WorldWideScience

Sample records for small-sized hydrophobic entities

  1. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  2. Small-size biofuel cell on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of small-size baking oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Akihisa; Kuwabara, Shigeru; Yamazawa, Yoshitaka; Shigeta, Eiji

    1987-03-01

    In the bakery business, oven fresh bakeries selling fresh bread by installing their own baking ovens at their shops have become popular recently. This article reports the development of a small-size gas baking oven for oven fresh bakaries. The gas convection oven developed recently is based on the structure of the conventional electric convection oven, and uses low pressure gas. The gas oven has an advantage that the combustion gas contains moisture. The convection oven bakes bread normally at the baking density approximately 2.5 times as much as that of the radiation oven, thereby the size of the oven may become smaller. This oven can bake many kinds of bread ranging from croissants to bean-jam buns by gas combnstion heat as well as radiation heat from the radiation plates installed at the top of each compartment in the oven. An ultra small air heat type burner was developed to provide stable short flames in order to make the size of the combustion chamber smaller. (20 figs, 2 tabs)

  4. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  5. Examination on small-sized cogeneration HTGR for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Mozumi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Takada, Shoji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The small-sized and safe cogeneration High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that can be used not only for electric power generation but also for hydrogen production and district heating is considered one of the most promising nuclear reactors for developing countries where sufficient infrastructure such as power grids is not provided. Thus, the small-sized cogeneration HTGR, named High Temperature Reactor 50-Cogeneration (HTR50C), was studied assuming that it should be constructed in developing countries. Specification, equipment configuration, etc. of the HTR50C were determined, and economical evaluation was made. As a result, it was shown that the HTR50C is economically competitive with small-sized light water reactors. (author)

  6. The value chain of small-sized energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Foehr, J.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland), LUT Energy), Email: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi, Email: jarno.fohr@lut.fi, Email: tapio.ranta@lut.fi; Ahtikoski, A. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi (Finland)), Email: anssi.ahtikoski@metla.fi; Valsta, L. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Economics), Email: lauri.valsta@helsinki.fi

    2009-07-01

    Finland has agreed to increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38% by the end of 2020. Most of the increase is to be based on bioenergy. According to the National Climate and Energy Strategy, the need for forest biomass will come to more than 20 TWh, or some 10 million cubic meters per year. Energy wood from young stand thinnings are the biomass resource with the most potential at the moment. The purpose of this study was to compare cost differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on traditional roundwood thinning. In addition, alternative supply chain costs for small-sized wood were studied. The results of the study show that it is worth considering the following points if the demand and average price for forest chips remain high. 1. Forest-owners: Forest management including energy wood thinning is financially feasible. 2. Supply chain: A terminal chipping chain enables large-scale procurement of small-sized energy wood. 3. Power plants: Currently, subsidies, emission trading, and decreasing pulpwood prices together enable large-scale use of small-sized wood for energy purposes. The value chain of small-sized energy wood in large-scale power plants could be mobilised. (orig.)

  7. High temperature salting of mince of small sized fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinmade, S.O.; Talabi, S.O.; Aliu, A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly caught small sized fish species were transported to the laboratory gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Duplicate batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (wt/wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt in the salted cooked mince, free and press water and salted cooked pressed mince were determined. Also, the moisture contents of...

  8. Customer acquisition plan for a small-size entrepreneur

    OpenAIRE

    Puotiniemi, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to draw a customer acquisition plan and improve the marketing planning in the company. Therefore, the final result was the market research summary. Development of the marketing strategy planning was based on internal and external situation analyses. This thesis is concentrated on a small-size operator’s business and therefore the internet marketing was brought up with its profitable benefits and advantages. The thesis was written as an auxiliary guide to build u...

  9. Testing of elastomer seals using small-size rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.; Dunford, B.; Barnfield, J.H.; Gray, I.L.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of small size seal leakage test rigs to demonstrate the compliance of full size container seals against the IAEA Transport Regulation's limits for activity release for normal transport and accident conditions. The detailed requirements of the regulations are discussed and it is concluded that an appropriate test programme to meet these requirements using only small size test rigs, can normally be set up and carried out on a relatively short time scale. It is important that any small test rigs should be designed to represent the relevant features of the seal arrangement and the overall test programme should cover all of the conditions, specified by the regulations, for the type, classification and contents of the container under consideration. The parameters of elastomer O-rings, which affect their sealing ability, are considered and those which are amenable to small scale testing or have to be modelled at full size are identified. Generally, the seals used in leakage tests have to be modelled with a full size cross-section but can have a reduced peripheral length. (Author)

  10. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  11. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V. [University ROMA TRE, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Eng., Via della Vasca Navale, 79 - 00146 Roma (Italy); Martellucci, L. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Electrical Eng., Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 Roma (Italy); Rossi, E. [ENEA, Via Anguillarese, 301 - 00060 S. Maria Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm{sup 3} internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit. (author)

  12. SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SMALL SIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong reduction of new aircraft design period using new technology based on artificial intelligence is the key problem mentioned in forecasts of leading aerospace industry research centers. This article covers the approach to devel- opment of quick aerodynamic design methods based on artificial intelligence neural system. The problem is being solved for the classical scheme of small sized unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. The principal parts of the method are the mathe- matical model of layout, layout generator of this type of aircraft is built on aircraft neural networks, automatic selection module for cleaning variety of layouts generated in automatic mode, robust direct computational fluid dynamics method, aerodynamic characteristics approximators on artificial neural networks.Methods based on artificial neural networks have intermediate position between computational fluid dynamics methods or experiments and simplified engineering approaches. The use of ANN for estimating aerodynamic characteris-tics put limitations on input data. For this task the layout must be presented as a vector with dimension not exceeding sev-eral hundred. Vector components must include all main parameters conventionally used for layouts description and com- pletely replicate the most important aerodynamics and structural properties.The first stage of the work is presented in the paper. Simplified mathematical model of small sized UAV was developed. To estimate the range of geometrical parameters of layouts the review of existing vehicle was done. The result of the work is the algorithm and computer software for generating the layouts based on ANN technolo-gy. 10000 samples were generated and the dataset containig geometrical and aerodynamic characteristics of layoutwas created.

  13. Development of a small-sized radon data logger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Shigeki; Sasaki, Yoshimi

    1996-01-01

    A small-sized radon data logger and a electrostatic collecting radon monitor were developed for the continuous monitoring of environmental radon and radon daughters. A PIN photodiode (PD), an alpha particle defector, installed inside a container attracts radon daughters when charged electrostatically. Alpha particles are completely separated from each other according to the energy level. New logger has made it possible 10 analysts and save the radon data. Alpha particle count data from radon daughters are automatically integrated over preset time intervals and the energy regions. The desiccant P 2 O 5 was placed in the bottom of the monitor, since the collection efficiency of 218 Po atoms depends on the humidity of the air. We can get the 30 days continuous data logging at 30 min sampling frequency at any place with the car battery. We observed the radon concentration of the air inside the Super-Kamiokande dome from Jan-30 to Feb-8-1996. The average of radon concentration was found to be (46±13) Bq/m 3 . (author)

  14. Dynamic collective entity representations for entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, D.; Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Entity ranking, i.e., successfully positioning a relevant entity at the top of the ranking for a given query, is inherently difficult due to the potential mismatch between the entity's description in a knowledge base, and the way people refer to the entity when searching for it. To counter this

  15. Entity associations for search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinanda, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the broad problem of computing entity associations for search. Specifically, we consider three types of entity association: entity-entity, entity-document, and entity-aspect associations. We touch upon various domains, starting with specific domains such as the

  16. Prognosis method to predict small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop an effective radiological symptom-complex of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic breast disease by using multivariate statistical methods.Materials and methods. Radiological findings of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic mastopathy were analyzed in 100 patients with histologically verified diagnosis.Results. It was revealed that the conventional approach to the analysis of mammograms based on the detection of the primary, secondary and indirect mammographic signs of small-sized breast cancer is not effective enough - the sensitivity of mammography is only 62%. Fibrocystic disease and moderate-to-severe sclerosing adenosis make small-sized breast cancer hard to visualize by mammography. The detailed analysis of mammograms allowed us to identify the additional manifestations of small-sized breast cancer affected by mastopathy. The computer program allowing us to evaluate the risk of small-size breast cancer and the diagnostic algorithm for detecting small size breast cancer with sensitivity of 92% were developed. 

  17. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  18. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  19. Graduate Student in Engineering, Hoped by Owners of Medium-and Small-Sized Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yoshihiro

    Medium-and small-sized companies have held up Japanese technologies which situated top level in the world as far. However, for the technologies of medium-and small-sized companies to keep the top-level in the 21 centuries, researchers and engineers are demand to have high technologies. Those engineers are hoped for to have not only “knowledge”, but also “creativity, feeling and experience”. Therefore, in order to create such professional engineers, educational institute must have a function by which a practical training and education can be conducted.

  20. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  1. Modeling, design and experimental validation of a small-sized magnetic gear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanis, R.; Borisavljevic, A.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    A magnetostatic analytical model is created to analyze and design a small-sized magnetic gear for a robotic application. Through a parameter variation study, it is found that the inner rotor magnet height is highly influential to the torque, and based on which, the design is performed. Several

  2. SMGE: strategic challenges and performance measurement in a small-sized company (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MBA R. Vieveen; PhD B. Pesalj

    2015-01-01

    Case portrays the Superior Manufacturing Group Europe (SMGE), Barendrecht (Netherlands), a small-sized company doing business in the matting industry; facing challenges of how to sustain and improve its performance, by balancing between entrepreneurial initiative, and a need for strategic planning

  3. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  4. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  5. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  6. Small-Size High-Current Generators for X-Ray Backlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.; Zharova, N. V.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Lavrinovich, I. V.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Fedunin, A. V.; Fedushchak, V. F.; Erfort, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the soft X-ray backlighting based on the X-pinch as a powerful tool for physical studies of fast processes. Proposed are the unique small-size pulsed power generators operating as a low-inductance capacitor bank. These pulse generators provide the X-pinch-based soft X-ray source (hν = 1-10 keV) of micron size at 2-3 ns pulse duration. The small size and weight of pulse generators allow them to be transported to any laboratory for conducting X-ray backlighting of test objects with micron space resolution and nanosecond exposure time. These generators also allow creating synchronized multi-frame radiographic complexes with frame delay variation in a broad range.

  7. Small-sized reverberation chamber for the measurement of sound absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R. del; Alba, J.; Bertó, L.; Gregori, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, calibration and automation of a reverberation chamber for small samples. A balance has been sought between reducing sample size, to reduce the manufacturing costs of materials, and finding the appropriate volume of the chamber, to obtain reliable values at high and mid frequencies. The small-sized reverberation chamber, that was built, has a volume of 1.12 m3 and allows for the testing of samples of 0.3 m2. By using diffusers, to improve the diffusion degree, and automating measurements, we were able to improve the reliability of the results, thus reducing test errors. Several comparison studies of the measurements of the small-sized reverberation chamber and the standardised reverberation chamber are shown, and a good degree of adjustment can be seen between them, within the range of valid frequencies. This paper presents a small laboratory for comparing samples and making decisions before the manufacturing of larger sizes. [es

  8. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    OpenAIRE

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning n...

  9. Experimental investigation of a small-sized betatron with superposed magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kas'yanov, V.A.; Rychkov, M.V.; Filimonov, A.A.; Furman, Eh.G.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Chertov, A.S.; Shtejn, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study possibilities of small-sized betatrons (SSB) with direct current superposed magnetization (DSM). It is shown that DSM permits to decrease the SSB weight and cost of the electromagnet and capacitor storage and to shape the prolonged beam dump. It is noted that the DSM realization has the most expediency in SSB operating in a short-time mode [ru

  10. Subureteral Injection with Small-Size Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer: Is It Really Efficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyimser Üre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of patients with vesicoureteral reflux, which were treated with subureteral injection of small-size (80–120 μm dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA. Data of 75 children (105 renal units who underwent STING procedure with small-size Dx/HA for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in our clinic between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative reflux grade and side, injection indication, postoperative urinary infections and urinary symptoms, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal scintigraphy results were evaluated. The success rate of the procedure was 100% in patients with grades 1 and 2 reflux, 91% in patients with grade 3 reflux, and 82.6% in patients with grade 4. Overall success rate of the treated patients was 97%. Endoscopic subureteric injection with Dx/HA procedure has become a reasonable minimally invasive alternative technique to open surgery, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, and surveillance modalities in treatment of VUR in terms of easy application, low costs and complication rates, and high success rates. Injection material composed of small-size dextranomer microspheres seems superior to normal size Dx/HA, together with offering similar success with low cost.

  11. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (1). Major specifications and system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Yujiro; Yan, Xing L.; Tachibana, Yukio

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2030s. The design philosophy is that the HTR50S is a high advanced reactor, which is reducing the R and D risk based on the HTTR design, upgrading the performance and reducing the cost for commercialization by utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR operation and the GTHTR300 design. The major specifications of the HTR50S were determined and targets of the technology demonstration using the HTR50S (e.g., the increasing the power density, reduction of the number of uranium enrichment in the fuel, increasing the burn up, side-by-side arrangement between the reactor pressure vessel and the steam generator) were identified. In addition, the system design of HTR50S, which offers the capability of electricity generation, cogeneration of electricity and steam for a district heating and industries, was performed. Furthermore, a market size of small-sized HTGR systems was investigated. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (3). Core thermal and hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tachibana, Yukio

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has started the conceptual designs of small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) systems, aiming for the 2030s deployment into developing countries. The small-sized HTGR systems can provide power generation by steam turbine, high temperature steam for industry process and/or low temperature steam for district heating. As one of the conceptual designs in the first stage, the core thermal and hydraulic design of the power generation and steam supply small-sized HTGR system with a thermal power of 50 MW (HTR50S), which was a reference reactor system positioned as a first commercial or demonstration reactor system, was carried out. HTR50S in the first stage has the same coated particle fuel as HTTR. The purpose of the design is to make sure that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation doesn't exceed the design target. Following the design, safety analysis assuming a depressurization accident was carried out. The fuel temperature in the normal operation and the fuel and reactor pressure vessel temperatures in the depressurization accident were evaluated. As a result, it was cleared that the thermal integrity of the fuel and the reactor coolant pressure boundary is not damaged. (author)

  13. Programming Drupal 7 entities

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    The book follows a standard tutorial-based approach to create, retrieve, update, and delete Drupal 7 entities, their properties and fields.Programming Drupal 7 Entities is perfect for intermediate or advanced developers new to Drupal entity development who are looking to get a good grounding in how to code using the new paradigm. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PHP development already, and being vaguely familiar with Drupal, GIT, and Drush will also help.

  14. Numerical simulation for the magnetic force distribution in electromagnetic forming of small size flat sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Wenping; Wan, Min

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to calculate magnetic force in the process of studying electromagnetic flat sheet forming. Calculating magnetic force is the basis of analyzing the sheet deformation and optimizing technical parameters. Magnetic force distribution on the sheet can be obtained by numerical simulation of electromagnetic field. In contrast to other computing methods, the method of numerical simulation has some significant advantages, such as higher calculation accuracy, easier using and other advantages. In this paper, in order to study of magnetic force distribution on the small size flat sheet in electromagnetic forming when flat round spiral coil, flat rectangular spiral coil and uniform pressure coil are adopted, the 3D finite element models are established by software ANSYS/EMAG. The magnetic force distribution on the sheet are analyzed when the plane geometries of sheet are equal or less than the coil geometries under fixed discharge impulse. The results showed that when the physical dimensions of sheet are less than the corresponding dimensions of the coil, the variation of induced current channel width on the sheet will cause induced current crowding effect that seriously influence the magnetic force distribution, and the degree of inhomogeneity of magnetic force distribution is increase nearly linearly with the variation of induced current channel width; the small size uniform pressure coil will produce approximately uniform magnetic force distribution on the sheet, but the coil is easy to early failure; the desirable magnetic force distribution can be achieved when the unilateral placed flat rectangular spiral coil is adopted, and this program can be take as preferred one, because the longevity of flat rectangular spiral coil is longer than the working life of small size uniform pressure coil.

  15. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Detection of small-size planetary candidates with CoRoT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting super-Earth, the CoRoT space mission has shown the capability to detect short-period rocky planets around solar-like stars. By performing a blind test with real CoRoT light curves, we want to establish the detection threshold of small-size planets in CoRoT data. We investigate the main obstacles to the detection of transiting super-Earths in CoRoT data, notably the presence of short-time scale variability and hot pixels.

  17. Risk assessment of small-sized HTR with pebble-bed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Mertens, J.; Wolters, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two recent concepts of small-sized HTR's (HTR-Modul and HTR-100) were analysed regarding their safety concepts and risk protection. In neither case do core cooling accidents contribute to the risk because of the low induced core temperatures. Water ingress accidents dominate the risk in both cases by detaching deposited fission products which can be released into the environment. For these accident sequences no early fatalities and practically no lethal case of cancer were computed. Both HTR concepts include adequate precautionary measures and an infinitely small risk according to the usual standards. The safety concepts make express use of the specific inherent safety features of pebble-bed HTR's. (orig.)

  18. Visual SLAM and Moving-object Detection for a Small-size Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tien Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a novel moving object detection (MOD algorithm is developed and integrated with robot visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAM. The moving object is assumed to be a rigid body and its coordinate system in space is represented by a position vector and a rotation matrix. The MOD algorithm is composed of detection of image features, initialization of image features, and calculation of object coordinates. Experimentation is implemented on a small-size humanoid robot and the results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is efficient for robot visual SLAM and moving object detection.

  19. A miniature small size 3 MeV deuteron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, L.N.; Bryzgalov, G.A.; Verbovskij, V.V.; Kovpak, N.E.; Onoprienko, V.T.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Shulika, N.G.; Yashin, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Basic characteristics are presented of the small-size linear deuteron accelerator for 3 MeV, the accelerating system of which operates at H-wave. It is shown that the usage of such accelerating systems makes it possible to reduce the resonator volume by more than 30 times, whereas the capacity of the evacuating devices as well as the total HF supply power are decreased. Owing to a relatively large wave length, particle injection energy may be reduced to 100-150 keV

  20. Impact of pressure losses in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors for direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobón, David H.; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    Using PTC (parabolic-trough solar collectors) for industrial thermal processes in the temperature range up to 300 °C is not new, but in recent years there is a boosted interest in this type of concentrating solar technology. One of the problems that arise when designing PTC solar fields is how to deal with the pressure losses which are critical when producing saturated steam directly in the collectors. Depending on the characteristics of the collector, mainly on the receiver diameter, and on the nominal process conditions defined, a solar field configuration can be feasible or not. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis done using a software tool developed to study the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of PTC systems using water-steam as heat transfer fluid. In the case study presented, a small-sized PTC designed for industrial process heat applications is considered, which has a focal length of 0.2 m, an aperture area of 2 m 2 , and its receiver pipe has an inner diameter of 15 mm. Varied process conditions are inlet water pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate, solar irradiance and incidence angle of solar radiation. Results show that working pressure definition is particularly critical to make feasible or not the direct steam generation in solar collectors. - Highlights: • DSG (Direct steam generation) in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic sensitivity analysis. • Influence of working pressure and receiver geometry in DSG process

  1. Development of design program for small-sized gas absorption chiller/heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J.I.; Kwon, O.K.; Moon, C.K. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea); Yang, Y.M.; Kim, H.Y. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of basic data is performed for development of small size water-cooled household absorption chiller/heater using non CFC refrigerant, analytic simulation program of air cooling performance is developed that system has 1.5-10RT of air cooling performance, we perform cycle analysis and numerical simulation. We develope a performance analysis of simulation program to perform a basic design for 1.5-10RT apparatus of small size system of development model in gas driven double effect absorption chiller/heater. The system working condition and operation limit condition is decided from the existing data which is analyzed and the conference with KOGAS. After the basic input variable and regular condition is established for heat cycle analysis, the simulation algorithm is set up and performance simulation program is coded according to the organized algorithm. The basic design of optimum system is completed from parametric study using developed simulation program and establishing the design variable range of developing object model. 20 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. The OHS management system in the "small-sized" production company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem with systemic management of safety in the smallest production entities has been shown. The effect of health and safety management system and the benefits resulting from it for the most numerous economic entities in Poland - microenterprises have been discussed. Moreover, the results of questionnaire examination conducted in several Polish production companies have been presented. Surveys were completed in companies in which the number of employees does not exceed 49 people (micro enterprise - from 1 to 9 employees and small enterprises - from 10 to 49 employees.

  3. Irradiation tests of a small-sized motor with radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), tritium production and release behavior will be studied using neutrons from fusion reactions, as the blanket development for a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. For development of the TBM, in-pile functional tests are planned, including an integrated irradiation experiment of a fusion blanket mock-up for pulsed operation simulating the ITER operation mode, using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).Due to be installed in an irradiation rig, a small-sized motor has to be developed for rotating a neutron absorber with a window to realize the simulated pulse operation. Since degradation of materials of the motor may be caused by radiation damage due to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, it is important to examine the soundness of the motor materials under the neutron and gamma irradiation.In the present study, a small-sized motor with increased radiation resistance was developed as follows. A design of a commercial alternate current (AC) servomotor was adopted in the base structure, and some components of the motor were replaced by those made of radiation-proof materials, through elimination of organic materials. Polyester-coated wire for field coil and epoxy for fixed resin were replaced by polyimide-coated wire and polysiloxane filled with MgO and Al 2 O 3 , respectively. Furthermore, inorganic lubricant (Mo-based coating of 4 micro meter in thickness) was treated on the surface of a gear, instead of organic (polyphenylether) oil.Radiation-induced degradation of the components of the developed small-sized motor was examined using JMTR and the Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) of JAEA. The motor was operating normally up to a gamma-ray dose of 7 x 10 8 Gy, a fast neutron (E>1 MeV) fluence of 2 x 10 21 m -2 and a thermal neutron (E 22 m -2 . The irradiated gamma-ray dose for this motor is about 700 times as high as the operation

  4. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  5. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the maintenance policy of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Civil Engineering Division, hydrophobic treatment of concrete was considered as an additional protective measure against penetration of aggressive substances, for instance deicing salts in bridge decks. A set of tests was designed

  6. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  7. Challenges in Improving Customer Focus in Small-Sized House-building Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Formoso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important changes in the business environment in several countries are forcing house-building companies to change their competitive strategies. This paper discusses a set of customer servicing practices, which have been adopted by small-sized house-building companies in Brazil that have been involved in quality management improvement programs, emphasizing customer satisfaction measurement. Such practices are referred to a model of the customer servicing process that integrates the main customer-interaction functions from product inception to building operation. Based on multiple case studies and also on a literature review, the main difficulties faced by this sector in terms of improving customer satisfaction are discussed and some improvement opportunities are pointed out.

  8. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  9. Irradiation test of component for radiation-resistant small sized motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2009-01-01

    A small-sized motor with a resistance to radiation was developed. This motor has been able to operate at a gamma-ray dose of a value 700 times as high as the specification of a commercial motor. The present work describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) to evaluate effects of neutron irradiation on the lifetime of some major components of the motor such as a bearing, a magnet and a fixation agent for a field coil wire. It became clear from the results of PIEs that the radiation-resistance dose of the motor using a Sm-Co magnet will be expected to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the motor using a Nb-Fe-B magnet.

  10. β-ray scintillation survey meter for small-sized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Higashidate, Takamichi; Yonemura, Kenji; Fujita, Michio.

    1990-01-01

    The outer surface of the small-sized pipes used as scaffolding is measured by beta/gamma survey meter when they are carried out from the controlled area in nuclear facilities. But, the measurement of the radioactive contamination on the inner surface, when it is needed, is done indirectly using the smear method. To improve these vexatious works, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. and Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly developed a beta-ray scintillation survey meter which, when inserted directly into pipes, can detect radioactive contamination on the inner surface. This detector is made of cylindrical plastic scintillator and it can measure low energy beta-ray by using the coincidence method which reduces random noise. A field test carried out with this prototype survey meter brought favorable results for designing its final version. (author)

  11. Small Size and Low Cost UHF RFID Tag Antenna Mountable on Metallic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López-Soriano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing tag size while maintaining good performance is one of the major challenges in radio-frequency identification applications (RFID, in particular when labeling metallic objects. In this contribution, a small size and low cost tag antenna for identifying metal objects in the European UHF band (865–868 MHz is presented. The antenna consists of a transmission line mounted on an inexpensive thin dielectric which is proximity-coupled to a short-ended patch mounted on FR4 substrate. The overall dimensions of the tag are 33.5 × 30 × 3.1 mm. Experimental results show that, for an EIRP of 3.2 W (European regulations, such a small and cheap tag attains read ranges of about 5 m when attached to a metallic object.

  12. Robust Color Choice for Small-size League RoboCup Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of choosing a set of most separable colors in a given environment is discussed. The proposed method models the process of generating theoretically computed best colors, printing of these colors through a color printer, and imaging the printed colors through a camera into an integrated framework. Thus, it provides a feasible way to generate practically best separable colors for a given environment with a set of given equipment. A real world application (robust color choice for small-size league RoboCup competition is used as an example to illustrate the proposed method. Experimental results on this example show the competitiveness of the colors learned from our algorithm compared to the colors adopted by other teams which are chosen via an extensive trial and error process using standard color papers.

  13. Electron Emitter for small-size Electrodynamic Space Tether using MEMS Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, René A. W.; Blanke, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    Adjustment of the orbit of a spacecraft using the forces created by an electro-dynamic space-tether has been shown as a theoretic possibility in recent literature. Practical implementation is being pursued for larger scale missions where a hot filament device controls electron emission...... and the current flowing in the electrodynamic space tether. Applications to small spacecraft, or space debris in the 1–10 kg range, possess difficulties with electron emission technology, as low power emitting devices are needed. This paper addresses the system concepts of a small spacecraft electrodynamic tether...... system with focus on electron emitter design and manufacture using micro-electro-mechanical- system (MEMS) technology. The paper addresses the system concepts of a small size electrodynamic tether mission and shows a novel electron emitter for the 1-2 mA range where altitude can be effectively affected...

  14. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  15. Behavior of small-sized BWR fuel under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Fujishiro, Toshio; Horiki, Oichiro; Chen Dianshan; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The present work was performed on this small-sized BWR fuel, where Zr liner and rod prepressurization were taken as experimental parameters. Experiment was done under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) belonged to Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Major remarks obtained are as follows: (1) Three different types of the fuel rods consisted of (a) Zr lined/pressurized (0.65MPa), (b) Zr lined/non-pressurized and (c) non-Zr lined/pressurized (o.65MPa) were used, respectively. Failure thresholds of these were not less than that (260 cal/g·fuel) described in Japanese RIA Licensing Guideline. Small-sized BWR and conventional 8 x 8 BWR fuels were considered to be in almost the same level in failure threshold. Failure modes of the three were (a) cladding melt/brittle, (b) cladding melt/brittle and (c) rupture by large ballooning, respectively. (2) The magnitude of pressure pulse at fuel fragmentation was also studied by lined/pressurized and non-lined/pressurized fuels. Above the energy deposition of 370 cal/g·fuel, mechanical energy (or pressure) was found to be released from these fragmented fuels. No measurable difference was, however, observed between the tested fuels and NSRR standard (and conventional 8 x 8 BWR) fuels. (3) It is worthy of mentioning that Zr liner tended to prevent the cladding from large ballooning. Non-lined/pressurized fuel tended to cause wrinkle deformation at cladding. Hence, cladding external was notched much by the wrinkles. (4) Time to fuel failure measured from the tested BWR fuels (pressurization < 0.6MPA) was longer than that measured from PWR fuels (pressurization < 3.2MPa). The magnitude of the former was of the order of 3 ∼ 6s, while that of the latter was < 1s. (J.P.N.)

  16. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (4). Plant design and technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing L.; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu; Tazawa, Yujiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tachibana, Yukio

    2013-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2020s. HTR50S was designed for steam supply and electricity generation by the steam turbine with the reactor outlet temperature of 750degC as a reference plant configuration. On the other hand, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be installed in the primary loop to demonstrate the electricity generation by the helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting by utilizing the secondary helium loop with the reactor outlet temperature of 900degC as a future plant configuration. The plant design of HTR50S for the steam supply and electricity generation was performed based on the plant specification and the requirements for each system taking into account for the increase of the reactor outlet coolant temperature from 750degC to 900degC and the installation of IHX. The technical feasibility of HTR50S was confirmed because the designed systems (i.e., reactor internal components, reactor pressure vessel, vessel cooling system, shutdown cooling system, steam generator (SG), gas circulator, SG isolation and drainage system, reactor containment vessel, steam turbine and heat supply system) satisfies the design requirements. The conceptual plant layout was also determined. This paper provides the summary of the plan design and technical feasibility of HTR50S. (author)

  18. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  19. Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebenay, Melak M.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the

  20. Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also

  1. Flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Chaobin; Haraguchi, Nobori; Hihara, Eiji [Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated the flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube (mean inner diameter: 2.0 mm; helix angle: 6.3 ) at a saturation temperature of 15 C, and heat and mass flux ranges of 4.5-18 kW m{sup -2} and 360-720 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. Although, experimental results indicated that heat flux has a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient, the coefficient does not always increase with mass flux, as in the case of conventional refrigerants such as HFCs or HCFCs. Under certain conditions, the heat transfer coefficient at a high mass flux was lower than that at a lower mass flux, indicating that convective heat transfer had a suppression effect on nucleate boiling. The heat transfer coefficients in the microfin tubes were 1.9{proportional_to}2.3 times the values in smooth tubes of the same diameter under the same experimental conditions, and the dryout quality was much higher, ranging from 0.9 to 0.95. The experimental results indicated that using microfin tubes may considerably increase the overall heat transfer performance. (author)

  2. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  4. Testing solar panels for small-size satellites: the UPMSAT-2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roibás-Millán, E; Alonso-Moragón, A; Jiménez-Mateos, A G; Pindado, S

    2017-01-01

    At present, the development of small-size satellites by universities, companies and research institutions has become usual practice, and is spreading rapidly. In this kind of project cost plays a significant role. One of the main areas are the assembly, integration and test (AIT) plans, which carry an associated cost for simulating environmental conditions. For instance, in the power subsystems test and, in particular, in the testing of solar panels, the irradiance and temperature conditions might be optimum so the performance of the system can be shown next to real operational conditions. To reproduce the environmental conditions in terms of irradiance, solar simulators are usually used, which carries an associated increase in cost for testing the equipment. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative and inexpensive way to perform AIT plans on spacecraft power subsystems, from a testing campaign performed using outdoor clean-sky conditions and an isolation system to protect the panels. A post-process of the measured data is therefore needed, taking into account the conditions in which the test has been accomplished. The I–V characteristics obtained are compared with a theoretical 1-diode/2-resistor equivalent electric circuit, achieving enough precision based solely on the manufacturer’s data. (paper)

  5. The management of mechanical integrity inspections at small-sized 'Seveso' facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragatto, Paolo A.; Pittiglio, Paolo; Ansaldi, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical integrity (MI) of equipment has been controlled at all industrial facilities for many decades. Control methods and intervals are regulated by laws or codes and best practices. In European countries, the legislations implementing the Seveso Directives on the control of major accident hazards require the owner of establishments where hazardous chemicals are handled, to implement a safety management system (SMS). MI controls should be an integral part of the SMS. At large establishments this goal is achieved by adopting the RBI method, but in small-sized establishments with a limited budget and scanty personnel, a heuristic approach is more suitable. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of integrating SMS and MI by means of a simple method that includes a few basic concepts of RBI without additional costs for operator. This method, supported by a software tool, is resilient as it functions effectively in spite of eventual budget reductions and personnel turnover. The results of MI controls can also be exploited to monitor equipment condition and demonstrate the adequacy of technical systems to the Competent Authorities (CA). Furthermore, the SMS can 'capture' knowledge resulting from MI experience and exploit it for a better understanding of risk

  6. Small-sized pump for the target chamber of the E-SUVI accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borts, B.V.; Kravchenko, S.F.; Pisarev, G.V.; Rubashko, V.G.; Khorenko, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The target chamber of the accelerator ESUVI is located at the high voltage end of the accelerating tube under the electrostatic generator conductor. The pumping out from the target chamber region has been performed through the accelerating tube its rate constituting 1.5 l/s which resulted in oxidation and contamination of the surface of irradiated targets in the course of the irradiation of chemically active materials. For obtaining high vacuum in a target chamber a small-size gettering-ionic pump of the ORBITRON type has been developed which operates in the autonomous mode. The pump pumping out rate in the pressure range 10 -5 -10 -7 mm Hg constitutes for air and nitrogen 20-25 l/s, ffor oxygen 30-40 l/s, for hydrogen 100-120 l/s. The pump weight without supply units is 2 kg. The pumps permits performing pressure indicator in the target chamber. Using the developed pump makes possible to decrease the target chamber pressure to 1x10 -6 mm Hg for active gases to 10 -8 -10 -9 mm Hg

  7. Testing solar panels for small-size satellites: the UPMSAT-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roibás-Millán, E.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Jiménez-Mateos, A. G.; Pindado, S.

