; Hopsu, Leila; Lerssi-Uskelin, Jaana; Bulotaitė, Laima; Kozlova, Lāsma; Lakiša, Svetlana; Vičaitė, Sigita
This article investigates the legal database and theoretical basis of workplace health promotion (WHP) in three European countries: Finland, Latvia and Lithuania, and aims to find insights into effective WHP implementation. In November 2013, a stakeholders' survey was carried out. The questionnaire included questions about legal documents and non-legislative measures relevant to WHP, institutions and other bodies/organizations working in the field, WHP conception/definition, and implementation of WHP activities according to the enterprises' size. Only Finland has adopted a specific law on occupational health care (separate from occupational safety). ILO conventions No. 161 (Occupational Health Services Convention) and No. 187 (Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention) are ratified only in Finland. In Finland, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health acts as one ministry, while two Baltic countries have two separate ministries (one for health and another for social affairs). None of the countries has legally approved a definition of WHP. Latvia and Lithuania tend to separate WHP from other activities, whereas Finland integrates WHP into other occupational health and safety elements. Finland has a more extensive legislative and organizational background to WHP than Latvia and Lithuania. In defining WHP, all the countries refer to the Luxembourg Declaration on Workplace Health Promotion in the European Union. Finland's practice of integrating WHP into other occupational health and safety elements is important.
Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.
Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential
Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M
What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.
Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.
Goeksu, H.Y.; Regulla, D.; Drexler, G.
The report is prepared in a historically rather unstable period concerning the Eastern European countries. Many independent states are formed which brought political, economical and administrative changes in the region. However such changes had not direct effect on the radiation protection practices concerning the occupationally exposed persons. In general all the newly formed states have adopted the former laws and regulation. Therefore we kept the names of the country of the origin. In near future laws and regulations are expected to be altered in many of these new states. The present laws and regulations are in great extent very similar to each other. However there are variations in practical aspects of the individual dosimetry due to the size of the country and their involvement with nuclear activities. Almost all countries based their regulations on International Safety Standards of IAEA and ICRP-26 recommendations. Since the Chernobyl accident, very many bilateral agreements have been concluded between Eastern European and OECD for the transfer of technology on the radiation safety of the public as well as occupationally exposed persons. (orig./HP)
Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward
Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms
Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan
To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects found employment in the next year, and (2) 57 436 subjects employed for at least 2 years, of which 6191 (11%) subjects left the workforce in the next year because of unemployment, (early) retirement or having to take care of household. The influence of a perceived poor health and a chronic health problem on employment transitions was studied using logistic regression analysis. An interaction between health and sex was observed, with women in poor health (odds ratio (OR) 0.4), men in poor health (OR 0.6) and women (OR 0.6) having less chance to enter paid employment than men in good health. Subjects with a poor health and low/intermediate education had the highest risks of unemployment or (early) retirement. Taking care of the household was only influenced by health among unmarried women. In most European countries, a poor health or a chronic health problem predicted staying or becoming unemployed and the effects of health were stronger with a lower national unemployment level. In most European countries, socioeconomic inequalities in ill health were an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. In public health measures for health equity, it is of paramount importance to include people with poor health in the labour market.
Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil
identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy....... Second, it is not possible to examine potential variation between countries. Future research ensuring comparability and generalizability of results related to teenage sexual health outcomes will help gain insight into the international variation in observed pregnancy rates and better inform interventions......BACKGROUND: As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. METHODS: The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles...
Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia
Background.: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods.: Through......% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. Conclusions.: European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving...... this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge....
Blondel, Béatrice; Alexander, Sophie; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I
INTRODUCTION: Rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies are indicators of obstetrical quality of care, but their use for international comparisons is complicated by difficulties with accurate ascertainment of tears and uncertainties regarding the optimal rate of episiotomies. We compared...... rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies in European countries and analysed the association between these two indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used aggregate data from national routine statistics available in the Euro-Peristat project. We compared rates of severe (third- and fourth......-degree) tears and episiotomies in 2010 by mode of vaginal delivery (n = 20 countries), and investigated time trends between 2004 and 2010 (n = 9 countries). Statistical associations were assessed with Spearman's ranked correlations (rho). RESULTS: In 2010 in all vaginal deliveries, rates of severe tears ranged...
Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Sanjuán, Ana
This papers' objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a crosssectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n......=2437 of which 2156 were dry-cured ham consumers). Satisfaction was evaluated as overall satisfaction, as well as specific satisfaction with healthfulness, price, convenience and taste. The findings show that the main determinant of overall satisfaction is taste satisfaction, hence, producers...... are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age >52 years) and frequent consumers...
GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU
Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI could be a significant source for performance improvements of a company because aside capital, they bring knowledge, skills, technologies, as well as contacts and customers which they had in the home country. Foreign investors are motivated by realization of longterm increasing profits through a company in which they invest. Since profit depends on revenue and costs, the motives of investors can be looked for in increasing revenue (market expansion, in reducing costs (lower cost of resources, or in the simultaneous effect on revenue and costs through increased efficiency. This paper analyzes six Southeast European countries (SEE-6 as well as the EU-27 with the aim of assessing the attractiveness of destination. Using the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations multi-criteria decision making method, authors show advantages and disadvantages of each country, creating the basis for the creation and redefinition of macroeconomic policies to address them.
Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.
Full Text Available In his influential 1998 study, David S. Reher discusses historical differences between countries with strong and weak family ties. He focuses on the “Western World”, comparing Italy and the Iberian Peninsula with Scandinavia, the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany and Austria, together with North America. In this paper, we explore whether Romania, in Eastern Europe, can be characterised as having a strong family system, given the increasingly important role family has played for individual well-being following the end of the socialist regime. We observe a number of similarities between Romania and Southern European countries in terms of behaviours associated with “strong family ties”, opinions on family care and mutual intergenerational support. Differences can be explained in light of Romania’s economic and housing crisis. Overall, it is likely that the importance of family ties in Romania increased after the end of the socialist regime.
Full Text Available This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and individual-financed NFE are distinguished sharply and cases with shared investment between employers and employees (co-financed NFE and between employers, employees and public funding (co-financed pooled NFE are accounted for, additionally. For explaining participation in NFE supply and demand models are referred to. Hypotheses on cross-country differences for investment in NFE refer to the Varieties-of-Capitalism approach and countries are selected representing different varieties of capitalism (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Spain, France, UK. Analyses are based on data of the Adult Education Survey (AES 2011/12.
Raatikainen, M J Pekka; Arnar, David O; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Merino, Jose Luis; Levya, Francisco; Hindriks, Gerhardt; Kuck, Karl-Heinz
There has been large variations in the use of invasive electrophysiological therapies in the member countries of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The aim of this analysis was to provide comprehensive information on cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) and catheter ablation therapy trends in the ESC countries over the last five years. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has collected data on CIED and catheter ablation therapy since 2008. Last year 49 of the 56 ESC member countries provided data for the EHRA White Book. This analysis is based on the current and previous editions of the EHRA White Book. Data on procedure rates together with information on economic aspects, local reimbursement systems and training activities are presented for each ESC country and the five geographical ESC regions. In 2013, the electrophysiological procedure rates per million population were highest in Western Europe followed by the Southern and Northern European countries. The CIED implantation and catheter ablation rate was lowest in the Eastern European and in the non-European ESC countries, respectively. However, in some Eastern European countries with relative low gross domestic product procedure rates exceeded those of some wealthier Western countries, suggesting that economic resources are not the only driver for utilization of arrhythmia therapies. These statistics indicate that despite significant improvements, there still is considerable heterogeneity in the availability of arrhythmia therapies across the ESC area. Hopefully, these data will help identify areas for improvement and guide future activities in cardiac arrhythmia management. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nicholson, Amanda; Rose, Richard; Bobak, Martin
There are consistent reports of protective associations between attendance at religious services and better self-rated health but existing data rarely consider the social or individual context of religious behaviour. This paper investigates whether attendance at religious services is associated with better self-rated health in diverse countries across Europe. It also explores whether the association varies with either individual-level (gender, educational, social contact) or country-level characteristics (overall level of religious practice, corruption, GDP). Cross-sectional data from round 2 of the European Social Survey were used and 18,328 men and 21,373 women from 22 European countries were included in multilevel analyses, with country as higher level. Compared to men who attended religious services at least once a week, men who never attended were almost twice as likely to describe their health as poor, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.83 [95% CI, 1.49-2.26]. A similar but weaker effect was seen in women, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.38 [1.19-1.61]. The associations were reduced only marginally in men by controlling for health status, social contact and country-level variables, but weakened in women. The relationships were stronger in people with longstanding illness, less than university education and in more affluent countries with lower levels of corruption and higher levels of religious belief. These analyses confirm that an association between less frequent attendance at religious services and poor health exists across Europe, but emphasise the importance of taking individual and contextual factors into account. It remains unclear to what extent the observed associations reflect reverse causality or are due to differing perceptions of health.
Woitha, Kathrin; Garralda, Eduardo; Martin-Moreno, Jose María; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos
There is growing interest in monitoring palliative care (PC) development internationally. One aspect of this is the ranking of such development for comparative purposes. To generate a ranking classification and to compare scores for PC development in the countries of the European Union, 2007 and 2013. PC "development" in this study is understood as a combination of the existence of relevant services in a country ("resources") plus the capacity to develop further resources in the future ("vitality"). "Resources" comprise indicators of three types of PC services per population (inpatient palliative care units and inpatient hospices, hospital support teams, and home care teams). "Vitality" of PC is estimated by numerical scores for the existence of a national association, a directory of services, physician accreditation, attendances at a key European conference and volume of publications on PC development. The leading country (by raw score) is then considered as the reference point against which all other countries are measured. Different weightings are applied to resources (75%) and vitality (25%). From this, an overall ranking is constructed. The U.K. achieved the highest level of development (86% of the maximum possible score), followed by Belgium and overall The Netherlands (81%), and Sweden (80%). In the resources domain, Luxembourg, the U.K., and Belgium were leading. The top countries in vitality were Germany and the U.K. In comparison to 2007, The Netherlands, Malta, and Portugal showed the biggest improvements, whereas the positions of Spain, France, and Greece deteriorated. The ranking method permitted a comparison of palliative care development between countries and shows changes over time. Recommendations for improving the ranking include improvements to the methodology and greater explanation of the levels and changes it reveals. Copyright © 2016 Universidad Navarra. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rehm, Jürgen; Scafato, Emanuele
Alcohol is a major risk factor for burden of disease and injury in Europe, and contributes markedly to between region differences in life expectancy. Monitoring and surveillance systems have shown to be a key factor in implementing effective policies. The aim of this paper is to propose a system of indicators for alcohol consumption and attributable harm which can be used as an over-time monitoring tool at the country level as well as for comparisons between countries. A systematic research in electronic data bases was conducted but most of the information was derived from ongoing international efforts to establish alcohol monitoring and surveillance systems. European Union. Countries. Exposure to alcohol, mortality, burden of disease. Adult per capita alcohol consumption, prevalence of abstention, and frequency of drinking more than 60 g pure alcohol in one occasion are proposed as a minimal set of alcohol exposure indicators, which can quickly be implemented in all EU countries. With respect to health harm indicators, the best minimal choice which can be implemented quickly in all countries of the EU would be alcohol-attributable years of life lost due to premature death. In addition, country specific indicators could be added, when alcohol places specific burden on specific diseases. National and European Union-wide monitoring systems for alcohol exposure and attributable harm to inform public health-related policy decisions could be implemented easily. The establishement of such monitoring systems would follow the recent World Assembly resolution for a global strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G
Policymakers and researchers frequently compare the prices of medicines between countries. Such comparisons often serve as barometers of how pricing and reimbursement policies are performing. The aim of this study was to examine methodological challenges to comparing generic drug prices. We calculated all commonly used price indices based on 2013 IMS Health data on sales of 3156 generic drugs in seven European countries. There were large differences in generic drug prices between countries. However, the results varied depending on the choice of index, base country, unit of volume, method of currency conversion, and therapeutic category. The results also differed depending on whether one looked at the prices charged by manufacturers or those charged by pharmacists. Price indices are a useful statistical approach for comparing drug prices across countries, but researchers and policymakers should interpret price indices with caution given their limitations. Price-index results are highly sensitive to the choice of method and sample. More research is needed to determine the drivers of price differences between countries. The data suggest that some governments should aim to reduce distribution costs for generic drugs.
Eslami, Bahareh; Viitasara, Eija; Macassa, Gloria; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Lindert, Jutta; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Barros, Henrique; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Soares, Joaquim J F
To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics). This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60-84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain. High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse is a considerable public health problem warranting further longitudinal studies. Country of residence is an independent factor associated with all types of elder abuse which highlights the importance of national interventions alongside international collaborations.
Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Joossens, Luk; Maes, Lea
To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. Twenty-nine European countries. A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking, including daily smoking (dichotomous). Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls) were found. In the final multi-level model for boys, besides the significance of the individual variables such as family affluence, country-level affluence and the legality of vending machines were related significantly to regular smoking [b(country affluence) = -0.010; b(partial restriction vending machines) = -0.366, P vending machines had a borderline significance in the final model [b(total ban vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should address this issue.
Persico Tony Ernesto
Full Text Available In this paper Okunâ€™s law is tested for six European selected countries in order to compare the responsiveness of unemployment to economic growth over the period 1981-2010. In the first section there is a survey of scientific works that have observed the empirical relationship between growth and unemployment. The countries selected are representative of different socio-economic contexts today existing in Europe, i.e. EU member countries, countries that adopt the Euro, and others which are candidates to join the EU or that although EU members have chosen not to adopt the Euro. Finally, we also refer to the U.S. and Canada, which are country-systems where the regularity of Okunâ€™s rule of thumb was conceived. In particular, we intend to represent the data of the macroeconomic variables GDP and unemployment rate in their annual variations for a time series sufficiently long to show the occurrence of the supposed regularity, and then to investigate specific cases, which represent changes compared to the expected variations. In addition to any changes occurred over time in the studied relationship, these empirical observations, along with the reported literature, will help to draw conclusions about the differences regarding the inflexibility and responsiveness to changes in the aggregated output by the labor market of the countries involved in the study.
Inger Synnøve Moan
Full Text Available Objective This study addresses how experienced harm from other people's drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1 the prevalence of experienced harm and 2 the correlates of harm. Method The data comprise 18ȓ69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. Results This study shows that harms from other's drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. Conclusions The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design.
Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio
This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.
Peters, Tricia; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W; Gradmark, Anna; Tormo Diaz, Maria Jose; Huerta, Jose Maria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Vigl, Mattheaus; Boeing, Heiner; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Spijkerman, Annemieke; Benjaminsen-Borch, Kristin; Valanou, Elisavet; de Lauzon Guillain, Blandine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Sharp, Stephen; Kerrison, Nicola; Langenberg, Claudia; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Gonzales, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy; Khaw, Kay Tee; May, Anne; Nilsson, Peter; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Slimani, Nadia; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Feskins, Edith; Riboli, Elio; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nick
To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (σ) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I(2) = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I(2) > 48%, P 47%, P PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research.