    2017-11-01

    At present, the development of small-size satellites by universities, companies and research institutions has become usual practice, and is spreading rapidly. In this kind of project cost plays a significant role. One of the main areas are the assembly, integration and test (AIT) plans, which carry an associated cost for simulating environmental conditions. For instance, in the power subsystems test and, in particular, in the testing of solar panels, the irradiance and temperature conditions might be optimum so the performance of the system can be shown next to real operational conditions. To reproduce the environmental conditions in terms of irradiance, solar simulators are usually used, which carries an associated increase in cost for testing the equipment. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative and inexpensive way to perform AIT plans on spacecraft power subsystems, from a testing campaign performed using outdoor clean-sky conditions and an isolation system to protect the panels. A post-process of the measured data is therefore needed, taking into account the conditions in which the test has been accomplished. The I-V characteristics obtained are compared with a theoretical 1-diode/2-resistor equivalent electric circuit, achieving enough precision based solely on the manufacturer’s data.

  8. A combimachine for harvesting of small sized trees; Pienpuun keraeilykaatoon perustuvan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, R [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The goal of the project was to develop a combimachine suitable for the harvesting of small sized trees in first thinning. The use of such a machine could considerably decrease harvesting costs in first thinning. The basic idea with the combimachine is, that the same machine both fells the trees and transports the timber to roadside storages. A forwarder was equipped with a lightweight felling device, which also can do the crosscutting and loading. When harvesting undelimbed timber the forwarder could be equipped with a load-compressing device. During the spring 1995 a trial was made with a combimachine in a first thinning stand of pine. An ordinary forwarder was equipped with the `Naarva-grapple` a device for felling, crosscutting and loading. The aim was to test how the felling device is working, to examine time expenditure for two different working methods and to collect data for the further development of the machine. The trial showed a need to add a delimbing feature to the Naarva-grapple. The need for delimbing is based on the fact, obtained during the trial, that productivity in transport of delimbed timber was over 30 % higher than in transport of undelimbed pieces. A device capable of delimbing was designed, and it was ready for a prototype test in December 1995. The idea worked, but also showed a lot of details which have to be redesigned, before the device is ready for manufacturing and marketing

  9. A combimachine for harvesting of small sized trees; Pienpuun keraeilykaatoon perustuvan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, R. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the project was to develop a combimachine suitable for the harvesting of small sized trees in first thinning. The use of such a machine could considerably decrease harvesting costs in first thinning. The basic idea with the combimachine is, that the same machine both fells the trees and transports the timber to roadside storages. A forwarder was equipped with a lightweight felling device, which also can do the crosscutting and loading. When harvesting undelimbed timber the forwarder could be equipped with a load-compressing device. During the spring 1995 a trial was made with a combimachine in a first thinning stand of pine. An ordinary forwarder was equipped with the `Naarva-grapple` a device for felling, crosscutting and loading. The aim was to test how the felling device is working, to examine time expenditure for two different working methods and to collect data for the further development of the machine. The trial showed a need to add a delimbing feature to the Naarva-grapple. The need for delimbing is based on the fact, obtained during the trial, that productivity in transport of delimbed timber was over 30 % higher than in transport of undelimbed pieces. A device capable of delimbing was designed, and it was ready for a prototype test in December 1995. The idea worked, but also showed a lot of details which have to be redesigned, before the device is ready for manufacturing and marketing

  10. Mastering entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul Rajat

    2015-01-01

    This book is for .NET developers who are developing data-driven applications using ADO.NET or other data access technologies. This book is going to give you everything you need to effectively develop and manage data-driven applications using Entity Framework.

  11. Development of an irradiation system for a small size continuous run multipurpose gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Rela, P.R.; Napolitano, C.M.; Kodama, Y.; Omi, N.M.; Costa, F.E. da; Andradee Silva, L.G. de

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Technology Center from IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, developed a revolutionary design and national technology, a small-sized continuous run and multipurpose industrial gamma irradiator, to be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers and contract service companies, which need economical and logistical in-house irradiation system alternatives. Also, to be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers. The developed technology for this facility consists of a continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m 2 of floor area, the irradiator design is a product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq. The performed qualification program of this multipurpose irradiator was based on AAMI/ISO 11137 standard, which recommends the inclusion of the following elements: installation and process qualification. The initial load of the multipurpose irradiator was 3.4 PBq with 13 cobalt-60 sources model C-188, supplied by MDS Nordion - Canada. For irradiator dose optimization, the source distribution was done using the software Cadgamma developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP. The polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) dosimeter system, certified by the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used for irradiator dose mapping. The economic analysis, performance concerning with dose uniformity and cobalt-60 utilization efficiency were calculated and compared with other commercial gamma irradiators available on the market. (authors)

  12. Effects of manganese doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingquan; Qu, Xin; Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Ziyu; Gu, Guangrui; Ma, Yanming

    2017-07-01

    Atomic doping of clusters is known as an effective approach to stabilize or modify the structures and properties of resulting doped clusters. We herein report the effect of manganese (Mn) doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron (B) clusters. The global minimum structures of both neutral and charged Mn doped B cluster \\text{MnB}nQ (n  =  10-20 and Q  =  0, ±1) have been proposed through extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches. It is found that Mn doping has significantly modified the grow behaviors of B clusters, leading to two novel structural transitions from planar to tubular and then to cage-like B structures in both neutral and charged species. Half-sandwich-type structures are most favorable for small \\text{MnB}n-/0/+ (n  ⩽  13) clusters and gradually transform to Mn-centered double-ring tubular structures at \\text{MnB}16-/0/+ clusters with superior thermodynamic stabilities compared with their neighbors. Most strikingly, endohedral cages become the ground-state structures for larger \\text{MnB}n-/0/+ (n  ⩾  19) clusters, among which \\text{MnB}20+ adopts a highly symmetric structure with superior thermodynamic stability and a large HOMO-LUMO gap of 4.53 eV. The unique stability of the endohedral \\text{MnB}\\text{20}+ cage is attributed to the geometric fit and formation of 18-electron closed-shell configuration. The results significantly advance our understanding about the structure and bonding of B-based clusters and strongly suggest transition-metal doping as a viable route to synthesize intriguing B-based nanomaterials.

  13. Development of an irradiation system for a small size continuous run multipurpose gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Technology Center from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, developed with a revolutionary design and national technology, a small size continuous run and multipurpose industrial gamma irradiator, to be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers and contract service companies, which need economical and logistical in-house irradiation system alternatives. Also, to be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotate door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m 2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 P Bq (1 MCi). The performed quantification program of this multipurpose irradiator was based on AAMI/ISO 11137 standard, which recommends the inclusion of the following elements: installation and process quantification. The initial load of the multipurpose irradiator was 3.4 P Bq (92.1 k Ci) with 13 cobalt-60 sources model C-188, supplied by MDS Nordion Ion Technologies - Canada. For irradiator dose optimization, the source distribution was done using the software Cadgamma developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP. The poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters system, certified by the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used for irradiator dose mapping. The economic analysis, performance concerning to dose uniformity and cobalt-60 utilization efficiency were calculated and compared with other commercial gamma

  14. Role of small-sized copepods in the lipid-driven Arctic marine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daase, M.; Boissonnot, L.; Graeve, M.; Søreide, J.; Niehoff, B.

    2016-02-01

    Despite of the low individual biomass of small-sized copepods such as the calanoid Pseudocalanus minutus and the cyclopoid Oithona similis, they are extremely numerous which make them an important trophic component in Arctic marine ecosystems. Due to the strong seasonality in light and thus primary production and food availability, the accumulation of lipid reserves is a key feature in Arctic marine ecosystems. However, very few studies exist on the lipid biochemistry of small copepods such as P. minutus and O. similis. In order to investigate the importance of these species in terms of transfer of lipids from primary production to higher trophic levels, feeding experiments were conducted, based on animals from Billefjorden, a high-Arctic fjord in Svalbard, Norway. A mixture of 13C labeled flagellates and diatoms was fed to the animals and the transfer and assimilation of lipid carbon, fatty acids and fatty alcohols was analyzed with gas chromatography-IRMS technique (CSIA). The results revealed that both species were incorporating dietary lipids in high quantities. The highest accumulation occurred in P. minutus in which 54.4% of the lipids were exchanged after 21 days, whereas 9.4% were assimilated in O. similis. Hence, at least this amount of carbon was used for metabolism and replaced by feeding. The lipid composition of the copepods did not reflect exactly the algal lipids, and differed between P. minutus and O. similis. Our results suggested intrinsic preferences in the accumulation of particular fatty acids, probably related to species-specific body requirements. This emphasizes the importance of also food quality in Arctic marine systems. Due to the relatively high lipid turnover rates in particularly in P. minutus, also small copepods are important drivers of the lipid-driven Arctic marine food web.

  15. Multislice helical CT analysis of small-sized airway wall thickness in smokers and patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Kenshi; Ito, Harumasa; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that airway remodeling, which contributes to airway narrowing, plays a role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Development of the multislice helical CT (MSCT) with improved spatial resolution has made it possible to obtain more precise imaging of small-sized airways. Small-sized airway wall-thickness was measured using the MSCT scan to analyze small-sized airways of smokers and BA patients, and examine the effects of a β 2 agonists on small-sized airway wall-thickness of BA patients. Thirty-six non-asthmatics who participated in the Health Check Program of Iwate Medical University and 25 patients with asthma were recruited. Amongst the 36 non-asthmatics were 20 healthy never-smokers and 15 smokers. The other 25 asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Iwate Medical University. MSCT was performed and the right B10 bronchus was chosen for dimensional analysis. Airway wall thickness was expressed as a percentage of wall area (WA%). WA% of the 7 asthmatics before and 30 mim after procaterol (20μg) inspiration were compared. Small-sized airway wall thickness was significantly increased in smokers and patients with asthma compared to healthy never-smokers, when determined by MSCT. Both %V 50 and %V 25 had significant negative correlations with WA% among the healthy never-smokers and smoker population. Procaterol inspiration reduced WA% in the small airway of patients with asthma. Increase of small-sized airway thickness measured by MSCT scan may reflect peripheral obstructive lesions of smokers and BA patients. (author)

  16. Development of a small-sized generator of ozonated water using an electro-conductive diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Kota; Kitaori, Noriyuki

    2008-12-01

    A small-sized generator of ozonated water was developed using an electro-conductive diamond. We studied the optimum conditions for producing ozonated water. As a result, we developed a small-sized generator of ozonated water driven by a dry-cell for use in the average household. This generator was easily able to produce ozonated water with an ozone concentration (over 4 mg/L) sufficient for disinfection. In addition, we verified the high disinfecting performance of the water produced in an actual hospital.

  17. Engineering structure design and fabrication process of small sized China helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zeming; Chen Lu; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design and analysis for china helium-cooled solid breeder (CHHC-SB) test blanket module (TBM) have been carried out recently. As partial verification that the original size module was reasonable and the development process was feasible, fabrication work of a small sized module was to be carried out targetedly. In this paper, detailed design and structure analysis of small sized TBM was carried out based on preliminary design work, fabrication process and integrated assembly process was proposed, so a fabrication for the trial engineering of TBM was layed successfully. (authors)

  18. Comparison of Turbulence Models in Simulation of Flow in Small-Size Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Novickii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the choice of turbulence model for the closure of the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for calculation of the characteristics of small-size centrifugal compressor. To this were built three-dimensional sectors (as the compressor axisymmetric blade impeller and the diffuser of the centrifugal compressor on the basis of which they were created two grid models. The dimension of the grid model for the calculation models of turbulence komega and SST was 1.4 million. Elements and the dimensionless parameter y + does not exceed 2. turbulence model family k-epsilon model grid was also 1.4 million. Elements, and the dimensionless parameter y + was greater than 20, which corresponds to recommended values. The next part of the work was the task of boundary conditions required for the correct ca lculation. When the impeller inlet pawned pressure working fluid and the total temperature at the outlet and the gas flow rate through the stage. On the side faces sectors pawned boundary cond ition «Periodic», allowing everything except the wheel, but only axisymmetric part, which significantly reduces the required computational time and resources. Accounting clearance in addition to the meridional geometry construction additionally taken into account boundary condition «Counter Rotating Wall», which allows you to leave the domain in the rotating disc fixed coa ting.The next step was to analyze the results of these calculations, which showed that the turbulence model k-epsilon and RNG does not show the velocity vectors in the boundary layer, and "pushes" the flow from the blade using wall functions. At the core of the flow turbulence model k-omega shown for the undisturbed flow, which is not typical for the compressor working on predpompazhnom mode. For viscous gas diffuser vane for turbulence models SST, k-omega, RNG k-epsilon and has a similar character.The paper compares the characteristics of pressure centrifugal compressor

  19. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  20. Water on a Hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Ryan; Zhu, Mengjue; Poynor, Adele

    2012-02-01

    Hydrophobicity, meaning literally fear of water, is exhibited on the surfaces of non-stick cooking pans and water resistant clothing, on the leaves of the lotus plan, or even during the protein folding process in our bodies. Hydrophobicity is directly measured by determining a contact angle between water and an objects surface. Associated with a hydrophobic surface is the depletion layer, a low density region approximately 0.2 nm thick. We study this region by comparing data found in lab using surface plasmon resonance techniques to theoretical calculations. Experiments use gold slides coated in ODT and Mercapto solutions to model both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces respectively.

  1. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  2. The APACHE survey hardware and software design: Tools for an automatic search of small-size transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattanzi M.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-size ground-based telescopes can effectively be used to look for transiting rocky planets around nearby low-mass M stars using the photometric transit method, as recently demonstrated for example by the MEarth project. Since 2008 at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley (OAVdA, we have been preparing for the long-term photometric survey APACHE, aimed at finding transiting small-size planets around thousands of nearby early and mid-M dwarfs. APACHE (A PAthway toward the Characterization of Habitable Earths is designed to use an array of five dedicated and identical 40-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes and its observations started at the beginning of summer 2012. The main characteristics of the survey final set up and the preliminary results from the first weeks of observations will be discussed.

  3. Airport level of service: A model according to departing passengers’ perceptions at a small-sized airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Well Elias Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study proposes a conceptual model of level of service evaluation to a small-sized airport with a focus on departing passengers. Design/Methodology: The variables selected to compose the model were chosen according to their adequacy to departing passengers and the airport’s characteristics. A survey was conducted, and, posteriorly, exploratory factor analysis was used in order to verify the adequacy of the conceptual model proposed and also to improve it according to the results obtained. Findings: The results show that the level of service of the airport is composed of three dimensions: airport characteristics, passenger processing, and prices. The relative importance of the dimensions according to their contribution to the composition of the airport’s overall level of service was also determined. Originality/value: The paper combines theoretical and practical findings in a model for level of service evaluation to a small-sized airport from an air transportation management perspective.

  4. Leadership approach in small size enterprises during crisis time – A case study of two enterprises operating in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilina, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Leadership performance has always been an important factor of company success and nowadays this topic gets much attention. The present study aimed at investigation of leadership style and peculiarities during crisis time with special focus on small size enterprises. Within framework of the study several definitions of leadership were considered and reviewed. Furthermore the most prevalent leadership theories (including trait, contingency, behavioral theories as well as transactional and t...

  5. Economic analysis of a small-sized combined heat and power plant using forest biomass in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeongwan Seo; Han-Sup Han; Edward M. (Ted) Bilek; Jungkee Choi; Dusong Cha; Jungsoo Lee

    2017-01-01

    Economic analysis was conducted on the feasibility of operating a small-sized (500kW/hour) gasification power plant producing heat and electricity in a rural town surrounded by forests in the Republic of Korea. Cost factors that were considered over the plant’s 20-year life included wood procurement, a wood grab loader, a chipper, a chip dryer, a gasifier, a generator...

  6. Query containment in entity SQL

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Fort, Guillem; Bernstein, Philip A.; Garcia dos Santos, Ivo; Katsis, Yannis; Melnik, Sergey; Teniente López, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    We describe a software architecture we have developed for a constructive containment checker of Entity SQL queries defined over extended ER schemas expressed in Microsoft's Entity Data Model. Our application of interest is compilation of object-to-relational mappings for Microsoft's ADO.NET Entity Framework, which has been shipping since 2007. The supported language includes several features which have been individually addressed in the past but, to the best of our knowledge, they have not be...

  7. Analyses on the Performance and Interaction Between the Impeller and Casing in a Small-Size Turbo-Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jea; Kim, Dong-Won

    The effects of casing shapes on the performance and the interaction between an impeller and a casing in a small-size turbo-compressor are investigated. Numerical analysis is conducted for the turbo-compressor with circular and single volute casings from the inlet to a discharge nozzle. The optimum design for each element is important to develop the small-size turbo-compressor using alternative refrigerant as a working fluid. Typically, the rotating speed of the compressor is in the range of 40000-45000rpm because of the small size of an impeller diameter. A blade of an impeller has backswept two-dimensional shape due to tip clearance and a vane diffuser has wedge type. In order to predict the flow pattern inside the entire impeller, the vaneless diffuser and the casing, calculations with multiple frames of reference method between the rotating and stationery parts of the domain are carried out. For compressible turbulent flow fields, the continuity and time-averaged three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are employed. To evaluate the performance of two types of casings, the static pressure recovery and loss coefficients are obtained with various flow rates. Also, static pressure distributions around casings are studied for different casing shapes, which are very important to predict the distribution of radial load. To prove the accuracy of numerical results, measurements of static pressure around the casing and pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of the compressor are performed for the circular casing. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is conducted, and reasonable agreement is obtained.

  8. Evaluation of fracture toughness of vessel materials using small-size specimens and full stress-strain curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A A; Chausov, N G [Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Physically substantiated dependences between crack resistance characteristics determined by the parameters of descending sections of full stress-strain curves and stressed state rigidity at crack initiation moment, have been experimentally obtained. The possibility of crack resistance reliable estimation based on full stress-strain obtained using small-size specimens with different concentrators, has thus been experimentally substantiated. Results obtained by the method and actual temperature dependence of irradiated steel 15X2NMFA crack resistance characteristics, agreed well. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  10. Order and correlation contributions to the entropy of hydrophobic solvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maoyuan; Besford, Quinn Alexander; Mulvaney, Thomas; Gray-Weale, Angus, E-mail: gusgw@gusgw.net [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-03-21

    The entropy of hydrophobic solvation has been explained as the result of ordered solvation structures, of hydrogen bonds, of the small size of the water molecule, of dispersion forces, and of solvent density fluctuations. We report a new approach to the calculation of the entropy of hydrophobic solvation, along with tests of and comparisons to several other methods. The methods are assessed in the light of the available thermodynamic and spectroscopic information on the effects of temperature on hydrophobic solvation. Five model hydrophobes in SPC/E water give benchmark solvation entropies via Widom’s test-particle insertion method, and other methods and models are tested against these particle-insertion results. Entropies associated with distributions of tetrahedral order, of electric field, and of solvent dipole orientations are examined. We find these contributions are small compared to the benchmark particle-insertion entropy. Competitive with or better than other theories in accuracy, but with no free parameters, is the new estimate of the entropy contributed by correlations between dipole moments. Dipole correlations account for most of the hydrophobic solvation entropy for all models studied and capture the distinctive temperature dependence seen in thermodynamic and spectroscopic experiments. Entropies based on pair and many-body correlations in number density approach the correct magnitudes but fail to describe temperature and size dependences, respectively. Hydrogen-bond definitions and free energies that best reproduce entropies from simulations are reported, but it is difficult to choose one hydrogen bond model that fits a variety of experiments. The use of information theory, scaled-particle theory, and related methods is discussed briefly. Our results provide a test of the Frank-Evans hypothesis that the negative solvation entropy is due to structured water near the solute, complement the spectroscopic detection of that solvation structure by

  11. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I M; Bastos, Y F; Barreto, D S; Lourenço, L S; Penha, J M

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil is used as a fish anesthetic because it is a natural and inexpensive product with low toxicity risks. The goal of the present study was to determine the appropriate concentration of clove oil for small-sized tropical fish to be used in mark-recapture studies or when individuals are to be sacrificed. We applied three different clove oil concentrations (D1=0.05 mL, D2=0.10 mL and D3=0.20 mL per 500 mL of water) on three small-sized fish species. We found a negative relationship between induction time and treatment for two species (Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.), while concentration was unrelated to recovery time. Fish body length was positively related to induction time in the D2 treatment for Hemigrammus sp., and negatively for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 in the D1 treatment, but was unrelated to recovery time for three species and treatments. Mortality rates varied across treatments, but higher rates were observed with higher clove oil concentrations. We conclude that 0.05 mL of clove oil per 500 mL of water is the most efficient dose for studies where fish will be released back to their natural habitats, while 0.20 mL of clove oil is recommended for studies that require fish euthanization for further laboratory analyses.

  12. Assessment of two small-sized innovative nuclear reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho; Sefidvash, Farhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of the assessment study of two small-sized innovative reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using the methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Brazil joined the INPRO project since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the assessment using INPRO methodology of two small-sized reactors (IRIS - International Reactor Innovative and Secure, and FBNR - Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor) as potential components of an innovative nuclear energy system (INS) completed by a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. The scope of this assessment study was restricted to the reactor component of the INS and to the methodology areas of economics and safety for IRIS, and proliferation resistance and safety for FBNR. The results indicate that both IRIS and FBNR innovative designs comply mostly with the basic principles of the areas assessed and have potential to comply with the remaining ones. (author)

  13. Market Orientation and Business Performance: a Study of Interrelationships and Effects in a Small sized Hotels within Lagos State Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.A. Ladipo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between market orientation and business performance has been a subject of debate in marketing literature. To date, there is no consensus opinion and empirical study in the context of small sized-hotels in Nigeria is scanty. This study examines the relationship between market orientation and business performance. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Questionnaire was used to obtained data from 300 employees of the selected hotels within Lagos metropolis. Data collected were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The results suggest that only customer orientation is significantly contributing to the performance of the small sized hotel operators. Specifically, both competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination, though practiced by the hotels are not significantly linked to its performance. Furthermore, the study discovered that market orientation practices significantly influence business performance of the selected hotels. Based on the findings, the study concludes that hotel operators need market orientation practices to enhance their performance. Hence, market orientation will continue to be a vital strategy not only in improving firm’s understanding of customers’ and competitors, but to enhance synergy across the organization. From the preceding conclusion, the study recommends that hotel operators should commit substantial resources and effort in cultivating a customer oriented culture, and transmit it across the organization to create strategic alignment. Furthermore, the competitive environment should be closely monitored to identify profitable business opportunity and threats that could affect their growth and sustainability.

  14. Size Exclusion HPLC Detection of Small-Size Impurities as a Complementary Means for Quality Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For extracellular vesicle research, whether for biomarker discoveries or therapeutic applications, it is critical to have high-quality samples. Both microscopy and NanoSight Tracking Analysis (NTA for size distribution have been used to detect large vesicles. However, there is currently no well-established method that is convenient for routine quality analysis of small-size impurities in vesicle samples. In this paper we report a convenient method, called ‘size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography’ (SE-HPLC, alongside NTA and Microscopy analysis to guide and qualify the isolation and processing of vesicles. First, the SE-HPLC analysis was used to detect impurities of small-size proteins during the ultra-centrifugation process of vesicle isolation; it was then employed to test the changes of vesicles under different pH conditions or integrity after storage. As SE-HPLC is generally accessible in most institutions, it could be used as a routine means to assist researchers in examining the integrity and quality of extracellular vesicles along with other techniques either during isolation/preparation or for further engineering and storage.

  15. Development of on-line wall thickness gauge for small size seamless tube. Shokei seamless netsukan nikuatsukei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, T; Konya, N; Oka, H; Kasuya, T [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-03-01

    In order to heighten the accuracy of small size seamless tube wall thickness, hot wall thickness gauge was developed to be installed, immediately behind the finishing/rolling mill, for the on-line measurement, of which the method was by the parallel-beam transmissivity of gamma-ray. The measurement unit, aiming at flexible manufacturing system (FMS), is completely automated in correcting the accuracy, changing the sizes, etc. The damping characteristics of gamma-ray beam can be expressed by a characteristic function, taking the outside diameter and wall thickness of subject tube as parameters. The functional calculation, as based on measurement of transmitted quantity of gamma-ray through the three-dimensional steel material, changes, depending upon the outside diameter, wall thickness and material specification of subject tube. System was so applied as to calculate it therefore on a case-by-case basis. Though in the vicinity of tube end, the transmitted quantity of gamma-ray is largely influenced by the horizontal dislocation, that influence is slack in the middle part of tube. Therefore, the cross sectional division was made dense and sparse in the end part and middle part, respectively of tube, which division could diminish the error from several percent to less than 0.1%. The static noise was compressed by the optimized digital filter. That gauge is presently applied for the operational administration of small size seamless tube rolling. 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Uniform fabrication of thick SU-8 patterns on small-sized wafers for micro-optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, S.; Reig, B.; Daran, E.; Doucet, JB; Camps, T.; Charlot, S.; Bardinal, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports on an alternative method for precise and uniform fabrication of 100μm-thick SU-8 microstructures on small-sized or non-circular samples. Standard spin-coating of high-viscosity resists is indeed known to induce large edge beads, leading to an air gap between the mask and the SU-8 photo-resist surface during UV photolithography. This results in a non uniform thickness deposition and in a poor pattern definition. This problem becomes highly critical in the case of small-sized samples. To overcome it, we have developed a soft thermal imprint method based on the use of a nano-imprint equipment and applicable whatever sample fragility, shape and size (from 2cm to 6 inches). After final photolithography, the SU8 pattern thickness variation profile is measured. Thickness uniformity is improved from 30% to 5% with a 5μm maximal deviation to the target value over 2cm-long samples.

  17. Exploring the Effects of Brand Promotion and Brand Image Perception on Business Outcomes of Small-sized Agribusiness Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To date there is hardly any empirical evidence in academic literature that branding, particularly brand promotion and brand image perception, plays any significant role in the performance of small-sized agribusiness, especially those in the Sub-Saharan (SSA region. This study was triggered by the need to fill this vacuum. Survey data were collected from small-sized agribusiness firms in one of the SSA economic ‘powerhouses’, which is Nigeria. Employing a contemporary research technique, specifically the Consistent Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (denoted as PLSc, the study found that both brand promotion and brand image perception are instrumental for enhancing the organizational performance of small agribusinesses. In sum, the findings lend empirical support to the extant literature on brand promotion and brand image perception as precursors to the performance of firms regardless of a its size and business location. The implications of study, limitation and future research directions are further highlighted in the concluding section of the paper.

  18. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  19. Potential growth and opportunities for Kenyan small sized firms online : E-business adoption for small boutiques and the new customer online

    OpenAIRE

    Mbare, Candy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the online growth opportunities for the small sized firm in Kenya. Kenya is the most developed nation in East-Africa. E-commerce is a rapidly rising trend in developing nations, that provides small sized firms with growth opportunities. The e-commerce trend also comes with changes in consumer behavior. Sufficient use of e-commerce by small sized firms in Kenya, can open a opportunity to reach a wider range of audience and increase profits by expan...

  20. Hydrophobic patches on protein surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a prime determinant of the structure and function of proteins. It is the driving force behind the folding of soluble proteins, and when exposed on the surface, it is frequently involved in recognition and binding of ligands and other proteins. The energetic cost of

  1. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  2. Complex calculation and improvement of beam shaping and accelerating system of the ''Sokol'' small-size electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonenko, A.V.; Pistryak, V.M.; Zats, A.V.; Levchenko, Yu.Z.; Kuz'menko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Features of charged particle accelerated beam shaping in the electrostatic part of the ''Sokol'' small-size accelerator are considered in complex taking into account the electrode real geometry. Effect of the extracting, accelerating electorde potential and accelerator total voltage on beam behaviour is investigated. A modified variation of the beam shaping system, allowing to decrease 2 times the required interval of accelerating electrode potential adjustment and to decrease the beam size in the starting acceleration region, is presented. It permits to simplify the construction and to improve accelerator operation. Comparison of experimental and calculational data on the beam in the improved accelerator variation is carried out. Effect of peripheral parts of accelerating tube electrodes on the beam is investigated

  3. Digital Image Collections for Asian Religion and Art History in a Small-Sized Liberal Arts College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Chang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:6-15

    This paper reviews the establishment of a digital image library from 35mm slides to support faculty and student needs in a small-sized liberal arts college. The framework consists of central local resources, distributed faculty collections, and external resources. Standards and guidelines for digital preservation and access are also discussed. The pilot collections were multi-disciplinary resources in Middle East art and architecture and faculty slide collections in East Asian religions and Asian art history. Technical and management issues of integrating digital technology in the traditional slide library are also discussed.

  4. 7 CFR 1738.16 - Eligible entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual associations, limited liability companies, commercial... or partnerships of individuals are not eligible entities. (2) An entity is not eligible if it serves...

  5. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No. 68611-0944... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE IN FEED AND...

  7. Experimental investigation on the off-design performance of a small-sized humid air turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Zang, Shusheng

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to study the improvement of the gas turbine performance of a humid air turbine (HAT) cycle at low pressure ratio and at low turbine inlet temperature (TIT). To achieve this goal, an off-design performance test investigation was conducted on a small-sized, two-shaft gas turbine test rig. The test rig consisted of a centrifugal compressor, a centripetal turbine, an individual direct flow flame tube, a free power turbine, a dynamometer, and a saturator with structured packing. Two different conditions were considered for the test investigation: in Case I, the control system kept the fuel flow constant at 57 kg/h, and in Case II, the turbine inlet temperature was kept constant at 665 °C. In Case I, when the air humidity ratio increased from 30 g/kg dry air (DA) to 43 g/kg DA, the power output increased by 3 kW. At the same time, the turbine inlet temperature decreased by 19 °C, and the NO x emissions were reduced from 25 ppm to 16 ppm. In Case II, when the air humidity ratio increased from 48 g/kg DA to 57 g/kg DA, the power output increased by 9.5 kW. Based on the actual gas turbine parts, characteristics, and test conditions, the off-design performance of the HAT cycle was calculated. Upon comparing the measured and calculated results, the HAT cycle was found to perform better than the two-shaft cycle in terms of specific work, efficiency, and specific fuel consumption. The effect of performance improvement became more obvious as the air humidity ratio increased. Under the same inlet air flow, turbine inlet temperature, and power output, the surge margin on compressor curves became enlarged as the humidity ratio increased. The off-design performance of a HAT cycle with regenerator was also investigated. The results show that the highest efficiency can be increased by 3.1%, which will greatly improve the gas turbine performance. -- Highlights: ► We built a flexible small-size test rig of HAT cycle gas turbine and the real test data were

  8. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  9. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  10. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  11. Hydrophobic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophobic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates a hydrophobic substance with a core substance, such as dye, corrosion indicator, corrosion inhibitor, and/or healing agent, dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophobic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophobic-phase droplets, e.g., containing the core substance and shell-forming compound, dispersed in a hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  12. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  13. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  14. Development and Testing of a Small-Size Olfactometer for the Perception of Food and Beverages in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Risso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of olfactory perception and about the way humans interact with, and perceive food and beverages require appropriate olfactory devices. Moreover, small size, and portable interfaces are needed within the context of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, to enrich and complete the design of different mediated experiences. In this paper, the authors tested a new portable olfactory device for the orthonasal administration of smells. The main aim was to verify if the experience generated by the odors delivered through such device can affect people's taste perception. Once established that people could perceive odors using the olfactory device, a group of participants was asked to taste two different types of food (Experiment 1 and three types of beverages (Experiment 2 and to evaluate them on a number of perceptual-dimensions (such as pleasantness, freshness, sweetness, saltiness, and bitterness. The participants could taste the food and the beverage without the presence of additional olfactory stimuli, or under conditions where olfactory stimuli (the smell of chocolate or citrus were also presented using the device. The results showed that the participants' evaluation of food and beverages was significantly modulated by the concurrently presented odors. The experimental results suggest that: (1 the device is effective in controlling the delivery of odors to human participants without the complexity of management that often affect larger odors delivery systems; (2 odors administered by means of such device can have an effects on food and beverage perception, without the need to change their chemical properties.

  15. Small-sized accelerating tube for electron acceleration to 500 keV at pulse duration of 2 ns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Ehl'yash, S.L.; Dron', N.A.; Sloeva, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design and characteristics (current, voltage, current density, electron beam structure, energy spectrum, and dose rate) of a soldered small-size two-electrode 600 kV accelerating tube are considered. A six-stage Arkadiev-Marx generator is the pulse high-voltage supply of nanosecond duration. When using a cathode (diameter of 8 mm) made of tantalum foil 0.02 mm thick and with interelectrode gap of 10 mm, the amplitude of the electron beam current beyond the beryllium anode equals to 1040 A under maximum voltage of 490 kV, current pulse duration of 2 ns, number of electrons is 10 13 . The increased electron density on the anode in a spot of 4 mm in diameter is observed; the current density in the spot reaches 1 kA/cm 2 . The electron energy in the beam beyond the anode is as much as 0.6-0.8 J per pulse, and the dose rate near the outer surface of the outlet window is 10 14 -10 15 rad/s. The use of an intensifying oil spark gap is shown to increase radiation hardness. The accelerating tube provides more than 10 5 shots in a single-switching mode

  16. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  17. A single-supply, high rate, small size and cheap electronic chain for 3He neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, A.; Fazzi, A.; Pirovano, C.; Varoli, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a complete counting chain (charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier and threshold discriminator) devoted to 3 He neutron detectors. Since it is characterized by single supply operation, high counting rate, small size and low cost, it is well suited for high efficiency neutron well detectors where a large number (10 - 100) of counting tubes are used. Such detectors are commonly used for verification of Plutonium stocks. The preamplifier adopts an innovative circuit with the gate of the input JFET floating and a DC feedback loop that stabilizes the output voltage acting on the input cascode second transistor. Static and dynamic analysis, including the effects of the detector bias network, is reported. The shaping amplifier transfer function is a fifth order approximation of the gaussian response. All the complex pole pairs are realized with a single fourth order Voltage Controlled Voltage Source cell thus minimizing component count. Experimental signals and spectra, obtained with shaping time constants in the 1 μs - 100 ns range, are reported and discussed

  18. Numerical study of self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanfang; Zhu Ziqiang; Zhu Ming; Lin Chenglu

    2006-01-01

    Compared with bulk-silicon technology, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology possesses many advantages but it is inevitable that the buried silicon dioxide layer also thermally insulates the metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) from the bulk due to the low thermal conductivity. One of the alternative insulator to replace the buried oxide layer is aluminum nitride (MN), which has a thermal conductivity that is about 200 times higher than that of SiO 2 (320 W·m -1 ·K -1 versus 1.4 W·m -1 ·K -l ). To investigate the self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride (SOAN) substrate, a two-dimensional numerical analysis is performed by using a device simulator called MEDICI run on a Solaris workstation to simulate the electrical characteristics and temperature distribution by comparing with those of bulk and standard SOI MOSFETs. Our study suggests that AIN is a suitable alternative to silicon dioxide as a buried dielectric in SOI and expands the applications of SOI to high temperature conditions. (authors)

  19. A Simple Small Size and Low Cost Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Selective Detection of Fe(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III. DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO, having high binding affinity for Fe(III, is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III. The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  20. A simple small size and low cost sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for selective detection of Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Alberti, Giancarla; Pesavento, Maria; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Quattrini, Federico; Biesuz, Raffaela; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-03-07

    A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III). DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO), having high binding affinity for Fe(III), is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III)/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III). The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  1. Testing the Application for Analyzing Structured Entities

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Bogdan VINTILA

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the testing process of the application for the analysis of structured text entities. The structured entities are presented. Quality characteristics of structured entities are identified and analyzed. The design and building processes are presented. Rules for building structured entities are described. The steps of building the application for the analysis of structured text entities are presented. The objective of the testing process is defined. Ways of testing the applicat...

  2. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...

  3. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  4. SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Perevozova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigation of social effectiveness of business entities. Social aspect of business is becoming a necessary component of success, increase of profitability and competitiveness as well as minimization of risks. Social effectiveness is referred to as correspondence between economic activity and main social needs and aims of society, interests of the staff and interests of a certain person. Investigation of social effectiveness of business entities is suggested to analyze with the help of social factors. Social factors are characterized by variability of expectations, relations and interests of society, staff and individuals. We suggest generalized classification of factors which have an impact on social effectiveness of business, we single out external and internal factors. To external factors belong: income of the population, differentiation of population according to income, migration, level of salaries, level of legality of income of population, family status of  population, employment rate, age structure of population etc. As for internal factors we single out the following: low level of basic professional training, use of unskilled workers, absence of conditions for creativity, imperfection of system of motivation of professional growth, absence of specialized centers for certification training etc. Quantity and quality analysis of the above mentioned factors will enable to determine the level of social effectiveness of business entities. For analyses of degree of influence of factors on effectiveness we worked out a questionnaire of expert assessment which is represented in the form of assessment scale. We conducted a questionnaire and analyzed expert results and determined degree of influence of factors on social effectiveness of business. Assessment of level of social effectiveness of business entities was carried out by expert method of certain factor and was represented by a formula. The scale of assessment of

  5. Techunique to depress seeds formation in small sized watermelon [Citrullus lanatus] by using pollen irradiated with soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, K.; Ishida, T.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen irradiated soft X-rays is effective to depress seed formation in fruits of watermelon. In this investigation, it's effect are disucussed on some varieties of small sized water melon on semi-focing and retarding culture. Results are followed; The radiation of soft X-rays to pollen gave less seeds formation in fruits of wide varieties on both cropping season. The fruit setting was normal on the case of using irradiated pollen, and the growth and quality of fruits were equal or better than that of triploid variety of watermelon. The size of emty seeds remained in fruit was big in the variety whitch had originally big size seeds. On variety comparison under two cropping season. 'hitorijime' , 'summerkids' and ' himekannsen' showed excellent quality and less-formation of residual seeds in their fruits. To determine optimum level of soft X-rays irradiation, three levels of irradiation intensity were te sted. Irradiation intensity to pollen did not affect to the furit setting and the growth of fruit. B ut sugarcontent in fruit was generally higher than that of no-treatment. The effect of radiation int ensity to formation of seeds was different on cropping season. The optimum intensity was 1600Gy on r etarding culture. On semi-forcing culture, depressive effect on seeds formation by soft X-rays irrad iation was incresed as the increment of irradiation intensity between 0 to 800Gy, but irradiation av obe 1600Gy gave opposite result. Then optimum irradiation level is 800-1200Gy

  6. Is Br2 hydration hydrophobic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Torres, A; Gamboa-Suárez, A; Bernal-Uruchurtu, M I

    2017-02-28

    The spectroscopic properties of bromine in aqueous systems suggest it can behave as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute. In small water clusters, the halogen bond and the hydrogen-halogen interaction are responsible for its specific way of binding. In water hydrates, it is efficiently hosted by two different cages forming the crystal structure and it has been frequently assumed that there is little or no interaction between the guest and the host. Bromine in liquid solution poses a challenging question due to its non-negligible solubility and the large blue shift measured in its absorption spectra. Using a refined semi-empirical force field, PM3-PIF, we performed a Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study of bromine in liquid water. Here we present a detailed study in which we retrieved the most representative hydration structures in terms of the most frequent positions around bromine and the most common water orientations. Albeit being an approximate description of the total hydration phenomenon, it captures the contribution of the leading molecular interactions in form of the recurrent structures. Our findings confirm that the spectroscopic signature is mainly caused by the closest neighbors. The dynamics of the whole first hydration shell strongly suggests that the external molecules in that structure effectively isolate the bulk from the presence of bromine. The solvation structure fluctuates from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic-like environment along the studied trajectory.

  7. Development of a measuring system for vapor-jet forms of small-sized fuel injectors; Kogata injector funmu keijo sokutei system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, H; Komatsubara, H; Kawashima, O; Fujita, A [Aisan Industry Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In the small-sized fuel injectors adapted to the United States` exhaust-gas regulation or the like, the vapor jet is extremely atomized and the jet form as one of the performances of the product has become more important than before. Accordingly, we have developed a measuring system in which the vapor jet of the small-sized fuel injector is irradiated with a flat laser light, the sectional form of the jet that is shining due to diffusion is sampled, and the distribution and the form of the sampled sections are determined by the image processing. 2 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  9. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.colpo@ec.europa.eu [Directorate Health, Consumer and Reference Materials, Consumer Products Safety Unit (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors.

  10. Entity Framework 41 Expert's Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liles, Devlin

    2012-01-01

    This book takes a step-by-step problem solving approach that leads you through a problem and explains each step in detail to accomplish the goal. This books gives you concrete code examples as well as detailed information on the decisions involved. This book is for intermediate to advanced .NET developers who have used LINQ to SQL or Entity Framework in some form but want to have more control over the implementation.

  11. Les raffineries de petite taille dans les pays en développement Small-Size Refineries in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonchere J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les raffineries de petite taille, nombreuses dans le monde, vont connaître un regain d'intérêt dans le contexte d'énergie chère que l'on connaît maintenant. Les pays en développement chercheront, plus que jamais, l'autosuffisance en pétrole, moteur essentiel de leur croissance. Toute découverte; même limitée, sera une aubaine et pourra offrir l'opportunité de réaliser une raffinerie. La déficience de l'infrastructure de transports, le manque chronique de moyens de financement et de devises étrangères inciteront nombre de pays en développement à considérer un projet de taille modeste avec intérêt. Des bénéfices substantiels peuvent en être retirés : délai de réalisation court et récupération rapide de la mise financière, montage financier facilité par sa modestie même, amélioration de la balance en devises étrangères, coûts de mise à la disposition du consommateur minimisés, intégration à une politique d'aménagement du territoire. There are many small-size refineries in the worid. Renewed interest will be shown in such refineries within the present context of expensive energy. More than ever the developing countries will seek to gain self sufficiency in cil, the essential locomotive of their growth. Any discovery, even limited, will be a windfall and will provide an opportunity ta build a refinery. Deficiencies in the transportation infrastructure together with the chronic lack of financing means and hard currency will incite a good many developing countries ta consider a modest-size project with interest. Substantiel benefits may be goined, i. e. short construction time and rapid recovery of the financiel outlay, facilitating of the financing by the very modesty of its size, improvement in the hard-currency balance and integration into a regional-development policy.

  12. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.308 Person; entity. (a) The term person means an individual or entity. (b) The...

  13. Quenching effect in an optical fiber type small size dosimeter irradiated with 290 MeV·u{sup -1} carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yuho; Watanabe, Kenichi; Uritani, Akira; Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Koba, Yusuke; Matsufuji, Naruhiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    We are developing a small size dosimeter for dose estimation in particle therapies. The developed dosimeter is an optical fiber based dosimeter mounting an radiation induced luminescence material, such as an OSL or a scintillator, at a tip. These materials generally suffer from the quenching effect under high LET particle irradiation. We fabricated two types of the small size dosimeters. They used an OSL material Eu:BaFBr and a BGO scintillator. Carbon ions were irradiated into the fabricated dosimeters at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The small size dosimeters were set behind the water equivalent acrylic phantom. Bragg peak was observed by changing the phantom thickness. An ion chamber was also placed near the small size dosimeters as a reference. Eu:BaFBr and BGO dosimeters showed a Bragg peak at the same thickness as the ion chamber. Under high LET particle irradiation, the response of the luminescence-based small size dosimeters deteriorated compared with that of the ion chamber due to the quenching effect. We confirmed the luminescence efficiency of Eu:BaFBr and BGO decrease with the LET. The reduction coefficient of luminescence efficiency was different between the BGO and the Eu:BaFBr. The LET can be determined from the luminescence ratio between Eu:BaFBr and BGO, and the dosimeter response can be corrected. We evaluated the LET dependence of the luminescence efficiency of the BGO and Eu:BaFBr as the quenching effect. We propose and discuss the correction of the quenching effect using the signal intensity ratio of the both materials. Although the correction precision is not sufficient, feasibility of the proposed correction method is proved through basic experiments.

  14. Ranking related entities: components and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Related entity finding is the task of returning a ranked list of homepages of relevant entities of a specified type that need to engage in a given relationship with a given source entity. We propose a framework for addressing this task and perform a detailed analysis of four core components;

  15. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  16. Painful constipation: a neglected entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bassotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional chronic constipation is a common symptom in daily clinical practice. Although the definition of constipation may be variable, there is usually agreement that (at least for research purposes the definition given by the Rome Committee are useful. However, some blind spots or hidden angles remain, even in the more thorough classifications; among these, there is painful constipation, a poorly defined yet clinically encountered entity. The present article reviews the current knowledge about painful constipation, trying to put together the scarce data available, and to frame it in the more general context of chronic constipation.

  17. Painful constipation: a neglected entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bassotti

    Full Text Available Functional chronic constipation is a common symptom in daily clinical practice. Although the definition of constipation may be variable, there is usually agreement that (at least for research purposes the definition given by the Rome Committee are useful. However, some blind spots or hidden angles remain, even in the more thorough classifications; among these, there is painful constipation, a poorly defined yet clinically encountered entity. The present article reviews the current knowledge about painful constipation, trying to put together the scarce data available, and to frame it in the more general context of chronic constipation.

  18. Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Naveen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanatophoric dysplasia is the lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by marked underdevelopment of the skeleton and short-limb dwarfism. The child will be having a short neck, narrow thoracic cage and protuberant abdomen. Other anatomical features include a relatively enlarged head with frontal bossing, prominent eyes, hypertelorism and the depressed nasal bridge. The diagnosis is usually made with the ultrasonography in the second trimester. In this study we report a case of this rare entity with emphasis on its anatomical features, abnormalities and clinical profile with relevant review of literature.

  19. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports

  20. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaaz Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  1. Durability of hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of this study was the performance of hydrophobic treatment to protect concrete against chloride penetration from de-icing salts. Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Test methods and requirements for commercial products were established. In

  2. Durability of hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of this study was the performance of hydrophobic treatment to protect concrete against chloride penetration from de-icing salts. Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Several types of tests were carried out to study the performance of

  3. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  4. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  5. Dosimetry for small size beams such as IMRT and stereotactic radiotherapy, is the concept of the dose at a point still relevant? proposal for a new methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; De Carlan, L.; Delaunay, F.

    2010-01-01

    Solving the problem of traceability of the absorbed dose to the tumour for the radiation fields of small and very small dimensions, like those used for new treatment modality usually results in the use of dosemeters of much smaller size than those of the beam. For the realisation of the reference in primary standards laboratories, the absence of technology likely to produce absolute small-size dosemeters leaves no possibility for the direct measurement of the absorbed dose at a point and implies the use of passive or active small-size transfer dosemeters. This report intends to introduce a new kind of dose quantity for radiotherapy similar do the Dose Area Product concept used in radiology. Such a new concept has to be propagated through the metrology chain, including the TPS, to the calculation of the absorbed dose to the tumour. (authors)

  6. Small-sized test of gravity separation and preliminary assessment of technology and economics in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhifu, Sun; Mingyue, Feng; Jiashu, Rong; Ziyang, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1994-11-01

    The small-sized test of gravity separation in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit has found a new avenue for the industrial utilization of ores from such uranium deposit, especially those low grade ones. The test has proved that the gravity separation is superior to hydrometallurgy in the aspect of uranium recovery from ores of the granite pegmatite type uranium deposit, by-product recovery and protection against environmental pollution.

  7. Small-sized test of gravity separation and preliminary assessment of technology and economics in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhifu; Feng Mingyue; Rong Jiashu; Xu Ziyang

    1994-01-01

    The small-sized test of gravity separation in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit has found a new avenue for the industrial utilization of ores from such uranium deposit, especially those low grade ones. The test has proved that the gravity separation is superior to hydrometallurgy in the aspect of uranium recovery from ores of the granite pegmatite type uranium deposit, by-product recovery and protection against environmental pollution

  8. The Effect of Pulsatile Flow on bMSC-Derived Endothelial-Like Cells in a Small-Sized Artificial Vessel Made by 3-Dimensional Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Woog Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of small-sized vessels is still challenging. This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of small-sized artificial vessels made by 3-dimensional bioprinting and the effect of pulsatile flow on bMSC-derived endothelial-like cells. Cells were harvested from rabbit bone marrow and primary cultured with or without growth factors. Endothelial differentiation was confirmed by the Matrigel tube formation assay, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. In addition, embedment of endothelial-like cells in an artificial vessel was made by 3-dimensional bioprinting, and the pulsatile flow was performed. For pumped and nonpumped groups, qRT-PCR was performed on CD31 and VE-cadherin gene expression. Endothelial-like cells showed increased gene expression of CD31 and VE-cadherin, and tube formation is observed at each week. Endothelial-like cells grow well in a small-sized artificial vessel made by 3-dimensional bioprinting and even express higher endothelial cell markers when they undergo pulsatile flow condition. Moreover, the pulsatile flow condition gives a positive effect for cell observation not only on the sodium alginate hydrogel layer but also on the luminal surface of the artificial vessel wall. We have developed an artificial vessel, which is a mixture of cells and carriers using a 3-dimensional bioprinting method, and applied pulsatile flow using a peristaltic pump, and we also demonstrated cell growth and differentiation into endothelial cells. This study suggests guidelines regarding a small-sized artificial vessel in the field of tissue engineering.

  9. Small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation shield for custom examination of freight transported by motor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, A.V.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Klinov, A.P.; Krest'yaninov, A.S.; Nikolaev, V.M.; Fomin, L.P.; Linkenbach, H.A.; Geus, G.; Knospel, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new development of a small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation protection is described. The accelerator is intended for movable facilities of radiation custom of the freight transported by motor transport. Main constructive solutions, mass and dimension characteristics and results of preliminary tests of the accelerator parameters and characteristics of radiation protection are presented [ru

  10. Flowering and fruiting intensity of small - sized tomato, due to the regulation of the quantity of light reaching the plant top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in 2001-2003 in a high unheated plastic tunnel. The influence of reduction of leaves and application of reflection matter on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of increasing the amount of light in plant tops (reflection matter, cutting leaves, reflection matter + cutting leaves and cultivars of small sized tomato ('Conchita F1', 'Picolino F1'. The cutting of leaves and reflection matter mulching resulted in the increase of the intensity of radiation reaching plant tops and the reflected radiation. The above measures increasing the light access to plant tops significantly increased the number of flowers, germs and fruits. The reflection matter mulching along with cutting leaves resulted in the substantial growth of early yield of small-sized tomato. The 'Conchita F1' cultivar set a relatively greater number of flowers and fruits on a plant and in cluster than 'Picolino F1'.

  11. Monitoring of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction of seawater collected in Mutsu Bay, Japan, by ELISA method: relation with toxin contamination of scallop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ichiro; Sugioka, Hikaru; Nishitani, Goh; Mitsuya, Tadashi; Hamano, Yonekazu

    2003-01-01

    Monitorings were conducted on DSP toxins in mid-gut gland of scallop (mouse assay), cell numbers of toxic dinoflagellate species of Dinophysis, and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in small-sized (0.7-5 microm) plankton fraction of seawater collected from surface (0 m) and 20 m depth at a station in Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, in 2000. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed for the analysis of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction using a mouse monoclonal anti-okadaic acid antibody which recognizes okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and dinophysistoxin-3. DSP toxins were detected twice in the mid-gut gland of scallops at 1.1-2.3 MU (mouse units) g(-1) on 26 June and at 0.6-1.2 MU g(-1) on 3 July, respectively. Relatively high cell densities of D. fortii were observed on 26 June and 11 September, and may only contribute to the bivalve toxicity during late June to early July. D. acuminata did not appear to be responsible for the toxicity of scallops in Mutsu Bay in 2000. ELISA monitoring of small-sized plankton fraction in seawater could detect DSP toxins two weeks before the detection of the toxin in scallops, and could do so two weeks after the loss of the bivalve toxicity by mouse assay. On 17 July, toxic D. fortii was detected at only small number, <10 cells l(-1), but DSP toxins were detected by the ELISA assay, suggesting a presence of other toxic small-sized plankton in seawater. For the purpose of reducing negative impacts of DSP occurrences, monitorings have been carried out hitherto on DSP toxins of bivalve tissues by mouse assay and on cell densities of "toxic" species of Dinophysis. Here we propose a usefulness of ELISA monitoring of plankton toxicity, especially in small-sized fraction, which are possible foods of mixotrophic Dinophysis, as a practical tool for detecting and predicting DSPs in coastal areas of fisheries grounds of bivalve aquaculture.

  12. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  13. Heat-resistant hydrophobic-oleophobic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanik, Mehmet; Arpac, Ertugrul; Schmidt, Helmut K.; Akarsu, Murat; Sayilkan, Funda; Sayilkan, Hikmet

    2006-01-01

    Thermally and chemically durable hydrophobic oleophobic coatings, containing different ceramic particles such as SiO2, SiC, Al 2O3, which can be alternative instead of Teflon, have been developed and applied on the aluminum substrates by spin-coating method. Polyimides, which are high-thermal resistant heteroaromatic polymers, were synthesized, and fluor oligomers were added to these polymers to obtain hydrophobic-oleophobic properties. After coating, Al surface was subjected to Taber-abrasio...

  14. Entity resolution in the web of data

    CERN Document Server

    Christophides, Vassilis; Stefanidis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several knowledge bases have been built to enable large-scale knowledge sharing, but also an entity-centric Web search, mixing both structured data and text querying. These knowledge bases offer machine-readable descriptions of real-world entities, e.g., persons, places, published on the Web as Linked Data. However, due to the different information extraction tools and curation policies employed by knowledge bases, multiple, complementary and sometimes conflicting descriptions of the same real-world entities may be provided. Entity resolution aims to identify different descrip

  15. Fish skin bacteria: Colonial and cellular hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, N; Rosenberg, E

    1987-05-01

    Bacteria were desorbed from the skin of healthy, fast-swimming fish by several procedures, including brief exposure to sonic oscillation and treatment with nontoxic surface active agents. The surface properties of these bacteria were studied by measuring their adhesion to hexadecane, as well as by a newly developed, simple method for studying the hydrophobicity of bacterial lawns. This method, referred to as the "Direction of Spreading" (DOS) method, consists of recording the direction to which a water drop spreads when introduced at the border between bacterial lawns and other surfaces. Of the 13 fish skin isolates examined, two strains were as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method. Suspended cells of one of these strains adhered strongly to hexadecane (84%), whereas cells of the other strain adhered poorly (13%). Another strain which was almost as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method did not adhere to hexadecane at all. Similarly, lawns of three other strains were more hydrophobic than glass by the DOS method, but cell suspensions prepared from these colonies showed little or no adhesion to hexadecane. The high colonial but relatively low cellular hydrophobicity could be due to a hydrophobic slime that is removed during the suspension and washing procedures. The possibility that specific bacteria assist in fish locomotion by changing the surface properties of the fish skin and by producing drag-reducing polymers is discussed.

  16. [The nosological entity bulimia nerviosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J; Cervera Enguix, S

    1991-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at the present moment, two well defined clinical entities among the group of the eating disorders. The psychopathological differentiation of both syndromes has a great importance for diagnosis and therapy. The authors make a phenomenological description, based on case histories of patients with diagnostics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and try to establish an approach to the essential symptomatology of those disorders. The presence of affective symptomatology--depressive, but not exclusively--in the eating behaviour disorders in general and particularly in bulimia nervosa, is nowadays interpreted as an unspecific emotional lability as a response to stressing situations. That is to say, it is a secondary depressive symptomatology, more than a primary mood disorder preceding or underlying bulimia. There is strong evidence in favour of a dysregulation of serotonin metabolism in patients with bulimia nervosa, in the sense of a reduced activity, which manifest itself clinically by binges with food with a high content in carbohydrates. High levels of 5-HT seem to induce increasing feelings of safety, fullness and lead to an interruption of eating. Fluoxetine and this active metabolite are selective inhibitors of the reuptake of 5-HT and their antibulimic effect could be mediated by this mechanism.

  17. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  18. 78 FR 31822 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... framework for Farm Credit System (System) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited partnerships (LPs...-AC65 Unincorporated Business Entities AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  19. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  20. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  1. 31 CFR 595.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 595.303 Section 595.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.303 Entity...

  2. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... separate legal entity) operated by any one of the foregoing as a business undertaking in a particular...

  3. Code-first development with Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Barskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers with some prior experience with the Microsoft .NET framework who want to learn how to use Entity Framework. This book will get you up and running quickly, providing many examples that illustrate all the key concepts of Entity Framework.

  4. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than a... political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, that is responsible for licensing adoption agencies in a State and that has expertise in developing and administering standards for entities providing...

  5. Testing the Application for Analyzing Structured Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the testing process of the application for the analysis of structured text entities. The structured entities are presented. Quality characteristics of structured entities are identified and analyzed. The design and building processes are presented. Rules for building structured entities are described. The steps of building the application for the analysis of structured text entities are presented. The objective of the testing process is defined. Ways of testing the application on components and as a whole are established. A testing strategy for different objectives is proposed. The behavior of users during the testing period is analyzed. Statistical analysis regarding the behavior of users in processes of infinite resources access are realized.

  6. Periocular xanthogranuloma: A forgotten entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Papagoras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Charalampos Papagoras1, George Kitsos2, Paraskevi V Voulgari1, Anastasia K Zikou3, Maria I Argyropoulou3, Aikaterini Zioga4, Alexandros A Drosos11Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology; 3Department of Clinical Imaging and Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Periocular xanthogranulomatous diseases are a rare group of disorders which are characterized by a predilection to affect the orbit and ocular adnexa and special histopathological features, in particular infiltrates comprising non-Langerhans-derived foamy histiocytes and Touton giant cells. The differential diagnosis is difficult and occasionally definite diagnosis cannot be established even after clinical and histopathological findings are taken together. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with a 10-year history of voluminous eyelid swelling with concomitant late-onset atopic manifestations, namely bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis with nasal polyps. After thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, including a biopsy of the eyelid, we classified the patient’s disease to a rare entity that has been relatively recently described: periocular xanthogranuloma associated with adult-onset asthma. In a review of the literature, no prospective trials concerning the treatment of this disease were found. The literature mainly contained case reports and case series in which corticosteroids and chemotherapy with alkylating agents have been reported to be beneficial. We treated our patient with a combination of oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide pulses and we observed substantial regression of the eyelid masses together with a normalization of systemic immunologic abnormalities.Keywords: periocular xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma, non-Langerhans histiocytoses, cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone

  7. A small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Yukihiko

    1986-01-01

    A principle for simultaneous and real time measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is proposed. A simple, small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a dc glow discharge tube and an ion sampling electrode system for the simultaneous measurement on the basis of the proposed plinciple, has been constructed and tested. Details of the experimental setup including the geometry and the electronic hardware are described. It is shown that mass spectra of neutrals and ions from the positive column of the argon dc glow discharge are successfully observed on a single oscilloscope display. (author)

  8. Thoracic Stent Graft Implantation for Aortic Coarctation with Patent Ductus Arteriosus via Retroperitoneal Iliac Approach in the Presence of Small Sized Femoral Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular stent graft implantation is a favorable method for complex aortic coarctation accompanied by patent ductus arteriosus. Herein, an 18-year-old woman with complex aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus was successfully treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. The reason for retroperitoneal iliac approach was small sized common femoral arteries which were not suitable for stent graft passage. This case is the first aortic coarctation plus patent ductus arteriosus case described in the literature which is treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach.

  9. Pathways to dewetting in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C; Xi, Erte; Vembanur, Srivathsan; Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Garde, Shekhar; Patel, Amish J

    2015-07-07

    Liquid water can become metastable with respect to its vapor in hydrophobic confinement. The resulting dewetting transitions are often impeded by large kinetic barriers. According to macroscopic theory, such barriers arise from the free energy required to nucleate a critical vapor tube that spans the region between two hydrophobic surfaces--tubes with smaller radii collapse, whereas larger ones grow to dry the entire confined region. Using extensive molecular simulations of water between two nanoscopic hydrophobic surfaces, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, here we show that for intersurface separations that thermodynamically favor dewetting, the barrier to dewetting does not correspond to the formation of a (classical) critical vapor tube. Instead, it corresponds to an abrupt transition from an isolated cavity adjacent to one of the confining surfaces to a gap-spanning vapor tube that is already larger than the critical vapor tube anticipated by macroscopic theory. Correspondingly, the barrier to dewetting is also smaller than the classical expectation. We show that the peculiar nature of water density fluctuations adjacent to extended hydrophobic surfaces--namely, the enhanced likelihood of observing low-density fluctuations relative to Gaussian statistics--facilitates this nonclassical behavior. By stabilizing isolated cavities relative to vapor tubes, enhanced water density fluctuations thus stabilize novel pathways, which circumvent the classical barriers and offer diminished resistance to dewetting. Our results thus suggest a key role for fluctuations in speeding up the kinetics of numerous phenomena ranging from Cassie-Wenzel transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces, to hydrophobically driven biomolecular folding and assembly.

  10. Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-03-20

    The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 Å and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm(2)), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 Å. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50 kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm(2)) than by the smaller (1 nm(2)) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube.

  11. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...... collaborations between entities. Activities and local contexts also obtain awareness information from the context about the dynamic collection of entities. Similarly activities, local contexts and entities are offered awareness information about activities and local contexts....

  12. Controllable picoliter pipetting using hydrophobic microfluidic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, J.; Qian, X.; Mi, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-06-01

    A picoliter pipetting technique using the microfluidic method is presented. Utilizing the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer films patterned in microchannels as pressure-controlled valves, a small volume of liquid can be separated by a designed channel trap and then ejected from the channel end at a higher pressure. The liquid trap section is composed of a T-shaped channel junction and a hydrophobic patch. The liquid volume can be precisely controlled by varying the distance of the hydrophobic patch from the T-junction. By this means, liquid less than 100 pl can be separated and pipetted. The developed device is potentially useful for sample dispensing in biological, medical, and chemical applications.

  13. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  14. Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Backman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities, split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments, and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill. This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project “Energy-Driven Business”. Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

  15. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T.

    1998-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  16. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  17. Development of gamma-ray-suppression type of small-sized neutron detector based on a 6Li-glass scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Harano, H.; Shimoyama, T.; Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.

    2005-01-01

    A small-sized thermal neutron detector based on a 6 Li-glass scintillator and a plastic optical fiber was developed for measurement of a dose distribution of thermal neutrons in a thermal neutron standard field. A contribution of gamma rays can not be neglected in the neutron measurement with this detector, although the 6 Li-glass scintillator can be distinguishable for the neutrons and the gamma rays by difference of each pulse height. Moreover, to reduce an uncertainty of neutron counts caused by the gamma ray background around a discrimination level, we suggested a gamma-ray-suppression type of small-sized thermal neutron detector with a 6 Li-glass scintillator, a hollow CsI(Tl) scintillator and plastic optical fibers. The detector can reject signals due to the gamma rays with an anti-coincidence method. In the present paper, we evaluated an ability of a gamma-ray suppression of the detector using the EGS4 electron-photon transport Monte-Carlo code with the PRESTA routine. As the results, the sufficient gamma-ray suppression effect was shown. (author)

  18. Two cases of methyl alcohol intoxication by sub-chronic inhalation and dermal exposure during aluminum CNC cutting in a small-sized subcontracted factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jia; Lim, Key Hwan; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Lee, Hyang Woon; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Seoung-Wook; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl alcohol poisoning has been mainly reported in community. Two cases of methyl alcohol poisoning occurred in a small-sized subcontracted factory which manufactured smartphone parts in Korea. One young female patient presented with dyspnea and visual disturbance. Another young male patient presented with visual disturbance and myalgia. They treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis. In addition, he received ethyl alcohol per oral treatment. Her and his urinary methyl alcohol concentration was detected as 7.632 mg/L, 46.8 mg/L, respectively, although they were treated hemodialysis. Results of the working environment measurement showed that the concentration of methyl alcohol (1030.1-2220.5 ppm) in the air exceeded the time weighted average (200 ppm). They were diagnosed with optic neuropathy due to methyl alcohol poisoning and still have visual impairment. Workers who hired as dispatched employees in a small-sized subcontracted factory were exposed to high concentrations of methyl alcohol. The workplace had poor ventilation system. In addition, workers did not wear proper personal protect equipment. Working environment measurement and annual chekups for workers were not performed. They were in a blind spot to occupational safety and health. More attention is needed to protect vulnerable workers' health.

  19. Small-Sized Mg–Al LDH Nanosheets Supported on Silica Aerogel with Large Pore Channels: Textural Properties and Basic Catalytic Performance after Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have been widely used as an important subset of solid base catalysts. However, developing low-cost, small-sized LDH nanoparticles with enhanced surface catalytic sites remains a challenge. In this work, silica aerogel (SA-supported, small-sized Mg–Al LDH nanosheets were successfully prepared by one-pot coprecipitation of Mg and Al ions in an alkaline suspension of crushed silica aerogel. The supported LDH nanosheets were uniformly dispersed in the SA substrate with the smallest average radial diameter of 19.2 nm and the thinnest average thickness of 3.2 nm, both dimensions being significantly less than those of the vast majority of LDH nanoparticles reported. The SA/LDH composites also showed large pore volume (up to 1.3 cm3·g and pore diameter (>9 nm, and therefore allow efficient access of reactants to the edge catalytic sites of LDH nanosheets. In a base-catalyzed Henry reaction of benzaldehyde with nitromethane, the SA/LDH catalysts showed high reactant conversions and favorable stability in 6 successive cycles of reactions. The low cost of the SA carrier and LDH precursors, easy preparation method, and excellent catalytic properties make these SA/LDH composites a competitive example of solid-base catalysts.