Guillaume, Elodie; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pina, Maria Fatima de; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy
Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries-Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Silbermann, Michael; Daher, Michel; Kebudi, Rejin; Nimri, Omar; Al-Jadiry, Mazin; Baider, Lea
Until very recently, health care in conflict settings was based on a model developed in the second half of the twentieth century. Things have changed, and present civil wars, such as those that are currently taking place in the Middle East, do not address the complexity of the ongoing armed conflicts in countries such as Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. These conflicts have caused a significant increase in the number of refugees in the region, as well as in Europe. Hundreds of thousands of refugees succeed in settling in mid- and north-European countries, and their health issues are becoming of great importance. Refugees in Europe in the twenty-first century do not suffer so much from infectious diseases but more from noninfectious chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiac disease, and cancer. These facts profoundly alter the demographics and disease burden of hostility-derived migrants. Thus, host European countries face situations they have never faced before. Hence, new approaches and strategies are urgently needed to cope with this new situation. The efforts to absorb refugees of different traditions and cultural backgrounds often cause increasing ethnic and religious tensions, which frequently escort the emergence of social violence. To date, little attention has been paid to the overall load of distress being experienced, especially among the first-generation refugees. The current ongoing hostilities in the Middle East induce a long-term health impact on people expelled from their homes, communities, traditions, and cultural environment. The realization of collective suffering forces communities and governmental health agencies to develop new programs that include social determinants to overcome the severe cultural gaps of the newcomers in their new European host countries.
Full Text Available Die Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung und die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter sind zentrale Bestandteile europäischer Direktive. Der Expertenbericht der Europäischen Kommission bietet nun eine Zusammenfassung über die gegenwärtigen Praktiken flexibler Arbeitszeitmodelle in den 27 EU-Ländern und drei EWR-EFTA-Staaten und stellt deren Auswirkungen auf die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter dar. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf der internen Flexibilität, was einesteils die flexible Gestaltung der Arbeitsdauer beinhaltet und anderenteils die flexible Organisation der Arbeitszeit. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass beide Größen wichtige Voraussetzungen für den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung darstellen. Es zeigt sich allerdings auch, dass eine zunehmende Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung den Frauen auch zum Nachteil gereichen kann.Flexibilizing the organization of working hours and treating all genders as equals are central constituents of the European directives. The European Commission’s expert report does now offer a summary of the current practices of flexible work time in the 27 EU countries and three EEA-EFTA countries and portrays their effects on equal opportunities for all genders. Special attention is paid to internal flexibility, both with regard to the flexible realization of the work duration and the flexible organization of working hours. The results imply that both components are important prerequisites for economic advancement. However, it can also be seen that an increased flexibilization of the organization of working hours can lead to disadvantages for women.
Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J
Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.
Kaufmann, Maria; Wiering, Mark
Flood risks are managed differently across Europe. While a number of research studies aim to understand these differences, they tend to pay little attention to the social constructionist aspects of flood risk governance, i.e. the meaning that societies give to flood risk and governance. This paper aims to address this gap by understanding differences in flood risk management approaches (FRMA) from a discursive-institutional perspective. Based on this perspective, an analytical framework was developed to systematically analyse and compare discourses pertaining to flood risk and its governance in six European member states (England (the United Kingdom), Flanders (Belgium), France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). Correspondingly, this paper demonstrates how the hegemonic discursive-institutional patterns of flood risk governance differ between the six European countries. These differences may influence the capability of countries to learn from each other, adopt new FRMAs or cooperate with each other. Moreover, the paper argues that differences in discourses partially account for the differences in FRMAs between countries, combined with other factors. Additionally, broader implications are discussed. For example, the research findings imply that some discourses tend to favour or disfavour other discourses, and that they additionally also tend to favour particular FRMAs; e.g. the flood risk discourse pertaining to high manageability of risks seems to favour a governance discourse of collectivity and central governance. The different insights imply that further research is necessary to understand the complex interaction of discourses and institutional arrangements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriana TIRON TUDOR
Full Text Available Performance measurement provides an objective basis for evaluating how efficiently public resources are being used and how effectively public service outcomes are being achieved. It is a process used to support government selfanalysis and provide a basis for more informed and publicly defensible decision-making. In this context an important role is reserved to performance external audit performed by external audit institutions. The performance audit analyses the quality of financial administration from the point of view of the three elements of performance: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We intend to realize a comparative study for some Eastern European countries regarding the performance audit, knowing the fact that since countries differ at the level of individual reforms, there is no single model of reform. Nonetheless, reform strategies have many points in common emphasizing the international character of public management reform. By cross-national comparisons we intend to analyze the impact of implementing the new performance audit in certain Eastern European Countries, and in Romania, focused on the external audit institutions.
Harasymiuk, Jolanta; Tadeusz Barski, Janusz
According to the ESAW1, an accident at work is an event that results in physical or mental harm to the person doing the work. As a result of this incident, fatal accidents may occur (which in the course of one year lead to death of the victim) or non-fatal accidents (that imply at least four full calendar days of absence from work). In the paper the authors present the number and the analysis of the causes of accidents at work in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014 in 28 countries of the European Union. The descriptive statistics method was used to achieve the intended goal. The accident rate indicator for individual European Union countries has been shown in the analyzed period. The structure and trends of accidents during the period under investigation, divided into two groups: fatal accidents and non-fatal accidents, were presented. Both groups were analyzed for what caused them and what factors affected the quantity (Age of the victim, work experience, month of occurrence). On the basis of the analyzed causes and factors causing accidents in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014, the classification of EU countries has been shown in terms of accidents. The paper was concluded with a summary.
Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge
The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.
Ciarreta, A.; Zarraga, A.
This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.
Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de
Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de
van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard
interventions on broiler farms in six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom. The cost-effectiveness ratio of an intervention was the estimated costs of the intervention divided by the estimated public health benefits due to the intervention, and was expressed......Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter...... in euro per avoided disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Interventions were selected on the basis of a European risk factor study and other risk factor research. A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention, if it would be implemented on all...
Sözen, Seval; Avcioglu, Ebru; Ozabali, Asli; Görgun, Erdem; Orhon, Derin
Water Framework Directive aiming to maintain and improve the aquatic environment in the EU was launched by the European Parliament in 2000. According to this directive, control of quantity is an ancillary element in securing good water quality and therefore measures on quantity, serving the objective of ensuring good quality should also be established. Accordingly, it is a comprehensive and coordinated package that will ensure all European waters to be protected according to a common standard. Therefore, it refers to all other Directives related to water resources management such as Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive Nitrates Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Integrated Pollution Prevention Control etc. Turkey, as a candidate state targeting full-membership, should comply the necessary preparations for the implementation of the "Water Framework Directive" as soon as possible. In this study, the necessary legislative, political, institutional, and technical attempts of the pre-accession countries have been discussed and effective recommendations have been offered for future activities in Turkey.
Rathner, G; Túry, F; Szabó, P
The authors summarize the Central and East European epidemiological data of eating disorders. These demonstrate that eating disorders are not exclusively characteristic to Western societies. In this respect the comparison of newer data to those which were performed before the political changes in 1989-1990 is especially valuable. Formerly in a Hungarian university sample the prevalence of bulimia was 1-1.3% among females, 0-0.8% among males, and this was higher than the prevalence of 0.6% in Austrian females, or 0% in German Democratic Republic. After the social changes similar data were found in several East European countries. This corroborates the culture-change idea of eating disorders. The transition to a Western market economy and the process of globalization is an experiment to evaluate the effect of sociocultural factors. The values and norms (e.g. thinness ideal) come closer to the Western culture, and mass media have a significant impact in this process.
Regber, Susann; Novak, Masuma; Eiben, Gabriele
What is already known about this subject: Parents of children with overweight and obesity tend to underestimate their children's weight. Most studies show no association between parental education level and accurate parental perception of a child's weight category. Studies show no consistent...... relationship between parental weight perception and the child's gender. What this study adds: Parental underestimation of children's weight category for children in the overweight and obesity categories was found across eight European countries. Regional differences indicated a more accurate parental weight...... perception in Northern and Central Europe. A high proportion of parents in Southern Europe were concerned about future underweight or overweight in their children. Objectives: To evaluate parental perceptions of and concern about child's body weight and general health in children in a European cohort. Design...
Neubert, Antje; Hsia, Yingfen; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Janhsen, Katrin; Glaeske, Gerd; Furu, Kari; Kieler, Helle; Nørgaard, Mette; Clavenna, Antonio; Wong, Ian C K
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diabetes in children across seven European countries, when using prescribing of anti-diabetics as a proxy for diabetes. A secondary aim was to assess the potential for collaboration between countries using different databases in diabetes research. Data were obtained from population-based clinical databases in seven European countries. The study population comprised children aged 0-18 years. Prescriptions were categorized using the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. The one-year user prevalence in 2008 was calculated for each country and stratified by age and sex. We studied a total of 5.8 million children and adolescents. The prevalence of insulin prescribing varied between 1.1 and 3.5 per 1000 population, being highest in Sweden and lowest in Italy. In all countries, novel insulin analogues were the most commonly used insulins. The prevalence of oral anti-diabetic prescribing ranged from 0.08 per 1000 individuals in Sweden and Germany to 0.21 per 1000 population in the UK. Overall, the absolute number of oral anti-diabetic users was very low. This study shows that there is a varying frequency of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents across Europe. We also demonstrated that it is possible to obtain similar information from different clinical databases within Europe, which would allow continuous monitoring of type 1 diabetes. Owing to the lack of indications in most of the databases, this approach is less suitable for type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
Full Text Available Background: Evolutionary theory predicts that grandparental investment should support the childbearing of adult children, but evidence from contemporary developed countries is mixed or relatively weak. One possible reason for this lack of clarity is that grandparental support for fertility may vary by country, the economic situation of the adult child's household, and the lineage and the sex of the grandparent. Objective: We investigate the associations between grandparental investments and the intentions of mothers to have a second or third child in four European countries - Bulgaria, France, Lithuania, and Norway - while paying special attention to effect of the country, the financial security of the household, and the different grandparent types. Methods: Using the first wave data (2004-08 of the Generations and Gender Surveys, we measured grandparental investment by the amount of child care help and emotional support mothers reported receiving from their parents. We studied these factors with binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Both emotional support and child care help from grandparents were associated with increased fertility intentions in France and Norway. Emotional support was also associated with increased fertility intentions in Bulgaria, while grandparental child care help was associated with decreased intentions in Lithuania. Emotional support was more strongly associated with fertility intentions in financially secure households. Emotional support received from a maternal grandmother, a maternal grandfather, and a paternal grandmother; and child care help received from a maternal grandfather; were associated with an increased probability that a mother would report the intention to have another child. Conclusions: Grandparental investment, especially emotional support, appears to be most influential in wealthier European countries and among more financially secure families. When a family's socioeconomic situation and the
Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.
Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio
The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Roskam, Albert-Jan R; Kunst, Anton E; Van Oyen, Herman; Demarest, Stefaan; Klumbiene, Jurate; Regidor, Enrique; Helmert, Uwe; Jusot, Florence; Dzurova, Dagmar; Mackenbach, Johan P
In Western societies, a lower educational level is often associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, there may be important international differences in the strength and direction of this relationship, perhaps in respect of differing levels of socio-economic development. We aimed to describe educational inequalities in overweight and obesity across Europe, and to explore the contribution of level of socio-economic development to cross-national differences in educational inequalities in overweight and obese adults in Europe. Cross-sectional data, based on self-reports, were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries (N = 127 018; age range = 25-44 years). Height and weight data were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Multivariate regression analysis was employed to measure educational inequalities in overweight and obesity, based on BMI. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was used as a measure of level of socio-economic development. Inverse educational gradients in overweight and obesity (i.e. higher education, less overweight and obesity) are a generalized phenomenon among European men and even more so among women. Baltic and eastern European men were the exceptions, with weak positive associations between education and overweight and obesity. Educational inequalities in overweight and obesity were largest in Mediterranean women. A 10 000-euro increase in GDP was related to a 3% increase in overweight and obesity for low-educated men, but a 4% decrease for high-educated men. No associations with GDP were observed for women. In most European countries, people of lower educational attainment are now most likely to be overweight or obese. An increasing level of socio-economic development was associated with an emergence of inequalities among men, and a persistence of these inequalities among women.
van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.
Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.
Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient among 25 European countries, using multilevel models. The focus is on the chances of living in a marital (or cohabiting) union during midlife (ages 40-49). Multilevel analyses show that the direction and strength of the gradient depend on the societal context. In countries where gender roles are traditional, better-educated women are less likely to be married than less-educated women; in gender-egalitarian countries, better-educated women are more likely to be married. For men, the educational effect on marriage is absent in traditional countries but becomes positive as gender roles become more equal. Inequality in a society also modifies the gradient: if the degree of economic inequality between educational groups in a society is strong, better-educated men are more likely to be married than less-educated men. In general, the results suggest that there may be an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages for the less well educated in more-developed countries.
Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I
This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuijpers, Johannes Cornelis; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Need, Ariana
There are significant cross-national difference in tobacco legislation across European countries. Tobacco activism and the counter mobilized tobacco industry may influence legislation and explain these differences. Social movement theories extensively studied the political influence of activists
Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source
Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.
The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of
Poínhos, Rui; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Rankin, Audrey; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Bunting, Brendan; Kuznesof, Sharron; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Frewer, Lynn J.
Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants’ perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection), higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries. Conclusion The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers’ personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised
Monika Ewa Piątkowska
Full Text Available Physical inactivity has become a serious public health problem as it contributes to major non-communicable diseases. Increasing activity levels has beneficial effects on musculoskeletal health and mental health as well. In Poland there are a few studies which refer to the physical activity (PA of the overall society and which are based on an international questionnaire, thus enabling comparative analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the PA level of the Polish society and to examine fields of their activity and intensity of them in order to compare the data with fifteen European countries. A survey based on computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI was carried out in Poland in November 2006. A random sample of Polish adults (n=1028 was selected and divided according to demographic criteria. PA was estimated by a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. In the last seven days 53.4�0of the Polish society reported no vigorous PA whereas in the European sample the percentage was significantly higher (57.4% For the PA of moderate level of intensity 39.8% of the Polish respondents reported no such PA; in the European sample the percentage was 40.8%. Only 12.8% of the Polish respondents reported not having walked in the past week, whereas in the EU the percentage was 17.1%. It must be noted that in all aspects the results were varied in the studied countries. These observations indicate a need for urgent actions to promote HEPA across EU member countries and in particular the least active member states. The present study is the first referring to PA of the whole Polish population, based on a representative sample and an international standardised questionnaire. The data confirm that the PA level of the Polish society is not as low as it has been shown in many studies.
Szymańska, Agata; Zalewska, Elżbieta
The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been...