  20. Time integrated spectroscopy of turbid media based on the microscopic beer-lambert law: application to small-size phantoms having different boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Urakami, T; Tsuchiya, Y; Lu, Z; Hiruma, T

    1999-01-01

    Continued work on time-integrated spectroscopy (TIS) is presented to quantify absorber concentrations in turbid media. We investigated the applicability of the TIS method to small-size media that have different boundary conditions by measuring two 20×20×50 mm3 cuboid liquid tissue-like phantoms at various absorption levels (absorption coefficients of the phantom from 2.5×10-3 to 4.4×10-2 mm-1 at 782 nm and from 3.1×10-3 to 2.7×10-2 mm-1 at 831 nm). The scattering and absorbing solution was filled into ordinary and black-anodized aluminum containers to provide different boundary conditions. By means of a single equation, the absorber concentrations have been recovered within errors of a few percent in both cases. This demonstrates that the TIS method can quantify absorbers in small-size media having different boundary conditions. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  1. A development strategy for the business plan of Mitsubishi Small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Modular Reactor (MHR-50/100is)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Otani, Tomomi; Shimizu, Katsusuke; Mizokami, Yorikata; Oyama, Sunao; Tsukamoto, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    A business plan and a new concept of Mitsubishi Small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Modular Reactor (MHR-50/100is) has been investigated toward a commercialization in near future by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries cooperated with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan. The potential market of small sized reactor is expected to increase from the points of view of smaller investment, industrial use of the nuclear heat and IPP (Independent Power Producer). Especially minimization of construction unit cost including R and D and plant construction period are important issues in order to realize a business plan for them. The study includes four pertinent subject areas of (1) a market analysis, (2) a conceptual design, (3) improvement of safety design and (4) plant dynamics. In summary, the MHR-50/100 is designed to target a short construction period, competitive cost, and an inherent safety feature while applying only the verified technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of JAEA or conventional technologies

  2. A development strategy for the business plan of Mitsubishi Small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Modular Reactor (MHR-50/100is)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatsuki, Isao, E-mail: isao_minatsuki@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, Tomomi; Shimizu, Katsusuke [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Mizokami, Yorikata; Oyama, Sunao; Tsukamoto, Hiroki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A business plan and a new concept of Mitsubishi Small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Modular Reactor (MHR-50/100is) has been investigated toward a commercialization in near future by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries cooperated with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan. The potential market of small sized reactor is expected to increase from the points of view of smaller investment, industrial use of the nuclear heat and IPP (Independent Power Producer). Especially minimization of construction unit cost including R and D and plant construction period are important issues in order to realize a business plan for them. The study includes four pertinent subject areas of (1) a market analysis, (2) a conceptual design, (3) improvement of safety design and (4) plant dynamics. In summary, the MHR-50/100 is designed to target a short construction period, competitive cost, and an inherent safety feature while applying only the verified technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of JAEA or conventional technologies.

  3. On the Evaluation of Entity Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rijke, Maarten; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    be assessed by means of precision and recall values of the descriptive terms produced. However, recent evidence suggests that more sophisticated metrics are needed that go beyond mere lexical matching of system-produced descriptors against a ground truth, allowing for graded relevance and rewarding diversity......Entity profiling is the task of identifying and ranking descriptions of a given entity. The task may be viewed as one where the descriptions being sought are terms that need to be selected from a knowledge source (such as an ontology or thesaurus). In this case, entity profiling systems can...... in the list of descriptors returned. In this note, we motivate and propose such a metric....

  4. Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents......, in the network. In this paper it is shown that the topology of a given network induces a ranking of the entities in the network. Further, it is demonstrated how to calculate this ranking and thus how to identify weak sub-networks in any given network....

  5. Fabrication of hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms on magnesium alloys by polymer plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhixin; Lai Xiaoming; Sang Jing; Li Yuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms with improved corrosion resistance were fabricated on the surfaces of Mg–Mn–Ce magnesium alloy by a surface modification technique, named as polymer plating, which has been developed to modify superficial characteristics of magnesium alloys with polymeric nanofilms through synthesized organic compounds of triazine dithiol containing functional groups. The nanofilms were prepared by the electrochemical and polymerization reactions during polymer plating analyzed from characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated nanofilms changed the surface wettability of blank magnesium alloy from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with contact angle 119.0° of distilled water with lower surface free energy of 20.59 mJ/m 2 and even super-hydrophobic with contact angle 158.3° with lowest surface free energy of 4.68 mJ/m 2 by different functional nanofilms on their surfaces. Alteration of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic resulted from their low surface free energy and surface morphology with micro- and nano-rough structures. The corrosion behaviors from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the super-hydrophobic nanofilm has higher corrosion resistance and stability in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution and lower corrosion current density (I corr ) with R ct increasing two orders of magnitude of 16,500 Ω·cm 2 compared to that obtained for blank of 485 Ω·cm 2 .

  6. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  7. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  8. Towards understanding hydrophobic recovery of plasma treated polymers: Storing in high polarity liquids suppresses hydrophobic recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Chaniel, Gilad; Grynyov, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of hydrophobic recovery was studied for cold air plasma treated polyethylene films. Plasma-treated polymer films were immersed into liquids with very different polarities such as ethanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and carbon disulphide. Hydrophobic recovery was studied by measurement of contact angles. Immersion into high polarity liquids slows markedly the hydrophobic recovery. We relate this slowing to dipole–dipole interaction of polar groups of the polymer with those of the liquids. This kind of interaction becomes decisive when polar groups of polymer chains are at least partially spatially fixed.

  9. Structuring unbreakable hydrophobic barriers in paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargang, Tobias M.; Kotz, Frederik; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrophobic barriers are one of the key elements of microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μPADs).μPADs are simple and cost efficient and they can be carried out without the need of high standard laboratories. To carry out such a test a method is needed to create stable hydrophobic barriers. Commonly used methods like printing wax or polystyrene have the major drawback that these barriers are stiff and break if bended which means they will no longer be able to retain a liquid sample. Here we present silanes to structure hydrophobic barriers via polycondensation and show a silanization method which combines the advantages of flexible silane/siloxane layers with the short processing times of UV-light based structuring. The barriers are created by using methoxy silanes which are mixed with a photo acid generator (PAG) as photoinitiator. Also a photosensitizer was given to the mixture to increase the effectiveness of the PAG. After the PAG is activated by UV-light the silane is hydrolyzed and coupled to the cellulose via polycondensation. The created hydrophobic barriers are highly stable and do not break if being bended.

  10. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  11. Hydrophobicity measurements of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Harbrecht, J.G.; Brinkman, D.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Riet, van 't K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of the hydrophobicity of membrane materials is developed. The advantage of this method over existing methods is that it is not influenced by the presence of the pores. A piece of the membrane material is submerged horizontally in a liquid with surface tension L.

  12. The new view of hydrophobic free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert L

    2013-04-17

    In the new view, hydrophobic free energy is measured by the work of solute transfer of hydrocarbon gases from vapor to aqueous solution. Reasons are given for believing that older values, measured by solute transfer from a reference solvent to water, are not quantitatively correct. The hydrophobic free energy from gas-liquid transfer is the sum of two opposing quantities, the cavity work (unfavorable) and the solute-solvent interaction energy (favorable). Values of the interaction energy have been found by simulation for linear alkanes and are used here to find the cavity work, which scales linearly with molar volume, not accessible surface area. The hydrophobic free energy is the dominant factor driving folding as judged by the heat capacity change for transfer, which agrees with values for solvating hydrocarbon gases. There is an apparent conflict with earlier values of hydrophobic free energy from studies of large-to-small mutations and an explanation is given. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Responsive gelation of hydrophobized linear polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Greve; Toeth, Joachim; Jørgensen, Lene

    In this study we present the rheological properties of a physically linked polymer network, composed of linear hydrophilic chains, modified with hydrophobic moieties in each end. Solutions of the polymer in ethanol-water mixtures showed Newtonian behaviour up to about 99 % ethanol, with the highest...

  14. The definition of basic parameters of the set of small-sized equipment for preparation of dry mortar for various applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelyanova Inga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the conducted information retrieval and review of the scientific literature, unsolved issues have been identified in the process of preparation of dry construction mixtures in the conditions of a construction site. The constructions of existing technological complexes for the production of dry construction mixtures are considered and their main drawbacks are identified in terms of application in the conditions of the construction site. On the basis of the conducted research, the designs of technological sets of small-sized equipment for the preparation of dry construction mixtures in the construction site are proposed. It is found out that the basis for creating the proposed technological kits are new designs of concrete mixers operating in cascade mode. A technique for calculating the main parameters of technological sets of equipment is proposed, depending on the use of the base machine of the kit.

  15. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in large-sized, deep-chested versus small-sized, barrel-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos L; Kazakos, George M; Savvas, Ioannis; Kostakis, Charalampos; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is more common in large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency than in small-sized, barrelchested dogs. Prospective, cohort study. Nineteen small-sized, barrel-chested dogs (group B) and 26 large-sized, deep-chested dogs (group D). All animals were premedicated with intramuscular (IM) acepromazine (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and pethidine (3 mg kg -1 ) IM. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous sodium thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Lower oesophageal pH was monitored continuously after induction of anaesthesia. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was considered to have occurred whenever pH values > 7.5 or < 4 were recorded. If GOR was detected during anaesthesia, measures were taken to avoid aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs and to prevent the development of oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture. The frequency of GOR during anaesthesia was significantly higher in group D (6/26 dogs; 23.07%) than in group B (0/19 dogs; 0%) (p = 0.032). Signs indicative of aspiration pneumonia, oesophagitis or oesophageal stricture were not reported in any of the GOR cases. In large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency, it would seem prudent to consider measures aimed at preventing GOR and its potentially devastating consequences (oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture, aspiration pneumonia). Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene as highly efficient anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihong; Xie, Ying; Shi, Keying; Wang, Jianqiang; Tian, Chungui; Shen, Peikang; Fu, Honggang

    2012-06-11

    The synergistic effect between Pt and WC is beneficial for methanol electro-oxidation, and makes Pt-WC catalyst a promising anode candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell. This paper reports on the design and synthesis of small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene that bring the synergistic effect into full play. Firstly, DFT calculations show the existence of a strong covalent interaction between WC and graphene, which suggests great potential for anchoring WC on graphene with formation of small-sized, well-dispersed WC particles. The calculations also reveal that, when Pt attaches to the pre-existing WC/graphene hybrid, Pt particles preferentially grow on WC rather than graphene. Our experiments confirmed that highly disperse WC nanoparticles (ca. 5 nm) can indeed be anchored on graphene. Also, Pt particles 2-3 nm in size are well dispersed on WC/graphene hybrid and preferentially grow on WC grains, forming contacting Pt-WC nanostructures. These results are consistent with the theoretical findings. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy further confirms the intimate contact between Pt and WC, and demonstrates that the presence of WC can facilitate the crystallinity of Pt particles. This new Pt-WC/graphene catalyst exhibits a high catalytic efficiency toward methanol oxidation, with a mass activity 1.98 and 4.52 times those of commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Effect of High Concentration and Small Size of Nanodiamonds on the Strength of Interface and Fracture Properties in Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A. Haleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and small size of nanodiamonds (NDs plays a crucial role in the mechanical performance of epoxy-based nanocomposites by modifying the interface strength. Herein, we systemically analyzed the relation between the high concentration and small size of ND and the fracture properties of its epoxy-based nanocomposites. It was observed that there is a two-fold increase in fracture toughness and a three-fold increase in fracture energy. Rationally, functionalized-NDs (F-NDs showed a much better performance for the nanocomposite than pristine NDs (P-NDs because of additional functional groups on its surface. The F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited rougher surface in contrast with the P-ND/epoxy, indicating the presence of a strong interface. We found that the interfaces in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites at high concentrations of NDs overlap by making a web, which can efficiently hinder further crack propagation. In addition, the de-bonding in P-ND/epoxy nanocomposites occurred at the interface with the appearance of plastic voids or semi-naked particles, whereas the de-bonding for F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites happened within the epoxy molecular network instead of the interface. Because of the strong interface in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites, at high concentrations the de-bonding within the epoxy molecular network may lead to subsequent cracks, parallel to the parent crack, via crack splitting which results in a fiber-like structure on the fracture surface. The plastic void growth, crack deflection and subsequent crack growth were correlated to higher values of fracture toughness and fracture energy in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites.

  18. Polypeptide nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores: Synthesis, characterization and implications for anticancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Desale, Swapnil; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanogels have gained considerable attention as a potential platform for drug delivery applications. Here we describe the design and synthesis of novel polypeptide-based nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores. Diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid), hydrophobically modified with L-phenylalanine methyl ester moieties was used for controlled template synthesis of nanogels with small size (ca. 70 nm in diameter) and narrow particle size distribution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies using coumarin C153 indicated the existence of hydrophobic domains in the ionic cores of the nanogels. Stable doxorubicin-loaded nanogels were prepared at high drug capacity (30 w/w%). We show that nanogels are enzymatically-degradable leading to accelerated drug release under simulated lysosomal acidic pH. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nanogel-based formulation of doxorubicin is well tolerated and exhibit an improved antitumor activity compared to a free doxorubicin in an ovarian tumor xenograft mouse model. Our results signify the point to a potential of these biodegradable nanogels as attractive carriers for delivery of chemotherapeutics. PMID:23998716

  19. Adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds onto a hydrophobic carbonaceous geosorbent in the presence of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs; atrazine and diuron) onto lampblack was studied in the presence of nonionic, cationic, and anionic surfactants (Triton(R) X-100), benzalkonium chloride [BC], and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS]) to determine the effect of the surfactant on HOC adsorption onto a hydrophobic carbonaceous geosorbent. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate showed an adsorption capacity higher than that of BC but similar to that of Triton X-100, implying the charge property of a surfactant is not a useful indicator for predicting the surfactant's adsorption onto a hydrophobic medium. The results also indicated that the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) of a surfactant is not a good predictor of that surfactant's sorption onto a hydrophobic medium. Under subsaturation adsorption conditions (i.e., before sorption saturation is reached), surfactant adsorption reduced HOC adsorption to a significant extent, with the reduction in HOC adsorption increasing monotonically with the amount of surfactant adsorbed. Among the three surfactants, Triton X-100 was the most effective in reducing HOC adsorption, whereas BC and LAS showed similar effectiveness in this regard. Under the same amount of the surfactant sorbed, the reduction in atrazine adsorption was consistently greater than that for diuron because of atrazine's lower hydrophobicity. No significant difference was observed in the amount of the HOC adsorbed under different adsorption sequences. Our results showed that the presence of surfactant can significantly decrease HOC adsorption onto hydrophobic environmental media and, thus, is important in predicting HOC fate and transport in the environment.

  20. Hydrophobicity-induced drying transition in alkanethiol self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080, India ... Hydrophobicity; hydrophobic gap; self-assembled monolayer; length scale dependent .... From our work, we find that when the alkanethiol SAM is prepared from a.

  1. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  2. Single Molecule Sensors to Study Hydrophobic Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of the hydrophobic interaction is crucial for many technical and biological processes. In the current study a molecular probe was developed which consists of a single polymer that is bound onto the tip of an AFM cantilever in order to study these effects on the molecular scale. In the following, equilibrium forces are measured and factors of influence such as temperature, cosolvents and chemical composition are varied. Thereby, the system under investigation is so sma...

  3. Influence of Hydrophobicity on Polyelectrolyte Complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadman, Kazi [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Wang, Qifeng [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Yaoyao [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Keshavarz, Bavand [Department; Jiang, Zhang [X-ray; Shull, Kenneth R. [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States

    2017-11-16

    Polyelectrolyte complexes are a fascinating class of soft materials that can span the full spectrum of mechanical properties from low viscosity fluids to glassy solids. This spectrum can be accessed by modulating the extent of electrostatic association in these complexes. However, to realize the full potential of polyelectrolyte complexes as functional materials their molecular level details need to be clearly correlated with their mechanical response. The present work demonstrates that by making simple amendments to the chain architecture it is possible to affect the salt responsiveness of polyelectrolyte complexes in a systematic manner. This is achieved by quaternizing poly(4-vinylpyridine) (QVP) with methyl, ethyl and propyl substituents– thereby increasing the hydrophobicity with increasing side chain length– and complexing them with a common anionic polyelectrolyte, poly(styrene sulfonate). The mechanical 1 ACS Paragon Plus Environment behavior of these complexes is compared to the more hydrophilic system of poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium) by quantifying the swelling behavior in response to salt stimuli. More hydrophobic complexes are found to be more resistant to doping by salt, yet the mechanical properties of the complex remain contingent on the overall swelling ratio of the complex itself, following near universal swelling-modulus master curves that are quantified in this work. The rheological behavior of QVP complex coacervates are found to be approximately the same, only requiring higher salt concentrations to overcome strong hydrophobic interactions, demonstrating that hydrophobicity can be used as an important parameter for tuning the stability of polyelectrolyte complexes in general, while still preserving the ability to be processed “saloplastically”.

  4. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on

  5. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  6. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  7. Public administration social responsibility of business entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Shpankovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social responsibility of a business entity is seen as an effective tool of public administration. The current stage of development of social responsibility in Ukraine requires state involvement, as its vision by business entities are different, and there is also a need to develop a national model of social responsibility on the basis of international standards, because Ukraine, on the one hand, has the national characteristics of implementation of social initiatives and, on the other, the conditions and resources for their implementation is different from developed market economies. The visions of on social responsibility in the scientific literature are also different. This was the basis for the determination of her essence. We analyzed the interpretations of social responsibility and identified their advantages and disadvantages. Formulation of social responsibility, which is submitted in article, actualizes ecological orientation of the business entity taking into account the need for responsible behavior, and responsibility for actions, which violate the norms of society.

  8. Fabrication of hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms on magnesium alloys by polymer plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn; Lai Xiaoming; Sang Jing; Li Yuanyuan

    2011-11-01

    Hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms with improved corrosion resistance were fabricated on the surfaces of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy by a surface modification technique, named as polymer plating, which has been developed to modify superficial characteristics of magnesium alloys with polymeric nanofilms through synthesized organic compounds of triazine dithiol containing functional groups. The nanofilms were prepared by the electrochemical and polymerization reactions during polymer plating analyzed from characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated nanofilms changed the surface wettability of blank magnesium alloy from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with contact angle 119.0 Degree-Sign of distilled water with lower surface free energy of 20.59 mJ/m{sup 2} and even super-hydrophobic with contact angle 158.3 Degree-Sign with lowest surface free energy of 4.68 mJ/m{sup 2} by different functional nanofilms on their surfaces. Alteration of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic resulted from their low surface free energy and surface morphology with micro- and nano-rough structures. The corrosion behaviors from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the super-hydrophobic nanofilm has higher corrosion resistance and stability in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution and lower corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) with R{sub ct} increasing two orders of magnitude of 16,500 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2} compared to that obtained for blank of 485 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2}.

  9. Liposomes coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose: Influence of hydrophobic chain length and degree of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Gro; Nyström, Bo; Zhu, Kaizheng; Grønvold, Marthe Karoline; Røv-Johnsen, Anne; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticulate systems with an uncharged hydrophilic surface may have a great potential in mucosal drug delivery. In the present study liposomes were coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HM-HEC) to create a sterically stabilized liposomal system with an uncharged surface. The aim was to clarify the influence of the amount of hydrophobic modification of HEC and the length of the hydrophobic moiety, on the stability of the system and on the release properties. HM-HEC with different degrees of hydrophobic modification (1 and 2mol%) and hydrophobic groups with different chain lengths (C8, C12, C16) were included in the study, as well as fluid phase and gel phase liposomes. Both types of liposomes were successfully coated with HM-HEC containing 1mol% of hydrophobic groups, while 2mol% did not work for the intended pharmaceutical applications. The polymer coated gel phase liposomes were stable (size, zeta potential, leakage) for 24 weeks at 4°C, with no differences between the C8 and C16 HM-HEC coating. For the fluid phase liposomes a size increase was observed after 24 weeks at 4°C for all formulations; the C8 HM-HEC coated liposomes increased the most. No differences in the leakage during storage at 4°C or in the release at 35°C were observed between the fluid phase formulations. To conclude; HM-HEC with a shorter hydrophobic chain length resulted in a less stable product for the fluid phase liposomes, while no influence of the chain length was observed for the gel phase liposomes (1mol% HM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  11. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  12. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate Reporting Entity A... Part 420—Separate Reporting Entity Subject to the following conditions, one or more aggregating entity(ies) (e.g., parent, subsidiary, or organizational component) in a reporting entity, either separately...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701-2 - Business entities; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business entities; definitions. 301.7701-2...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-2 Business entities; definitions. (a) Business entities. For purposes of this section and § 301.7701-3, a business entity is any...

  14. Innovations in PHWR design, integration of nuclear power stations into power systems and role of small size nuclear power plants in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Kakodkar, A.; Balakrishnan, M.R.; Ray, R.N.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Chamany, B.F.; Kati, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    PHWR concept of thermal reactors has been considered with a view to exploiting the limited resources of natural uranium and keeping in mind the projected nuclear power programme covering fast breeder reactors. Experience in engineering of current PHWR units in India, gradual build up of necessary infrastructure and operational experience with one unit, have helped in building up design and technological capability in the country. The R and D facilities have been so planned that additional data required for the design of bigger reactor units (i.e.500/600 MWe) could be generated with minimal augmentation. Satisfactory operation of a nuclear power station demands certain prerequisites from the connected power system. The grid should have load patterns suitable for base load operation of these stations, should be stiff so far as voltage and frequency fluctuations are concerned and should have high reliability. A typical power grid in this country is characterised by heavy loads during peak hours and very light loads during night. Regional grids are of small size and the few interconnections existing between the regional grids consist of weak tie lines. Amongst all types of the power stations, it is the nuclear system which undergoes maximum strain and economic penalty while operating when connected to such a power system. Consistent with the above, phase installation of small-size power reactor units of about 200 MWe capacity may facilitate setting up of larger unit sizes at a later date. The effect of any possible reduction in the capital cost of a larger unit power station will enable the power station to partially meet the demand of the more productive types of loads. This paper deals with some of the major design changes that are being incorporated in the PHWR type power reactors currently being set up and the research and development back-up required for the purpose. Since the unit sizes of the power reactors presently contemplated are small compared to nuclear

  15. Dewetting and Hydrophobic Interaction in Physical and Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J.; Weeks, John D.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobicity manifests itself differently on large and small length scales. This review focuses on large length scale hydrophobicity, particularly on dewetting at single hydrophobic surfaces and drying in regions bounded on two or more sides by hydrophobic surfaces. We review applicable theories, simulations and experiments pertaining to large scale hydrophobicity in physical and biomoleclar systems and clarify some of the critical issues pertaining to this subject. Given space constraints, we could not review all of the significant and interesting work in this very active field. PMID:18928403

  16. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this proposed rule, a UBE includes... unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more... System institutions to organize entities under State law to engage in business activity. However...

  17. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  18. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.303...

  19. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign bank... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... participate in the marketing of securities of a public utility; (c) Any entity which produces or supplies...

  20. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... three years. This definition applies only with respect to licenses in Block C (710-716 MHz and 740-746... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium...

  1. A Baseline Method for Genealogical Entity Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremova, J.; Ranjbar-Sahraei, B.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Calders, T.; Tuyls, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the application of entity resolution (ER) techniques on a real-world multi-source genealogical dataset. Our goal is to identify all persons involved in various notary acts and link them to their birth, marriage and death certificates. In order to evaluate the performance of a

  2. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... business is outside the United States or its equity securities are primarily traded on one or more foreign...

  3. 31 CFR 598.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 598.303 Section 598.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS..., organization, network, group, or subgroup, or any form of business collaboration. ...

  4. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...

  5. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    of one common entity, a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. The recent rise in the prevalence of TDS may be causally linked to endocrine disrupters...

  6. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...

  7. Evaluation of hydrophobicity in PAH-contaminated soils during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofield, Naressa; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of recalcitrant organic compounds on soil hydrophobicity was evaluated in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site following 12 months of phytoremediation. Significant reduction in soil wetting and water retention was observed in contaminated soil compared to an uncontaminated control. Phytoremediation was effective at reducing total PAHs by 69% with corresponding changes in soil classification from extremely hydrophobic (initial sample) to moderately-strongly hydrophobic (planted) and hydrophilic-very hydrophilic (unplanted) after 12 months. The greatest reduction in soil hydrophobicity was observed in the unplanted, unfertilized treatments that had the lowest removal rate of PAHs. The presence of plants may contribute to hydrophobicity in contaminated soil. - The presence of recalcitrant hydrophobic organic pollutants may enhance soil hydrophobicity

  8. Method to evaluate stress and deformation of small-sized buried pipe induced by wheel loads. Shokokei maisetsukan no rinkaju ni okeru oryoku henkei hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kataoka, T.; Kokusho, T.; Yoshida, Y. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-21

    In order to establish a practical method to evaluate safety of buried pipes, which were generally used as cable-protection pipes, at shallow depth and under vehicle loads, a series of experiments and analyses were performed. Based on the results, a simplified method to evaluate stress and deformation of the buried pipes in pavement were proposed. In the experiments, hard PVC pipes, light steel conduit pipes, and corrugated hard PE pipes in nominal diameters from 75 to 200 mm were applied as specimens for representative flexible pipes, and field load tests in actual size as well as laboratory load tests using soil vessels were carried out. The calculated results by the proposed method were compared to the experimental results, finding that the calculated values gave a satisfactory agreement with measured values which were obtained by the field tests. As a result, it was confirmed that the practical method to evaluate circumferential stresses at the top of pipes and flat-deflection ratios of small-sized buried Pipes induced by wheel loads under various conditions were presented. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The role of the European Union in private law relations of organizations operating in the internal electricity or gas market in medium and small size Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechvátal, Ivan; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Kakaras, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies European Union (EU) legislation on private law relations for organizations operating in the internal electricity and gas market in medium and small size Member States. It consists of the analysis of both the EU primary (Treaties) and secondary (directives and regulations) legislation. A survey was sent to organizations operating in the internal energy market in four Member States: Greece, Czech Republic, Finland, and Malta. Through the survey, the paper identifies problematic areas of current EU legislation and compares them with new legislation applied as from 3 March 2011 (third liberalization package). It looks into all important EU energy legislation on private law relations of organizations operating in the internal energy market such as unbundling, procurement, procedural law, duties related to information and other legislation on energy contracts. The study concludes that, despite some small problems, the energy liberalization including the third liberalization legislative package progresses in a correct manner. There are nearly no problems in the access to the transmission and distribution systems. The functioning of the gas market is considered as the most important problem. - Highlights: ► European Union legislation on private law relations was studied. ► Organizations operating in the electricity and gas market were considered. ► A survey was sent to organizations in four Member States. ► Despite some problems, the energy liberalization advances correctly. ► The gas market is considered as the most important problem.

  10. On the biology and food of small-sized fish from North and Baltic Sea areas. IV. Investigations on an eulittoral mud flat at Sylt Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. Dieter; Hartwig, Eike

    1982-03-01

    The fish fauna of an eulittoral mud flat was investigated at Sylt Island (North Sea) with special regard to its food uptake. During the course of a year the following species were caught: Pomatoschistus microps, Anguilla anguilla (elvers), Zoarces viviparus, and Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considering the potentially available food, the most abundant organisms of the benthos were harpacticoids and nematodes, whereas in the phytal layer gastropods and gammarids were dominant. The benthic biomass was found to be greatest in spring, while phytal organisms were most abundant in late summer. The greatest fish density was stated in September 1974 though only P. microps was present. The fish biomass was highest in spring when the elvers appeared. The main food of P. microps was epibenthos; in the diet of A. anguilla phytal organisms dominated over epibenthos, in G. aculeatus suprabenthic organisms were also present. The most prominent food component by biomass was gammarids in all investigated fish, whereas harpacticoids were only dominant in number. During the course of the year the biomass of ingested food yielded highest values in summer and autumn, but lowest in winter. A very great predatory activity was found in September 1974, which possibly caused a grazing effect on harpacticoids. An estimation of the turnover rate of small-sized fish in this month led to a value of 70 mg dry weight m-2 · d-1.

  11. Determination of metal concentrations in certified plastic reference materials after small-size autoclave and microwave-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Esa; Väisänen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The digestion methods for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations in plastic samples using microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) and small-size autoclave digestion was developed. The certified polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene certified reference materials were used in order to find digestion method working properly for several sample matrices. Efficiency of the digestion methods was evaluated by analyzing the residual carbon in digests by TOC analyzer. MW-AD using a mixture of 7 mL of HNO3 and 3 mL of H2O2 as a digestion solution resulted in excellent recoveries for As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn, and were in the range of 92-107% for all the analytes except Pb in polyethylene material. Autoclave digestion using 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as a digestion solution resulted in similar recoveries with the exception of a higher As recovery (98%). Tin recovery resulted in low level after both MW-AD and autoclave digestion. Autoclave digestion was further developed resulting in a partially open two-step digestion process especially for the determination of Sn and Cr. The method resulted in higher recoveries of Sn and Cr (87 and 76%) but with the lower concentration of easily volatile As, Cd and Sb.

  12. Simulation techniques of medium or small sized coal mining; Sistema de simulacion de labores de minas subterraneas de carbon de tamano mediano o pequeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Usually an underground mining company designs new production systems in order to reach higher productivity levels, but there is always some uncertainty about reaching the planned figures. This research project, so called Project SimCAR, applies to medium or small sized coal mining companies and tries to become a powerful tool in helping technical staff to answer questions about how future systems will behave. The project`s paradigm is to use computer simulation techniques in order to diminish the implicit uncertainty associated to coal mining activities. As a result, this implies to obtain the best possible scenarios for real economic investments in mine planning. The final programs we have built help technical staff to: 1. Study existing systems in depth. The precision of the resulting model exclusively depends on the correctness of input data and a perfect understanding of the system`s logic processes. 2. Perform several changes on the input system variables over the simulated models in order to allow the technical staff to know the system will react under several conditions. 3. Introduce new strategies on the model construction in order to get a complete optimization under productive and economic viewpoints. (Author)

  13. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  14. First report on the contribution of small-sized species to the copepod community structure of the southern Patagonian shelf (Argentina, 47-55°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Carolina Antacli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The copepod community structure, with special emphasis on small-sized species, was studied over the southern Patagonian shelf in late summer 2004, applying the first plankton sampling in the region with a fine-mesh (66 μm net. The key role of the copepods Drepanopus forcipatus and Calanus australis was confirmed, but also the high abundance and frequency of occurrence of the microcopepods Oithona helgolandica and Microsetella norvegica and of the medium-sized copepod Ctenocalanus vanus were revealed. Copepod community structure was nearly homogenous over the entire study area. Drepanopus forcipatus, O. helgolandica and M. norvegica were identified as the typical species of the region, although secondarily C. australis and Oithona atlantica also contributed significantly to community similarity across the area. The study of interspecific relationships of dominant copepods indicated that D. forcipatus and C. australis were associated positively with O. helgolandica, while C. vanus, and M. norvegica constituted a separate assemblage with Clausocalanus brevipes and O. atlantica. The importance of fine-mesh-size nets for collecting the smaller size fractions of mesozooplankton and for accurately portraying the mesozooplankton assemblage structure in the area is stressed by this study.

  15. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach with Narrow Stalk-Like Based, Uneven Protruding Appearance Presenting with Severe Acute Anemia despite Small Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST of the stomach. She was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain, nausea, and severe acute anemia (hemoglobin level 4.3 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a narrow stalk-like based, hemorrhagic and uneven protruding lesion in the lesser curvature of the gastric upper corpus. Although the tumor was less than 2 cm in diameter and was probably a benign GIST according to histology, laparoscopy-assisted local resection was needed because the patient had continuous severe anemia and epigastric pain. Histological assessment showed that the elongated spindle-like tumor cells originated from the intrinsic muscle layer, and was shown with growth to the mucosal side, cropping out to the surface in most areas of the protruding lesion. Only a small part of the tumor was within nontumoral gastric mucosa. Most of the tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for KIT and CD34 in the cytoplasm but not for αSMA, S100, and desmin. Mitotic activity (0/50 high power field and the labeling index for MIB-1 (about 1% were low. The GIST of the stomach described in this report was a rare case with a narrow stalk-like based, uneven protruding mass presenting with severe acute anemia despite small size.

  16. The hydrophobic effect: Molecular dynamics simulations of water confined between extended hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural and dynamic properties of water confined between two parallel, extended, either hydrophobic or hydrophilic crystalline surfaces of n-alkane C36H74 or n-alcohol C35H71OH, are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Electron density profiles, directly compared with corresponding......-correlation functions reveal that water molecules have characteristic diffusive behavior and orientational ordering due to the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions with the surface. These observations suggest that the altered dynamical properties of water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces together...... at both surfaces. The ordering is characteristically different between the surfaces and of longer range at the hydrophilic surface. Furthermore, the dynamic properties of water are different at the two surfaces and different from the bulk behavior. In particular, at the hydrophobic surface, time...

  17. Modelling oral up-take of hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisch, Wolfgang; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2018-01-24

    We have extended a recently published toxicokinetic model for fish (TK-fish) towards the oral up-take of contaminants. Validation with hydrophobic chemicals revealed that diffusive transport through aqueous boundary layers in the gastro-intestinal tract and in the blood is the limiting process. This process can only be modelled correctly if facilitated transport by albumin or bile micelles through these boundary layers is accounted for. In a case study we have investigated the up-take of a super hydrophobic chemical, Dechlorane Plus. Our results suggest that there is no indication of a hydrophobicity or size cut-off in the bioconcentration of this chemical. Based on an extremely high, but mechanistically sound facilitation factor we received model results in good agreement with experimental values from the literature. The results also indicate that established experimental procedures for BCF determination cannot cover the very slow up-take and clearance kinetics that are to be expected for such a chemical.

  18. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  19. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyakuno, Haruka, E-mail: h-kyakuno@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Nakai, Yusuke; Maniwa, Yutaka, E-mail: maniwa@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Matsuda, Kazuyuki [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Miyata, Yasumitsu [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature T{sub wd} ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter D{sub c} ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > D{sub c}) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at T{sub wd} upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below T{sub wd} freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < D{sub c}) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  20. Hydrophobic hydration of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: a matter of the mean energetic state of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, I.; Calzolari, D. C. E.; de Los Rios, P.; Jelezarov, I.; Trappe, V.

    2014-03-01

    The enthalpically favoured hydration of hydrophobic entities, termed hydrophobic hydration, impacts the phase behaviour of numerous amphiphiles in water. Here, we show experimental evidence that hydrophobic hydration is strongly determined by the mean energetics of the aqueous medium. We investigate the aggregation and collapse of an amphiphilic polymer, poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM), in aqueous solutions containing small amounts of alcohol and find that the thermodynamic characteristics defining the phase transitions of PNiPAM evolve relative to the solvent composition at which the excess mixing enthalpy of the water/alcohol mixtures becomes minimal. Such correlation between solvent energetics and solution thermodynamics extends to other mixtures containing neutral organic solutes that are considered as kosmotropes to induce a strengthening of the hydrogen bonded water network. This denotes the energetics of water as a key parameter controlling the phase behaviour of PNiPAM and identifies the excess mixing enthalpy of water/kosmotrope mixtures as a gauge of the kosmotropic effect on hydrophobic assemblies.

  1. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  2. Development of an irradiation system for a small size continuous run multipurpose gamma irradiator; Desenvolvimento do sistema de irradiacao em um irradiador multiproposito de cobalto-60 tipo compacto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo

    2005-07-01

    The Radiation Technology Center from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, developed with a revolutionary design and national technology, a small size continuous run and multipurpose industrial gamma irradiator, to be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers and contract service companies, which need economical and logistical in-house irradiation system alternatives. Also, to be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotate door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m{sup 2} of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 P Bq (1 MCi). The performed quantification program of this multipurpose irradiator was based on AAMI/ISO 11137 standard, which recommends the inclusion of the following elements: installation and process quantification. The initial load of the multipurpose irradiator was 3.4 P Bq (92.1 k Ci) with 13 cobalt-60 sources model C-188, supplied by MDS Nordion Ion Technologies - Canada. For irradiator dose optimization, the source distribution was done using the software Cadgamma developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP. The poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters system, certified by the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used for irradiator dose mapping. The economic analysis, performance concerning to dose uniformity and cobalt-60 utilization efficiency were calculated and compared with other commercial

  3. Enhancement of the photovoltaic performance in P3HT: PbS hybrid solar cells using small size PbS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Van der Auweraer, Mark, E-mail: mark.vanderauweraer@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Spectroscopy, Division of Molecular Imaging and Photonics, Chemistry Department, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 2404, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandenplas, Erwin; Gehlhaar, Robert; Cheyns, David [Imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Justo, Yolanda; Hens, Zeger [Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-09-07

    Different approaches of surface modification of the quantum dots (QDs), namely, solution-phase (octylamine, octanethiol) and post-deposition (acetic acid, 1,4-benzenedithiol) ligand exchange were used in the fabrication of hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell containing poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and small (2.4 nm) PbS QDs. We show that replacing oleic acid by shorter chain ligands improves the figures of merit of the solar cells. This can possibly be attributed to a combination of a reduced thickness of the barrier for electron transfer and an optimized phase separation. The best results were obtained for post-deposition ligand exchange by 1,4-benzenedithiol, which improves the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction of lead sulfide (PbS) QDs and P3HT up to two orders of magnitude over previously reported hybrid cells based on a bulk heterojunction of P3HT:PbS QDs, where the QDs are capped by acetic acid ligands. The optimal performance was obtained for solar cells with 69 wt. % PbS QDs. Besides the ligand effects, the improvement was attributed to the formation of an energetically favorable bulk heterojunction with P3HT, when small size (2.4 nm) PbS QDs were used. Dark current density-voltage (J-V) measurements carried out on the device provided insight into the working mechanism: the comparison between the dark J-V characteristics of the bench mark system P3HT:PCBM and the P3HT:PbS blends allows us to conclude that a larger leakage current and a more efficient recombination are the major factors responsible for the larger losses in the hybrid system.

  4. Enhancement of the photovoltaic performance in P3HT: PbS hybrid solar cells using small size PbS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Vandenplas, Erwin; Gehlhaar, Robert; Cheyns, David; Justo, Yolanda; Hens, Zeger

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches of surface modification of the quantum dots (QDs), namely, solution-phase (octylamine, octanethiol) and post-deposition (acetic acid, 1,4-benzenedithiol) ligand exchange were used in the fabrication of hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell containing poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and small (2.4 nm) PbS QDs. We show that replacing oleic acid by shorter chain ligands improves the figures of merit of the solar cells. This can possibly be attributed to a combination of a reduced thickness of the barrier for electron transfer and an optimized phase separation. The best results were obtained for post-deposition ligand exchange by 1,4-benzenedithiol, which improves the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction of lead sulfide (PbS) QDs and P3HT up to two orders of magnitude over previously reported hybrid cells based on a bulk heterojunction of P3HT:PbS QDs, where the QDs are capped by acetic acid ligands. The optimal performance was obtained for solar cells with 69 wt. % PbS QDs. Besides the ligand effects, the improvement was attributed to the formation of an energetically favorable bulk heterojunction with P3HT, when small size (2.4 nm) PbS QDs were used. Dark current density-voltage (J-V) measurements carried out on the device provided insight into the working mechanism: the comparison between the dark J-V characteristics of the bench mark system P3HT:PCBM and the P3HT:PbS blends allows us to conclude that a larger leakage current and a more efficient recombination are the major factors responsible for the larger losses in the hybrid system

  5. Prospects for PWNe and SNRs science with the ASTRI mini-array of pre-production small-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov telescope array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtovoi, A.; Zampieri, L.; Giuliani, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development and construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) opens up new opportunities for the study of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sources. As a part of CTA, the ASTRI project, led by INAF, has one of the main goals to develop one of the mini-arrays of CTA pre-production telescopes, proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site. Thanks to the innovative dual-mirror optical design of its small-sized telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will be characterized by a large field of view, an excellent angular resolution and a good sensitivity up to energies of several tens of TeV. Pulsar wind nebulae, along with Supernova Remnants, are among the most abundant sources that will be identified and investigated, with the ultimate goal to move significantly closer to an understanding of the origin of cosmic rays (CR). As part of the ongoing effort to investigate the scientific capabilities for both CTA as a whole and the ASTRI mini-array, we performed simulations of the Vela X region. We simulated its extended VHE γ-ray emission using the results of the detailed H.E.S.S. analysis of this source. We estimated the resolving capabilities of the diffuse emission and the detection significance of the pulsar with both CTA as a whole and the ASTRI mini-array. Moreover with these instruments it will be possible to observe the high-energy end of SNRs spectrum, searching for particles with energies near the cosmic-rays "knee" (E ˜ 1015 eV). We simulated a set of ASTRI mini-array observations for one young and an evolved SNRs in order to test the capabilities of this instrument to discover and study PeVatrons on the Galactic plane.

  6. Preparation of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with small sizes and the improved photovoltaic performance of brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-11-10

    Brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with small sizes (hereafter denoted as BTP particles) were synthesized through the hydrothermal treatment of TiCl 4 solution with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 as an additive. The obtained BTP particles have a large specific surface area (∼122.2 m 2 g -1 ) and relatively uniform particle sizes (∼10 nm) with the coexistence of a small quantity of nanorods with a length of ∼100 nm. When used as a photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the BTP particles show a much higher dye-loading content than the brookite TiO 2 quasi nanocubes (denoted as BTN particles) with a mean size of ∼50 nm and a specific surface area of ∼34.2 m 2 g -1 that were prepared through a similar hydrothermal process but without the addition of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 . The fabricated BTP film-based solar cell with an optimized film thickness gives a conversion efficiency up to 6.36% with a 74% improvement when compared to the BTN film-based one (3.65%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation, while the corresponding bilayer brookite-based solar cell by using brookite TiO 2 submicrometer particles as an overlayer of the BTP film displays a significantly enhanced efficiency of 7.64%. Both of them exceed the current record (5.97%) for the conversion efficiency of pure brookite-based DSSCs reported in the literature. The present results not only demonstrate a really simple synthesis of brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with both high phase purity and a large surface area, but also offer an efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of brookite-based solar cells by offsetting brookite's inherent shortages such as lower dye-loading and poor conductivity as compared to anatase.

  7. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  8. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  9. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles

  10. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  11. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  12. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  13. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences.

  14. Enhanced fluorescence imaging performance of hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles by a facile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual phase hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. • ZnO nanoparticles show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. • ZnO nanoparticles with a blue emission wavelength at around 420 nm and small size (30 nm). • ZnO nanoparticles as biological labeling agent was also shown. - Abstract: A facile synthesis method for the formation of ZnO nanoparticles by using a double-phase reaction was demonstrated in this paper. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles shows a flower-shape. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a unique oxygenic source to promote the formation of ZnO in the presence of organic zinc precursor. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles also show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. The structure and properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-prepared hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles could be modified to become water-soluble via ligand exchange with amineothanethiol⋅HCl while retaining the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the potential application for biological label of water-soluble ZnO nanoparticles were also demonstrated. These results not only have applications towards using colloidal ZnO nanoparticles effectively in biological fluorescence imaging, but also promote its application in the field of targeted drug delivery

  15. Chemical Entity Recognition and Resolution to ChEBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Tiago; Pesquita, Catia; Bastos, Hugo P.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical entities are ubiquitous through the biomedical literature and the development of text-mining systems that can efficiently identify those entities are required. Due to the lack of available corpora and data resources, the community has focused its efforts in the development of gene and protein named entity recognition systems, but with the release of ChEBI and the availability of an annotated corpus, this task can be addressed. We developed a machine-learning-based method for chemical entity recognition and a lexical-similarity-based method for chemical entity resolution and compared them with Whatizit, a popular-dictionary-based method. Our methods outperformed the dictionary-based method in all tasks, yielding an improvement in F-measure of 20% for the entity recognition task, 2–5% for the entity-resolution task, and 15% for combined entity recognition and resolution tasks. PMID:25937941

  16. Hydrophobically associating polymers for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.C. [Taylor Industrial Research Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dharhan (Saudi Arabia). R and D Center

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed developments in water soluble hydrophobically associating polymers and their use in oilfield applications. The polymers are now being investigated for the potential application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as well as in completion fluids and profile modifications. The polymers are also purported to selectively reduce water permeability in sandstones. This study showed that the adsorption behaviour of the associating polymers is of greater significance than the rheology, particularly in non-damaging completion fluids and in profile modification. Issues related to acid diversion and conformance control applications were discussed, and drag reducing agents were reviewed. The study also discussed drilling and completion fluids; adsorption behaviour; rheology; and synthesis and characterization. It was concluded that gels are now being developed for conformance control and continued use for modification of water relative permeability. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Hydrophobicity and charge shape cellular metabolite concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arren Bar-Even

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available What governs the concentrations of metabolites within living cells? Beyond specific metabolic and enzymatic considerations, are there global trends that affect their values? We hypothesize that the physico-chemical properties of metabolites considerably affect their in-vivo concentrations. The recently achieved experimental capability to measure the concentrations of many metabolites simultaneously has made the testing of this hypothesis possible. Here, we analyze such recently available data sets of metabolite concentrations within E. coli, S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis and human. Overall, these data sets encompass more than twenty conditions, each containing dozens (28-108 of simultaneously measured metabolites. We test for correlations with various physico-chemical properties and find that the number of charged atoms, non-polar surface area, lipophilicity and solubility consistently correlate with concentration. In most data sets, a change in one of these properties elicits a ~100 fold increase in metabolite concentrations. We find that the non-polar surface area and number of charged atoms account for almost half of the variation in concentrations in the most reliable and comprehensive data set. Analyzing specific groups of metabolites, such as amino-acids or phosphorylated nucleotides, reveals even a higher dependence of concentration on hydrophobicity. We suggest that these findings can be explained by evolutionary constraints imposed on metabolite concentrations and discuss possible selective pressures that can account for them. These include the reduction of solute leakage through the lipid membrane, avoidance of deleterious aggregates and reduction of non-specific hydrophobic binding. By highlighting the global constraints imposed on metabolic pathways, future research could shed light onto aspects of biochemical evolution and the chemical constraints that bound metabolic engineering efforts.

  18. Small-sized conduits in the right ventricular outflow tract in young children: bicuspidalized homografts are a good alternative to standard conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Katrien; De Groote, Katya; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; De Wilde, Hans; De Wolf, Daniel; Bové, Thierry

    2017-10-03

    Downsizing a homograft (HG) through bicuspidalization has been used for more than 2 decades to overcome the shortage of small-sized conduits for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in young children. Our goal was to investigate the durability of bicuspidalized HGs compared with other small HGs. A retrospective analysis of 93 conduits ≤20 mm, implanted over 23 years, was performed. The end-points were survival, structural valve degeneration and conduit replacement. The conduits comprised 40 pulmonary HGs, 12 aortic HGs, 17 bicuspidalized HGs and 24 xenografts. The median age, mean conduit diameter and z-value at implantation were 1.4 (interquartile range 0.3-3) years, 16.5 ± 2.7 mm and 2.8 ± 1.3, respectively. Valve position was heterotopic in 59 patients and orthotopic in 34 patients. At a mean follow-up period of 7.6 ± 5.9 years, the hospital survival rate was 89%. Freedom from explant at 5 and 10 years was 83 ± 5% and 52 ± 6%, respectively. Freedom from structural valve degeneration was 79 ± 5% at 5 years and 47 ± 6% at 10 years [68 ± 8% for pulmonary HG, 42 ± 16% for bicuspidalized HG, 31 ± 15% for aortic HG and 20 ± 9% for xenografts (log rank P right ventricular outflow tract conduit in young children. However, when a small pulmonary HG is unavailable, bicuspidalization offers a valid alternative, preferable to xenograft conduits, at mid-term follow-up. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. "Small size" in the Philippine human fossil record: is it meaningful for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the negritos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Détroit, Florent; Corny, Julien; Dizon, Eusebio Z; Mijares, Armand S

    2013-01-01

    "Pygmy populations" are recognized in several places over the world, especially in Western Africa and in Southeast Asia (Philippine "negritos," for instance). Broadly defined as "small-bodied Homo sapiens" (compared with neighboring populations), their origins and the nature of the processes involved in the maintenance of their phenotype over time are highly debated. Major results have been recently obtained from population genetics on present-day negrito populations, but their evolutionary history remains largely unresolved. We present and discuss the Upper Pleistocene human remains recovered from Tabon Cave and Callao Cave in the Philippines, which are potentially highly relevant to these research questions. Human fossils have been recovered in large numbers from Tabon Cave (Palawan Island) but mainly from reworked and mixed sediments from several archaeological layers. We review and synthesize the long and meticulous collaborative work done on the archives left from the 1960s excavations and on the field. The results demonstrate the long history of human occupations in the cave, since at least ~30,000 BP. The examination of the Tabon human remains shows a large variability: large and robust for one part of the sample, and small and gracile for the other part. The latter would fit quite comfortably within the range of variation of Philippine negritos. Farther north, on Luzon Island, the human third metatarsal recently recovered from Callao Cave and dated to ~66,000 BP is now the oldest direct evidence of human presence in the Philippines. Previous data show that, compared with H. sapiens (including Philippine negritos), this bone presents a very small size and several unusual morphological characteristics. We present a new analytical approach using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics for comparing the Callao fossil to a wide array of extant Asian mammals, including nonhuman primates and H. sapiens. The results demonstrate that the shape of the Callao

  20. Development of Fast Error Compensation Algorithm for Integrated Inertial-Satellite Navigation System of Small-size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the structural features of small-size unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and considering the feasibility of this project, the article studies an integrated inertial-satellite navigation system (INS. The INS algorithm development is based on the method of indirect filtration and principle of loosely coupled combination of output data on UAV positions and velocity. Data on position and velocity are provided from the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and satellite navigation system (GPS. A difference between the output flows of measuring data on position and velocity provided from the SINS and GPS is used to evaluate SINS errors by means of the basic algorithm of Kalman filtering. Then the outputs of SINS are revised. The INS possesses the following advantages: a simpler mathematical model of Kalman filtering, high reliability, two independently operating navigation systems, and high redundancy of available navigation information.But in case of loosely coupled scheme, INS can meet the challenge of high precision and reliability of navigation only when the SINS and GPS operating conditions are normal all the time. The proposed INS is used with UAV moving in complex environment due to obstacles available, severe natural climatic conditions, etc. This case expects that it is impossible for UAV to receive successful GPS-signals frequently. In order to solve this problem, was developed an algorithm for rapid compensation for errors of INS information, which could effectively solve the problem of failure of the navigation system in case there are no GPS-signals .Since it is almost impossible to obtain the data of the real trajectory in practice, in the course of simulation in accordance with the kinematic model of the UAV and the complex environment of the terrain, the flight path generator is used to produce the flight path. The errors of positions and velocities are considered as an indicator of the INS effectiveness. The results

  1. Liberal Entity Extraction: Rapid Construction of Fine-Grained Entity Typing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifu; May, Jonathan; Pan, Xiaoman; Ji, Heng; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei; Zhao, Lin; Hendler, James A

    2017-03-01

    The ability of automatically recognizing and typing entities in natural language without prior knowledge (e.g., predefined entity types) is a major challenge in processing such data. Most existing entity typing systems are limited to certain domains, genres, and languages. In this article, we propose a novel unsupervised entity-typing framework by combining symbolic and distributional semantics. We start from learning three types of representations for each entity mention: general semantic representation, specific context representation, and knowledge representation based on knowledge bases. Then we develop a novel joint hierarchical clustering and linking algorithm to type all mentions using these representations. This framework does not rely on any annotated data, predefined typing schema, or handcrafted features; therefore, it can be quickly adapted to a new domain, genre, and/or language. Experiments on genres (news and discussion forum) show comparable performance with state-of-the-art supervised typing systems trained from a large amount of labeled data. Results on various languages (English, Chinese, Japanese, Hausa, and Yoruba) and domains (general and biomedical) demonstrate the portability of our framework.

  2. Concrete Security for Entity Recognition: The Jane Doe Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucks, Stefan; Zenner, Erik; Weimerskirch, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Entity recognition does not ask whether the message is from some entity X, just whether a message is from the same entity as a previous message. This turns turns out to be very useful for low-end devices. The current paper proposes a new protocol – the “Jane Doe Protocol” –, and provides a formal...

  3. Hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents as water-immiscible extractants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, van D.J.G.P.; Zubeir, L.F.; Bruinhorst, van den A.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Kroon, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are presented for the first time. They consist of decanoic acid and various quaternary ammonium salts. The effect of the alkyl chains on the hydrophobicity and the equilibrium of the two-phase DES–water system were investigated. These new DESs were

  4. Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes : synthesis, properties and interactions with surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwkerk, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes can form micelle-like aggregates, so-called microdomains, in aqueous solution. The hydrophobic side chains constitute the apolar inner part of these microdomains and the hydrophilic groups on the polyelectrolyte backbone are at the surface of the

  5. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... as silicon wafer [1, 10, 11]. Yoon et al [12] used a modified ... The explanation for the increase in the contact angle or hydrophobicity on the ... water droplets on super-hydrophobic surfaces that exhibit large contact angles are ...

  6. Micro- and nanoscale characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae

    2006-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces as well as low adhesion and friction are desirable for various industrial applications. Certain plant leaves are known to be hydrophobic in nature due to their roughness and the presence of a thin wax film on the surface of the leaf. The purpose of this study is to fully characterize the leaf surfaces on the micro- and nanoscale while separating out the effects of the micro- and the nanobumps of hydrophobic leaves on the hydrophobicity. Hydrophilic leaves were also studied to better understand the role of wax and roughness. Furthermore, the adhesion and friction properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves were studied. Using an optical profiler and an atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM), measurements were made to fully characterize the leaf surfaces. It is shown that the nanobumps play a more important role than the microbumps in the hydrophobic nature as well as friction of the leaf. This study will be useful in developing superhydrophobic surfaces

  7. Prediction of Hydrophobic Cores of Proteins Using Wavelet Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa; Kuhara

    1997-01-01

    Information concerning the secondary structures, flexibility, epitope and hydrophobic regions of amino acid sequences can be extracted by assigning physicochemical indices to each amino acid residue, and information on structure can be derived using the sliding window averaging technique, which is in wide use for smoothing out raw functions. Wavelet analysis has shown great potential and applicability in many fields, such as astronomy, radar, earthquake prediction, and signal or image processing. This approach is efficient for removing noise from various functions. Here we employed wavelet analysis to smooth out a plot assigned to a hydrophobicity index for amino acid sequences. We then used the resulting function to predict hydrophobic cores in globular proteins. We calculated the prediction accuracy for the hydrophobic cores of 88 representative set of proteins. Use of wavelet analysis made feasible the prediction of hydrophobic cores at 6.13% greater accuracy than the sliding window averaging technique.

  8. Acute steroid myopathy: a highly overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Michal; Schattner, Ami; Kozak, Natasha; Mate, Andras; Berrebi, Alain; Shvidel, Lev

    2018-02-15

    Myopathy in patients being treated with corticosteroids is known primarily among chronically-treated patients or in critically ill and mechanically-ventilated patients receiving corticosteroids, often in high doses. To highlight the entity of acute, early-onset corticosteroid-treatment-associated myopathy and its characteristics. Reporting our experience with four patients and reviewing all published reports of myopathy developing ≤14 days of initiating corticosteroid-treatment. Acute corticosteroid myopathy (ASM) exists, though the syndrome appears to be rare. It is characterized by unpredictability and heterogeneity, sometimes developing within 1-3 days, after a single dose, which may not be high and administered by varied routes. Proximal limb muscle weakness is the most common form, but distal limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles may be involved. Steroid cessation often leads to improvement/resolution, but irreversibility may occur. A high index of suspicion for the possibility of ASM is necessary, to ensure drug discontinuation and recovery. This is particularly true since the entity is not widely recognized and its symptoms are often erroneously interpreted as due to the patient's underlying disease.

  9. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  10. Targeting of the hydrophobic metabolome by pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, J Bernd; Kaloyanova, Dora V; Strating, Jeroen R P; van Hellemond, Jaap J; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Brouwers, Jos F

    2015-05-01

    The hydrophobic molecules of the metabolome - also named the lipidome - constitute a major part of the entire metabolome. Novel technologies show the existence of a staggering number of individual lipid species, the biological functions of which are, with the exception of only a few lipid species, unknown. Much can be learned from pathogens that have evolved to take advantage of the complexity of the lipidome to escape the immune system of the host organism and to allow their survival and replication. Different types of pathogens target different lipids as shown in interaction maps, allowing visualization of differences between different types of pathogens. Bacterial and viral pathogens target predominantly structural and signaling lipids to alter the cellular phenotype of the host cell. Fungal and parasitic pathogens have complex lipidomes themselves and target predominantly the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the host cell lipidome, resulting in the generation of eicosanoids by either the host cell or the pathogen. Thus, whereas viruses and bacteria induce predominantly alterations in lipid metabolites at the host cell level, eukaryotic pathogens focus on interference with lipid metabolites affecting systemic inflammatory reactions that are part of the immune system. A better understanding of the interplay between host-pathogen interactions will not only help elucidate the fundamental role of lipid species in cellular physiology, but will also aid in the generation of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  12. Dropwise condensation on hydrophobic bumps and dimples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuehan; Aizenberg, Joanna; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    2018-04-01

    Surface topography plays an important role in promoting or suppressing localized condensation. In this work, we study the growth of water droplets on hydrophobic convex surface textures such as bumps and concave surface textures such as dimples with a millimeter scale radius of curvature. We analyze the spatio-temporal droplet size distribution under a supersaturation condition created by keeping the uniform surface temperature below the dew point and show its relationship with the sign and magnitude of the surface curvature. In particular, in contrast to the well-known capillary condensation effect, we report an unexpectedly less favorable condensation on smaller, millimeter-scale dimples where the capillary condensation effect is negligible. To explain these experimental results, we numerically calculated the diffusion flux of water vapor around the surface textures, showing that its magnitude is higher on bumps and lower on dimples compared to a flat surface. We envision that our understanding of millimetric surface topography can be applied to improve the energy efficiency of condensation in applications such as water harvesting, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems for buildings and transportation, heat exchangers, thermal desalination plants, and fuel processing systems.

  13. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  14. Malignant struma ovarii: a rare oncologic entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Frederico Paes; Mendonca, Sandro Bichara; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    Struma ovarii (SO) malignant is a rare ovarian teratoid tumor, consisting predominantly of thyroid tissue. It has low incidence and a few cases described by the literature. Usually appears in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Generally they are diagnosed after surgery, being the diagnostic reserved for the lesions on the ectopic thyroid tissue based on cellular atypia, mitotic activity, capsular invasion and metastases. Due to its rarity,it does not still have a consensus about the best therapeutical management and protocol of accompaniment for patients with this neoplastic entity. This article reports a case of a patient with malignant S O, reviewing the relevant aspects of the literature. (author)

  15. Pancreatic pseudopapillary tumour: A rare misdiagnosed entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affirul, C A; Qisti, F N; Zamri, Z; Azlanuddin, A; Hairol, A O; Razman, J

    2014-01-01

    Solid pseudo papillary pancreatic tumour is a rare entity. The atypical presentation causes a delayed or misdiagnosis of these pathology. It commonly affects the female population in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life. The presentation varies from non-specific abdominal pain to incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. It is a low-grade premalignant condition that is curable by excision of the tumour. This paper presents a 17-year-old girl with intra-abdominal mass diagnosed with solid pseudo papillary tumour that underwent Whipple's procedure. We discuss the presentations, diagnosis and pathology findings of this rare pathology. The diagnosis remains an enigma in view of the nature and location of the tumour. Resection is still the best choice remains for this condition. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Arabic medical entity tagging using distant learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cotik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A semantic tagger aiming to detect relevant entities in Arabic medical documents and tagging them with their appropriate semantic class is presented. The system takes profit of a Multilingual Framework covering four languages (Arabic, English, French, and Spanish, in a way that resources available for each language can be used to improve the results of the others, this is specially important for less resourced languages as Arabic. The approach has been evaluated against Wikipedia pages of the four languages belonging to the medical domain. The core of the system is the definition of a base tagset consisting of the three most represented classes in SNOMED-CT taxonomy and the learning of a binary classifier for each semantic category in the tagset and each language, using a distant learning approach over three widely used knowledge resources, namely Wikipedia, Dbpedia, and SNOMED-CT.

  17. Database design using entity-relationship diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bagui, Sikha

    2011-01-01

    Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database          Phase 2: Specify the Database          Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models     The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional

  18. Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia: a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Raj, Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a new entity described by an expert working group from South Asia. First reported in Taiwan, there are no reports so far from an Indian population. The aim was to use the microscopic features described by the expert group to differentiate OVH from other oral verruco-papillary lesions in an Indian archive. In a retrospective multicentre study, using pathology archives, 188 verruco-papillary lesions were retrieved from pathology archives. A proforma listing histopathological criteria for OVH based on published guidelines (Annals of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 2013) was used. Patients' demographic and clinical data were transcribed from patient charts. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine associations between clinical and histopathological features. Of 188 oral verruco-papillary lesions that were evaluated, based on microscopic features the cases were reclassified as OVH (57), verrucous carcinoma (VC) (84), oral squamous cell carcinoma (16), and other verruco-papillary lesions (31). Both OVH (70%) and VC (60%) showed male predominance and commonly affected buccal mucosa (OVH 74% and VC 57%). Absence of downward growth of the hyperplastic epithelium into lamina propria when compared with the level of the basement membrane of the adjacent normal epithelium was a distinct feature in OVH. Keratin plugging, epithelial dysplasia and subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) in OVH versus VC. The sample size of other verruco-papillary lesions was insufficient for statistical comparison. Apart from the absence of an endophytic growth pattern in OVH, we noted the presence of dysplasia in OVH. This significant observation does institute a debate as to whether this enigmatic lesion could possibly be a precedent of oral squamous or verrucous carcinoma. We propose OVH is a distinct entity in our Indian population and should be considered in the classification of oral

  19. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity.

  20. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  1. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  2. Learning Expressive Linkage Rules for Entity Matching using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Isele, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in data integration and data cleansing is to identify pairs of entities in data sets that describe the same real-world object. Many existing methods for matching entities rely on explicit linkage rules, which specify how two entities are compared for equivalence. Unfortunately, writing accurate linkage rules by hand is a non-trivial problem that requires detailed knowledge of the involved data sets. Another important issue is the efficient execution of link...

  3. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  4. WCF multi-layer services development with Entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Mike

    2014-01-01

    If you are a C#, VB.NET, or C++ developer and want to get started with WCF and Entity Framework, then this book is for you. Competence in Entity Framework will be needed to follow the examples in the book, but experience in creating WCF services using Entity Framework is not necessary. Developers and architects evaluating SOA implementation technologies for their company will find this book useful.

  5. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

    2011-12-31

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and

  6. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Entity Registration

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains the information available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for those entities registered to do business with the Federal government...

  7. How Well can We Learn Interpretable Entity Types from Text?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a largely unsupervised approach to learning interpretable, domain-specific entity types from unlabeled text. It assumes that any common noun in a domain can function as potential entity type, and uses those nouns as hidden variables in a HMM. To constrain training, it extracts co......-occurrence dictionaries of entities and common nouns from the data. We evaluate the learned types by measuring their prediction accuracy for verb arguments in several domains. The results suggest that it is possible to learn domain-specific entity types from unlabeled data. We show significant improvements over...

  8. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  9. Hydrophobic mismatch in gramicidin A'/lecithin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watnick, P.I.; Chan, S.I.; Dea, P.

    1990-01-01

    Gramicidin A' (GA') has been added to three lipid systems of varying hydrophobic thickness: dimyristoyllecithin (DML), dipalmitoyllecithin (DPL), and distearoyllecithin (DSL). The similarity in length between the hydrophobic portion of GA' and the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayers has been studied by using 31 P and 2 H NMR. Hydrophobic mismatch has been found to be most severe in the DML bilayer system and minimal in the case of DSL. In addition, the effects of hydrophobic mismatch on the cooperative properties of the bilayer have been obtained from 2 H NMR relaxation measurements. The results indicate that incorporation of the peptide into the bilayer disrupts the cooperative director fluctuations characteristic of pure multilamellar lipid dispersions. Finally, the GA'/lecithin ratio at which the well-known transformation from bilayer to reverse hexagonal (H II ) phase occurs is shown to depend on the acyl chain length of the phospholipid. A rationale is proposed for this chain length dependence

  10. Hydrophobic effect of silica functionalized with silylated Ti ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aCentre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research,. Universiti ... rate of water adsorption capacity for the hydrophobic catalysts prepared. .... analyzed by Gas Chromatography, Shimadzu model.

  11. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.219, year: 2015

  13. Impact of Hydrophobic Pollutants' Behavior on Occupational and Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of hydrophobic pollutant behavior on environmental hazards and risks. The definition and examples of hydrophobic pollutants are given as a guide to better understand the sources of release and the media of dispersion in the environment. The properties and behavior of hydrophobic pollutants are described and their influence on environmental hazard and risk is reviewed and evaluated. The overall outcome of the assessment and evaluation showed that all hydrophobic pollutants are hazardous and risky to all organisms, including man. Their risk effects are due to their inherent persistence, bioaccumulation potential, environmental mobility, and reactivity. Their hazardous effects on organisms occur at varying spatial and temporal degrees of emissions, toxicities, exposures, and concentrations.

  14. Protein-induced bilayer Perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction...... between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to −6 kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid–lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration...... and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few Å results...

  15. On the enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsaraj, K. T.; Thoma, G. J.; Reible, D. D.; Thibodeaux, L. J.

    The unusual degree of enrichment of hydrophobic organics in fogwater droplets reported by several investigators can be interpreted as a result of (a) the effects of temperature correction on the reported enrichment factors, (b) the effects of colloidal organic matter (both filterable and non-filterable) in fog water and (c) the effects of the large air-water interfacial adsorption of neutral hydrophobic organics on the tiny fog droplets. The enrichment factor was directly correlated to the hydrophobicity (or the activity coefficient in water) of the compounds, as indicated by their octanol-water partition constants. Compounds with large octanol-water partition coefficients (high activity coefficients in water) showed the largest enrichment. Available experimental data on the adsorption of hydrophobic compounds at the air-water interface and on colloidal organic carbon were used to show that the large specific air-water interfacial areas of fog droplets contribute significantly to the enrichment factor.

  16. Temperature effects on the hydrophobic force between two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TUHIN SAMANTA

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... We perform the molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ... molecular assemblies and in the formation of protein complexes.1–7 One of the important manifestations of the hydrophobic interactions is observed in oil-water.

  17. Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic platinum-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2013-05-31

    May 31, 2013 ... drawback of inaccessible micropores and mineral impuri- ties. More recently, there has ... hydrophobicity and mechnical strength. PTFE binder was ... were measured by BET surface area measurement system. (Micromeritics ...

  18. CARNAUBA WAX USED AS AN HYDROPHOBIC AGENT FOR EXPANDED VERMICULITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Melo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of carnauba wax as an expansion and hydrophobicity agent for vermiculite, to be utilized in the sorption process of oil in water. Evaluation of the system (oil-water-hydrophobic vermiculite submersion percentage was considered in assessing the performance of vermiculite in comparison to a Mexican turf. Carnauba wax seems to be more efficient in both fresh and salt waters.

  19. Measuring hydrophobic micropore volumes in geosorbents from trichloroethylene desorption data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Reinhard, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Hydrophobic micropores can play a significant role in controlling the long-term release of organic contaminants from geosorbents. We describe a technique for quantifying the total and the hydrophobic mineral micropore volumes based on the mass of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in the slow-releasing pores under dry and wet conditions, respectively. Micropore desorption models were used to differentiate the fast- and slow-desorbing fractions in desorption profiles. The micropore environment in which organic molecules were sorbed in the presence of water was probed by studying the transformation of a water-reactive compound (2,2-dichloropropane or 2,2-DCP). For sediment from an alluvial aquifer, the total and hydrophobic micropore volumes estimated using this technique were 4.65 microL/g and 0.027 microL/g (0.58% of total), respectively. In microporous silica gel A, a hydrophobic micropore volume of 0.038 microL/g (0.035% of reported total) was measured. The dehydrohalogenation rate of 2,2-DCP sorbed in hydrophobic micropores of the sediment was slower than that reported in bulk water, indicating an environment of low water activity. The results suggest that hydrolyzable organic contaminants sorbed in hydrophobic micropores react slower than in bulk water, consistent with the reported persistence of reactive contaminants in natural soils.

  20. Frosting characteristics on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Hisuk; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication methods of hydrophobic metal surfaces were investigated. • Mechanisms of ice crystal formation were reviewed in terms of static contact angle. • Future researches for frost retardation on heat exchanger surfaces were discussed. - Abstract: Fabrication methods of the hydrophobic property on metal surfaces and frosting characteristics on hydrophobic surfaces were investigated. A hydrophobic surface with a static contact angle of less than 150° was implemented by surface coating or etching, and a superhydrophobic surface with a static contact angle of greater than 150° was realized by a hybrid method using both coating and etching. The changes in surface properties affected the behaviors of the early stage frosting from the dry surface to the formation of ice crystals. On the hydrophobic surfaces, ice crystals were formed by freezing after condensation. Isolated-droplet freezing and inter-droplet freezing are mechanisms by which the condensate undergoes a phase change into ice crystals. Through isolated-droplet freezing, a supercooled condensate changes phase into ice crystals by forming ice nuclei based on the classical nucleation theory. In addition, through inter-droplet freezing, ice crystals are propagated due to the difference in saturation vapor pressure between supercooled condensates and ice crystals. The formation and propagation of ice crystals are delayed as the static contact angle increases. Additionally, based on a review, future researches that is needed to improve hydrophobic technologies are discussed.

  1. Soil hydrophobicity: comparative study of usual determination methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Saldanha Vogelmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic or water repellent soils slowly absorb water because of the low wett ability of the soil particles which are coated with hydrophobic organic substances. These pose significant effects on plant growth, water infiltration and retention, surface runoff and erosion. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of tension micro-infiltrometer(TMI and the water drop penetration time (WDPT methods in the determination of the hydrophobicity index of eighteen soils from southern Brazil. Soil samples were collected from the 0-5cm soil layer to determine particle size distribution, organic matter content, hydrophobicity index of soil aggregates and droplet penetration time of disaggregated and sieved soil samples. For the TMI method the soil samples were subjected to minor changes due to the use of macroaggregates to preserve the distribution of solid constituents in the soil. Due to the homogeneity of the soil samples the WDPT method gave smaller coefficients of variation unlike the TMI method where the soil structure is preserved. However, both methods had low coefficients of variation, and are thus effective for determining the soil hydrophobicity, especially when the log hydrophobicity index or log WDPT is >1.

  2. Tremor entities and their classification: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gövert, Felix; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-08-01

    This review focuses on important new findings in the field of tremor and illustrates the consequences for the current definition and classification of tremor. Since 1998 when the consensus criteria for tremor were proposed, new variants of tremors and new diagnostic methods were discovered that have changed particularly the concepts of essential tremor and dystonic tremor. Accumulating evidence exists that essential tremor is not a single entity rather different conditions that share the common symptom action tremor without other major abnormalities. Tremor is a common feature in patients with adult-onset focal dystonia and may involve several different body parts and forms of tremor. Recent advances, in particular, in the field of genetics, suggest that dystonic tremor may even be present without overt dystonia. Monosymptomatic asymmetric rest and postural tremor has been further delineated, and apart from tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease, there are several rare conditions including rest and action tremor with normal dopamine transporter imaging (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit) and essential tremor with tremor at rest. Increasing knowledge in the last decades changed the view on tremors and highlights several caveats in the current tremor classification. Given the ambiguous assignment between tremor phenomenology and tremor etiology, a more cautious definition of tremors on the basis of clinical assessment data is needed.

  3. Building entity models through observation and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Kania, Robert; Fields, MaryAnne; Barnes, Laura

    2011-05-01

    To support the missions and tasks of mixed robotic/human teams, future robotic systems will need to adapt to the dynamic behavior of both teammates and opponents. One of the basic elements of this adaptation is the ability to exploit both long and short-term temporal data. This adaptation allows robotic systems to predict/anticipate, as well as influence, future behavior for both opponents and teammates and will afford the system the ability to adjust its own behavior in order to optimize its ability to achieve the mission goals. This work is a preliminary step in the effort to develop online entity behavior models through a combination of learning techniques and observations. As knowledge is extracted from the system through sensor and temporal feedback, agents within the multi-agent system attempt to develop and exploit a basic movement model of an opponent. For the purpose of this work, extraction and exploitation is performed through the use of a discretized two-dimensional game. The game consists of a predetermined number of sentries attempting to keep an unknown intruder agent from penetrating their territory. The sentries utilize temporal data coupled with past opponent observations to hypothesize the probable locations of the opponent and thus optimize their guarding locations.

  4. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  5. Operation of a business entity in the context of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    PAYONK K.; LYASHENKO V.; KVILINSKYI O.

    2015-01-01

    The article looks into the problems connected with the operation of a business entity in the context of globalization of economic processes. Interaction of economic systems has been analyzed from the perspective of a business entity on the example of Ukraine. There have been suggested methods of assessment and benchmark definition for choosing strategic directions of a business development.

  6. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... under State law for certain business activities. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the...) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does...

  7. Minimizing Co-location Potential of Moving Entities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Will; Kirkpatrick, David; Löffler, Maarten; Staals, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining knowledge of the locations of $n$ entities that are moving, each with some, possibly different, upper bound on their speed. We assume a setting where we can query the current location of any one entity, but this query takes a unit of time, during which we cannot

  8. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  9. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY... seeking input on a proposed Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards addressing the Reporting Entity. The Standard is available at http://www.fasab.gov/board-activities/documents-for-comment/exposure...

  10. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi...

  11. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2...

  12. A generic open world named entity disambiguation approach for tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    Social media is a rich source of information. To make use of this information, it is sometimes required to extract and disambiguate named entities. In this paper we focus on named entity disambiguation (NED) in twitter messages. NED in tweets is challenging in two ways. First, the limited length of

  13. Named entity recognition in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying occurrences of words or expressions as belonging to a particular category of a Named Entity (NE).The aim of the project was to test the feasibility of a probabilistic NER system using...

  14. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.

  15. Improved gel electrophoresis matrix for hydrophobic protein separation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Caroline; Fillet, Marianne; Rolando, Christian

    2011-03-01

    We propose an improved acrylamide gel for the separation of hydrophobic proteins. The separation strategy is based on the incorporation of N-alkylated and N,N'-dialkylated acrylamide monomers in the gel composition in order to increase hydrophobic interactions between the gel matrix and the membrane proteins. Focusing on the most efficient monomer, N,N'-dimethylacrylamide, the potentiality of the new matrix was evaluated on membrane proteins of the human colon HCT-116 cell line. Protein analysis was performed using an adapted analytical strategy based on FT-ICR tandem mass spectrometry. As a result of this comparative study, including advanced reproducibility experiments, more hydrophobic proteins were identified in the new gel (average GRAVY: -0.085) than in the classical gel (average GRAVY: -0.411). Highly hydrophobic peptides were identified reaching a GRAVY value up to 1.450, therefore indicating their probable locations in the membrane. Focusing on predicted transmembrane domains, it can be pointed out that 27 proteins were identified in the hydrophobic gel containing up to 11 transmembrane domains; in the classical gel, only 5 proteins containing 1 transmembrane domain were successfully identified. For example, multiple ionic channels and receptors were characterized in the hydrophobic gel such as the sodium/potassium channel and the glutamate or the transferrin receptors whereas they are traditionally detected using specific enrichment techniques such as immunoprecipitation. In total, membrane proteins identified in the classical gel are well documented in the literature, while most of the membrane proteins only identified on the hydrophobic gel have rarely or never been described using a proteomic-based approach. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of hydrophobicity on the chemical treatments of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Krishna Bahadur; Khadka, Ishwor Bahadur; Kim, Eun Hye; Ahn, Sung Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Ahn, Joung Real

    2018-01-01

    The defect-free transfer of graphene grown by using chemical vapor deposition is essential for its applications to electronic devices. For the reduction of inevitable chemical residues, such as polar molecules and ionized impurities resulting from the transfer process, a hydrophobic polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) film was coated on a SiO2/Si wafer. The hydrophobic PDMS film resulted in fewer defects in graphene in comparison to a bare SiO2/Si wafer, as measured with Raman spectroscopy. We also studied the influence of the hydrophobic PDMS film on the chemical doping of graphene. Here, nitric acid (HNO3) was used to make p-type graphene. When graphene was transferred onto a SiO2/Si wafer coated with the hydrophobic PDMS film, fewer defects, compared to those in graphene transferred onto a bare SiO2/Si wafer, were created in grapheme by HNO3 as measured with Raman spectroscopy. The experiments suggest that when graphene is transferred onto a hydrophobic film, the number of defects created by chemical molecules can be reduced.

  17. Hydrophobic polymers for orodispersible films: a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Filipa; Silva, Branca M A; Silva, Cláudia; Coelho, Jorge F J; Simões, Sérgio

    2016-10-01

    To develop orodispersible films (ODF) based on hydrophobic polymers with higher stability to ordinary environmental humidity conditions without compromising their fast disintegration time. A quality by design approach was applied to screen three different formulations each one based on a different hydrophobic polymer: polyvinyl acetate, methacrylate-based copolymer and shellac. The screening formulations were characterized regarding their mechanical properties, residual water content, disintegration time and appearance, in order to find a suitable ODF formulation according to established critical quality attributes. The selected critical process parameters for the selection of appropriate ODF formulations were the percentage of the different excipients and the plasticizer type. Three hydrophobic-based matrices with fast disintegration were developed. These were generically composed by a hydrophobic polymer, a stabilizer, a disintegrant and a plasticizer. It verified that the common components within the three different formulations behave differently depending on the system/chemical environment that they were included. It was shown that it is possible to develop oral films based on hydrophobic polymers with fast disintegration time, good texture and appearance, breaking a paradigm of the ODF research field.

  18. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G

    1998-01-01

    Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2+...... that the hydrophobic core residues promote Ca2+ binding both by contributing to the preformation of the Ca2+ sites in the apo state and by preferentially stabilizing the Ca2+-bound state.......Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...

  19. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered...... that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm...... hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  20. Three-dimensional printing of stem cell-laden hydrogels submerged in a hydrophobic high-density fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela F; Blaeser, Andreas; Weber, Michael; Fischer, Horst; Jäkel, Jörg; Neuss, Sabine; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, bioprinting technologies have begun providing important tissue engineering strategies for regenerative medicine and organ transplantation. The major drawback of past approaches has been poor or inadequate material-printing device and substrate combinations, as well as the relatively small size of the printed construct. Here, we hypothesise that cell-laden hydrogels can be printed when submerged in perfluorotributylamine (C 12 F 27 N), a hydrophobic high-density fluid, and that these cells placed within three-dimensional constructs remain viable allowing for cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrix. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG-63 cells were encapsulated into agarose hydrogels, and subsequently printed in high aspect ratio in three dimensional structures that were supported in high density fluorocarbon. Three-dimensional structures with various shapes and sizes were manufactured and remained stable for more than six months. Live/dead and DAPI stainings showed viable cells 24 h after the printing process, as well as after 21 days in culture. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses after 14 and 21 days revealed viable cells with marked matrix production and signs of proliferation. The compressive strength values of the printed gels consequently increased during the two weeks in culture, revealing encouraging results for future applications in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  1. Employee turnover and productivity among small business entities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the problems of employee turnover on productivity among small business entities in Nigeria, and recommend remedial actions. Employee turnover is the separation of employees from employers and replacement with other employees. Productive manpower is a critical element for the economic survival of any small business entity. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 320 respondents. Data generated were analyzed by using descriptive, and Z-test statistical techniques. It was found that employee turnover adversely affects productivity in small business entities.

  2. CONSIDERATION REGARDING CURRENT ASSETS IN THE CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Adriana COJOCARU (ALIONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for current assets mainly aims to obtain useful information on the management of their best in order to make management decisions. Counting efficiency of these assets, their importance, provides improved performance of the entity. In this paper we want to study the degree of implementation of policies and accounting treatments on the current assets in the specific construction economic entities, the problems of implementation and thus better addressing their theoretical and procedural to improve the information provided by financial statements. Due to the importance of proper conduct of business owned entities, accounting current assets should result in optimal and efficient control of current assets.

  3. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Heo, Jino; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. (paper)

  4. IDENTIFYING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FINANCING SOURCES OF TOURIST ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DAVID

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located at the intersection of the two spheres (tourism markets and financial ones, the tourism entity in Romania is interested in finding the formula to assure optimum financing by attracting financial resources in the field, on the one hand and on the other hand it is interested in meeting the high demand for profit from tourism and economic sphere. The objective determinant of Romanian tourism entity is to maximize the value by carrying out a profitable activity. The touristic entity must obtain profit to generate sufficient funds to distribute cash dividends to shareholders, while paying creditors at a favorable interest on borrowed funds.

  5. Driving force for hydrophobic interaction at different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2011-03-17

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the driving force for the hydrophobic interaction between graphene sheets of different sizes down to the atomic scale. Similar to the prediction by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks for hard-sphere solvation [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570-4577], we find the driving force to be length-scale dependent, despite the fact that our model systems do not exhibit dewetting. For small hydrophobic solutes, the association is purely entropic, while enthalpy favors dissociation. The latter is demonstrated to arise from the enhancement of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules around small hydrophobes. On the other hand, the attraction between large graphene sheets is dominated by enthalpy which mainly originates from direct solute-solute interactions. The crossover length is found to be inside the range of 0.3-1.5 nm(2) of the surface area of the hydrophobe that is eliminated in the association process. In the large-scale regime, different thermodynamic properties are scalable with this change of surface area. In particular, upon dimerization, a total and a water-induced stabilization of approximately 65 and 12 kJ/mol/nm(2) are obtained, respectively, and on average around one hydrogen bond is gained per 1 nm(2) of graphene sheet association. Furthermore, the potential of mean force between the sheets is also scalable except for interplate distances smaller than 0.64 nm which corresponds to the region around the barrier for removing the last layer of water. It turns out that, as the surface area increases, the relative height of the barrier for association decreases and the range of attraction increases. It is also shown that, around small hydrophobic solutes, the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds is longer than in the bulk, while around large hydrophobes it is the same. Nevertheless, the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network for both length-scale regimes is slower than in bulk water. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  7. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study of waste-polymer-based, coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Chang, Chun; Du, Yang; Zhu, Lingyan; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared. The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR). Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures. Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect. In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower. MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  8. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: A comparative study of waste-polymer-based,coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lian; Chun Chang; Yang Du; Lingyan Zhu; Baoshan Xing; Chang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE),1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB),1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons,one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymerbased activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers:polyvinyl chloride (PVC),polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT,activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs,attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast,due to the molecular sieving effect,their adsorption on HCH was lower.MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  9. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  10. Radiation-induced changes in membrane hydrophobicity in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Tohru; Nagatsuka, Shinichiro; Yukawa, Osami

    1985-01-01

    Effects of γ-radiation on the physical state of membranes were examined with liposomes of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from soybean and rat liver microsomes using spin labeling method. There was a slight increase in the membrane fluidity after irradiation. However, a marked decrease in the membrane hydrophobicity by irradiation was observed in the peripheral region in both types of membranes, in parallel with an increase in the lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that irradiation mainly causes a decrease in the membrane hydrophobicity through lipid peroxidation. (author)

  11. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer

  12. Hydrophobic ampersand hydrophilic: Theoretical models of solvation for molecular biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.R.; Tawa, G.J.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.; Corcelli, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Molecular statistical thermodynamic models of hydration for chemistry and biophysics have advanced abruptly in recent years. With liquid water as solvent, salvation phenomena are classified as either hydrophobic or hydrophilic effects. Recent progress in treatment of hydrophilic effects have been motivated by continuum dielectric models interpreted as a modelistic implementation of second order perturbation theory. New results testing that perturbation theory of hydrophilic effects are presented and discussed. Recent progress in treatment of hydrophobic effects has been achieved by applying information theory to discover models of packing effects in dense liquids. The simplest models to which those ideas lead are presented and discussed

  13. Artificial hairy surfaces with a nearly perfect hydrophobic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang M

    2010-02-02

    A nearly perfect hydrophobic interface by dint of mimicking hairs of arthropods was achieved for the first time. These Gamma-shape artificial hairs were made via a membrane casting technique on polypropylene substrates. This extreme hydrophobicity merely arises from microstructure modification, and no further chemical treatments are needed. The ultralow adhesion to water droplets was evaluated through video assessment, and it is believed to be attributed to the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces.

  14. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  15. Adsorption of Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolytes on Hydrophobic Substrates Adsorption de polyélectrolytes modifiés hydrophobiquement sur les substrats hydrophobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of diblock copolymers, poly (tert-butyl styrene-sodium poly (styrene sulfonate with different molecular weight and percentage of sulfonation have been used to study the effect of polymer structure on its adsorption behavior onto hydrophobically modified silicon wafers. The percentage of the hydrophobic block varies from 3. 6-8. 9%. Previous studies show that salt concentration is very important for the adsorption of such polyelectrolytes onto silica surfaces. Octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTE has been used to modify the silicon wafer which changes the water contact angle from 50° on unmodified silica to 100° to 120°. On this hydrophobic surface, we found that the adsorption of these slightly hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes is close to the 4/23rd power of salt concentration predicted by a recent model. The grafting density is also consistent with a dependence on the length of the hydrophobic block to the -12/23rd power, and the length of the polyelectrolyte block to the -6/23rd power, predicted by this model. Une série de copolymères à diblocs poly (tert-butyle styrène-sodium (sulfonate de polystyrène de masses moléculaires et pourcentages de sulfonation différents ont été utilisés pour étudier les effets de la structure du polymère sur son pouvoir d'adsorption sur des surfaces de silicium modifiées hydrophobiquement. Le pourcentage du bloc hydrophobe varie de 3,6 à 8,9%. Les études antérieures montrent que la concentration saline est très importante pour l'adsorption de ces polyélectrolytes sur les surfaces de silice. Nous avons utilisé l'octadecyltriéthoxysilane (OTE pour modifier la surface de silicium qui change l'angle de contact de l'eau de 50° sur la silice non modifiée à une valeur comprise entre 100° et 120° sur la silice modifiée. Sur cette surface hydrophobe, nous constatons que l'adsorption de ces polyélectrolytes légèrement modifiés hydrophobiquement est proche de la loi puissance 4

  16. Primary lacrimal canaliculitis – A clinical entity often misdiagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Singh

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: PLC is a frequently misdiagnosed clinical entity which delays the initiation of appropriate treatment. A succinct magnified examination of punctum and canalicular region can provide sufficient clues pivotal for accurate diagnosis.

  17. Primary Ovarian Leiomyoma: An Uncommon Entity ‑ Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences · January - June 2013 · Vol 2 · Issue 1. 54 ... case report of primary ovarian leiomyoma, which is a rare entity, in a postmenopausal female with ... There were extensive areas of edema.

  18. Tourette syndrome, growth retardation, and platyspondyly: an entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Frederike Y.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old male is described with Tourette syndrome, platyspondyly, a marked delay in bone age, growth retardation that is more expressed in the limbs and talipes equinovarus. This appears to be a new entity

  19. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., any State, or possession of the United States, any political subdivision thereof, or any official police organization of such a government entity engaged in criminal investigations. Any person making a...

  20. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  1. Fraud Indicators Applied to Legal Entities : An Empirical Ranking Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Braak; R. Choenni; M.S. Bargh

    2014-01-01

    Legal persons (i.e., entities such as corporations, companies, partnerships, firms, associations, and foundations) may commit financial crimes or employ fraudulent activities like money laundering, tax fraud, or bankruptcy fraud. Therefore, in the Netherlands legal persons are automatically screened

  2. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  3. A Comparative Study of Accounting Entities Under Different Business Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-lan; XU Guo-xin; FAN Jin

    2001-01-01

    In terms of accounting, all types of business enterprises regardless of their organizational form are separate accounting entities. But different types of organization forms entail remarkable differences in the establishments, legal positions, liabilities, taxation obligations and accounting practices of the business enterprises as accounting entities. A good knowledge of such difference is beneficial to the promotion of the development of all types of business enterprises in China.

  4. How useful is consolidation of public sector entities' financial statements ?

    OpenAIRE

    Soguel, N.; Bucher, R.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not to consolidate financial statements is dealt with in IPSAS#6. This standard is by and large based on IAS#27. It deals with the criterion according to which an entity's financial statements should be considered and which consolidation technique should be used. However, it remains silent when it comes to exposing the reason why a public sector entity should consolidate its financial statements. The literature is almost as silent as IPSAS on this issue. Which means that there is a...

  5. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  6. Hydrophobic Ice Confined between Graphene and MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Teernstra, V.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2016-01-01

    The structure and nature of water confined between hydrophobic molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene (Gr) are investigated at room temperature by means of atomic force microscopy. We find the formation of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline ice layers. In contrast to the hexagonal ice “bilayers” of

  7. Toward a Simple Molecular Theory of Hydrophobic Hydration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 189, SI (2014), s. 13-19 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : perturbation theory * primitive models * hydrophobic hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  8. Water structure near single and multi-layer nanoscopic hydrophobic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing two nano- scopic hydrophobic ..... the simulation for l00 ps for equilibration during which ... was further run for a production phase of 100–200 ps depending on ...

  9. Effect of photocatalytic and hydrophobic coatings on brewery surface microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, O; Laakso, J; Tapani, K; Levänen, E; Kolari, M; Mäntylä, T; Storgårds, E

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether process hygiene in the beverage industry could be improved by applying new coating techniques to process surfaces. Photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and hydrophobic coatings applied to stainless steel with or without added antimicrobial compounds were studied in laboratory attachment tests and in a 15-month process study. No clear reductions in numbers of attached microbes were obtained with photocatalytic coatings, except for coatings to which silver had been added. These TiO(2)+Ag coatings reduced microbial coverage in laboratory studies and in some process samples. Hydrophobic coatings reduced the area coverage of microorganisms in 4-h laboratory studies but did not affect colony counts in laboratory or process studies. The surfaces had changed from hydrophobic into hydrophilic during the process study. The coatings did not mechanically fully withstand process conditions; part of the hydrophobic coatings had peeled off, most of the precipitated Ag had dissolved, and some of the TiO(2) coatings were damaged. In conclusion, functional coatings have potential for reducing microbial loads on beverage industry surfaces, but these coatings need further development.

  10. Are N-methyl groups of Tetramethylurea (TMU) Hydrophobic? A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of three dimensional tetrahedral H-bond network to two dimensional zig-zag chain-like structure often found in alcohols. A comparison to ... All these results indicate hydrophobic interaction-induced aggregation of TMU in dilute aqueous solutions which .... off by gently blowing hot air around the outer surface of the cuvette.

  11. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, W.; Sari, Yessie W.; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent

  12. Development of breathable hydrophobic/hydrophilic functional textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Brink, G.J. (Ger)

    2013-01-01

    The proposed bi-functional protective structure intended to have hydrophilic interior towards the skin surface and hydrophobic exterior for protection, ensuring fast transfer of moisture between body and external environment. The sandwich structure is prepared using 100% wool jersey and varieties of

  13. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  14. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard .... (500mg) was filled into a capsule shell and ... of the drug particles. The effect of melt granulation on the release profiles of paracetamol is shown in Fig 1. The melt granulations displayed a retarded release.

  15. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  16. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H 2 in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h −1 ) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s −1 at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  17. The Ligand Substitution Reactions of Hydrophobic Vitamin B12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry ... The equilibrium constants, K, for the reaction of five-membered heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (the azoles imidazole, pyrazole and 1,2,4-triazole) with displacement of ... Keywords: Hydrophobic vitamin B12, cobalt corrinoids, equilibrium constants, solvent polarity, trans influence.

  18. 78 FR 3317 - Removal of Persons From the Entity List Based on Removal Request; Implementation of Entity List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... a burden hour estimate of 43.8 minutes for a manual or electronic submission. This rule does not... removing under France, the two French entities: ``Laurence Mattiucci, 8 Rue de la Bruyere, 31120 Pinsaguel...

  19. Rhizosphere hydrophobicity: A positive trait in the competition for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppenfeld, Thorsten; Balkenhol, Niko; Kóvacs, Kristóf; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The ability to acquire water from the soil is a major driver in interspecific plant competition and it depends on several root functional traits. One of these traits is the excretion of gel-like compounds (mucilage) that modify physical soil properties. Mucilage secreted by roots becomes hydrophobic upon drying, impedes the rewetting of the soil close to the root, the so called rhizosphere, and reduces water availability to plants. The function of rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not easily understandable when looking at a single plant, but it may constitute a competitive advantage at the ecosystem level. We hypothesize that by making the top soil hydrophobic, deep-rooted plants avoid competititon with shallow-rooted plants. To test this hypothesis we used an individual-based model to simulate water uptake and growth of two virtual plant species, one deep-rooted plant capable of making the soil hydrophobic and a shallow-rooted plant. We ran scenarios with different precipitation regimes ranging from dry to wet (350, 700, and 1400 mm total annual precipitation) and from high to low precipitation frequencies (1, 7, and 14 days). Plant species abundance and biomass were chosen as indicators for competitiveness of plant species. At constant precipitation frequency mucilage hydrophobicity lead to a benefit in biomass and abundance of the tap-rooted population. Under wet conditions this effect diminished and tap-rooted plants were less productive. Without this trait both species coexisted. The effect of root exudation trait remained constant under different precipitation frequencies. This study shows that mucilage secretion is a competitive trait for the acquisition of water. This advantage is achieved by the modification of the soil hydraulic properties and specifically by inducing water repellency in soil regions which are shared with other species.

  20. Rhizosphere hydrophobicity: A positive trait in the competition for water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Zeppenfeld

    Full Text Available The ability to acquire water from the soil is a major driver in interspecific plant competition and it depends on several root functional traits. One of these traits is the excretion of gel-like compounds (mucilage that modify physical soil properties. Mucilage secreted by roots becomes hydrophobic upon drying, impedes the rewetting of the soil close to the root, the so called rhizosphere, and reduces water availability to plants. The function of rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not easily understandable when looking at a single plant, but it may constitute a competitive advantage at the ecosystem level. We hypothesize that by making the top soil hydrophobic, deep-rooted plants avoid competititon with shallow-rooted plants. To test this hypothesis we used an individual-based model to simulate water uptake and growth of two virtual plant species, one deep-rooted plant capable of making the soil hydrophobic and a shallow-rooted plant. We ran scenarios with different precipitation regimes ranging from dry to wet (350, 700, and 1400 mm total annual precipitation and from high to low precipitation frequencies (1, 7, and 14 days. Plant species abundance and biomass were chosen as indicators for competitiveness of plant species. At constant precipitation frequency mucilage hydrophobicity lead to a benefit in biomass and abundance of the tap-rooted population. Under wet conditions this effect diminished and tap-rooted plants were less productive. Without this trait both species coexisted. The effect of root exudation trait remained constant under different precipitation frequencies. This study shows that mucilage secretion is a competitive trait for the acquisition of water. This advantage is achieved by the modification of the soil hydraulic properties and specifically by inducing water repellency in soil regions which are shared with other species.

  1. A COMPARISON OF THE CAPITAL STRUCTURES OF THE TOP 40MULTINATIONAL ENTITIES AND THE TOP 40 JSE-LISTED ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana H. Harmse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies and policies of multinational entities (MNEscentre onthe focalgoal of any company, which isto maximise profits and shareholder wealth.Management aims for an optimum ownership structure by implementing variousstrategies. One of these strategies is the debt-to-equity ratio (the capital structure.Previous studiesconductedonvariouscountries’locally-listed entities confirmthat the capital structure of an entity has an impact on the value ofthat entity.Thisthen raisesan interesting question as to whetherthecapital structures ofthetop 40Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE-listedentitiesare similar to those ofthe top40 global MNEs.Based on market capitalisation on 31December2014, this studysought to compare the capital structures,using the debt-to-equity ratio,ofthe top40JSE-listed entitieswith those ofthe top 40globalMNEs on the Fortune 500list.Independent t-testswere performed on thedebt-to-equity ratios of thetop 40JSE-listed entities and the top 40globalMNEsas a group.Both independent t-tests and the Mann-Whitney testswereperformedonthedebt-to-equity ratiosofapplicable entities of the group divided into threeselectedindustries. The resultsof theindependent t-testindicateastatistical andpractically significant differencebetween the top 40 JSE-listed entities and the top 40 global MNEs’ capitalstructures.The resultsof the Mann-Whitney testsindicatethat if the financialindustry is excluded,there isnostatistical orpractically significant differencebetween the capital structures of the top 40 JSE-listed entities and the top 40MNEs.However, based on the effect size there is a practical visible difference.

  2. Entity recognition from clinical texts via recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengjian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Hua

    2017-07-05

    Entity recognition is one of the most primary steps for text analysis and has long attracted considerable attention from researchers. In the clinical domain, various types of entities, such as clinical entities and protected health information (PHI), widely exist in clinical texts. Recognizing these entities has become a hot topic in clinical natural language processing (NLP), and a large number of traditional machine learning methods, such as support vector machine and conditional random field, have been deployed to recognize entities from clinical texts in the past few years. In recent years, recurrent neural network (RNN), one of deep learning methods that has shown great potential on many problems including named entity recognition, also has been gradually used for entity recognition from clinical texts. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the performance of LSTM (long-short term memory), a representative variant of RNN, on clinical entity recognition and protected health information recognition. The LSTM model consists of three layers: input layer - generates representation of each word of a sentence; LSTM layer - outputs another word representation sequence that captures the context information of each word in this sentence; Inference layer - makes tagging decisions according to the output of LSTM layer, that is, outputting a label sequence. Experiments conducted on corpora of the 2010, 2012 and 2014 i2b2 NLP challenges show that LSTM achieves highest micro-average F1-scores of 85.81% on the 2010 i2b2 medical concept extraction, 92.29% on the 2012 i2b2 clinical event detection, and 94.37% on the 2014 i2b2 de-identification, which is considerably competitive with other state-of-the-art systems. LSTM that requires no hand-crafted feature has great potential on entity recognition from clinical texts. It outperforms traditional machine learning methods that suffer from fussy feature engineering. A possible future direction is how to integrate knowledge

  3. Magneto dynamic study of small size superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsurova, L.G.; Pigal'skij, K.S.; Sakun, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic field dependencies of magnetic permeability in fine grained YBaCuO samples of grain size D approx λ are investigated. The hysteresis of an oscillatory part of the magnetic permeability is evaluated for a system of loosely bound grains. Numerical calculations of vortex structures and appropriate μ v values for a superconducting plate of thickness d approx λ are made for cases of thermodynamical equilibrium and the existence. The computational results qualitatively agree with the experiment

  4. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  5. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.

    1992-08-01

    Accidents which have to be considered are core heat-up, reactivity transients, water of air ingress and primary circuit depressurization. The main effort of this paper belongs to water/air ingress and depressurization, which requires consideration of fission product plateout under normal operation conditions; for the latter it is clearly shown, that absorption (penetration) mechanisms are much less important than assumed sometimes in the past. Source term estimation procedures for core heat-up events are shortly reviewed; reactivity transients are apparently covered by them. Besides a general literature survey including identification of areas with insufficient knowledge this paper contains some estimations on the thermomechanical behaviour of fission products in water in air ingress accidents. Typical source term examples are also presented. In an appendix, evaluations of the AVR experiments VAMPYR-I and -II with respect to plateout and fission product filter efficiency are outlined and used for a validation step of the new plateout code SPATRA. (orig.)

  6. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  7. Small size neutron tube UNG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Mints, A.Z.; Shkol'nikov, A.S.

    A tube UNG-1 (universal neutron gas-filled) is designed for the use in the well neutron generators IGN-1 and IGN-1-M (a pulse neutron generator). Their serial production in the USSR has been started in 1963. At the same year, the serial production of the tubes UNG-1 has been started. Thus, this tube is the first serial logging accelerating tube in the USSR. A Penning source, equipped with a hot cathode, was selected as an ion source of the tube

  8. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  9. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Emanuela; Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom's revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  10. Deep learning with word embeddings improves biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam; Weber, Leon; Neves, Mariana; Wiegandt, David Luis; Leser, Ulf

    2017-07-15

    Text mining has become an important tool for biomedical research. The most fundamental text-mining task is the recognition of biomedical named entities (NER), such as genes, chemicals and diseases. Current NER methods rely on pre-defined features which try to capture the specific surface properties of entity types, properties of the typical local context, background knowledge, and linguistic information. State-of-the-art tools are entity-specific, as dictionaries and empirically optimal feature sets differ between entity types, which makes their development costly. Furthermore, features are often optimized for a specific gold standard corpus, which makes extrapolation of quality measures difficult. We show that a completely generic method based on deep learning and statistical word embeddings [called long short-term memory network-conditional random field (LSTM-CRF)] outperforms state-of-the-art entity-specific NER tools, and often by a large margin. To this end, we compared the performance of LSTM-CRF on 33 data sets covering five different entity classes with that of best-of-class NER tools and an entity-agnostic CRF implementation. On average, F1-score of LSTM-CRF is 5% above that of the baselines, mostly due to a sharp increase in recall. The source code for LSTM-CRF is available at https://github.com/glample/tagger and the links to the corpora are available at https://corposaurus.github.io/corpora/ . habibima@informatik.hu-berlin.de. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Modification of the small-size heating device for the testing of soils' thermal response; Actualisation du mini-module de chauffage pour tests de reponse thermique des terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloui, L.; Steinmann, G.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involved the modification of small-size testing equipment. This equipment, built by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, is dedicated to the measurement of the thermal characteristics of soils and geothermal probes. Its characteristics and performance have been improved. The remote data transmission system has also been changed. The improved possibilities presented by this optimised mini-module when, for example, carrying out thermal response tests in bore-hole heat exchangers of more than 300 m depth are described. The modifications made and the tests carried out with the modified equipment are described and discussed.

  12. Quality of the Accounting Information of Brazilian Third Sector Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maciel Ramos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective was to analyze the quality of accounting information of Brazilian non-profit organizations. As for the objective the research is characterized as a descriptive one; as for the research strategy it is documental and as for the approach it is quantitative. In order to measure the quality of the accounting information of the analyzed entities, it was prepared a checklist starting from the accounting rules that guide the accounting practice of the third sector entities made up of seven sections and 59 requisites, which enabled the construction of the Quality Index for Accounting Information. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation and the results indicated a low level of the accounting information quality reported by the analyzed entities, especially when compared to for-profit organizations. One comes to the conclusion, based on the findings, that the analyzed entities present a low level of quality as to the accounting information which may jeopardize the information usefulness reported by these entities users.

  13. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Entity recognition in the biomedical domain using a hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaldella, Marco; Furrer, Lenz; Tasso, Carlo; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-11-09

    This article describes a high-recall, high-precision approach for the extraction of biomedical entities from scientific articles. The approach uses a two-stage pipeline, combining a dictionary-based entity recognizer with a machine-learning classifier. First, the OGER entity recognizer, which has a bias towards high recall, annotates the terms that appear in selected domain ontologies. Subsequently, the Distiller framework uses this information as a feature for a machine learning algorithm to select the relevant entities only. For this step, we compare two different supervised machine-learning algorithms: Conditional Random Fields and Neural Networks. In an in-domain evaluation using the CRAFT corpus, we test the performance of the combined systems when recognizing chemicals, cell types, cellular components, biological processes, molecular functions, organisms, proteins, and biological sequences. Our best system combines dictionary-based candidate generation with Neural-Network-based filtering. It achieves an overall precision of 86% at a recall of 60% on the named entity recognition task, and a precision of 51% at a recall of 49% on the concept recognition task. These results are to our knowledge the best reported so far in this particular task.

  15. Features of the corrosion protection of aluminium alloys by creation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Egorkin, V. S.; Vyaliy, I. E.

    2017-09-01

    Results of the study of hydrophobic layers on aluminum alloy, which underwent plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and subsequent deposition of the hydrophobic agent have been described. Coatings formed by deposition of dispersion of the hydrophobic agent containing SiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the PEO-layer are characterized by high contact angles and inhibitive properties. The formed composite layers were found to be characterized with hydrophobicity and high barrier properties.

  16. Impact of a Hydrophobic Sphere onto a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Edmonds, John; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Milewski, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Small hydrophobic particles impacting a water surface can rebound completely from the interface (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, 2008). In the present work, we focus on the bouncing dynamics of millimetric hydrophobic spheres impacting the surface of a quiescent water bath. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the normal coefficient of restitution and contact time on the impact velocity and the radius and density of the sphere. Our experimental observations are compared to the predictions of a fluid model derived from linearized Navier-Stokes under the assumption of a high Reynolds number regime (Galeano-Rios et al., JFM, in press). In the model, the motions of the sphere and the fluid interface are found by imposing the natural geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions. Future directions will be discussed. C.A.G.-R. and P.A.M. gratefully acknowledge support through the EPSRC project EP/N018176/1.

  17. Nanoscale encapsulation: the structure of cations in hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S.R.; Yuchs, S.E.; Giaquinta, D.; Soderholm, L.; Song, Kang.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates, created by organic surface modification of inherently hydrophilic materials such as zeolites and clays, are currently being investigated as storage media for hazardous cations. Use of organic monolayers to modify the surface of an aluminosilicate after introducing an ion into the zeolite/clay reduces the interaction of water with the material. Resulting systems are about 20 times more resistant to leaching of stored ion. XAS spectra from the encapsulated ion demonstrate that byproducts from the organic modifier can complex with the stored cation. This complexation can result in a decreased affinity of the cation for the aluminosilicate matrix. Changing the organic modifier eliminates this problem. XAS spectra also indicate that the reactivity and speciation of the encapsulated ion may change upon application of the hydrophobic layer

  18. Influence of chemistry on wetting dynamics of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2010-04-06

    In this work, the role of a chemical parameter, such as the degree of fluorination, on the wetting behavior of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces is investigated. Texture and chemistry tuning of the surfaces has been accomplished with single batch radiofrequency low-pressure plasma processes. Polystyrene substrates have been textured by CF(4) plasma etching and subsequently covered by thin films with a tunable F-to-C ratio, obtained in discharges fed with C(4)F(8)-C(2)H(4). Measurements of wetting dynamics reveal a regime transition from adhesive-hydrophobic to slippery-superhydrophobic, i.e., from wet to non wet states, as the F-to-C rises at constant topography. Such achievements are strengthened by calculation of the solid fraction of surface water contact area applying Cassie-Baxter advancing and receding equations to water contact angle data of textured and flat reference surfaces.

  19. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ENTITY FROM CONSTRUCTION SECTOR USING DASHBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN BRICIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the analysis of performances of economic entities from the construction sector from Romania. The necessary data for preparation and analysis up through dashboard of the economic entity are provided by managerial accounting through Target Costing method. The way of implementing and observing of stages which are completed in managerial accounting through Target Costing method are also presented in the paper based on the existing literature. For data analysis it was used a questionnaire based on three questions whose results were analyzed and which formed the basis of our entire course of scientific approach. The paper ends with the authors' conclusions about the performance analysis of economic entities in a construction project using dashboard showing the benefits of its long-term decisions.

  1. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  2. Cuban entities management. Cedrux just around the corner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rodríguez Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the country as part of strengthening entities management and the informatization of Cuban society, presented the need to create a System of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, which would be able to computerize management processes of business and budgeted entities on national scale. It is in this way that since July 2008 CEDRUX product was developed composed by 15 subsystems. It will constitute the core on which new solutions will be developed that will extend its functionalities in a constantly way, including new entities management processes and allowing constant updating. In its first operational phase that will be in this very year 2011, Cedrux will only integrate 9 subsystems that will answer the economic needs of any organization.

  3. Using Local Grammar for Entity Extraction from Clinical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Ghoulam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Extraction (IE is a natural language processing (NLP task whose aim is to analyze texts written in natural language to extract structured and useful information such as named entities and semantic relations linking these entities. Information extraction is an important task for many applications such as bio-medical literature mining, customer care, community websites, and personal information management. The increasing information available in patient clinical reports is difficult to access. As it is often in an unstructured text form, doctors need tools to enable them access to this information and the ability to search it. Hence, a system for extracting this information in a structured form can benefits healthcare professionals. The work presented in this paper uses a local grammar approach to extract medical named entities from French patient clinical reports. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved an F-Measure of 90. 06%.

  4. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  5. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Paek, S. W.; Paek, S. W.; Kim, J. G.; Chung, H. S.

    2001-05-01

    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale

  6. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Paek, S. W.; Kim, J. G.; Chung, H. S

    2001-05-01

    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale.

  7. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic duo-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, F.; Jiang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Y.; Shi, Z. W.; Peng, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, super-hydrophobicity has attracted increasing attention due to its huge potential in the practical applications. In this paper, we have presented a duo-structure of the combination of micro-dot-matrix and nano-candle-soot. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as a combination layer between the dot-matrix and the soot particles. Firstly, a period of 9-μm dot-matrix was easily fabricated on the K9 glass using the most simple and mature photolithography process. Secondly, the dot-matrix surface was coated by a thin film of PDMS (elastomer: hardener=10:1) which was diluted by methylbenzene at the volume ratio of 1:8. Thirdly, we held the PDMS modified surface over a candle flame to deposit a soot layer and followed by a gentle water-risen to remove the non-adhered particles. At last, the samples were baked at 85°C for 2 hours and then the duo-structure surface with both micro-size dot-matrix and nano-size soot particles was obtained. The SEM indicated this novel surface morphology was quite like a lotus leaf of the well-know micro-nano-binary structures. As a result, the contact angle meter demonstrated such surface exhibited a perfect super-hydrophobicity with water contact angle of 153° and sliding angle of 3°. Besides, just listed as above, the fabrication process for our structure was quite more easy, smart and low-cost compared with the other production technique for super-hydrophobic surfaces such as the phase separation method, electrochemical deposition and chemical vapor deposition etc. Hence, this super-hydrophobic duo-structure reported in this letter was a great promising candidate for a wide and rapid commercialization in the future.

  8. SET-LRP of the Hydrophobic Biobased Menthyl Acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensabeh, Nabil; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia; Lligadas, Gerard; Percec, Virgil

    2018-04-09

    Cu(0) wire-catalyzed single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) of (-)-menthyl acrylate, a biobased hydrophobic monomer, was investigated at 25 °C in ethanol, isopropanol, ethyl lactate, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol (TFP). All solvents are known to promote, in the presence of N ligands, the mechanistically required self-regulated disproportionation of Cu(I)Br into Cu(0) and Cu(II)Br 2 . Both fluorinated alcohols brought out their characteristics of universal SET-LRP solvents and showed the proper polarity balance to mediate an efficient polymerization of this bulky and hydrophobic monomer. Together with the secondary alkyl halide initiator, methyl 2-bromopropionate (MBP), and the tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine (Me 6 -TREN) ligand, TFE and TPF mediated an efficient SET-LRP of MnA at room temperature that proceeds through a self-generated biphasic system. The results presented here demonstrate that Cu(0) wire-catalyzed SET-LRP can be used to target polyMnA with different block lengths and narrow molecular weight distribution at room temperature. Indeed, the use of a combination of techniques that include GPC, 1 H NMR, MALDI-TOF MS performed before and after thioetherification of bromine terminus via "thio-bromo" click chemistry, and in situ reinitiation copolymerization experiments supports the near perfect chain end functionality of the synthesized biobased hydrophobic polymers. These results expand the possibilities of SET-LRP into the area of renewable resources where hydrophobic compounds are widespread.

  9. MICROBIAL CELL-SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY - THE INVOLVEMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTIONS IN MICROBIAL ADHESION TO HYDROCARBONS (MATH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTSEMADOORNBUSCH, GI; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is the most commonly used method to determine microbial cell surface hydrophobicity. Since, however, the assay is based on adhesion, it is questionable whether the results reflect only the cell surface hydrophobicity or an interplay of hydrophobicity and

  10. Ag/C:F Antibacterial and hydrophobic nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylián, Ondřej; Kratochvíl, Jiří; Petr, Martin; Kuzminova, Anna; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek; Beranová, Jana

    Silver-based nanomaterials that exhibit antibacterial character are intensively studied as they represent promising weapon against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Equally important class of materials represent coatings that have highly water repellent nature. Such materials may be used for fabrication of anti-fogging or self-cleaning surfaces. The aim of this study is to combine both of these valuable material characteristics. Antibacterial and highly hydrophobic Ag/C:F nanocomposite films were fabricated by means of gas aggregation source of Ag nanoparticles and sputter deposition of C:F matrix. The nanocomposite coatings had three-layer structure C:F base layer/Ag nanoparticles/C:F top layer. It is shown that the increasing number of Ag nanoparticles in produced coatings leads not only in enhancement of their antibacterial activity, but also causes substantial increase of their hydrophobicity. Under optimized conditions, the coatings are super-hydrophobic with water contact angle equal to 165∘ and are capable to induce 6-log reduction of bacteria presented in solution within 4h.

  11. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslindarahim@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jln Kgr-Alor Setar, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Ishiyama, Y. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Penmatsa, V. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.

  12. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Ishiyama, Y.; Penmatsa, V.; Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobically modified polymeric betaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Shakhvorostov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric betaines containing long alkyl chains C12H25, C14H29, C16H33 and C18H37 were synthesized by Michael addition reaction of alkylaminocrotonates and methacrylic acid (MAA. They were characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR, DSC, DLS, GPC, cryo-TEM, viscometry and zeta-potential measurements. The polymers were fully soluble in DMF, THF and DMSO, partially dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene and formed colloid solutions in aqueous KOH. In aqueous KOH and DMSO solutions, hydrophobically modified polymeric betaines behaved as polyelectrolytes. The average hydrodynamic size and zeta potential of diluted aqueous solutions of hydrophobic polybetainess containing dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, hexadecyl-, and octadecyl groups were studied as a function of pH. Anomalous low values of the isoelectric point (IEP of amphoteric macromolecules were found to be in the range of pH 2.7-3.4. According to DLS data, the average size of macromolecules tends to decrease with dilution. Zeta-potential of amphoteric macromolecules in aqueous solution is much higher than that in DMSO. The cryo-TEM results revealed that in both aqueous KOH and DMSO media, the micron- and nanosized vesicles existed. The structural organization of vesicles in water and DMSO is discussed. The wax inhibition effect of hydrophobic polybetaines at a decrease of the pour point temperatures of high paraffinic oils was better in comparison with commercial available ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers (EVA.

  14. Double-grooved nanofibre surfaces with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Meimei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Jin, Xiangyu; Huang, Chen

    2017-11-02

    This study reports a facile method for fabricating double-grooved fibrous surfaces. The primary grooves of the surface are formed by aligned fibres, while the secondary grooves are achieved by oriented nanogrooves on the fibre surface. Investigation into the formation mechanism reveals that the nanogrooves can be readily tailored through adjusting the solvent ratio and relative humidity. With this understanding, a variety of polymers have been successfully electrospun into fibres having the same nanogrooved feature. These fibres show high resemblance to natural hierarchical structures, and thereby endowing the corresponding double-grooved surface with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity. A water droplet at a parallel direction to the grooves exhibits a much higher contact angle and a lower roll-off angle than the droplet at a perpendicular direction. The application potential of such anisotropic hydrophobicity has been demonstrated via a fog collection experiment, in which the double-grooved surface can harvest the largest amount of water. Moreover, the fabrication method requires neither post-treatment nor sophisticated equipment, making us anticipate that the double-grooved surface would be competitive in areas where a highly ordered surface, a large surface area and an anisotropic hydrophobicity are preferred.

  15. Named Entity Recognition for Novel Types by Transfer Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Lizhen; Ferraro, Gabriela; Zhou, Liyuan; Hou, Weiwei; Baldwin, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    In named entity recognition, we often don't have a large in-domain training corpus or a knowledge base with adequate coverage to train a model directly. In this paper, we propose a method where, given training data in a related domain with similar (but not identical) named entity (NE) types and a small amount of in-domain training data, we use transfer learning to learn a domain-specific NE model. That is, the novelty in the task setup is that we assume not just domain mismatch, but also labe...

  16. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi......-dimensional schemes that are customized to serve specific information needs. EVER is based on an event concept that is very well suited for multi-dimensional modeling because measurement data often represent events in multi-dimensional databases...

  17. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  18. Medical Named Entity Recognition for Indonesian Language Using Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arief

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, Named Entity Recognition (NER) system is used in medical texts to obtain important medical information, like diseases, symptoms, and drugs. While most NER systems are applied to formal medical texts, informal ones like those from social media (also called semi-formal texts) are starting to get recognition as a gold mine for medical information. We propose a theoretical Named Entity Recognition (NER) model for semi-formal medical texts in our medical knowledge management system by comparing two kinds of word representations: cluster-based word representation and distributed representation.

  19. Ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendon: a rare entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Abhishek J; Arora, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Ossification of the Achilles tendon is a rare clinical entity comprising of one or more segments of variable sized ossified masses in the fibrocartilaginous substance of the tendon. The etiology of ossification of the Achilles tendon is multifactorial with recurrent trauma and surgery comprising major predisposing factors, with others being metabolic, systemic, and infectious diseases. The possibility of a genetic predisposition towards this entity has also been raised, but has not yet been proven. We present a rare case of ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendons without any history of trauma or surgery in a 48-year-old female patient

  20. Secure Environments for Collaboration among Ubiquitous Roaming Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2002-01-01

    SECURE is a newly started IST project, which addresses secure collaboration among computational entities in emerging global computing systems. The properties of these systems introduce new security challenges that are not adequately addressed by existing security models and mechanisms. The scale ...... and uncertainty of this global computing environment invalidates existing security models. Instead, new security models have to be developed along with new security mechanisms that control access to protected resources.......SECURE is a newly started IST project, which addresses secure collaboration among computational entities in emerging global computing systems. The properties of these systems introduce new security challenges that are not adequately addressed by existing security models and mechanisms. The scale...

  1. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency personnel respond in a timely and comprehensive fashion to the inquiries of small entities... history of compliance, FRA inspectors consider “such other factors as the immediate circumstances make... eliminating the safety hazard; the entity's culpability; the entity's compliance history; the entity's ability...

  3. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission... provisions of this part. EIA will also review its records to verify that the reporting entity has submitted... credited to the entity as “registered reductions” which can be held by the reporting entity for use...

  5. FINANCIAL REPORTING IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND NON-FINANCIAL ENTITIES. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vitan

    2011-01-01

    The present paperwork contains issues regarding financial reporting at the public institutions and non – financial entities. The main aspects are regarding the obligation of all entities to present the financial statements, the content of financial statements in public institutions and non-financial entities. Also, is presented the similarities and the differences aspects between financial reporting of these two patrimonial entities.

  6. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all items of the entity that would be partnership items, as defined in section 6231(a)(3) and the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return...

  7. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco; Guillois, Kevin; Tuel, Alain; Petit, Corine; Basset, Jean-Marie; Caps, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  8. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco

    2016-01-20

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  9. Business Entity Selection: Why It Matters to Healthcare Practitioners. Part II--Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, and Professional Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithman, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community.

  10. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes, outsourcing or insourcing of significant activities) that are likely to have a significant effect... period, or other elements of its entity statement. For example, companies buy and sell business units, or... divestiture of discrete business units, subsidiaries, facilities, and plants; (ii) The closure or opening of...

  11. Primary malignancy of seminal vesicle: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Ramamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of seminal vesicle malignancy (primitive neuro ectodermal tumor in a 40-year-old male patient. He was treated with enbloc resection of the tumor and ureteric reimplantation. In view of the rarity of this entity, management of these tumors should be individualized.

  12. GASB's New Standard on Reporting Entity for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Explains the impact on school district financial reporting of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 14, "The Financial Reporting Entity." One of Statement 14's objectives is for financial report users to be able to distinguish between the primary government and its component units. (MLF)

  13. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State, possession of the United States, any political subdivision thereof, or any official police organization of such a governmental entity engaged in criminal investigations. (b) The exemption provided in... person may subject the transferor to civil and criminal liabilities. (See 26 U.S.C. 5852, 5861, and 5871...

  14. 77 FR 60948 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... regulated by a primary federal financial regulatory agency, to conduct annual stress tests to determine... the regulated entities under the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of... regulated by a primary Federal financial regulatory agency shall conduct annual stress tests * * * (emphasis...

  15. Investigation of a baseline method for genealogical entity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremova, I.; Ranjbar-Sahraei, B.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Calders, T.G.K.; Tuyls, K.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the application of entity resolution (ER) techniques on a real-world multi-source genealogical dataset. Our goal is to identify all persons involved in various notary acts and link them to their birth, marriage and death certificates. In order to evaluate the performance of a

  16. New entity for conducting group practice offers new potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, H I

    1994-01-01

    A new form of entity, the limited liability company (LLC), may be used by physicians to conduct group practices with the tax advantages of a partnership and insulation from liability for copractitioner's acts. The author reviews the New Jersey Limited Liability Company Act.

  17. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  18. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gundannavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  19. An interactive, web-based tool for genealogical entity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremova, I.; Ranjbar-Sahraei, B.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Calders, T.G.K.; Tuyls, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an interactive, web-based tool which helps historians to do Genealogical Entitiy Resolution. This work has two main goals. First, it uses Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to assist humanites researchers to perform Genealogical Entity Resolution. Second, it facilitates the generation

  20. Named entity extraction and disambiguation: the missing link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Named entity extraction (NEE) and disambiguation (NED) are two areas of research that are well covered in literature. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. Although these topics are highly dependent, almost no existing works

  1. Nanofluidic device for extraction of elastic bio-entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a nanofluidic device for extraction of elastic bio-entities suspended in liquid. The device comprises a main passage and a plurality of nanoslits extending from a sidewall of the main passage. The main passage has a first height and each nanoslit has a second height so...

  2. Lichen planus hypertrophicus of the vulva - a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Anupa Mary; Kaimal, Sowmya

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal lichen planus is a type of chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the vulva, usually seen as a part of widespread lichen planus. The common clinical types of vulval lichen planus include papulosquamous, erosive and pigmented types. Hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva is a rare entity. We report a case of hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva which clinically simulated genital warts.

  3. Principles and tools for collaborative entity-based intelligence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Eric A; Card, Stuart K; Bodnar, John W

    2010-01-01

    Software tools that make it easier for analysts to collaborate as a natural part of their work will lead to better analysis that is informed by more perspectives. We are interested to know if software tools can be designed that support collaboration even as they allow analysts to find documents and organize information (including evidence, schemas, and hypotheses). We have modified the Entity Workspace system, described previously, to test such designs. We have evaluated the resulting design in both a laboratory study and a study where it is situated with an analysis team. In both cases, effects on collaboration appear to be positive. Key aspects of the design include an evidence notebook optimized for organizing entities (rather than text characters), information structures that can be collapsed and expanded, visualization of evidence that emphasizes events and documents (rather than emphasizing the entity graph), and a notification system that finds entities of mutual interest to multiple analysts. Long-term tests suggest that this approach can support both top-down and bottom-up styles of analysis.

  4. Syringomatous carcinoma: Case report of a rare tumor entity | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syringomatous carcinoma is an extremely invasive tumor, locally destructive and slowly growing adnexal tumour, derived from eccrine sweat glands. It is often mistaken, both clinically and microscopically, for other benign and malignant entities. The tumour recurrence is high due to extensive perineural invasion, but

  5. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  6. The actions of European cities about the use of new technologies of small size cogeneration; Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    After numerous experiences in the domain of big and medium-size cogeneration, some European municipalities, in particular in Germany, are developing small-size cogeneration units. The aim of this study is, first, to examine the policies and experiences of municipalities and municipal energy companies in terms of technology utilization and the way they have integrated these new technologies in existing installations. Secondly, its aim is to provide some information about the technical and organizational aspects, in particular about the difficulties encountered and the results obtained. In the domain of small cogeneration, various technologies enter in competition: combustion engines, combustion turbines, Stirling engine and fuel cells, which have reached different stages of technical and commercial development. All these technologies are described in case-forms. The ten examples described in these forms (Aachen (DE), Armagh (UK), Arnhem (NL), Basel (CH), Bielefeld (DE), Berlin (DE), Chelles (FR), Frankfurt (DE), Land Hessen (DE), and Ludwigshafen (DE)), indicate that today, only the facilities equipped with gas engines are economically competitive with respect to other means of electricity and heat generation. (J.S.)

  7. The actions of European cities about the use of new technologies of small size cogeneration; Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P

    2001-07-01

    After numerous experiences in the domain of big and medium-size cogeneration, some European municipalities, in particular in Germany, are developing small-size cogeneration units. The aim of this study is, first, to examine the policies and experiences of municipalities and municipal energy companies in terms of technology utilization and the way they have integrated these new technologies in existing installations. Secondly, its aim is to provide some information about the technical and organizational aspects, in particular about the difficulties encountered and the results obtained. In the domain of small cogeneration, various technologies enter in competition: combustion engines, combustion turbines, Stirling engine and fuel cells, which have reached different stages of technical and commercial development. All these technologies are described in case-forms. The ten examples described in these forms (Aachen (DE), Armagh (UK), Arnhem (NL), Basel (CH), Bielefeld (DE), Berlin (DE), Chelles (FR), Frankfurt (DE), Land Hessen (DE), and Ludwigshafen (DE)), indicate that today, only the facilities equipped with gas engines are economically competitive with respect to other means of electricity and heat generation. (J.S.)

  8. Studies on polyurethane adhesives and surface modification of hydrophobic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman

    studies involved making functionalized, thickness-controlled, wettability-controlled multilayers on hydrophobic substrates and the adsorption of carboxylic acid-terminated poly(styrene-b-isoprene) on alumina/silica substrates. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has been shown to adsorb onto hydrophobic surfaces irreversibly due to hydrophobic interactions. This thin semicrystalline coating is chemically modified using acid chlorides, butyl isocyanate and butanal to form thicker and hydrophobic coatings. The products of the modification reactions allow adsorption of a subsequent layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) that could subsequently be hydrophobized. This 2-step (adsorption/chemical modification) allows layer-by-layer deposition to prepare coatings with thickness, chemical structure and wettability control on any hydrophobic surface. Research on adsorption characteristics of carboxylic acid-terminated poly(styrene-b-isoprene) involved syntheses of block copolymers with the functional group present at specific ends. Comparative adsorption studies for carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrogen-terminated block copolymers was carried out on alumina and silica substrates.

  9. 77 FR 58006 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Removal of Person From the Entity List Based on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... limited. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective September 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., F-2, Khusal Khan Khattak Road, University Town, Peshawar, Pakistan. Annual Review of the Entity List...) 54th Research Institute; --Communication, Telemetry and Telecontrol Research Institute (CTI); and...

  10. 76 FR 63184 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List; Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Road, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong; and 2. Hang Tat Electronics Enterprises Co., Room 2608, Technology Plaza, 29-35 Sha Tsui Road, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong. Removals From the Entity List This rule removes four... to part 732 of the EAR, ``BIS's `Know Your Customer' Guidance and Red Flags,'' when persons are...

  11. Design and Construction of an Entity Resolution System that Supports Entity Identity Information Management and Asserted Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric Derrand

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and construction of an open source, entity resolution system that enables users to assign and maintain persistent identifiers for master data items. Two key features of this system that are not available in current ER systems and that make persistent identification possible are (1) The capture and management of…

  12. 77 FR 24587 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... information displays a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number. This regulation... Management and Budget (OMB), by email to [email protected] , or by fax to (202) 395-7285. 3. This... Germany, the German entity: ``Akbar Ashraf Vaghefi, Koburgerstr 10, D-10825, Berlin, Germany;'' 0 (f) By...

  13. 78 FR 18808 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Removal of Person From the Entity List Based on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... information displays a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number. This regulation..., including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Jasmeet K. Seehra, Office of Management and Budget (OMB.... By revising under Germany, one German entity; 0 d. By adding under Germany, in alphabetical order...

  14. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Jen Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropyleneamine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  15. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chan, Ying-Nan; Lan, Yi-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene)-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH) with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction) as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropylene)amine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT) clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness) in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  16. Behavior of a Liquid Bridge between Nonparallel Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Mohammadmehdi; Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2017-12-26

    When a liquid bridge is formed between two nonparallel identical surfaces, it can move along the surfaces. Literature indicates that the direction of bridge movement is governed by the wettability of surfaces. When the surfaces are hydrophilic, the motion of the bridge is always toward the cusp (intersection of the plane of the two bounding surfaces). On the other hand, the movement is hitherto thought to be always pointing away from the cusp when the surfaces are hydrophobic. In this study, through experiments, numerical simulations, and analytical reasoning, we demonstrate that for hydrophobic surfaces, wettability is not the only factor determining the direction of the motion. A new geometrical parameter, i.e., confinement (cf), was defined as the ratio of the distance of the farthest contact point of the bridge to the cusp, and that of the closest contact point to the cusp. The direction of the motion depends on the amount of confinement (cf). When the distance between the surfaces is large (resulting in a small cf), the bridge tends to move toward the cusp through a pinning/depinning mechanism of contact lines. When the distance between the surfaces is small (large cf), the bridge tends to move away from the cusp. For a specific system, a maximum cf value (cf max ) exists. A sliding behavior (i.e., simultaneous advancing on the wider side and receding on the narrower side) can also be seen when a liquid bridge is compressed such that the cf exceeds the cf max . Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) is identified as an underpinning phenomenon that together with cf fundamentally explains the movement of a trapped liquid between two hydrophobic surfaces. If there is no CAH, however, i.e., the case of ideal hydrophobic surfaces, the cf will be a constant; we show that the bridge slides toward the cusp when it is stretched, while it slides away from the cusp when it is compressed (note sliding motion is different from motion due to pinning/depinning mechanism of contact

  17. Hydrophobicity classification of polymeric materials based on fractal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomazini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to obtain hydrophobicity classification (HC in high voltage polymer insulators. In the method mentioned, the HC was analyzed by fractal dimension (fd and its processing time was evaluated having as a goal the application in mobile devices. Texture images were created from spraying solutions produced of mixtures of isopropyl alcohol and distilled water in proportions, which ranged from 0 to 100% volume of alcohol (%AIA. Based on these solutions, the contact angles of the drops were measured and the textures were used as patterns for fractal dimension calculations.

  18. Fabrication of corona-free nanoparticles with tunable hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Daniel F; Saha, Krishnendu; Prakash, Gyan; Yan, Bo; Kong, Hao; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-07-22

    A protein corona is formed at the surface of nanoparticles in the presence of biological fluids, masking the surface properties of the particle and complicating the relationship between chemical functionality and biological effects. We present here a series of zwitterionic NPs of variable hydrophobicity that do not adsorb proteins at moderate levels of serum protein and do not form hard coronas at physiological serum concentrations. These particles provide platforms to evaluate nanobiological behavior such as cell uptake and hemolysis dictated directly by chemical motifs at the nanoparticle surface.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lamellar aragonite with hydrophobic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengyu; Xu Yang; Liu Yalan; Li Jian

    2009-01-01

    A novel and simple synthetic method for the preparation of hydrophobic lamellar aragonite has been developed. The crystallization of aragonite was conducted by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of sodium stearate. The resulting products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the contact angle. The results revealed that sodium stearate plays an important role in determining the structure and morphology of the sample. Besides, we have succeeded in surface modification of particles in situ at the same time. The contact angle of the modified aragonite reached 108.59 deg.

  20. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  1. Review: Milk Proteins as Nanocarrier Systems for Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpel, Florian; Schmitt, Joachim J

    2015-11-01

    Milk proteins and milk protein aggregates are among the most important nanovehicles in food technology. Milk proteins have various functional properties that facilitate their ability to carry hydrophobic nutraceutical substances. The main functional transport properties that were examined in the reviewed studies are binding of molecules or ions, surface activity, aggregation, gelation, and interaction with other polymers. Hydrophobic binding has been investigated using caseins and isolated β-casein as well as whey proteins. Surface activity of caseins has been used to create emulsion-based carrier systems. Furthermore, caseins are able to self-assemble into micelles, which can incorporate molecules. Gelation and interaction with other polymers can be used to encapsulate molecules into protein networks. The release of transported substances mainly depends on pH and swelling behavior of the proteins. The targeted use of nanocarrier systems requires specific knowledge about the binding mechanisms between the proteins and the carried substances in a certain food matrix. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Synthesis of silver nanocubes in a hydrophobic binary organic solvent.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Sun, Y. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controlled shapes in hydrophobic solvents is challenging because homogeneous nucleation with high rate in these solvents is favorable for the formation of multiply twinned (MT) nanoparticles with spherical morphology. In this work, we report an inhomogeneous nucleation strategy in a binary hydrophobic solvent mediated by dimethyldistearylammonium chloride (DDAC), resulting in the coexistence of single-crystalline Ag polyhedrons and MT Ag quasi-spheres at the beginning of the reaction. In the consequent step, the MT Ag nanoparticles are selectively etched and dissolved through oxidation by NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions (from the Ag precursor, AgNO{sub 3}) with the assistance of Cl{sup -} ions (from DDAC). The dissolved Ag species are then reduced and deposited on the more stable single-crystalline polyhedrons to form Ag nanocubes. Synergy of the oxidative etching of MT particles and growth of single-crystalline particles leads to Ag nanocubes with high purity when the ripening time is long enough. For example, refluxing a mixing solvent of octyl ether and oleylamine containing AgNO{sub 3} (0.02 M) and DDAC (0.03 M) at 260 C for 1 h results in Ag nanocubes with an average edge length of 34 nm and a purity higher than 95%.

  3. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  4. Hydrophobicity and thermodynamic response for aqueous solutions of amphiphiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Romaní, Luis; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous behavior of aqueous solutions of amphiphiles in the water-rich region is analyzed via a phenomenological approach that utilizes the isobaric heat capacity Cp as an experimental probe. We report extensive data for solutions of 14 amphiphiles as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. Beyond that, Cp data but also isobaric thermal expansivities and isothermal compressibilities for three solutions of tert-butanol as a function of both temperature and pressure are presented. Results rule out the possibility that the observed phenomenology is associated with the anomalous thermodynamics of pure water. Indeed, our Cp data, quantitatively consistent with recent spectroscopic analyses, suggest that water-mediated interactions between the nonpolar parts of amphiphiles are at the origin of anomalies, with the effects of such "hydrophobic aggregation" being observed at mole fractions as small as 0.01. Physicochemical details like the size, the electronic charge distribution and the geometry of amphiphile molecules as well as third-order derivatives of the Gibbs energy and the associated Koga lines support the above claims while they further contribute to characterizing the role of hydrophobicity in these phenomena. Progress with a view to gain a deeper, more concrete understanding remains.

  5. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  6. Hydrophobicity studies of polymer thin films with varied CNT concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Rodzi, N. H.; M. Shahimin, M.; Poopalan, P.; Man, B.; M. Nor, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Surface functionalization studies for re-creating a `Lotus Leaf' effect (superhydrophobic) have been carried out for the past decade; looking for the material which can provide high transparency, low energy surface and high surface roughness. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid thin film variations on glass to produce near-superhydrophobic surfaces is presented in this paper. There are three important parameters studied in producing hydrophobic surfaces based on the hybrid thin films; concentration of PDMS, concentration of MWCNT and droplet sizes. The study is carried out by using PDMS of varied cross linker ratio (10:1, 30:1 and 50:1) with MWCNT concentration of 1mg, 10mg and 15mg for 0.5 μl, 2.0 μl, 5.0 μl and 10 μl droplet sizes. The resulting hybrid thin films show that hydrophobicity increased with increasing cross linker ratio and MWCNT percentage in the PDMS solution. A near superhydrophobic surface can be created when using 15 mg of MWCNT with 50:1 cross linker ratio PDMS thin films, measured on 10 μl droplet size. The hybrid thin films produced can be potentially tailored to the application of biosensors, MEMS and even commercial devices.

  7. EWOD driven cleaning of bioparticles on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson-Niedziółka, M; Lapierre, F; Coffinier, Y; Parry, S J; Zoueshtiagh, F; Foat, T; Thomy, V; Boukherroub, R

    2011-02-07

    Environmental air monitoring is of great interest due to the large number of people concerned and exposed to different possible risks. From the most common particles in our environment (e.g. by-products of combustion or pollens) to more specific and dangerous agents (e.g. pathogenic micro-organisms), there are a large range of particles that need to be controlled. In this article we propose an original study on the collection of electrostatically deposited particles using electrowetting droplet displacement. A variety of particles were studied, from synthetic particles (e.g. Polystyrene Latex (PSL) microsphere) to different classes of biological particle (proteins, bacterial spores and a viral simulant). Furthermore, we have compared ElectroWetting-On-Dielectric (EWOD) collecting efficiency using either a hydrophobic or a superhydrophobic counter electrode. We observe different cleaning efficiencies, depending on the hydrophobicity of the substrate (varying from 45% to 99%). Superhydrophobic surfaces show the best cleaning efficiency with water droplets for all investigated particles (MS2 bacteriophage, BG (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores, OA (ovalbumin) proteins, and PSL).

  8. Hydrophobic Collapse of Ubiquitin Generates Rapid Protein-Water Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Hanna; Schäfer, Sarah; Hoberg, Claudius; Reid, Korey M; Leitner, David M; Havenith, Martina

    2018-06-04

    We report time-resolved measurements of the coupled protein-water modes of solvated ubiquitin during protein folding. Kinetic terahertz absorption (KITA) spectroscopy serves as a label-free technique for monitoring large scale conformational changes and folding of proteins subsequent to a sudden T-jump. We report here KITA measurements at an unprecedented time resolution of 500 ns, a resolution 2 orders of magnitude better than those of any previous KITA measurements, which reveal the coupled ubiquitin-solvent dynamics even in the initial phase of hydrophobic collapse. Complementary equilibrium experiments and molecular simulations of ubiquitin solutions are performed to clarify non-equilibrium contributions and reveal the molecular picture upon a change in structure, respectively. On the basis of our results, we propose that in the case of ubiquitin a rapid (<500 ns) initial phase of the hydrophobic collapse from the elongated protein to a molten globule structure precedes secondary structure formation. We find that these very first steps, including large-amplitude changes within the unfolded manifold, are accompanied by a rapid (<500 ns) pronounced change of the coupled protein-solvent response. The KITA response upon secondary structure formation exhibits an opposite sign, which indicates a distinct effect on the solvent-exposed surface.

  9. Study and application of hydrophobic catalyst in treating tritium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Gui-ping; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Yong-mei; Yuan, Guo-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Tritium decontamination from tritium waste is important for the management of tritium waste. Tritium removal from waste tritium oxide can not only get tritium, but also reduce the amount of waste tritium. At the meantime, by cleaning the tritium pollution gas can also reduce the tritium exhausting from tritium facility. At present, the process of hydrogen isotopic exchange in tritium removal from waste tritium oxide and coordination oxidisation-adsorption in tritium cleaning from waste tritium gas are the mainly methods. In these methods, hydrophobic catalysts which can be used in these process are the key technology. There are many references about their preparing and applying, but few on the estimation about their performance changing during their applying. However, their performance stability on isotopic catalytic exchange and catalytic oxidisation will affect their using in reaction. Hydrophobic catalyst Pt-SDB which can be used in tritium isotopic exchange between tritium oxide and hydrogen and the cleaning of tritium pollution gas have been prepared in our laboratory in early days. In order to estimating their performance stability during their using, this work will investigate their stability on their catalytic activity and their radiation-resistance tritium. (author)

  10. Central dot sign in entities other than Caroli disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, T.; Itai, Yuji; Minami, Manabu.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe central dot sign (tiny dots with strong contrast enhancement of the portal vein within dilated hepatic bile ducts on computed tomography) in entities other than Caroli disease, especially in peribiliary cysts with or without autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Computed tomography in 74 cases of peribiliary cysts and 134 cases of other liver diseases and states possibly showing central dot sign were retrospectively reviewed to examine the central dot sign. In three cases of peribiliary cysts, some part of the liver showed strongly enhanced portal radicles surrounded completely or partially by low-attenuation, enlarged peribiliary cysts, presenting ''central dot sign'' on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. We suggest that in addition to Caroli disease, some other entities and diseases of the liver may demonstrate central dot sign and this sign should not be considered a specific finding of Caroli disease. (author)

  11. Central dot sign in entities other than Caroli disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, T.; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Minami, Manabu

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe central dot sign (tiny dots with strong contrast enhancement of the portal vein within dilated hepatic bile ducts on computed tomography) in entities other than Caroli disease, especially in peribiliary cysts with or without autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Computed tomography in 74 cases of peribiliary cysts and 134 cases of other liver diseases and states possibly showing central dot sign were retrospectively reviewed to examine the central dot sign. In three cases of peribiliary cysts, some part of the liver showed strongly enhanced portal radicles surrounded completely or partially by low-attenuation, enlarged peribiliary cysts, presenting ``central dot sign`` on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. We suggest that in addition to Caroli disease, some other entities and diseases of the liver may demonstrate central dot sign and this sign should not be considered a specific finding of Caroli disease. (author)

  12. Congenital hernia of cord: an often misdiagnosed entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Rubin; Satti, Mohamed; Lee, Quoc; Vettraino, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hernia of the cord, also known as umbilical cord hernia, is an often misdiagnosed and under-reported entity, easily confused with a small omphalocele. It is different from postnatally diagnosed umbilical hernias and is believed to arise from persistent physiological mid-gut herniation. Its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 5000. Unlike an omphalocele, it is considered benign and is not linked with chromosomal anomalies. It has been loosely associated with intestinal anomalies, suggesting the need for a complete fetal anatomical ultrasound evaluation. We present a case of a fetal umbilical cord hernia diagnosed in a 28-year-old woman at 21 weeks gestation. The antenatal and intrapartum courses were uncomplicated. It was misdiagnosed postnatally as a small omphalocele, causing unwarranted anxiety in the parents. Increased awareness and knowledge of such an entity among health professionals is important to prevent unwarranted anxiety from misdiagnosis, and inadvertent bowel injury during cord clamping at delivery. PMID:25899514

  13. Diagnostical Procedure for Logistical Management in Turistical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Arlen Fergusson-Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design a diagnostic procedure of the logistics management for turistical entities, they could be hotels or not. This procedure was validated in Commercial Branch Caracol Santiago de Cuba and finally, different actions for the detected problems were proposed with the objective of improving the logistics management of the organization. To develop this research various tools and techniques served as support, such as: surveys, SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15.0 version and Decision 1.0 version, exponential smoothing, Cronbach's Alpha, the coefficient of Kendall W, financial and logistical indicators, the ABC or Pareto Method, the matrices for the classification of stocks and suppliers, among others. This research made possible the design of a diagnostic procedure for logistical management for turistical entities. And it was validated in the Comercial Branch Caracol Santiago, which allowed the proposition of improvement actions for increasing customer satisfaction.

  14. Primary tubercular abscess of the breast – an unusual entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Singal, RP; Gupta, A; Singal, S; Shahi, SR; Singal, R

    2012-01-01

    Primary breast tuberculosis manifested as abscess is a rare entity. We are reporting a case of primary breast tuberculosis, which presented as breast abscess. Abscess was drained and tissue sent for histopathology. To our surprise, diagnosis came as breast tuberculosis. Aspiration cytology was not done, as it is not a routine test for abscess cases. Patient was put on anti- tubercular drugs. In the follow-up of 6 months, she was asymptomatic and advised to continue medicine. PMID:22574095

  15. Primary tubercular abscess of the breast--an unusual entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Singal, R P; Gupta, A; Singal, S; Shahi, S R; Singal, R

    2012-02-22

    Primary breast tuberculosis manifested as abscess is a rare entity. We are reporting a case of primary breast tuberculosis, which presented as breast abscess. Abscess was drained and tissue sent for histopathology. To our surprise, diagnosis came as breast tuberculosis. Aspiration cytology was not done, as it is not a routine test for abscess cases. Patient was put on anti- tubercular drugs. In the follow-up of 6 months, she was asymptomatic and advised to continue medicine.

  16. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 19/01/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pediatric -Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis 6. AUTHOR(S...lymphoma is common in older adults but rare in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatric follicular lymphoma comprises a only 6.5% of childhood... Pediatric follicular lymphoma is defined by a localized high grade appearing lymphoma that lacks these gene rearrangements. Other diagnoses to rule out

  17. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  18. Tubercular myositis of infraspinatus: a rare clinical entity

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Verma; Yogesh Kumar Yadav; Anuj Rastogi; Farid Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the musculoskeletal system is generally confined to bones and joints. The surrounding soft tissue is secondarily infected. Tuberculous bursitis, tenosynovitis and primary pyomyositis are rarer manifestations of the disease. Of these, primary tuberculouspyomyositis is probably the rarest entity. We report a case of tubercular myositis of infraspinatus in an 8 year-old female who presented with pain, low grade fever, weight loss, anorexia, progressively increasing pain in the sc...

  19. Adenosquamous carcinoma of vesicovaginal fistula: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabali, Rudresh; Ramkumar, Aravind

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old lady presented with a vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) along with past history of abdominal hysterectomy. Biopsy of the fistulous tract showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Patient underwent radical cystourethrectomy, total vaginectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection along with ileal conduit. The final histopathology report of the resected specimen showed adenosquamous carcinoma in VVF. As this is a rare entity, we are reporting this case.

  20. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Vesicovaginal Fistula: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudresh Tabali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old lady presented with a vesicovaginal fistula (VVF along with past history of abdominal hysterectomy. Biopsy of the fistulous tract showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Patient underwent radical cystourethrectomy, total vaginectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection along with ileal conduit. The final histopathology report of the resected specimen showed adenosquamous carcinoma in VVF. As this is a rare entity, we are reporting this case.

  1. The Use of Management Accounting Tools in Third Sector Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poueri do Carmo Mário

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present the results of research about the use of management accounting tools by third sector entities. It was considered that the use of management tools assists in the management process and internal controls of the same, and consequently in its continuity. The literature discusses the importance of management accounting and its instruments for management purposes (Padoveze, 2004; Soutes, 2006; Pace, 2009 and presents relevant aspects of more traditional tools such as the Budget, Strategic Planning and Costing (Dubois, Kulpa and Souza, 2006; Martins, 2010; Padoveze, 2006. We tried to do a survey on a sample of NGOs in cities of Minas Gerais, which included at the end with 41 respondents institutions. The survey instrument for data collection was a questionnaire constructed from literature reviews related to objects of research (Third Sector and Management Accounting Instruments. The questionnaire had the purpose of gathering data from the entity and also know about of the respondent. In addition, interviews were conducted in some NGOs, complementing the research findings from the questionnaires. The results were divided into three topics: the respondent data, the organization and practices of management accounting. In general, although much progress has been made and success stories and effective improvements, most of these entities still need to develop their accounting information systems and the use of the instruments themselves. Causes of this may be the lack of knowledge about some of the entities management tools (maybe the respondents because of their formations, besides the reduced capacity of most of them have these "services" (controls and analyzes that run on its functional structure due lack of resources to do so.

  2. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

  3. Entity-Linking via Graph-Distance Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Blanco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entity-linking is a natural-language–processing task that consists in identifying the entities mentioned in a piece of text, linking each to an appropriate item in some knowledge base; when the knowledge base is Wikipedia, the problem comes to be known as wikification (in this case, items are wikipedia articles. One instance of entity-linking can be formalized as an optimization problem on the underlying concept graph, where the quantity to be optimized is the average distance between chosen items. Inspired by this application, we define a new graph problem which is a natural variant of the Maximum Capacity Representative Set. We prove that our problem is NP-hard for general graphs; nonetheless, under some restrictive assumptions, it turns out to be solvable in linear time. For the general case, we propose two heuristics: one tries to enforce the above assumptions and another one is based on the notion of hitting distance; we show experimentally how these approaches perform with respect to some baselines on a real-world dataset.

  4. Modeling discrete and continuous entities with fractions and decimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Monica; Bassok, Miriam; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-03-01

    When people use mathematics to model real-life situations, their use of mathematical expressions is often mediated by semantic alignment (Bassok, Chase, & Martin, 1998): The entities in a problem situation evoke semantic relations (e.g., tulips and vases evoke the functionally asymmetric "contain" relation), which people align with analogous mathematical relations (e.g., the noncommutative division operation, tulips/vases). Here we investigate the possibility that semantic alignment is also involved in the comprehension and use of rational numbers (fractions and decimals). A textbook analysis and results from two experiments revealed that both mathematic educators and college students tend to align the discreteness versus continuity of the entities in word problems (e.g., marbles vs. distance) with distinct symbolic representations of rational numbers--fractions versus decimals, respectively. In addition, fractions and decimals tend to be used with nonmetric units and metric units, respectively. We discuss the importance of the ontological distinction between continuous and discrete entities to mathematical cognition, the role of symbolic notations, and possible implications of our findings for the teaching of rational numbers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Character-level neural network for biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridach, Mourad

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical named entity recognition (BNER), which extracts important named entities such as genes and proteins, is a challenging task in automated systems that mine knowledge in biomedical texts. The previous state-of-the-art systems required large amounts of task-specific knowledge in the form of feature engineering, lexicons and data pre-processing to achieve high performance. In this paper, we introduce a novel neural network architecture that benefits from both word- and character-level representations automatically, by using a combination of bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) and conditional random field (CRF) eliminating the need for most feature engineering tasks. We evaluate our system on two datasets: JNLPBA corpus and the BioCreAtIvE II Gene Mention (GM) corpus. We obtained state-of-the-art performance by outperforming the previous systems. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate the combination of deep neural networks, CRF, word embeddings and character-level representation in recognizing biomedical named entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extrapelvic endometriosis: a rare entity or an under diagnosed condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of normal endometrial mucosa abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can be either endopelvic or extrapelvicdepending on the location of endometrial tissue implantation. Despite the rarity of extrapelvic endometriosis, several cases of endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinarytract, the upper and lower respiratory system, the diaphragm, the pleura and the pericardium, as well as abdominal scars loci have been reported in the literature. There are several theories about the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Depending on the place of endometrial tissue implantation, endometriosis can be expressed with a wide variety of symptoms. The diagnosis of this entity is neither easy nor routine. Many diagnostic methods clinical and laboratory have been used, but none of them is the golden standard. The multipotent localization of endometriosis in combination with the wide range of its clinical expression should raise the clinical suspicion in every woman with periodic symptoms of extrapelvic organs. Finally, the therapeutic approach of this clinical entity is also correlated with the bulk of endometriosis and the locum that it is found. It varies from simple observation, to surgical treatment and treatment with medication as well as a combination of those. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1968087883113362. PMID:24294950

  7. Rheological Properties in Aqueous Solution for Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamides Prepared in Inverse Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Carro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse emulsion polymerization technique was employed to synthesize hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide polymers with hydrophobe contents near to feed composition. Three different structures were obtained: multisticker, telechelic, and combined. N-Dimethyl-acrylamide (DMAM, n-dodecylacrylamide (DAM, and n-hexadecylacrylamide (HDAM were used as hydrophobic comonomers. The effect of the hydrophobe length of comonomer, the initial monomer, and surfactant concentrations on shear viscosity was studied. Results show that the molecular weight of copolymer increases with initial monomer concentration and by increasing emulsifier concentration it remained almost constant. Shear viscosity measurements results show that the length of the hydrophobic comonomer augments the hydrophobic interactions causing an increase in viscosity and that the polymer thickening ability is higher for combined polymers.

  8. How microorganisms use hydrophobicity and what does this mean for human needs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKrasowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH plays a crucial role in the attachment to, or detachment from the surfaces. The influence of CSH on adhesion of microorganisms to biotic and abiotic surfaces in medicine as well as in bioremediation and fermentation industry has both negative and positive aspects. Hydrophobic microorganisms cause the damage of surfaces by biofilm formation; on the other hand, they can readily accumulate on organic pollutants and decompose them. Hydrophilic microorganisms also play a considerable role in removing organic wastes from the environment because of their high resistance to hydrophobic chemicals. Despite the many studies on the environmental and metabolic factors affecting cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH, the knowledge of this subject is still scanty and is in most cases limited to observing the impact of hydrophobicity on adhesion, aggregation or flocculation. The future of research seems to lie in finding a way to managing the microbial adhesion process, perhaps by steering cell hydrophobicity.

  9. Well-defined mono(η3-allyl)nickel complex MONi(η3-C3H5) (M = Si or Al) grafted onto silica or alumina: A molecularly dispersed nickel precursor for syntheses of supported small size nickel nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhou, Lu; Laveille, Paco; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Preparing evenly-dispersed small size nickel nanoparticles over inert oxides remains a challenge today. In this context, a versatile method to prepare supported small size nickel nanoparticles (ca. 1-3 nm) with narrow size distribution via a surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) route is described. The grafted mono(η3-allyl)nickel complexes MONi(η 3-C3H5) (M = Si or Al) as precursors are synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and paramagnetic solid-state NMR. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  10. Preparation of the accounting entity for verification of the final accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with preparation of the accounting entity for verification of the final accounts. The work includes the definition of the accounting entity, also includes information about preparation of final accounts and deals with report of auditor.

  11. Preparation of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for decontamination of nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gh.; Popescu, I.; Retegan, T.; Stefanescu, I.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: (1) to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes, (2) to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation (3) to asses and to find a new procedure for preparation a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: (1) the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; (2) the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; (3) the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity are subjected to testing. (author)

  12. Preparation of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for decontamination of nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gh.; Popescu, I.; Retegan, T.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: - to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; - to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; - to assess and to find a new procedure for preparation a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follows: - the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; - the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; - the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity are subject to testing. (authors)

  13. Current status for applications of hydrophobic platinum catalysts in tritium removal from nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, Irina; Ionita, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D results on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: 1. to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; 2. to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; 3. to assess and find a new procedure for preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: 1. the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; 2. the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; 3. the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts to other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity, like VOCs oxidation from wastewater or H 2 -O 2 catalytic recombination, are subject to testing

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin nano-hybrid by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Shajesh, P; Mukundan, P; Nair, T D R; Warrier, K G K

    2007-03-15

    Silica-biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid. Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to verify the presence of CH(3) groups which introduce hydrophobicity to the SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrids. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica-gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees . Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at 530 degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Optical transmittance of SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrid coatings on glass substrates has been found to be close to 100% which will enable the hybrid for possible optical applications and also for preparation of transparent biocompatible hydrophobic coatings on biological substrates such as leather.

  15. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M.; Swerin, Agne

    2013-01-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does...... not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured...... by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All...

  16. Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

    2011-12-31

    Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

  17. Transforming plastic surfaces with electrophilic backbones from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Bowen, Raffick A R; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a simple nonaqueous reaction scheme for transforming the surface of plastics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The chemical modification is achieved by base-catalyzed trans-esterification with polyols. It is permanent, does not release contaminants, and causes no optical or mechanical distortion of the plastic. We present contact angle measurements to show successful modification of several types of plastics including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polycarbonate (PC). Its applicability to blood analysis is explored using chemically modified PET blood collection tubes and found to be quite satisfactory. We expect this approach will reduce the cost of manufacturing plastic devices with optimized wettability and can be generalized to other types of plastic materials having an electrophilic linkage as its backbone.

  18. Effect of hydrophobic microstructured surfaces on conductive ink printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Kyung Heon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive ink was printed on various microstructured substrates to measure the printing quality. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were used to test the printability of the hydrophobic surface material. Microstructured arrays of 10 µm regular PDMS cubes were prepared using the MEMS fabrication technique. The gap distance between the cubes was varied from 10 to 40 µm. The printing wettability of the microstructured surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angle of a droplet of silver conductive ink. Screen-printing methods were used in the conductive line printing experiment. Test line patterns with finely varying widths (30–250 µm) were printed repeatedly, and the conductivity of the printed lines was measured. The printability, which was defined as the ratio of the successfully printed patterns to the total number of printed patterns, was analyzed as a function of the linewidth and the gap distance of the microstructured surfaces

  19. Harvesting electrostatic energy using super-hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, Dominik; Zylka, Pawel

    2016-11-01

    Almost all environments are now being extensively populated by miniaturized, nano-powered electronic sensor devices communicated together through wireless sensor networks building Internet of Things (IoT). Various energy harvesting techniques are being more and more frequently proposed for battery-less powering of such remote, unattended, implantable or wearable sensors or other low-power electronic gadgets. Energy harvesting relays on extracting energy from the ambient sources readily accessible at the sensor location and converting it into electrical power. The paper exploits possibility of generating electric energy safely accessible for nano-power electronics using tribo-electric and electrostatic induction phenomena displayed at super-hydrophobic surfaces impinged by water droplets. Mechanism of such interaction is discussed and illustrated by experimental results.

  20. Thermodynamics of water intrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliez, Fabien; Trzpit, Mickael; Soulard, Michel; Demachy, Isabelle; Boutin, Anne; Patarin, Joël; Fuchs, Alain H

    2008-08-28

    We report a joint experimental and molecular simulation study of water intrusion in silicalite-1 and ferrerite zeolites. The main conclusion of this study is that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional. In the extreme confinement situation (ferrierite zeolite), condensation takes place through a continuous transition, which is explained by a shift of both the first-order transition line and the critical point with increasing confinement. The present findings are at odds with the common belief that conventional phase transitions cannot take place in microporous solids such as zeolites. The most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics considerations. We believe that these findings are very general for hydrophobic solids, i.e. for both nonwetting as well as wetting water-solid interface systems.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics by silica hydrosol and hydrophobization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihui; Zhuang, Wei; Xu, Bi; Cai, Zaisheng

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics were prepared by the incorporation of silica nanoparticles and subsequent hydrophobization with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS). The silica nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel reaction with methyl trimethoxy silane (MTMS) as the precursor in the presence of the base catalyst and surfactant in aqueous solution. As for the resulting products, characterization by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed respectively. The size of SiO2 nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the catalyst and surfactant concentrations. The wettability of cotton textiles was evaluated by the water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The results showed that the treated cotton sample displayed remarkable water repellency with a WCA of 151.9° for a 5 μL water droplet and a WSA of 13° for a 15 μL water droplet.

  2. Neutron structure of the hydrophobic plant protein crambin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, M.M.; Kossiakoff, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Crystals of the small hydrophobic protein crambin have been shown to diffract to a resolution of at least 0.88 A. This means that crambin presents a rare opportunity to study a protein structure at virtually atomic resolution. The high resolution of the diffraction pattern coupled with the assets of neutron diffraction present the distinct possibility that crambin's analysis may surpass that of any other protein system in degree and accuracy of detail. The neutron crambin structure is currently being refined at 1.50 A (44.9% of the data to 1.2 A has also been included). It is expected that a nominal resolution of 1.0 A can be achieved. 15 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  3. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Lionel; Pajor-Swierzy, Anna; Magdassi, Shlomo; Kamyshny, Alexander; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2018-01-24

    Liquid drop evaporation on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g., printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theoretical description of the dynamic of the evaporation of complex liquid mixtures and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theoretical descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evaporation and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. Materials formed by an electrically isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer was formed by the deposits left after drop evaporation have been considered as very promising for building electrical circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work, we have done an exhaustive study of the evaporation of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the volume of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concentrations. Also, mixtures of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing, have been examined. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liquid and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The experimental results of the evaporation process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evaporation of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in the Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite that the theory was developed for pure liquids. The morphology of the deposits left by the droplets after total

  4. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and usable...

  5. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A... Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, to lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities... the following Chinese entities, their sub-units and successors is important to the national security...

  6. 48 CFR 252.204-7001 - Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Entity (CAGE) code reporting. 252.204-7001 Section 252.204-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Entity (CAGE) Code Reporting (AUG 1999) (a) The offeror is requested to enter its CAGE code on its offer... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7001 Commercial and Government Entity...

  7. 45 CFR 2550.80 - What are the duties of the State entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the duties of the State entities? 2550.80... ADMINISTRATIVE ENTITIES § 2550.80 What are the duties of the State entities? Both State commissions and AAEs have..., respite services for adults age 55 or older and caregivers, and transitions for older adults age 55 or...

  8. 7 CFR 652.23 - Certification process for private-sector entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification process for private-sector entities. 652... ASSISTANCE Certification § 652.23 Certification process for private-sector entities. (a) A private sector... individual basis as part of the private-sector entity's certification and ensures that the requirements set...

  9. 75 FR 74146 - Office of Financial Research; Statement on Legal Entity Identification for Financial Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... information regarding this Statement contact the Office of Domestic Finance, Treasury, at (202) 622-1766. All... relationship to other entities. Identification of the legal entity is a fundamental ingredient in creating a... reassigned; (3) Persist over the life of an entity regardless of corporate actions or other business or...

  10. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744 (Entity...

  11. THE CLUSTER- AN ENTITY WITH OR WITHOUT JUDICIAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anca Artene

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the integration within the European Union, in the economical and social life of Romania, new judicial entities have been developed. The cluster is amongst the most recent advent in the judicial spectre. The cluster represents a group of people both individuals and legal persons which is considered to act on the basis of an association contract conceptualized under the existent agreements of the organizations found within the spectrum of science and accredited innovation and/or accredited higher education institutions ,as well as, other noncommercial institutions. At the same time, economic agents, local public administrative authorities, employers` or professionals associations, non-judicial individuals, financial institutions, international organizations, local and foreign investors are relevant for the emergence of the scientific and educational research activities, as well as for the technological transfer of the scientific and innovative results and their valorisation through economical activities. 2 Therefore, it can be argued that the cluster has appeared as a result of the necessity to create a proper environment that would reunite the business partners in order to develop common resources and competences. These are based on similar marketing strategies, the participation to similar projects and initiatives, the opportunity to create a brand, etc. An additional circumstance that has determined the development of this entity in its more recent form, is represented by the possibility of ensuring (at least in a pageant manner the independence for every partner on the basis of the dualism between competition- cooperation. The cluster can be organized as an entity with or without judicial personality. The definition of the cluster makes us reflect upon the ways in which it can be constituted: legal person with lucrative purpose, legal person without lucrative purpose, association without legal personality (simple association of

  12. Colima: The eleventh entity most competitive of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the I Report of the State Competitiveness 2006, the State of Colima is considered to be the eleventh federal entity more competitive of the country. Number obtained in the favorable results in the national ranking of competitiveness, due to it got a third position to have with a System of Rights Reliable and Objective, besides it got three fifth positions: Sustainable Management of the Environment, Market of Efficient Factors and Precursor Sectors of the World Class, besides of a eighth position to count on a Dynamic Economic and Stables Indicators. Nevertheless, there are some indicators that showed unfavorable results for the entity, for instance, Colima got the 30th place in the factor of Achievement of the International Relations, the 27th position to count on a bad Political and Functional System, and the 24th place to have an Efficient and Effective Government. On average of the sectorial competitiveness, the Pharmaceutical and High-Tech sector holds the fifth position in the national ranking, in order to the priorities for the location of the business investment; the Manufactures are located in the sixth Place; the Textile sector in the eighth, and the more straggler ones like the Agribusiness and Tourism in the ninth position, respectively. Finally, the sensitivity of the investments above an increase of 10% relative to the 120 quantitative variables that revealed that Colima could pass from the eleventh to the third position, this like a result to increase its investment in 3,228 million of pesos for the entity, or increase in 30% the amount per capita for each member of the PEA, equivalent to 12,300 pesos average for employee.

  13. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  14. Autosomal recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a very rare entity, in a 2-year-old female child of two asymptomatic, consanguineous parents. Their previous child also had a similar condition. Autosomal recessive AED (AR-AED can have its full expression both in males and females and it is clinically indistinguishable from the x-linked recessive AED (XL-AED, which is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Unlike the partially symptomatic carriers of XL-AED, the heterozygotes of AR-AED are phenotypically asymptomatic.

  15. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  16. Isolated celiac trunk aneurysm dissection: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Zubero, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous and isolated celiac artery dissection is a rare clinical disease. It is the fourth cause of abdominal aneurysms behind those that occur in the splenic, hepatic, and superior mesenteric arteries. It is important to suspect the diagnosis of this entity whose clinical symptoms are unspecific. We report the case of a 60 year-old male treated in our hospital because of this illness, and present a review of this pathology, specially focused on the diagnosis and the different treatments available.

  17. Untangling the brand name from the branded entity

    OpenAIRE

    Round, Griff; Roper, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this study is to investigate the value to consumers of the brand name element for established brands, given that the focus in the literature has been on new brands. To accomplish this, conceptual development was initially undertaken to illuminate the links between the brand name element and the brand entity and to provide a theoretical framework for looking at changes in value of the brand name element to consumers over time.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud –...

  18. Primerjava ogrodij entity framework in nhibernate za objektno - relacijsko preslikavo

    OpenAIRE

    Rola, Tadej

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu primerjamo ogrodji za objektno-relacijsko preslikavo Entity Framework in NHibernate. Na začetku smo razložili klasičen način dostopa do podatkovne baze preko ADO.NET komponente, v nadaljevanju še O-RM tehnologijo. Nato je sledila podrobna predstavitev obeh ogrodij. V drugem delu diplomskega dela najprej razložimo in prikažemo glavne funkcionalnosti enega in drugega na praktičnem primeru. V zadnjem delu diplomskega dela pišemo o razlikah med enim in drugim ter njunih prednost...

  19. Phagophobia: a form of psychogenic dysphagia. A new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Franko, D L; Gagne, A

    1997-04-01

    There is a group of patients presenting with either acute or chronic dysphagia secondary to fear of swallowing. We have termed this entity phagophobia. It is characterized by various significant swallowing complaints in the face of normal findings on head and neck examination, oropharyngeal swallowing videofluoroscopy, and standard barium swallow study. Ten patients who received diagnoses of phagophobia after a full evaluation at our swallowing disorders center are presented. Each patient was then evaluated by a psychologist, and an attempt at therapy was undertaken. We discuss the specific clinical features, assessment, and treatment of this frequently misdiagnosed disorder.

  20. Is undifferentiated spondyloarthritis a discrete entity? A debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Atul; Miossec, Pierre; Baraliakos, Xenofon

    2018-01-01

    The concept of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis has been introduced recently to describe a clinical setting where the classical features of spondyloarthritis (SpA) are not fully present. Whether this is a discrete entity was the basis of a debate during the 4th International Congress on Controversies in Rheumatology & Autoimmunity held in Bologna, Italy 9-11 March 2017. The pro and con aspects of the debate are presented. The implications of the debate are important ranging from diagnostic aspects to consequences for the society and the payers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.