Teachers are significantly more likely to develop multiple voice problems than non-teachers. The article presents methods for the diagnoses and treatment of occupational dysphonia in different countries of the European Union and throughout the world. Conclusions comprise the implications concerning the model of dysphonic teachers management in Poland, putting strong emphasis on the necessity for multidimensional therapy in collaboration with otolaryngologist/phoniatrician, logopedist/speech therapist and also psychologist/physiotherapist. The importance of training professional voice users in vocal hygiene and healthy voice habits has also been emphasized.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest that changes in both monetary drivers have significant effects on deposit euroization and are therefore important for explaining and fighting deposit euroization. Differences between exchange rate regimes, fixed and managed vs. floating, seem to matter for deposit euroization.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in six European countries. POPULATION: In total 6923 pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were...
Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.
Van der Zee Jouke
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gain insight into the international development of GP incomes over time through a comparative approach. The study is an extension of an earlier work (1975–1990, conducted in five yearly intervals. The research questions to be addressed in this paper are: 1 How can the remuneration system of GPs in a country be characterized? 2 How has the annual GP income developed over time in selected European countries? 3 What are the differences in GP incomes when differences in workload are taken into account? And 4 to what extent do remuneration systems, supply of GPs and gate-keeping contribute to the income position of GPs? Methods Data were collected for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Written sources, websites and country experts were consulted. The data for the years 1995 and 2000 were collected in 2004–2005. The data for 2005 were collected in 2006–2007. Results During the period 1975–1990, the income of GPs, corrected for inflation, declined in all the countries under review. During the period 1995–2005, the situation changed significantly: The income of UK GPs rose to the very top position. Besides this, the gap between the top end (UK and bottom end (Belgium widened considerably. Practice costs form about 50% of total revenues, regardless of the absolute level of revenues. Analysis based on income per patient leads to a different ranking of countries compared to the ranking based on annual income. In countries with a relatively large supply of GPs, income per hour is lower. The type of remuneration appeared to have no effect on the financial position of the GPs in the countries in this study. In countries with a gate-keeping system the average GP income was systematically higher compared to countries with a direct-access system. Conclusion There are substantial differences in the income of GPs among the countries included in this study. The
Kroneman, Madelon W; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groot, Wim
This study aims to gain insight into the international development of GP incomes over time through a comparative approach. The study is an extension of an earlier work (1975-1990, conducted in five yearly intervals). The research questions to be addressed in this paper are: 1) How can the remuneration system of GPs in a country be characterized? 2) How has the annual GP income developed over time in selected European countries? 3) What are the differences in GP incomes when differences in workload are taken into account? And 4) to what extent do remuneration systems, supply of GPs and gate-keeping contribute to the income position of GPs? Data were collected for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Written sources, websites and country experts were consulted. The data for the years 1995 and 2000 were collected in 2004-2005. The data for 2005 were collected in 2006-2007. During the period 1975-1990, the income of GPs, corrected for inflation, declined in all the countries under review. During the period 1995-2005, the situation changed significantly: The income of UK GPs rose to the very top position. Besides this, the gap between the top end (UK) and bottom end (Belgium) widened considerably. Practice costs form about 50% of total revenues, regardless of the absolute level of revenues. Analysis based on income per patient leads to a different ranking of countries compared to the ranking based on annual income. In countries with a relatively large supply of GPs, income per hour is lower. The type of remuneration appeared to have no effect on the financial position of the GPs in the countries in this study. In countries with a gate-keeping system the average GP income was systematically higher compared to countries with a direct-access system. There are substantial differences in the income of GPs among the countries included in this study. The discrepancy between countries has increased over time. The income of
Zoi Dorothea Pana
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Methods Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™ were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Results Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries. Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 % of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %, other malignancies (6.3 %, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %, solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %; in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %, skin and soft tissues (19 %, paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 % and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %. Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %. Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %, Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %, Mucor spp. (12.7 %, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 % and unspecified (23.8 %. Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined
Papadourakis, George M.; Natsika, Christina; Magnan, Myrna; Barsics, Joseph
VALEURTECH is a pilot project under the European Commission's Leonardo II programme. It includes 35 partners from higher education institutions and professional organizations in eight European countries and has the major objectives: of (a) setting up a homogeneous "labelling" process, such as a diploma supplement, based on a common…
van den Akker, Hanneke; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Scheepers, Peer
In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel
Akker, H.M. van den; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.
In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel
The EU has ambitious targets for the introduction of PV. According to the white book of the European Commission, the target for 2010 is to install 3000 MWp. In the following the European PV markets of the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland are presented and evaluated for potential investors. (author)
de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine
A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period f......, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union....
Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja
It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a
Tymoshenko Olena V.
Full Text Available The fundamental contradictions of existing methodical approaches to assessing the level of the state economic security have been substantiated and proposals on the introduction of a unified methodology for its assessment, which would be acceptable for use at the international level or for a specific cluster of countries, have been developed. Based on the conducted researches it has been found that the there are no unified signs for such classification of countries. To determine the most significant coefficients and critical values of the indicators of economic security, it is appropriate that the countries should be grouped in terms of the level of the economic development proposed by the UN Commission and the IMF. Analysis of the economic security level has been conducted for the countries-members of the European Union as a separate cluster of countries on the example of macroeconomic security indicators. Based on the evaluation it has been found that the proposed list of indicators and their critical values is economically sound and built on the principle of adequacy, representativeness and comprehensiveness. In 2004 the most secure countries of the EU corresponding to the macroeconomic security standards were Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and as in 2014 the percentage of absolutely secure countries decreased from 14.3 to 7.1%, only Denmark and Sweden remained in the ranking. During the analyzed period Bulgaria and Croatia got into the risk zone, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania were in a danger zone. In 2014 Ukraine in terms of its macroeconomic security was in a critical state, which testified about serious structural and system imbalances in its development.
Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din
In recent years, high-cost medicines have increasingly been challenging the public health budget in all countries including high-income economies. In this context, this study aims to survey, analyze and compare prices of medicines that likely contribute to high expenditure for the public payers in high-income countries. We chose the following 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain and United Kingdom. The ex-factory price data of 30 medicines in these countries were collected in national databases accessible through the Pharmaceutical Price Information (PPI) service of Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (Austrian Public Health Institute). The ex-factory prices (median) per unit (e.g. per tablet, vial) ranged from 10.67 cent (levodopa + decarboxylase inhibitor) to 17,000 euro (ipilimumab). A total of 53% of the medicines surveyed had a unit ex-factory price (median) above 200 Euro. For two thirds of the medicines, price differences between the highest-priced country and lowest-priced country ranged between 25 and 100%; the remaining medicines, mainly low-priced medicines, had higher price differential, up to 251%. Medicines with unit prices of a few euros or less were medicines for the treatment of diseases in the nervous system (anti-depressants, medicines to treat Parkinson and for the management of neuropathic pain), of obstructive airway diseases and cardio-vascular medicines (lipid modifying agents). High-priced medicines were particularly cancer medicines. Medicine prices of Greece, Hungary, Slovakia and UK were frequently at the lower end, German and Swedish, as well as Danish and Irish prices at the upper end. For high-priced medicines, actual paid prices are likely to be lower due to confidential discounts and similar funding arrangements between industry and public payers. Pricing authorities refer to the higher undiscounted prices when they use
Full Text Available Job characteristics (both external and job content in Spanish migrant population in European countries (The United Kingdom and Germany and their connection with the three dimensions of burnout syndrome were analyzed in this study. It was also assessed whether these variables were predictors of life satisfaction. Using a sample made up of 679 people, results showed that the worse the job characteristics (external and job content characteristics, the higher the levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism and the lower the professional efficacy (and vice versa. Likewise, among other findings, differences in burnout dimensions and job content characteristics according to the match between job and training level and time of residence in the country of destination were observed. Finally, job characteristics, cynicism, and professional efficacy were found to be predictors of life satisfaction, but not emotional exhaustion.
Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries
Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary; Borras, Josep M.; Dunscombe, Peter; Slotman, Ben; Malicki, Julian; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Grau, Cai; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Coucke, Philippe; Gabrovski, Roumen; Vosmik, Milan; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Dejean, Catherine; Polgar, Csaba
Background: The ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (HERO) project has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The first milestone was to assess the availability of radiotherapy resources within Europe. This paper presents the personnel data collected in the ESTRO HERO database. Materials and methods: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy staffing (questionnaire items 47–60), analysed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis was conducted between February and July 2014, and is based on validated responses from 24 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). Results: A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. Averages and ranges for personnel numbers per million inhabitants are 12.8 (2.5–30.9) for radiation oncologists, 7.6 (0–19.7) for medical physicists, 3.5 (0–12.6) for dosimetrists, 26.6 (1.9–78) for RTTs and 14.8 (0.4–61.0) for radiotherapy nurses. The combined average for physicists and dosimetrists is 9.8 per million inhabitants and 36.9 for RTT and nurses. Radiation oncologists on average treat 208.9 courses per year (range: 99.9–348.8), physicists and dosimetrists conjointly treat 303.3 courses (range: 85–757.7) and RTT and nurses 76.8 (range: 25.7–156.8). In countries with higher GNI per capita, all personnel categories treat fewer courses per annum than in less affluent countries. This relationship is most evident for RTTs and nurses. Different clusters of countries can be distinguished on the basis of available personnel resources and socio-economic status. Conclusions: The average personnel
Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.
Kulczycki, Emanuel; Engels, Tim; Polonen, Janne
This study investigates patterns in the language and type of social sciences and humanities (SSH) publications in non-English speaking European countries to demonstrate that such patterns are related not only to discipline but also to each country’s cultural and historic heritage. We investigate...... publication patterns that occur across SSH publications of the whole of the SSH and of economics and business, law, and philosophy and theology publications in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We use data from 74,022 peer-reviewed publications...... from 2014registered in at least one of the eight countries’ national databases and for 272,376 peer- reviewed publications from the period of 2011–2014 registered in at least one of the seven countries’ national databases (for all countries except Slovakia). Our findings show that publication patterns...
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...
Gabriela Lucia SIPOS
Full Text Available Innovation represents a widely debated topic in the context of current economy, being an opportunity to achieve corporate competitiveness within an environment of uncertainty. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of different innovation types on the innovative performance in the case of 31 European countries, using the simple and the multiple linear regressions across countries. In this regard we have considered different types of innovation, such as product, process, marketing and organizational innovation, while the innovative performance was synthetically expressed by Summary Innovation Index 2013.The main result of our study is that in order to achieve high innovative performance it is necessarily to implement product and process innovation simultaneously with organizational and marketing innovation. Thus, the findings of this paper can represent a guidance for companies to identify the most appropriate types of innovation that have the greatest influence on achieving high innovative performance.
Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.
Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.
Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.
Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo
This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Lillington, J.N.; Turland, B.D.; Haste, T.J.; Seiler, J.M.; Tapia, J.; Carretero, A.; Perez, T.; Geutges, A.; Sehgal, B.R.; Mattila, L.; Holmstrom, H.; Karwat, H.; Maroti, L.; Husarcek, J.
The main objective was to advise the EC on future challenges and opportunities in terms of enhanced co-operation in the area of nuclear safety and harmonization of safety requirements and practices in an enlarged European Union Part of this activity was to provide a summary of the plant characteristics of the operating civil nuclear power plants in the EU Member and Candidate Countries. The present report provides these data in three formats: A reference table which lists the main characteristics of nuclear power-producing reactors operating in the European Union (EU) and Candidate Countries, as at 31 December 1999. Also included, for the sake of completeness, are data for reactors in the former Soviet Union, such as Russia and the Ukraine. The format adopted follows that in the annual International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference data report ''Nuclear Power Reactors of the World'', from which much of the information was taken; A summary table indicating totals by reactor type covering Western and Eastern Europe separately, again from IAEA sources, giving number of plant, total generating capacity and total years in operation. A list of the abbreviations for different reactor types is also provided; A set of detailed data sheets giving main plant characteristics for different reactor types ordered by country. These data sheets cover reactors in EU Member and Candidate Countries only. Details are provided on the origin of the data where these are available, so that further information may be obtained if desired and where permitted by commercial and/or proprietary considerations. (author)
Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F
During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Full Text Available This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano
Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective was to identify the main factors influencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientific advisory bodies (n=24 and governmental organisations (n=19 participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6, industry (n=4 or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5. Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors influencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations from national bodies (Science area; scientific recommendations from international authorities and experiences of other countries, EU legislation, cultural factors (Wider context and political environment, national capacity to deal with the problem, national legislation, economics, stakeholder engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area. The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well as the point of view (who is expressing the opinion.
Campos-Matos, Inês; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro
Generalized interpersonal trust (as an indicator of social capital) has been linked to health status at both the individual and ecological level. We sought to examine how changes in contextual and individual trust are associated with changes in self-rated health in the European Social Surveys 2002-12. A multilevel analysis using a variance components model was performed on 203 452 individuals nested within 145 country cohorts covering 35 countries. Conditional on sociodemographic covariates, we sought to examine the association between self-rated health and individual trust, country average trust and a cross-level interaction between the two. Although individual trust perceptions were significantly correlated with self-rated health [OR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (0.94-0.96)], country-level trust was not associated [OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.32)]. There was, however, a strong crosslevel interaction between contextual and individual trust (P < 0.001), such that individuals with high interpersonal trust reported better health in contexts in which other individuals expressed high average interpersonal trust. Conversely, low trust individuals reported worse health in high trust contexts. Our findings suggest that contexts with increasing average trust can be harmful for low trust individuals, which might reflect the negative impact that social capital can have in certain groups. These findings suggest that contextual trust has a complex role in explaining health inequalities and individual self-rated health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hetem, D J; Derde, L P G; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Kozińska, A; Hryniewicz, W; Goossens, H; Bonten, M J M
The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. Surveillance cultures for MRSA from nose and wounds were obtained on admission and twice weekly from all patients admitted to an ICU for ≥3 days. The first MRSA isolate per patient was genotyped in a central laboratory by MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec (sub)typing. Risk factors for patients with an unknown history of MRSA colonization were identified. Overall, 14 390 ICU patients were screened, of whom 8519 stayed in an ICU for ≥3 days. Overall MRSA admission prevalence was 3.9% and ranged from 1.0% to 7.0% for individual ICUs. Overall MRSA acquisition rate was 2.5/1000 patient days at risk and ranged from 0.2 to 8/1000 patient days at risk per ICU. In total, 557 putative MRSA isolates were submitted to the central laboratory for typing, of which 511 (92%) were confirmed as MRSA. Each country had a distinct epidemiology, with ST8-IVc (UK-EMRSA-2/-6, USA500) being most prevalent, especially in France and Spain, and detected in ICUs in five of eight countries. Seventeen (3%) and three (70 years and hospitalization within 1 year prior to ICU admission. The molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 European ICUs in eight countries was homogeneous within, but heterogeneous between, countries. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA genotypes and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing isolates were detected sporadically. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Orton, Lois; Hawkes, Corinna; Taylor-Robinson, David; O'Flaherty, Martin; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Hyseni, Lirije; Moonan, May; Rayner, Mike; Capewell, Simon
Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries. National nutrition policies were classified and assigned using the marketing "4 Ps" approach Product (reformulation, elimination, new healthier products); Price (taxes, subsidies); Promotion (advertising, food labelling, health education) and Place (schools, workplaces, etc.). We interviewed 71 senior policy-makers, public health nutrition policy experts and academics from 14 of the 30 countries, eliciting their views on diverse current and possible nutrition strategies. Product Voluntary reformulation of foods is widespread but has variable and often modest impact. Twelve countries regulate maximum salt content in specific foods. Denmark, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland have effective trans fats bans. Price EU School Fruit Scheme subsidies are almost universal, but with variable implementation.Taxes are uncommon. However, Finland, France, Hungary and Latvia have implemented 'sugar taxes' on sugary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Finland, Hungary and Portugal also tax salty products. Promotion Dialogue, recommendations, nutrition guidelines, labelling, information and education campaigns are widespread. Restrictions on marketing to children are widespread but mostly voluntary. Place Interventions reducing the availability of unhealthy foods were most commonly found in schools and workplace canteens. Interviewees generally considered mandatory reformulation more effective than voluntary, and regulation and fiscal interventions much more effective than information strategies, but also politically more challenging. Public health nutrition
Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus
Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero
Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the
Altobelli, Emma; D'Aloisio, Francesco; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo
To provide an update on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes in non-European Union (EU)-28 Council of Europe member states as of December 2015. The mission of the Council of Europe is to protect and promote human rights in its 47 member countries. Its 19 non-EU member states are Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Georgia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Republic of Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Norway, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Switzerland, FYR of Macedonia, Turkey, and Ukraine (EU-19). The main data source were GLOBOCAN, IARC, WHO, EUCAN, NORDCAN, ENCR, volume X of the CI5, the ministerial and Public Health Agency websites of the individual countries, PubMed, EMBASE, registries of some websites and the www.cochranelibrary.com, Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, Research gate, Google and data extracted from screening programme results. Our results show that epidemiological data quality varies broadly between EU-28 and EU-19 countries. In terms of incidence, only 30% of EU-19 countries rank high in data quality as opposed to 86% of EU-28 states. The same applies to mortality data, since 52% of EU-19 countries as against all EU-28 countries are found in the high ranks. Assessment of the method of collection of incidence data showed that only 32% of EU-19 countries are found in the top three quality classes as against 89% of EU-28 countries. For the mortality data, 63% of EU-19 countries are found in the highest ranks as opposed to all EU-28 member states. Interestingly, comparison of neighbouring countries offering regional screening shows, for instance, that incidence and mortality rates are respectively 38.9 and 13.0 in Norway and 29.2 and 10.9 in Sweden, whereas in Finland, where a national organised programme is available, they are respectively 23.5 and 9.3. Cancer screening should be viewed as a key health care tool, also because investing in screening protects the weakest in
Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan
Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093
Edworthy, Rachel; Sampson, Stephanie; Völlm, Birgit
Laws governing the detention and treatment of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) vary widely across Europe, yet little information is available about the features of these laws and their comparative advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to compare the legal framework governing detention in forensic psychiatric care in three European countries with long-established services for MDOs, England, Germany and the Netherlands. A literature review was conducted alongside consultation with experts from each country. We found that the three countries differ in several areas, including criteria for admission, review of detention, discharge process, the concept of criminal responsibility, service provision and treatment philosophy. Our findings suggest a profound difference in how each country relates to MDOs, with each approach contributing to different pathways and potentially different outcomes for the individual. Hopefully making these comparisons will stimulate debate and knowledge exchange on an international level to aid future research and the development of best practice in managing this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wietschel, Martin; Seydel, Philipp
The two objectives of this paper are to identify possible sectoral shifts and employment effects due to the application of hydrogen in the energy system for selected European countries till 2030. This is based on assumptions about the market penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier, an analysis of the competitiveness of EU countries in this technology field and input-output model calculations. The analysis showed that the introduction of hydrogen leads to significant shifts between economic sectors and, as a policy recommendation, it is concluded that the required workforce skills in hydrogen technologies should be available in time in order to be properly prepared for this. Some employment gains are possible for the EU Member States analysed if the introduction of hydrogen does not result in significant changes in export/import flows. However, the lead market analysis also showed that the competitiveness of EU countries varies significantly and that, viewed as a whole, Europe is in danger of falling behind its main competitors. This may lead to job losses because the industry branches affected - automotive and plant manufacturers - represent key sectors for the EU. One policy goal, therefore, especially for countries with a large share of automobile and plant manufacturing, is to aim to be a lead market for hydrogen and fuel cells. (author)
Full Text Available The manufacturing industry is a key sector in many national economies and is involved in creating sustainable economic growth. At the same time, it is a sector sensitive to internal and external impacts that result in fluctuations in the economic cycle, copying its development or even outstripping the development of economic cycles. The main objective of this contribution was to identify the relationship between manufacturing and GDP, which represents the economic cycle in European Union countries. The time series of selected indicators of the manufacturing industry and GDP from the Eurostat database for Q1 2000-Q4 2016 were used for analysis purposes. An analysis of 296 time series with a quarterly periodicity from 22 EU countries (including the United Kingdom was performed. The results of analyses indicate that the processing industry is a sector with significant cyclical behavior. In most countries, production and sales in the manufacturing industry behaved as concurrent indicators, changes in production and sales almost immediately reflected in the growth or decline in GDP. Labor market indicators have been shown to be delayed cyclical indicators. Changes in the economic development of the countries have a strong impact on employment, the remuneration of employees and the number of hours worked in the sector. Strong cyclical industries must be constantly monitored, as negative changes in these sectors will automatically exacerbate the economic cycle recession. The results of our analyses represent a valuable platform for economic policy makers and regional strategic plans.
Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.
Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev
The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for improving health. A key feature of CRCTs is that individuals in clusters are often more alike than individuals in different clusters, irrespective of treatment. This similarity within clusters needs to be taken into account when planning CRCTs to obtain adequate sample sizes, and when analysing clustered data to obtain correct estimates. Methods: Nationally representative data from 15 to 16 year olds were analysed, from 21 of the 35 countries that participated in the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Within country school level intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for substance use (self-reported alcohol use, regular alcohol use, binge drinking, any smoking, regular smoking, and illicit drug use and psychosocial health (depressive mood and self-esteem. Unadjusted and adjusted ICCs are presented. ICCs are adjusted for student sex and socioeconomic status. Results: ICCs ranged from 0.01 to 0.21, with the highest (0.21 reported for regular smoking. Within country school level ICCs varied substantially across health outcomes, and among countries for the same health outcomes. Estimated ICCs were consistently higher for substance use (range 0.01–0.21, than for psychosocial health (range 0.01–0.07. Within country ICCs for health outcomes varied by changes in the measurement of particular health outcomes, for example the ICCs for regular smoking (range 0.06–0.21 were higher than those for having smoked at all in the last month (range 0.03–0.17. Conclusions: For school level ICCs to be effectively utilised in informing sample size requirements for CRCTs and adjusting estimates from meta-analyses, the school level ICCs need to be both country and outcome specific. Keywords: Intra-class correlation, Schools, Adolescents, Substance use, Mental health
Laanani, Moussa; Ghosn, Walid; Jougla, Eric; Rey, Grégoire
A scientific debate is currently taking place on whether the 2008 economic crisis caused an increase in suicide rates. Our main objective was to assess the impact of unemployment rate on suicide rate in Western European countries between 2000 and 2010. We then tried to estimate the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment during the 2008-2010 economic crisis. The yearly suicide rates were modelled using a quasi-Poisson model, controlling for sex, age, country and a linear time trend. For each country, the unemployment-suicide association was assessed, and the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed, notably in order to evaluate whether the unemployment-suicide association found was biased by a confounding context effect ('crisis effect'). A significant 0.3% overall increase in suicide rate for a 10% increase in unemployment rate (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) was highlighted. This association was significant in three countries: 0.7% (95% CI 0.0% to 1.4%) in the Netherlands, 1.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.8%) in the UK and 1.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 2.9%) in France, with a significant excess number of suicides attributable to unemployment variations between 2008 and 2010 (respectively 57, 456 and 564). The association was modified inconsistently when adding a 'crisis effect' into the model. Unemployment and suicide rates are globally statistically associated in the investigated countries. However, this association is weak, and its amplitude and sensitivity to the 'crisis effect' vary across countries. This inconsistency provides arguments against its causal interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe
This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.
Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.
Petruccelli, Umberto, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.
Full Text Available The gray economy presents the sum of all economic activities over which the modern state has no control, that is, which are on the edge of the law in the so-called grey zone. It is also the part of the economy not covered by official statistics. Therefore, the gray economy is not subject to taxation and does not contribute to the gross domestic product (GDP of the country. The aim of this paper is to present a detailed analysis of the causes and effects of this phenomenon. The paper also emphasizes the great importance of its suppression and control in modern economies. Illegal and partially legal forms of the gray economy cause tax evasion and avoiding the social security contribution payment, disrespect of valid labor standards, avoiding legal business as well as the emergence of market and structural distortions. In this paper, the problem of assessment of the gray economy is viewed through the direct and indirect measurement methods. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages, the causes of this phenomenon are set out in detail. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of ten year data on the gray economy in European countries, with concrete measures to deal with this phenomenon. The unfavorable situation of Serbian gray economy, which is worse than the European and regional average, is presented at the end of this paper.
Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano
Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.
Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin
The relationship between atmospheric conditions and the likelihood of a significant drought impact has, in the past, been difficult to quantify, particularly in Europe where political boundaries and language have made acquiring comprehensive drought impact information difficult. As such, the majority of studies linking meteorological drought with the occurrence or severity of drought impacts have previously focused on specific regions, very detailed impact types, or both. This study describes a new methodology to link the likelihood of drought impact occurrence with climatological drought indices across different European climatic regions and impact sectors using the newly developed European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a collaborative database of drought impact information (www.geo.uio.no/edc/droughtdb/). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) are used as predictor variables to quantify meteorological drought severity over prior time periods (here 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months are used). The indices are derived using the gridded WATCH Forcing Datasets, covering the period 1958-2012. Analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the climatological drought index and accumulation period, or linear combination of drought indices, that best predicts the likelihood of a documented drought impact, defined by monthly presence/absence. The analysis was carried out for a subset of four European countries (Germany, UK, Norway, Slovenia) and four of the best documented impact sectors: Public Water Supply, Agriculture and Livestock Farming, Energy and Industry, and Environmental Quality. Preliminary results show that drought impacts in these countries occur most frequently due to a combination of short-term (2-6 month) precipitation deficits and long-term (12-24 month) potential evapotranspiration anomaly, likely associated with increased temperatures. Agricultural drought impacts
The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Social policy has the ideal of cohesion and inclusiveness of all citizens, but it has to “play” an active role in creating opportunities for them. It encopmasses in itself primarily a balance between economic efficiency and social solidarity distribution, and strives towards a consensual social model in which the government and the opposition generally agree on the fundamental priorities of society. Starting from July 1st, 2013, Croatia has been a member of the European Union. What experiences can that country bring to European Union? In spite of the differences between the European countries becoming more and more expressed and bigger, there is a common element: a conscience that social justice and social reconciliation could contribute to an economical development and that are not just an expense; but the opposite: an economical development that must contribute to social reconciliation. In the process of the preparation for this work and during the process of its realization, I used the methods of reading a lot of literature, including professional books, professional journals and legislation literature. Social policy has been for years one of my major fields of interest, so some facts I knew already. My research goal is to examine the development so far of the social policy in Croatia, to detect the most important conditions which are necessary to develop high-quality social policies, to discover which are strong sides, and which are weak sides of the Croatian social policy, and therefore what is important to strongly develop, and what is redundant and/or old-fashioned, to throw away or neglect.
Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline WJ; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio
Background How coffee consumption relates to mortality in diverse European populations, with variable coffee preparation methods and customs, is unclear. Objectives To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Ten European countries. Participants A total of 521,330 men and women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Main outcome measure Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs) estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers sub-cohort (n=14,800). Results During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41,693 deaths occurred. Compared with non-consumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption experienced statistically significant lower all-cause mortality (Men: HR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.82–0.95; P-trendcoffee and circulatory disease mortality, (HR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.68–0.90; P-trendcoffee and ovarian cancer mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23 P-trend 0.001). In the EPIC-biomarkers sub-cohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and C-reactive protein. Limitation Reverse causality may have led to spurious findings; however, results did not differ following exclusion of participants who died within 8-years of baseline. The study is also limited by a single assessment of coffee drinking habits at baseline. Conclusions These results confirm prior findings on the reduced risk of mortality associated with coffee drinking but additionally show that this relationship does not vary by country where coffee preparation and drinking habits may differ. The study also reports novel inverse relationships between coffee drinking and digestive disease
Bellanger, Martine M; Quentin, Wilm; Tan, Siok Swan
The study compares how Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) based hospital payment systems in eleven European countries (Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) deal with women giving birth in hospitals. It aims to assist gynaecologists and national authorities in optimizing their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify childbirth cases. DRG grouping algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs which account for at least 1% of all childbirth cases in the respective database. Five standardized case vignettes were defined and quasi prices (i.e. administrative prices or tariffs) of hospital deliveries according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify childbirth cases according to different sets of variables (between one and eight variables) into diverging numbers of DRGs (between three and eight DRGs). The most complex DRG is valued 3.5 times more resource intensive than an index case in Ireland but only 1.1 times more resource intensive than an index case in The Netherlands. Comparisons of quasi prices for the vignettes show that hypothetical payments for the most complex case amount to only € 479 in Poland but to € 5532 in Ireland. Differences in the classification of hospital childbirth cases into DRGs raise concerns whether European systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Physicians, hospitals and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify cases to optimize their system and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: While the importance of unpaid household labour is recognised in total economic output, little is known about the demographics of household production and consumption. Objective: Our goal is to give a comprehensive estimation on the value of household production and its consumption by age and gender and analyse nonmarket economic transfers in 14 European countries based on publicly available harmonised data. Methods: We introduce a novel imputation method of harmonised European time use (HETUS data to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in order to assign time spent on home production to consumers in households and estimate time transfers. Moreover, monetary values are attributed to household production activities using data on earnings from the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES. Results: We show that the nonmarket economic life cycle of men differs from that of women. The gender gap in household production is not evenly distributed over the life cycle. Women of working age contribute the most in net terms, while the main beneficiaries of household goods and services are children and to a lesser extent adult men. These patterns are similar across countries, with variations in the gender- and age-specific levels of home production and consumption. Conclusions: In Europe, in the national economy, intergenerational flows are important in sustaining both childhood and old age. In contrast, in the household economy, intergenerational transfers flow mostly towards children. Contribution: We add a new focus to the research on household production: While keeping the gender aspect, we demonstrate the importance of the life cycle component in household production.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights
Nureeva Maria, R.
Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear
Pilz, Matthias; Berger, Susanne; Canning, Roy
This paper presents a comparative research project on pre-vocational education in lower secondary schools in seven European countries. The primary aim of the study was to better understand how the formal pre-vocational education curriculum is interpreted and shaped by individual teachers. The countries covered are Austria, Germany, Hungary,…
Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.
Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke