WorldWideScience

Sample records for small-scale farmers healthy

  1. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai

  2. DEFINING SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.; Zyl, Johan van

    1998-01-01

    South African agriculture is comprised of mainly two categories of farmers -- the subsistence farmers in the former homeland areas and the large-scale commercial (mainly white) farmers. This is in contrast with the situation in many other countries in the world where one would find a whole range of farm sizes, ranging from the very small or subsistence farmer to the very large farmer/agribusiness. The paper highlights the situation of small-scale farmers in an international context and compar...

  3. Regulatory enclosures: small scale women livestock farmers

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Martha

    2008-01-01

    "There are efforts by a variety of social movements and civil society organizations to encourage the development of alternative agri-food networks that are socially just, ecological, humane and which ensure food security and food sovereignty. Many activists focus their critiques on the role of large multinational corporations in restructuring and globalizing the agri-food system. They offer in its place a vision of locally oriented, small scale ecological farming. Drawing on th...

  4. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA, will thro......Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA......, will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful......, but not least to be used in PES schemes. The article emphasizes vertical integration and production diversification, enabling market conditions, and democratization as the main factors in KTDA’s success that could possibly be replicated in promoting small scale farmers participating in the post-Kyoto carbon...

  5. A Niche for Small-Scale Farmers: Report of a Five-State Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.

    This paper reports on a survey of 221 small-scale farmers conducted in 5 western states. Despite the current productive dominance of large farms, an argument can be made that small-scale farming is desirable both for social and ecological reasons. Discussion focuses on the tradition-oriented goals and values of small-scale farmers, special…

  6. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Rafiaani Khachak, Parisa; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countrie...

  7. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones A. Akangbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.

  8. Tanzania’s Small-Scale Sunflower Farmers: Upgrading the Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Enock S. Ugulumu; Eno L. Inanga

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire using a psychometric scale investigated how small-scale sunflower farmers perceive the role of building relationships based on demand-driven upgrades, such as knowledge, skills, technology, and support services within the value chain. The study focused on small-scale sunflower farmers in the Singida region of Tanzania. The survey was conducted in twelve Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOs) with 229 respondents. The respondents had positive opinions about creating co...

  9. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  10. Small scale agriculture, marginal conditions and market access: impacts on natural resources and farmers' welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavatassi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: small-scale farmers, food security, impact evaluation, Ecuador, Ethiopia, crop choice, social capital, crop genetic diversity, pesticides. Numerous are the obstacles and difficulties smallholder farmers from developing countries have to face to achieve food security or improve their well

  11. Economic Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemo, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava holds a prominent position as a food and industrial crop in the Nigerian economy. Thus, there are government initiatives to support its mass production for domestic use and export. This study investigated the efficiencies of cassava production in Odeda Local Government of Ogun State. A random sample of 200 cassava producers was taken and subjected to budgetary and stochastic frontier analyses. Results indicated that most of the farmers were male (90% with more than half (53% above 50 years of age. Land holding by inheritance (78% was prevalent. The gross margin and profit were N105, 775 and N95. 738,10 respectively. Cost ratio (1.8 and percentage profit (80% indicated that cassava farming was profitable in the area. Total variable and labour costs were 91.6% and 68.2% of the total cost respectively. The return to scale was 1.024. Farm size (0.771 and quantity of planting stakes (0.203 significantly (p ≤ 0.01 affected cassava production. Age and farming experience contributed to technical inefficiency while cost of fertilizer, cost of herbicides, membership of cooperative and level of education enhanced technical efficiency. Efficiency of cassava growers ranged between 88.69 and 100 with a mean of 89.4. It was concluded that cassava production was highly profitable in the area and farmers operated with maximum efficiency given the current technology. Farmers were advised to reduce labour costs and thus increase profit margin.

  12. Micro-level practices to adapt to climate change for African small-scale farmers:

    OpenAIRE

    Below, Till; ARTNER Astrid; Siebert, Rosemarie; SIEBER STEFAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses micro-level practices for adapting to climate change that are available to small-scale farmers in Africa. The analysis is based on a review of 17 studies about practices that boost small-scale farmers¿ resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate; it includes data from more than 16 countries in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The review shows that African smallholders are already using a wide variety of creative practices to ...

  13. Can Cultivars from participatory plant breeding improve seed provision to small-scale farmers?

    OpenAIRE

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Thiele, G.; Danial, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Seed provision for small-scale farmers deals with multiple constraints. These include, on the supply side, high seed production costs and poor adaptedness of the cultivars, and on the demand side, anticyclical demand and low and variable sales. Approaches to improve seed provision to this sector of farmers have so far not been very successful. This paper discusses how well-adapted cultivars developed through participatory plant breeding (PPB) initiatives create new opportunities for productio...

  14. Climate change and adaptation of small-scale cattle and sheep farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Mandleni, B.; Anim, F.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affected the decision of small-scale farmers who kept cattle and sheep on whether to adapt or not to climate changes. The Binary Logistic Regression model was used to investigate farmers’ decision. The results implied that a large number of socio-economic variables affected the decision of farmers on adaptation to climate changes. The study concluded that the most significant factors affecting climate change and adaptation w...

  15. Determinants of Profit Efficiency Among Small Scale Rice Farmers in Nigeria: A Profit Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kolawole, Ogundari

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a stochastic frontier approach to examine profit efficiency of small scale rice farmers in Nigeria using farm-level survey data collected from 200 farmers in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and standard profit function. The result shows that about 60 percent of potential profit is gain due to production efficiency while the remaining can be attributed to both technical and allocative inefficiencies in the study area. Also, the result further ...

  16. Tanzania’s Small-Scale Sunflower Farmers: Upgrading the Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enock S. Ugulumu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire using a psychometric scale investigated how small-scale sunflower farmers perceive the role of building relationships based on demand-driven upgrades, such as knowledge, skills, technology, and support services within the value chain. The study focused on small-scale sunflower farmers in the Singida region of Tanzania. The survey was conducted in twelve Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOs with 229 respondents. The respondents had positive opinions about creating core competencies, concluding that adopting new capabilities, especially with tangible assets such as extension officers, financing, warehouses, and technology, can lead to improved productivity and quality. The information flow from sunflower buyers and consumers is crucial for creating a positive image and hence creating value for farmers. Farmers require negotiating skills that could be attained through improved associations or cooperatives. Respondents also indicated positive benefits if the sector¾and its risks and income¾further diversifies. However, farmers showed weaknesses and failures to: Provide inputs to the sector’s upgrading processes; Form strong, capable, and cohesive associations or cooperatives that can enhance bargaining power for small-scale farmers; Improve infrastructure such as roads and warehouses.

  17. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper. PMID:25566797

  18. Can Cultivars from participatory plant breeding improve seed provision to small-scale farmers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Thiele, G.; Danial, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Seed provision for small-scale farmers deals with multiple constraints. These include, on the supply side, high seed production costs and poor adaptedness of the cultivars, and on the demand side, anticyclical demand and low and variable sales. Approaches to improve seed provision to this sector of

  19. Effect of Poultry Production on the Poverty Status of Small Scale Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, Raphael Olanrewaju; Adekunle, Adedayo Olufemi; Olagunju, Funke Iyabo

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 104 small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state of Nigeria, this study examined the role of poultry production in rural poverty reduction. The results show that majority of the farmers were male (87 percent), married (87 percent), having family size of 5 to 7 persons (53 percent), above 44 years of age with farming experience of 7.5 years on average and with formal education (95 percent). The average net farm income (NFI) is N788,164 per annum indicating that, the business is wor...

  20. International standards and small-scale farmer behaviors: evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Lemeilleur, Sylvaine

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food quality standards in international trade is constantly increasing and has a growing influence on developing countries. A wide range of literature in development economics focused on the determinants of the standard adoption and on the debate of whether international standards exclude small-scale farmers from high-value food markets. Otherwise, when exclusion is pointed out, very little is said on how problematic such forms of exclusion are. In this paper, we use the Hir...

  1. Modelling agricultural production of small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Odulaja, Adedapo; Kiros, Fassil G.

    1996-01-01

    Small-scale farmers are known to produce the greater proportion of food consumed in the Third World, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The various national and international agricultural research centres located in these parts of the world have developed agricultural packages which have been proven, at experimental levels, to be highly productive. However, small-scale farmers in these areas continue to produce at levels far below the capacities of these packages as predicted from experimental...

  2. Effect of Poultry Production on the Poverty Status of Small Scale Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde, Raphael Olanrewaju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 104 small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state of Nigeria, this study examined the role of poultry production in rural poverty reduction. The results show that majority of the farmers were male (87 percent, married (87 percent, having family size of 5 to 7 persons (53 percent, above 44 years of age with farming experience of 7.5 years on average and with formal education (95 percent. The average net farm income (NFI is N788,164 per annum indicating that, the business is worth investing in. Poverty incidence, poverty depth, and severity of poverty are 49 percent, 23 percent and 13 percent respectively, the poor farmers need to generate an additional 23 percent of the fixed amount of income to cross the threshold of poverty. The result showed that male headed households and farmers without tertiary education are poorer. Poultry income and education level of the household head have significant, negative effects on poverty status of the households indicating that, additional increase in these variables will reduce the probability of being poor.

  3. Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1. A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV supply chain to the European market. It will be outlined how export horticulture affects female small-scale farmers with reference to local distribution channels, the organisation of the farm as a group or an individual player, and the specific organisation of labour on the farm. The focus here is on the traditional division of labour, ownership and mobility patterns, as well as knowledge and income. The study shows that the influence of the integration in the FFV chain on gender inequality is conditioned by both the type of relations to the buyers and the internal and institutional organisation of the smallholding. Surprisingly, in some areas of the primarily male-dominated rural society, an integration in the form of outgrower schemes that resembles Gereffi et al.’s model of a captive value chain, with women farmers exclusively responsible for export production, can enhance gender equality, as women gradually gain more decision-making power and greater independence.

  4. Efficiency indices and indicators of poor performance among emerging small-scale pig farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; van Leengoed, Leo A M G; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2014-01-01

    Limpopo is a very important area for pig production in terms of animal populations and contributions to transboundary animal disease spread. Emerging small-scale pig farmers (ESSPF) are being encouraged to establish operations and spread in South Africa; however, for these farmers to perform optimal

  5. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan;

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers...... in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess...

  6. Extension Strategy Development and Training Needs for Small Scale Commercial Poultry Farmers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Olawale Farayola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study ascertained Small Scale Commercial poultry farmers’ needs on improved production techniques in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. A purposive sampling technique was used to select sixty (60 poultry farmers. Findings revealed that the percentages of poultry farmers that need training on various poultry production techniques are as follows: housing system (83.3%, feeds and feeding strategies (87%, disease/parasites prevention and control (80%; handling skills (80% and marketing strategies (88.3%. Findings also showed that (13.3% of the poultry farmers hired labour for the business, (53.3% are making use of family/relatives for the business while (28.3% of the respondents employed both labour and family together. Marital status, level of education and awareness of improved poultry production techniques were significant (X2 = 6.136, P<0.05 and X2 =19.679, P<0.05. Also there was no significant relationship between farmers’ awareness of poultry production techniques and training needs (X2 =1.016, P<0.05. It is recommended that seminar/workshops should be regularly organized for the poultry farmers’ on the best practices that will save the cost of feeds and reduce mortality in their poultry production techniques.

  7. Practice of Biodiversity conservation and Agroecology Enhance Climate Change Resilience of Organized Small Scale Organic Farmers in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Charito P.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and utilization of rice varieties by small scale farmers in the Philippines for more than two decades has led to retrieval of more than a thousand varieties of rice. The variety of rice plant characters like performance under organic farming, growth duration, height, differential resistance to pests and diseases, adaptation to climate change as well as eating quality has challenged farmers to learn breeding from their scientist partners. As a result of breeding, more than a tho...

  8. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  9. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  10. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...... analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying...

  11. Analysis of Policy Issues in Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers Using the Stochastic Frontier Production Function: With Application to Nigerian Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibefun, Igbekele A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants of technical efficiency of small scale farmers in Nigeria and the effect of policy changes on technical efficiency, using the stochastic frontier methodology. Results of analysis indicates that the farmers have an average farm size of 1.56 hectares. It is also indicated that both family and hired labour were extensively used in farm production. The analysis shows a wide variation in the estimated technical efficiencies, ranging between...

  12. Socio Cultural Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in Ndhiwa Division, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio cultural factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon them. However it is acknowledged that soil depletion is a serious and slow process hence the determinants of the adoption of INRM technologies are critical. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households’ education status, gender, cosmopoliteness, leadership status, cultural beliefs and social norms were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance in strengthening social groups to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to

  13. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training

  14. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  15. Factors influencing the use of improved farm practices among small-scale farmers in Kano State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole S. O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the factors influencing the use of improved farm practices among small-scale farmers in Kano State. Data were obtained from 110 farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that 73.6 of the respondents are in the range of 20 to 50 years which is the active age range. The mean age of respondents was 40 years. It was revealed that 80.9% of the respondents have farming experience of more than 10 years. About 15% had above primary education. The use of pesticides and herbicides among farmers is accounted for 77.3% of the respondents. The results also revealed that 74.5 and 80.9% of the farmers are aware and have adopted the use of improved seeds and animal traction respectively. The results further revealed that level of education and extension contact were positively and significantly influential to the use of improved farm practices. The study therefore recommends improved extension linkages to sensitize small-scale farmers on the need to adopt improved farm practices.

  16. Factors influencing the use of improved farm practices among small-scale farmers in Kano State of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewole S. O.; Ojeleye O. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the factors influencing the use of improved farm practices among small-scale farmers in Kano State. Data were obtained from 110 farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that 73.6 of the respondents are in the range of 20 to 50 years which is the active age range. The mean age of respondents was 40 years. It was revealed that 80.9% of the respondents have farming e...

  17. Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper links changing global coffee markets to opportunities and vulnerabilities for sustaining small-scale farmer livelihoods in northern Nicaragua. Changing governance structures, corporate concentration, oversupply, interchangeable commodity grade beans, and low farm gate prices characterize the crisis in conventional coffee markets. In contrast, certified Fair Trade and organic are two alternative forms of specialty coffee trade and production that may offer opportunities for small-sc...

  18. New institutional arrangements and standard adoption: Evidence from small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah, Kersting; Meike, Wollni

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of GlobalGAP adoption by small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand focusing on GlobalGAP group certification, the costs and perceived benefits of GlobalGAP adoption, and the factors influencing standard adoption. GlobalGAP is the most important private standard for producers in the Thai horticultural sector concerning access to high-value markets, especially to Europe. We find that support by donors, exporters and public-private partnerships is vital ...

  19. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  20. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  1. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  2. Understanding perceptions of potato seed quality among small-scale farmers in Peruvian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrea-Hernandez, C.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    The increased opportunities of smallholder farmers for commercial production of native potato varieties have resulted in an interest to support production and use of quality seed tubers of these varieties by the formal sector. In this context, a study was carried out to explore farmer perception of

  3. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

  4. Determinants of Market Participation among Small-scale Pineapple Farmers in Kericho County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sigei, Geoffrey; Bett, Hillary; Kibet, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Marketing agricultural produce is important amongst smallholder farmers because they derive benefits such as income and rural employment. In developing countries like Kenya, most smallholder farmers are characterized by poor market participation because they lack market information on pineapple marketing. In Bureti district; pineapples have been perceived to have high market value, resulting in trade-offs with staple food. Despite pineapples market value, its market participation has not been...

  5. Poultry production and rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Mzimba District of Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Assa, Maganga

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of participating in poultry production on household income and rural poverty in Mzimba district, Malawi. The study utilizes cross-sectional farm level household data collected in 2011. The paper computes income-based poverty measures and investigates their sensitivity to the use of different poverty lines. Robust poverty comparisons across the poultry and non-poultry farmers reveal that poverty is in fact higher for the non-poultry compared to the poultry farmers...

  6. Skills based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale-entrepreneurship: A case of communal cattle farmers in Vhembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs also formed part of data collection instruments. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low. Government sponsored extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training amongst the entrepreneur farmers. Since the study area is in the proximity of the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural Colleges, these institutions could be enlisted to provide skills training to the entrepreneur farmers.

  7. An airtight paddy storage system for small-scale farmers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Müller, J.; Oostdam, J.W.M.; Huisman, W.; Richards, P.

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in Sri Lanka's dry zone are the main contributors to the paddy production in the country. However, due to various reasons, they face difficulties in obtaining a reasonable income for their produce at harvesting time. According to the survey carried out in the paddy producing regions, it

  8. Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; Dangles, O.; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S.G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional sy

  9. Access to Microfinance: Does it Matter for Profit Efficiency Among Small Scale Rice Farmers in Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Sumelius, John; Islam, K. M. Zahidul; Sipilainen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures profit efficiency and examines the effect of access to microfinance on the performance of rice firms in Bangladesh. An extended Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier profit function was used to assess profit efficiency and profit loss of rice farmers in Bangladesh in a survey data of 360 farms throughout the 2008-2009 growing seasons. Model diagnostics reveal that serious selection bias exists that justifies the uses of sample selection model in stochastic frontier models. Afte...

  10. Integrating Small Scale Farmers into Bread Wheat Marketing Chain through Contract Farming in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getaneh, Wubalem; Bekabil, Fufa

    2008-01-01

    The treatment effect censored regression model results of this study showed that educational level, value of agricultural equipment and number of oxen owned affected the participation decisions of the farmers in bread wheat contract farming significantly. The most important factors that determine gross margin obtained from bread wheat production were contract farming experience, the number of oxen owned and participation in contract farming. However, technical efficiency differences and manag...

  11. EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a selfstructured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

  12. Agrarian crisis in India: Smallholder Socio-hydrology explains small-scale farmers' suicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without 'visualising' the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks. We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of 6 main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model is applied to Marathwada division of Maharashtra to understand the dynamics of its cotton growing marginal farmers, using diverse data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, agricultural census based farm inputs and prices. Results confirm existing narratives: low water storage capacities, no irrigation and poor access to alternative sources of incomes are to blame for the crisis. It suggests that smart indigenous solutions such as rain water harvesting and better integration of smallholder systems to efficient agricultural supply chains are needed to tackle this development challenge.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PIG PROFILES ON SMALL-SCALE PIG FARMERS IN MANOKWARI-WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Iyai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the profiles of pig farming systems. Participatory situation analysis was employed to gain data relating to pig profiles in the urban and rural areas of Manokwari. Due to the interests of combining many correlated data, multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed. Cluster Analysis using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was applied for analysis of merge samples based on similarity in components’ composition across sites. There were various twelve classes of pig profiles in Manokwari. In principal component of the first axis correlation of several components shows strong positive relation e.g. in piglets, sows, and total herd size. Status of region in the first axis of PCA (P1 through which pigs were raised had negative correlation, including grower, household member and pig production. In the second axis (P2, negative correlations were shown in piglets, grower, boars, total herd size and the Pig Production Potential (PPP. Status of region has underpinned profiles of pigs. Several farmers were able to manage their farm continuity in a steady composition. Selling pigs was the main aim and few farmers play a role as pure breeder.

  14. Small-Scale Farmer Initiatives for Irrigating the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was undertaken in Machakos , Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi and Baringo districts to Identify the major systems currently being employed with a view to assessing there performance. In Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts, the main sources of water were small earth dams (micro dams), with water harnessed from run off and nearby uncultivated or grazing lands. In Baringo district, the main source of water was adam constructed across a seasonal river called Wesegess. All micro dams were excavated by their owners using mainly manual labour and skills acquired from neighbours, supplemented by owner's initiates. In the areas in Eastern province, only horticultural crops are irrigated. In Baringo district, grain and horticultural crops than in grain crops underscoring their higher water demand and importance in the household cas flow. The main irrigation system employed in the Eastern province was spot, whereas furrows was widely used in Baringo district. Availability of water within the farm freed labour from fetching water long distances and shortened walking distances for livestock. It also facilitated cultivation of high value crops to improve farmers' household cash economy

  15. New trends in supermarkets procurement system in South Africa: the case of local procurement schemes from small-scale farmers by rural-based retail chain stores

    OpenAIRE

    Bienabe, Estelle; Vermeulen, Hester

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the centralised fresh produce procurement systems of South African retailers relying on preferred commercial suppliers, this paper draws on an in-depth analysis of the innovative procurement schemes of two rural-based supermarket chain stores in the Limpopo Province to source fresh vegetables locally from small-scale farmers. The objective is to derive lessons to guide public and private sector actors in promoting greater participation of small-scale producers in dynamic supply...

  16. Factors Influencing Potential Acceptance and Adoption of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Carbon Trade Tree Project among Small Scale Farmers in Njoro District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar I. Ayuya; Job K. Lagat and John M. Mironga

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the willingness of small scale farmers to accept and the extent of willingness to adopt carbon trade tree project and by so doing to identify and quantify factors that will influence adoption of carbon trade tree project. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure to select 150 small-scale farmers in Njoro district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data sources collected using observations and interviews with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The ...

  17. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  18. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  19. Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius B. Adinya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them

  20. Factors Influencing Potential Acceptance and Adoption of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Carbon Trade Tree Project among Small Scale Farmers in Njoro District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the willingness of small scale farmers to accept and the extent of willingness to adopt carbon trade tree project and by so doing to identify and quantify factors that will influence adoption of carbon trade tree project. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure to select 150 small-scale farmers in Njoro district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data sources collected using observations and interviews with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The double hurdle model was used identify the factors that influence the willingness to accept and the extent the farmers are willing to adopt the carbon tree trade project. Findings of the double hurdle model indicate that gender, household size, farm debt, attitude towards risk, farm size,land tenure, availability of voluntary CDM and perception of the technology were found to influence the willingness to accept the project. Further, age, extension contacts, attitude towards risk, land tenure and perception towards the technology influenced on the extent the farmer is willing to adopt. The study therefore, recommends policy interventions of improved training offarmers and extension officers on agroenvironmental programmes, formation of agro-environmental self-help groups by farmers and creation of strategies that would improve socio-economic conditions of smallholder farmers in Kenya.

  1. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.; Thornton, P.K.; Herrero, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data d

  2. Enhancing economic security among small-scale poultry farmers through entrepreneurship and contract farming : a study for bf farm

    OpenAIRE

    Zaglago, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Economic securities of Ghanaian farmers; in context (Ghanaian poultry farmers) are gradually becoming a predominant subject of consideration with deliberate target-oriented actions in the country’s entrepreneurial and agricultural societies. There have been indications of this in literature on small and large scale agricultural poultry farming studies in Ghana. The thesis investigates reviewed studies, summarizes existing literature and presents case findings on how economic well-being of bot...

  3. CONTRACT FARMING AND ITS IMPACT ON INCOME AND LIVELIHOODS FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS: CASE STUDY IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets a...

  4. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION TO INCREASE FARMERS' REVENUE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL SCALE FARMING IN SHEEP: TRANSKEI REGION, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...

  5. Differences of small-scale farmers and the related short agri-food value chains An empirical evidence from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Zsófia; Fertő, Imre; Baráth, Lajos; Tóth, József

    2014-01-01

    Recently, short food supply chains have been thoroughly studied in some countries; however, data are sparse from others. In Hungary, the local food movement has been developing very fast and an outburst in the number of farmers markets has happened, due to the changes of the legal environment. The paper addresses the question whether farmers selling at various short food supply chains are different based on their socio-demographic, farm- and production-related characteristics, expectations an...

  6. CONTRACT FARMING AND ITS IMPACT ON INCOME AND LIVELIHOODS FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS: CASE STUDY IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets and reducing price fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of contract farming to farmers and to deter-mine policies to facilitate farmer entry into beneficial contractual relationships. In addition to the literature review, one intensive case study of contract farming practices with commodity was conducted. The results from the study have direct relevance to work of agencies and organizations working to promote the welfare of small holding farmers, either through prac-tical field support or through policy advocacy.

  7. Efforts by Small-Scale Farmers to Maintain Soil Fertility and Their Impacts on Soil Properties, Luwero District, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Esser, K.B.; Zake, J.Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    Low soil fertility remains a major reason for rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the need to set priorities and formulate development policies, this study investigates efforts by farmers in central Uganda to maintain soil fertility, factors affecting their capacity to act and impacts o

  8. The effects of contract farming on efficiency and productivity of small-scale sunflower farmers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Mpeta, Daniel F.; Adem, Anwar S.;

    impact on efficiency and productivity is mostly overlooked. This study addresses this salient gap by combining the approaches of Bravo-Ureta, Greene, and Solís (Empirical Economics, 2012) and Rao, Brümmer, and Qaim (AJAE, 2012). We first estimate separate production frontiers for contract farmers and non...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriso O. EMEROLE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90 rural farm households of multi-type (varied enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that positively influenced decisions to source farm investment fund to include level of education, gender, membership of cooperative society, interest charge, land acquisition method, and ease of getting loan. Other factors that negatively influenced decisions include farming as major occupation, household savings, household size, and distance of farmers’ home to source of credit. Proprietor withdrawal decisions were positively influenced by household level variables like taking farming as major occupation, payment of school fees for children of farmers, and amount of credit so far repaid by a farm household. Other factors namely household size, being member of cooperative society or savings group, interest charges on loan, off-farm income, and household savings had negative influences on proprietor withdrawal decisions. We recommended that small-scale farmers should not borrow their start-up capital from outside their households but as their farm businesses stabilize, they could decide to take loans from outside to cover their working capital and/or expand their farms and be prepared to repay such loans according to contractual agreements.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE SWEET POTATO IN THE CROP DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN SOUTHERN PROVINCE, ZAMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; ISHIMOTO, Yudai; Tanaka, Ueru; UMETSU, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Stable maize production and increased productivity are important for improved food security in Zambia. Because most farmers cultivate maize under rain-fed agriculture, a maize monoculture is vulnerable to drought or excessive rainfall. Therefore, increasing the diversification of crops and crop varieties is important to achieve food security in the face of a changing climate. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has great potential as a crop for consumption and as a source of income. The aim of...

  11. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  12. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  13. Small scale farmers in the market and the role of processing and marketing cooperatives: a case study of Italian dairy farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzuffi, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural markets are often characterised by imperfect competition between buyers of farm produce. Cooperatives are often regarded as one possible way to enhance welfare for small producers, while others view them as an inefficient historical relic. My thesis investigates empirically the coexistence of cooperative and capitalistic processing and marketing firms in the market for raw milk in three Italian provinces, using a dataset I collected via a survey of dairy farmers. First...

  14. Certification as an upgrading strategy for small-scale farmers and their cooperatives : a value chain analysis for Nicaraguan coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Kiemen, Anna; Beuchelt, Tina

    2010-01-01

    For many small producers in developing countries coffee is a major income source. However, the coffee market is characterized by high price volatility and increased power concentration among buyers in consuming countries. Due to the very low international coffee prices during the recent coffee crisis and an increased demand among consumers for healthy and ethical products as well as for high quality, interest in standards and certification has increased substantially in coffee producing and c...

  15. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  16. Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2014-01-01

    Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use c

  17. Conservation agriculture among small scale farmers in semi-arid region of Kenya does improve soil biological quality and soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Geofrey; Okoba, Barrack; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    SOC, respectively, but the highest positive effect was realized when all the three principles were applied consecutively. Therefore, CA has the potential to improve biological soil quality among small scale rainfed farmers and thus promote sustainable production.

  18. Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuit, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2014-01-01

    Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use certification to demonstrate their green and sustainable credentials and differentiate their products. In some commodity sectors, such as coffee and cocoa, products certified as sustainable are on t...

  19. Effect of Small-scale Irrigation on the Farm Households’ Income of Rural Farmers: The Case of Girawa District, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Beyan A; Jema H.; Adem K.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is one means by which agricultural production can be increased to meet the growing food demands in the world. This study evaluated the effect of small-scale irrigation on farm household income in production. The specific objective of this study is to identify the factors in-fluencing participation in small-scale irrigation and provides bases for policy makers in Girawa district, Eastern Hararghe zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were col-lected for the study. ...

  20. Small-Scale Farmers’ Dilemma in Farmer Cooperatives against Members Heterogeneity%成员异质性背景下的农民合作社小农困境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼栋; 孔祥智

    2014-01-01

    成员异质性背景下,合作社发展中是否存在小农困境引起学界关注;结合具体案例,本研究对合作社发展中的小农处境进行分析,并尝试着对小农困境进行理性思考。分析认为:无论是合作社发展中“大农吃小农”的逻辑,还是成立合作社是“小农理性选择”的判断,都存在一定局限性,需要用辩证的观点来看待农民合作社发展中的小农困境;同时,文本提出了若干合作社发展中的小农权益保护策略。%Under the influence of members heterogeneity,small⁃scale famers’ dilemma in farmer coopera⁃tives has attracted the attention of scholars.Based on cases study,this paper analyses small⁃scale farmers’situa⁃tion in farmer cooperatives, and tries to conduct rational thinking on small farmers. The analysis shows that, there are certain limitations both in the logic of small⁃scale farmers being eaten by large⁃scale farmers and the judgment of farmer cooperatives being chosen rationally by small⁃scale farmers,and that we should use dialecti⁃cal point of view on small⁃scale farmers’dilemma.Besides,some strategies are proposed to protect the interests of small-scale farmers.

  1. Seed management by small-scale farmers in Ghana. A study of maize and cowpea seed in the Brong-Ahafo and Volta regions (NRI Bulletin 68)

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, R.; Walker, D J; Opoku-Apau, A.; Dankyi, A.A.; Delimini, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Field surveys of on-farm maize and cowpea seed management in two regions of southern Ghana are described. The survey included seed obtained off-farm. Samples of seeds were collected just prior to planting and assessed for germination potential. Conclusions are given on the general status and potential for improving seed quality and on farmer seed management. Notes are included on farmer seed management of millet and sorghum in the Upper East Region.

  2. How inefficient are small-scale rice farmers in eastern India really?: Examining the effects of microtopography on technical efficiency estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiko Fuwa; Christopher Edmonds; Pabitra Banik

    2005-01-01

    We focus on the impact of failing to control for differences in land types defined along toposequence on estimates of farm technical efficiency for small-scale rice farms in eastern India. In contrast with the existing literature, we find that those farms may be considerably more technically efficient than they appear from more aggregated analysis without such control. Farms planted with modern rice varieties are technically efficient. Furthermore, farms planted with traditional rice varietie...

  3. How Inefficient Really Are the Small-Scale Rice Farmers in Eastern India?: Examining the Effects of Microtopography on the Estimation of Technical Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fuwa, Nobuhiko; Edmonds, Christopher M.; Banik, Pabitra

    2005-01-01

    We focus on the impact of failing to control for differences in land types defined along toposequence on estimates of farm technical efficiency for small-scale rice farms in eastern India. In contrast with the existing literature, we find that those farms may be considerably more technically efficient than they appear from more aggregated analysis without such control. Farms planted with modern rice varieties are technically efficient. Furthermore, farms planted with traditional rice varietie...

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chriso O. EMEROLE; Chidozie O. ANYIRO; K.C. OSONDU; A.N NWACHUKWU; K.K. MBUBAEGBU; G.M.C IBEZIM

    2013-01-01

    This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90) rural farm households of multi-type (varied) enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that ...

  5. Seed management by small-scale farmers in Zambia. A study of cowpea, groundnut and sorghum seed in the Southern and Western Provinces (NRI Bulletin 76)

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, R.; Walker, D J; Miti, F.; Mukumbuta, S.; Zulu, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Field surveys of on-farm cowpea, groundnut and sorghum management in two regions of Zambia are described. The survey included seed saved on-farm and seed sources off-farm. Samples of seeds were collected just prior to planting and assessed for germination potential. Conclusions are given on the general status and potential for improving seed quality and on farmer seed management.

  6. Effect of Small-scale Irrigation on the Farm Households’ Income of Rural Farmers: The Case of Girawa District, East Hararghe, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyan A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation is one means by which agricultural production can be increased to meet the growing food demands in the world. This study evaluated the effect of small-scale irrigation on farm household income in production. The specific objective of this study is to identify the factors in-fluencing participation in small-scale irrigation and provides bases for policy makers in Girawa district, Eastern Hararghe zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were col-lected for the study. Primary data were collected from 200 sample respondents drawn from both participant and non-participant households. Preliminary statistics and econometric models were employed for data analysis. The logistic regression estimation of factors affecting participation re-vealed that age of household head, non-farm income, livestock size, size of cultivated land, dis-tance between plot and irrigation scheme, means of transportation and participation of household heads in social organization significantly affected the participation decision of households in irri-gation farming. Results showed that participation in irrigation has a significant, positive effect on farm households’ income. Therefore, policy makers should give due emphasis to the aforemen-tioned variables to increase participation in irrigation farming and improve the livelihood of rural households.

  7. Analysis of farmers' willingness to adopt small scale household biogas facilities%农户采用小型户用沼气意愿影响因素的定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士超; 梁卫理; 王贵彦; 吕红毡

    2011-01-01

    因地制宜,结合实际,充分考虑农户意愿和承受能力是小型户用沼气建设、推广取得成功的关键.本文对河北平原农村小型户用沼气建设的现状及使用中存在的问题进行了问卷调查,并运用Logistic模型定量分析了影响小型户用沼气建设意愿的因素.结果表明,调查区大多数农户愿意建设和使用小型户用沼气,小型户用沼气的建设信息主要来源于沼气技术推广部门,技术和信息来源单一;小型户用沼气建设的服务体系有待改进.农民参与小型户用沼气建设的意愿与受教育程度呈显著负相关,与农户人均纯收入和劳动力占家庭总人口比重呈显著正相关.因此,在农村小型户用沼气建设制度设计中,不仅要充分考虑农民的保障需求水平和经济承受能力,兼顾制度的公正与效率,还要充分考虑农户家庭成员的个人特征、家庭特征和生产经营特征.结合相关部门提供的服务、政府支持等多种因素促进小型户用沼气的推广应用.%Adapting small scale household biogas to the conditions of local farmer households is crucial for the success of the technology. A survey was conducted in 2009~2010 on the current state of biogas facility construction and the problems related with using the facilities in Hebei Plain. A logistic model was built to quantitatively analyze the factors affecting farmers' will to adopt small scale household biogas facilities in the region. Results showed most farmers were willing to adopt the facility. And governmental biogas extension section was the main resource for the farmers to learn the small scale household biogas. The service system needed to be improved to facilitate the application of the facility. The affecting factors analysis showed that iow education levels of household heads negatively influenced the will to adopt the technology. Per-capita net income of farm families and excess labor in families were positively

  8. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  9. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.; Emuh, F. N.; Ezeonu, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%), noise pollution (98.3%), bush burning (93.3%), land degradation/pollution (87.5%), water pollution (80.3%), air pollution (62.5%), massive deforestation (62.5%) and acid rain (52.5%) were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the stu...

  10. Small-Scale Farming: A Portrait from Polk County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.; Caday, Peter

    A study of small-scale farmers in Polk County, Oregon, examined characteristics of, and variations among, small-scale farmers and developed some guidelines for assistance programs targeted for such a group. During the months of May, June, and July of 1978 an average of 4 days a week was spent locating and interviewing 44 small farm operators in…

  11. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  12. SMALL SCALE MORPHODYNAMICAL MODELLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Ditschke; O. Gothel; H. Weilbeer

    2001-01-01

    Long term morphological simulations using complete coupled models lead to very time consuming computations. Latteux (1995) presented modelling techniques developed for tidal current situations in order to reduce the computational effort. In this paper the applicability of such methods to small scale problems is investigated. It is pointed out that these methods can be transferred to small scale problems using the periodicity of the vortex shedding process.

  13. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and

  14. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well...

  15. 小农水工程建设中农户的参与意愿研究基于对江西省粮食主产区的农户调查%An Empirical Analysis on Farmer Households'Willingness to Participate in the Small-scale Irrigation and Water Conservancy Construction Based on a Survey on Farmers in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪萍; 檀竹平; 杨顺清

    2015-01-01

    The influencing factors of farmers participating in small irrigation and water conservancy construction are analyzed by using logistic model based on a survey of 1 196 major grain-producing farmers in Jiang Xi Province .The results show that households'moti-vation is significantly effected by the education level of households ,the proportion of non-farm revenue in the total of the household income ,the arable area of per person and the evaluation on government investment in small-scale irrigation projects .Therefore the government should make great efforts to enhance education to households and increase funds in small irrigation and water conservan-cy construction .%以江西省粮食主产区1196户农户的调查数据为基础,通过建立二元Logistic模型分析了农户参与小型农田水利建设的意愿及其影响因素。研究结果表明:户主文化程度、非农收入占家庭总收入的比重、农户家庭人均耕地面积、农户对当前政府对小农水工程建设投入评价等因子显著影响农户参与小型农田水利建设的意愿。建议国家需要大力加强对农户的基础教育,同时加大对小型农田水利的投资。

  16. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Schmidt; Joyce Thamaga-Chitja; Fezile Mdluli

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range ...

  17. 农村社区小型水利设施合作供给意愿及其影响因素分析——以陕西省泾阳县为例%Farmer Willingness for Small-Scale Irrigation Facilities in Jingyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬彬; 陆迁

    2013-01-01

    Co-supply small-scale irrigation facilities are essential to rural development,the improvement of agricultural production and food security.Exploring farmer willingness for co-supply is crucial when constructing irrigation facilities.Previous research has framed small-scale irrigation facilities as public goods,and mainly focused on discussion of collective dilemma.Here,we employed a Binary Logistic Model to analyze farmer willingness for co-supply for small-scale irrigation facilities based on household data from Jingyang County from March to May 2012.The research content included respondents' individual characteristics,household characteristics,household cognition,community environment,social capital and government investment.The results show that there are many factors affecting the co-supply of small-scale irrigation facilities,including age,gender,whether engaged in farming recently,the percentage of farming labor,irrigated proportion,the agricultural importance of small-scale irrigation facilities,the damage of small-scale irrigation facilities,the satisfaction of small-scale irrigation facilities,whether to steal water,social network,social trust,communal participation.Based on these pattems we suggest that because the scale of agricultural land has a positive effect on farmer co-supply willingness,the government should play a leading role and use market mechanisms to guide farmland transfer.The community environment is an important factor affecting farmer willingness for co-supply of small-scale irrigation facilities and a good community environment minimizes water theft.Farmers' social capital structure impacts on their co-supply willingness and the government should pay more attention to farmer social capital and take active action to create a good environment that reduces the co-supply cost of small-scale irrigation facilities.%小型水利设施在改善农民生产生活条件、提高农业生产效率、优化水资源配置效率、促进粮食生

  18. Supply Chain Factors Influencing Small Scale Farmers’ Tea Production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mbaabu Karanga; Henry M. Bwisa

    2014-01-01

    Low yields on the small scale tea farmers in Kenya led to this study. The purpose of this study was to establish the supply chain factors influencing small scale tea production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya. A survey of 70 small scale tea farmers of AWD was carried out with a target population of 5000 farmers registered to supply tea to the Kenya Tea Development Agency managed by Githongo Tea Factory. A questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect the data. A response rate of...

  19. Small-scale farms in the western Brazilian Amazon: can they benefit from carbon trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Chantal Line; Vosti, Steve; Witcover, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and other land uses that they might be persuaded to maintain or even increase through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. On average, small-scale farmers in the Pedro Peixoto settlement project of Acre (Western Brazilian Amazon), had ...

  20. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ingram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  1. The Use of Rainfall Forecasts as a Decision Guide for Small-Scale Farming in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeletsi, M. E.; Mellaart, E. A. R.; Mpandeli, N. S.; Hamandawana, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: New innovative ways of communicating agrometeorological information are needed to help farmers, especially subsistence/small-scale farmers, to cope with the high climate variability experienced in most parts of southern Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The article introduces an early warning system for farmers. It utilizes short…

  2. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  3. FarmLime: Low-cost lime for small-scale farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    FarmLime (Low-cost lime for small-scale farming) is a multidisciplinary research project that aims to increase the food security of small-scale farmers by improving their access to agricultural lime which neutralises soil acidity and adds nutrients. This project focused on farming districts in northern Zambia that have highly acidic soils with poor crop yields. The aim was to locate suitable carbonate rocks in these farming districts and produce agricultural lime using a low cost method, elim...

  4. Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiraini, Georgina W.; Guthiga, Paul M.

    2013-11-01

    With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation.

  5. EXPLORING DAIRY FARMER???S KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF FECES MANAGEMENT IN ENREKANG REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    baba, syahdar; Asmuddin, Natsir; Maruddin, Fatma; Izzdin, Idrus

    2015-01-01

    The consecuency of the increasing of dairy cattle population in Enrekang is environmental pollution from manure. The objective of this research was to explore dairy farmer???s knowledge and practices of manure management in Enrekang Regency. The design of research was survey with 79 respondents from a total of 460 dairy farmers that divided by 65 respondents was small scale (1-3 heads each farmer) and 14 respondents was medium scale (more than 3 heads each farmers). Data were obtained thro...

  6. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  7. Study on the Roles of FWUA in Construction, Management and Maintenance of Small-Scale Irrigation and Water Conservancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoshu; LI; Ke; YUAN

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been frequented by floods and droughts which has greatly evoked much concern from the Central Government about rural water conservancy construction. Irrigation is closely related to the "three rural" issues and concerns about the vital interests of farmers. To achieve a virtuous circle of agricultural water supply, it is necessary and urgent to establish Farmer Water User Association (FWUA) to participate in the construction, management and maintenance of small-scale irrigation system. Based on the survey on nationwide "Small-scale irrigation conditions", the roles of FWUA in the construction, management and maintenance of small-scale water conservancy have studied in this study.

  8. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  9. Weed control practices on Costa Rican coffee farms: is herbicide use necessary for small-scale producers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents research conducted during two coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The study examined coffee farmers? weed management practices and is presented in the form of a case study of small-scale farmers? use of labor and herbicides in weed management practices. Over 200 structured interviews were conducted with coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor and family labor, weed management activities, support services, and expectations about the future o...

  10. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  11. Contract farming and its impact on income and livelihoods for small-scale farmers: Case study in Vietnam Kontraktacja i jej wpływ na dochód i utrzymanie rolników produkujących na małą skalę

    OpenAIRE

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets a...

  12. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  13. Appendix - A small scale research review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

     training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of Competence Development, DK, regarding a program where teachers are taught Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method. This appendix concerns the first question. In search for empiric results concerning: What do......A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... for systematic reviews in the international This will be identified by a search for systematic reviews in the international clearinghouses and afterwards by a small scale mapping done in the pedagogic databaseERIC. The second question sounds: which methods can be used to measure the effects of teacher...

  14. Contract farming and its impact on income and livelihoods for small-scale farmers: Case study in Vietnam Kontraktacja i jej wpływ na dochód i utrzymanie rolników produkujących na małą skalę

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets and reducing price fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of contract farming to farmers and to deter-mine policies to facilitate farmer entry into beneficial contractual relationships. In addition to the literature review, one intensive case study of contract farming practices with commodity was conducted. The results from the study have direct relevance to work of agencies and organizations working to promote the welfare of small holding farmers, either through prac-tical field support or through policy advocacy.

  15. Evaluating Technical Efficiency of Small-scale Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Production in Bureti District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Koech; Gicuru K. Ithinji; Lawrence K. Kibet

    2013-01-01

    Kenya has been one of the world’s leading pineapple producers for many years and is currently ranked 9th internationally. The biggest source of fruit is at Del Monte’s farm in Thika, but small-scale growers are also increasing their production for the local market. However, in Bureti District there is a gap between the potential farm yield and the actual yield realized by the pineapple farmers. Thus, this study has examined questions on current farm level efficiency in small-scale pineapple p...

  16. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  17. Maize Yield Response to Fertilizer and Profitability of Fertilizer Use Among Small-Scale Maize Producers in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhiying; Govereh, Jones; Black, J. Roy; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-year nationwide survey data is used to estimate maize yield response functions and determine profitability of fertilizer use by small-scale farmers in Zambia. There has been a dearth of empirical studies on economics of fertilization in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we identify major methodological issues arising from using survey data and estimate maize yield response functions for small-scale rural households that have various management practices and soil condition...

  18. Performance of a local open pollinated maize variety and a common hybrid variety under intensive small-scale farming practices

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, J B.; Omondi, E.C.; Ashilenje, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    Metadata only record Given that the majority of maize farmers in Kenya are small-scale, improvement in maize production must focus on increased production per unit area. While hybrid maize varieties outperform local open pollinated varieties under conventional farming practices, their relative performance has not been tested under small-scale intensive production practices. A study was conducted in 2013 in Kitale, western Kenya, to evaluate performance of ‘Namba Nane’; a local open pollina...

  19. Small-scale farming optimization using frugal plant-based irrigation scheduling in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L.; Ondula, E.; Wambua, M.; Fleming, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is altering environmental conditions and impacting agriculture globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Increased severity and duration of droughts coupled with decreased rainfall, mean that farmers have smaller inconsistent water supplies for crop production. Yields are negatively impacted by both deficiencies and excesses in key nutrients, as well as water in the surrounding environment. Small-scale farmers either overlook these nuances, make adjustments based on guesses as field conditions evolve or rely on confusing advice from agronomists and technical experts, who also lack insights in the farmer's unique operating situation. Thus, their crop yields are often below optimal quantities as farmers are unable to ensure that their crops experience limited stress during development. Precision irrigation scheduling was designed to address this need but is expensive and does not match the mode of operation of the average small-scale farmer. To this end, we have developed a frugal, cloud-integrated, cyber-physical sensing framework which relies on small networks of strategically placed soil moisture sensors together with tank-level sensors and utilizes plant growth models to determine if and how much irrigation is needed. By utilizing weather data to calculate both plant growth and evapotranspiration, we are able to monitor plant health and track development. Combining these calculations with cloud-enabled data management and analytics, we seek to provide small-scale farmers with a low-cost method for precision irrigation management. From both laboratory trials and a case study (a mixed-crop farm in Machakos), we illustrate the effectiveness of our approach for validating the accuracy of sensors and developing models and algorithms for tailored irrigation scheduling.

  20. Economy of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  1. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  2. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi;

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  3. Small-scale forestry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ingemarson, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to improve the tools for decision making for small-scale forest owners in Sweden. Understanding the objectives of forest owners is crucial for the success of policy initiatives and for promoting successful sustainable forest management. The aims of this thesis were to: a) depict the green forest management plan from a nature conservation point of view; b) identify objectives of owners’; c) analyse different types of owners; and d) evaluate the suitability of silv...

  4. Small-Scale Wind Turbines: an Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to evaluate the economic benefits to be gained by installing a small-scale wind turbine for a customer with a three-phase electrical supply requirement. The evidence for the claims made in this paper is obtained by using actual data obtained from the installed equipment over a three year period. The objective is to accurately appraise the financial investment using real data. There appears to be limited studies conducted into this type of research, possibly because the ren...

  5. Viable Small Scale Farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Heie, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Norway, on Europe's northern fringe, is characterised by small-scale farming. The choice of crops and their yields are limited by the Nordic climate. Farm policies promote decentralisation and a varied farm structure in order to secure rural settlement, food security, food safety, environmental quality and sustainability. Agriculture receives substantial public support, and domestic production is largely protected from foreign competition. The author has a smallholding of 5 ha farmland and 15...

  6. The adoption of IPM practices by small scale producers: the case of greenhouse tomato growers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Magali; Codron, Jean Marie; Rousset, Sylvain; Yercan, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In most competitive fresh fruit and vegetables chains, growers are faced with the need to comply with the requirements of increasingly safety demanding customers. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices have become a true solution for small scale growers that could not afford the cost of a GAP certificate. While literature on farmer adoption of IPM practices focuses on farmer and farm characteristics, only a few authors underline the importance of technology, marketing and pesticides safet...

  7. Multinomial Logit Analysis of Small-Scale Farmers’ Choice of Organic Soil Management Practices in Bungoma County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar I. Ayuya; Waluse S. Kenneth; Gido O. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Bungoma County is one of the areas in Kenya where maize is produced on small-scale basis; however, the County isfacing soil nutrient depletion due to continuous and unsustainable cultivation of land. Various interventions have sensitized farmers into adopting organic soil management techniques of enhancing soil fertility and upholding environmental sustainability. The study was aimedatestablishing the most preferred organic soil managementtechniques among farmers and the factors influencing t...

  8. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, S; London, L; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R N; Kromhout, H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 assessed pesticide training and safety practic...

  9. Management of broadleaved weeds in small-scale in an on-farm perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm trial was conducted at eight different sites in Rongai and Njoro areas of Nakuru district and only six of the sites were finally harvested. The study was mainly to evaluate different weed control methods to offer a variety of recommendations for small scale wheat farmers. Of the treatments tested Buctril Mc out performed all the treatments except for Ariane. Cultural methods of control seemed to be inferior to almost all the chemical control. (author)

  10. Small-scale rural bakery; Maaseudun pienleipomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkula, R.; Malin, A.; Reisbacka, A.; Rytkoenen, A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the study was to clarify how running a small-scale bakery can provide a farming enterprise with its primary or secondary source of livelihood. A questionnaire and interviews were conducted to clarify the current situation concerning small-scale rural bakeries. The experimental part of the study looked into different manners of production, devices used in preparing and processing of doughs, and baking of different kinds of pastries in different types of ovens in laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained, solutions serving as examples were formulated for small-scale bakeries run with various modes and methods of production. Additionally, market reviews were conducted concerning appropriate equipment for small-scale bakeries. Baking for commercial purposes on the farm is still something new as ca. 80 % of the enterprises covered by the study had operated for no more than five years. Many entrepreneurs (ca. 70 %) expressed a need for supplementary knowledge from some field related to baking. Rural bakeries are small-scale operations with one-person enterprises amounting to 69 % and two-person enterprises to 29 %. Women are primarily responsible for baking. On average, the enterprises baked seven different products, but the amounts baked were usually small. In the experimental part of the study, loaves of rye bread were baked using five different types and sizes of oven accommodating 5-22 loaves of rye bread at the one time. The oven type was found not to affect bread structure. The energy consumption for one ovenful varied between 2.4 and 7.0 kWh, i.e. 0.25-0.43 kWh per kilo. When baking rolls (30-140 rolls at a time), the power consumption varied between 1.2 and 3.5 kWh, i.e. 0.32-0.53 kWh per kilo. The other devices included in the comparative study were an upright deep-freezer, a multi-temperature cabinet and a fermenting cabinet. Furthermore, making rolls by hand was compared to using a machine for the same job, and likewise manual

  11. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  12. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  13. Multinomial Logit Analysis of Small-Scale Farmers’ Choice of Organic Soil Management Practices in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bungoma County is one of the areas in Kenya where maize is produced on small-scale basis; however, the County isfacing soil nutrient depletion due to continuous and unsustainable cultivation of land. Various interventions have sensitized farmers into adopting organic soil management techniques of enhancing soil fertility and upholding environmental sustainability. The study was aimedatestablishing the most preferred organic soil managementtechniques among farmers and the factors influencing the choice of these techniques. This wasbased on an exploratory study of small-scale organic maize farmers in Bungoma County.Asimple random sampling approach was used to select a sample of 150 smallholder maize farmers and primary data was collected using a semistructured questionnaire. In the analyses, descriptive statistics and a multinomial Logit model were employed using STATA computer program. The results indicated that extension, farm size household size, gender, age, education, credit, group membership, land tenure, farm distance and slope of land significantly influenced the choice of different techniques. Therefore the study recommends that policies in support of organic soil management should disaggregate farmers according to their socioeconomic, farmer and farm characteristics in order to achieve their intended objectives. Further there is need to increase extension visits to improve farmer awareness on the advantages of the various techniques.

  14. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  15. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  16. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  17. Small Scale Variations in Carbon Oxygen Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research reported here is the development of a methodology for the measurement of small scale variations in chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon - oxygen ratio. Knowledge of the C/O ratio is of importance to many problems in various fields. Here we single out the application in obtaining important information about the oil fields. The most fundamental reservoir parameters - oil, gas and water content - are critical factors in determining how each oil field should be developed. It is well established that carbon to oxygen ratio log yields accurate and repeatable data that can be used to identify and monitor reserves depletion. Recent improvements in neutron generator and gamma detector technologies resulted in small devices which allowed through-tubing measurements. Although the ratio of carbon and oxygen yields is a measure of the amount of oil around the tool it should be realized that a carbon signal can originate from several sources including the borehole, the cement behind the casing, the formation rock and the formation fluid. In order to evaluate these contributions individually we are proposing the modification of the neutron generator by insertion of segmented associated alpha particle detector. From the measurement of time of flight spectra (alpha particle detector - start signal; gamma ray detector - stop signal) it would be possible to determine the location of gamma ray producing voxel and in such a way to determine radial variations in several chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon to oxygen ratio. (authors)

  18. Small-scale mechanical behavior of zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The surface stability of yttria-doped tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia is critical for load-bearing biomedical applications. In this work, the small-scale mechanical behavior of this material is probed by employing the in situ micro-cantilever bending technique to near-surface regions. Micro-cantilevers are milled by the focused ion beam technique in the as-sintered condition as well as after hydrothermal degradation by water vapor and tested in order to investigate the effect of degradation on the local flexural response. Results demonstrate that the technique is reliable for assessing the mechanical properties of thin superficial layers and their dependence on orientation. In the non-degraded material, the flexural strength is surprisingly higher than in standard-size specimens and transformation-induced plasticity takes place during testing, inducing defects that become critical at the failure stress. The strength and stiffness of cantilevers obtained from the degraded surface are indeed much lower, and the magnitude of the effect clearly depends on their orientation with respect to the surface. These results are discussed in terms of the presence and spatial distribution of microcracks nucleated during hydrothermal degradation

  19. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Lin, W. P.; Dong, X.; Wang, Y. O.; Dutton, A.; Macciò, A.

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some extent of mis-alignment. The massive haloes have stronger alignment than haloes in filament which connect massive haloes. This is contrary to the naive expectation that cosmic filament is the cause of halo alignment.

  20. Hall-magnetohydrodynamic small-scale dynamos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Daniel O; Mininni, Pablo D; Dmitruk, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    Magnetic field generation by dynamo action is often studied within the theoretical framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, for sufficiently diffuse media, the Hall effect may become non-negligible. We present results from three-dimensional simulations of the Hall-MHD equations subjected to random nonhelical forcing. We study the role of the Hall effect in the dynamo efficiency for different values of the Hall parameter. For small values of the Hall parameter, the small-scale dynamo is more efficient, displaying faster growth and saturating at larger amplitudes of the magnetic field. For larger values of the Hall parameter, saturation of the magnetic field is reached at smaller amplitudes than in the MHD case. We also study energy transfer rates among spatial scales and show that the Hall effect produces a reduction of the direct energy cascade at scales larger than the Hall scale, therefore leading to smaller energy dissipation rates. Finally, we present results stemming from simulations at large magnetic Prandtl numbers, which is the relevant regime in the hot and diffuse interstellar medium. In the range of magnetic Prandtl numbers considered, the Hall effect moves the peak of the magnetic energy spectrum as well as other relevant magnetic length scales toward the Hall scale. PMID:21230195

  1. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  2. Impact of improved technologies on small-scale soybean production: empirical evidence from benue state, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)

  3. Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    small-scale nonlinear analysis of screening models. All healthy K-mouflage models should satisfy K'>0 , and W±(y )=y K'(±y2/2 ) are monotonically increasing to +∞ when y ≥0 .

  4. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  5. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  6. Improving Agricultural Water Management through Low-Cost Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product and accounts for about 24% of GDP and 50% of revenue from exports. About half of Kenya's total agricultural output is subsistence production and farming provides employment to about 70% of the population. Approximately 80% of Kenyan farmland is classified as arid and semi-arid, with low and erratic rainfall, and food production is low with frequent crop failures. In order to ensure food security and sustainable farmer livelihoods there is an urgent need to improve agricultural water management practices that ensure optimal water use efficiency. A promising option is the use of low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies that are affordable for resource poor farmers. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has developed low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies to improve water- and nutrient use efficiencies of high-value crops, including cucumber, tomato, kale and lettuce. Yields of these crops were compared under rain-fed conditions, with irrigation using traditional hand-watering method and small-scale drip irrigation. Using the soil moisture neutron probe to determine the soil water content at any time during the growing season and the optimal timing and amount of water to be applied, KARI devised and employed small-scale low-cost drip irrigation technologies and compared yields under a variety of water management applications. Using these technologies, tomato yields of 9.7 t/ha were obtained under rain-fed conditions (with 221 mm of rainfall), 13.0 t/ha with traditional hand watering of 927 mm and 32 t/ha when applying 510 mm of water using small-scale drip irrigation, hence increasing the yield by 3.3 and 2.5 times, compared to rain-fed and hand watering, respectively. In the latter case, this yield increase was obtained despite a 45% reduction in the amount of water applied to the crop. Results also showed that a total of

  7. Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904...

  8. Economic analysis of small scale organic farming in mid-range alpine context : a case study implemented at la Berthe Farm, Savoie, France

    OpenAIRE

    Barberoux, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    The future of agriculture is an essential issue for the next decades. One of the most sustainable answers to it is Agroecology. Collective farms developing organic small scale agriculture are a promising alternative to industrial agriculture for the young farmers. However, this kind of agriculture has to be economically viable. This thesis presents the economic analysis of small-scale organic vegetable production system in order to give a small contribution to the assessment of this alternati...

  9. EFFECTS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF DIRECT SEEDED MAIZE PRODUCTION UNDER SMALL SCALE FARMERS CONDITIONS IN UNAÍ, MG (BRAZILIAN CERRADO EFEITOS DA INTRODUÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO DE MILHO POR AGRICULTORES FAMILIARES DO MUNICÍPIO DE UNAÍ, MG (CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Zoby

    2009-01-01

    , by smallholders, under Cerrado conditions, in the region of Unaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main constraints faced by farmers to produce are related to soil fertility management, difficulties in assessing tractors for preparing their land, and high levels of weed infestation. SPD was tested jointly with farmers trying to decrease these problems impacts. It showed promising results to stabilize, technically and economically, maize production. SPD solved completely the tractors dependency and contributed to decrease labour requirements for weed control. The production levels attained led to a better valorisation of the most scarce production factors, such as family labour and land. It was also evidenced the need to conduct more studies on the use of cover crops in those production systems.

     

    Key-words: Family farming; conservation agriculture; no-tillage.

  1. Small-Scale CHP Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, A.; Latosev, E; Siirde, A

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat l...

  2. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems.

  3. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  4. Small-Scale Dynamo Action in Primordial Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Glover, Simon; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. For incompressible turbulence (Kolmogorov turbulence), we find that the growth rate is proportional to the square root of the hydrodynamic Reynolds number, Re^(1/2). In the case of highly compressible turbulence (Burgers turbulence) the growth rate increases proportional to Re^(1/3). With a detailed chemical network we are able to follow the chemical evolution and determine the kinetic and magnetic viscosities (due to Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) during the collapse of the halo. This way, we can calculate the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo quantitatively and predict the evolution...

  5. Can small scale structure ever affect cosmological dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the universe is generally thought to imply a well defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today - which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations - a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is...

  6. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2011-01-01

    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results...... from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models, p−y curves are derived and compared to current design regulations. The recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are observed to be in poor agreement with the numerically...... obtained p−y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p−y curves is found to increase with increasing pile diameter. Considerable uncertainties are observed to be related to small-scale testing, and the evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing...

  7. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  8. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  9. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  10. Human exposure to mercury due to small scale gold mining in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, P

    2000-10-01

    In northern Tanzania large numbers of small scale miners use mercury in the gold extraction process causing contamination of the environment and risks to human health. Human exposure to Hg was assessed in populations in and around small scale gold mining camps by means of human hair and urine surveys. We also determined Hg concentration in fish in aquatic bodies close to these camps. Urinary Hg testing in three communities showed that 36% of the gold miners working with amalgam exceeded the WHO guideline concentration of 50 microg Hg/g creatinine. Data from a hair survey of fishermen and farmers confirm that at present, the fish-eating population close to the southern tip of Lake Victoria is at low risk with regard to Hg exposure. Concentrations in fish were low and > 90% of the hair samples from the fish-eating population were below 2 microg/g T-Hg. Highest Hg concentrations in fish caught along the southern shores of Lake Victoria and in rivers draining from gold processing sites were detected in lungfish species (Protopterus aethiopicus), and lowest Hg concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilii). PMID:11032134

  11. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ(2) test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and

  12. Development of small-scale fisheries in Yemen: An exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. The development of its fishery sector is increasingly being mentioned as a source of livelihood creation. The aims of this paper are to: (a) provide an overview of the institutional environment in which small-scale fishermen in Yemen operate; (b) i

  13. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  14. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sokoloff, D; Abramenko, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  17. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  18. Abelian Higgs Cosmic Strings: Small Scale Structure and Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Bevis, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski & Rocha [1] for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale with evidence to suggest that the small scale structure builds up from small scales. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loop distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. [2]. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation [3], coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a stron...

  19. Development of small-scale peat production. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this three year project was to develop the production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat producers so that the profitability of small-scale peat production is improved and the competitiveness remains. The aim in 1996 was to determine the present situation of small-scale peat producers, and the research and development needs, as well as to prepare a development plan of the small-scale peat production. The aims for 1997 were: the diminishing of the environmental hazards and the run-off waters of the small-scale peat production, the intensification of the peat deliveries from small-scale peat production, and the reduction of the peat production costs by improving the degree of utilization of the equipment via common or shared use. According to the results of the study peat production in Finland in 1996 was 25.0 TWh in total. The share of milled peat was 91 % of the peat production, and that of sod peat 9.0 %. About 1 440 000 m3 of other than energy peat was produced. The share of energy peat producers, replying to the questionnaire was 13 % (3.3 TWh) and the share of other peat producers was 18 %. Peat was produced from the area of 59 000 ha, the share of small-scale peat producers was 9 250 ha corresponding to about 16 % of the total peat production area. The share of milled peat of the peat produced by small-scale peat producers was about 73 %. The number of peat produces replying to the questionnaire was 164. The level of water protection and other environmental protection of twelve peat producers in the Southern Ostrobothnia were studied. According to the survey the main shortages comprised too small or lacking settling ponds. Also other shortages in environmental protection were observed. Feedback on the survey, as well as guidance and suggestions for improvements were given to the producers. Deliveries of peat by the small-scale peat producers to the Rauhalahti power plant of Jyvaeskylaen Energiantuotanto Oy were reviewed in

  20. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.

  1. Proceedings of a workshop on agroforestry tree seeds for farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow

    Forest & Landscape Denmark, ICRAF and National Tree Seed Centres in three African countries implement an innovative twinning project. The project seeks to identify the major constraints and opportunities for improving seed/seedling production and distribution to small-scale tree-planting farmers ...

  2. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  3. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies.

  4. Cold Dark Matter's Small Scale Crisis Grows Up

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onghia, E; Onghia, Elena D'; Lake, George

    2003-01-01

    The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo cluster. However, CDM has a "small scale crisis" since galaxies define {\\it overmerging} wherein a single galaxy dominates the halo with little substructure while the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters with abundant rich substructure.Compared to CDM predictions the Milky Way and Andromeda are "missing" ~500 objects with velocity dispersions $\\sigma \\sim 10$ km$^{-1}$. The energy scale of these missing satellites is low enough that stellar winds and supernovae might remove gas and suppress the formation of their luminous stellar components. Here, we show that the small scale crisis persists in fossil groups that have masses of up to 40% of the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. Fossil groups are missing ~500 satellites with luminosities that occur at the predicted frequency in the Virgo cluster. Moreover, the "...

  5. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends...... towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation...

  6. Statistical Evaluation of Small-scale Explosives Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guymon, Clint

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale explosives sensitivity testing is used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate risk. Both relative comparison and characterization of the transition from no reaction to reaction is used to estimate that risk. Statistical comparisons and use of statistically efficient methods are critical to accurately and efficiently make risk related decisions. Many public and private entities are not making accurate decisions based on the test data because of the lack of properly applying basic statistical principles. We present methods and examples showing how to use statistics to accurately and efficiently evaluate the risk for relative comparison and in-process risk evaluation. Some of the methods presented include the Significance Chart Method and adaptive step-size techniques like the Neyer D-Optimal method. These methods are compared to the more traditional approaches like Bruceton and Probit. Use of statistical methods can significantly improve the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of small-scale explosives sensitivity testing.

  7. Handling of Small-Scale Protests in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Xiaowei

    The dissertation examines the dynamics and outcomes of small-scale protests in China by more meticulously scrutinizing the role of the state. In order to clarify the sensitive topic of how local officials and protesters try to outmaneuver each other, I have conducted an in-depth fieldwork...... that is less than Sedaka, but more than an interview. A thorough analysis of the highly mixed reality of protest and protest-handling in the dissertation improves scholarly understanding of state-society relation and contentious politics in China. In particular, Chapter One is the brief introduction...... from protesters and towards officials, and develops a framework to more meticulously scrutinize the role of the state, in order to better explain the fate of small-scale protests in China. Chapter Three covers the methodological aspects of the dissertation. I describe how I structured my fieldwork...

  8. Biofuels in Africa: growing small-scale opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulle, Emmanuel [Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (Tanzania, United Republic of); Fauveaud, Swan [Renewable Energy Group, Environment and Solidarity (France); Vermeulen, Sonja

    2009-11-15

    Global demand for climate-friendly transport fuels is driving vast commercial biofuels projects in developing countries. At the opposite end of the spectrum is small-scale bioenergy production. This offers a way for the poor to meet their energy needs and diversify their livelihoods without compromising food security or environmental integrity. Governments hope that it will be possible to combine the advantages of both large- and small-scale production of biofuels to generate energy security and GDP at the national level, while opening up local opportunities. In Africa, most governments are keen to attract foreign direct investment, and see big business as a strategic means of scaling up rural development. But there is a middle way. By encouraging business models that bridge large and small enterprise, African governments could show that commercial competition can go hand in hand with a range of real local benefits.

  9. To What Extent Do Improved Practices Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Rice Cultivation in A Rain-fed Area? : Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Nakano; Yuki Tanaka; Keijiro Otsuka

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of training provided by a large-scale private farm on the performance of surrounding small-scale rice farmers in a rain-fed area in Tanzania. We found that the training effectively enhances the adoption of improved rice cultivation practices, paddy yield, and profit of rice cultivation by small-holder farmers. In fact, the trainees achieve paddy yield of 5 tons per hectare on average, which is remarkably high for rain-fed rice cultivation. Our results sugges...

  10. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Orisakwe Lambert; Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary educatio...

  11. Farming System and Agricultural Production among Small Farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    MASAWE, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A farming systems approach is used to explain the problems of small scale farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A survey, involving 60 small farmers selected at random, was conducted by means of questionnaires, discussions as well as field observations. It was revealed that although farmers in this area practice a variety of cropping systems partly taken over the know-how of the older shifting type of cultivation, and considered more appropriate to deal with the f...

  12. Current Situation of Farmers' Specialized Cooperatives in Hainan Province and Development Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Wanzhen; Huang, Huide

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the distribution, membership structure and industrial structure of farmers' specialized cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out some problems in farmers' specialized cooperatives in Hainan Province, such as small scale, low ability to resist risks, lack of standardization in operation, and generally low quality of cooperative members. Finally the following development strategies are put forth: promoting the large scale and standardized development of farmers' spe...

  13. Commissioning of a Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shunova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to the wastewater treatment process study, while providing commissioning of a small-scale wastewater treatment plant on the territory of a national park in Sochi, Russia. The objective of the study was to conduct a commissioning as well as research ways to increase the oxidation capacity of the wastewater treatment facility. The effluent quality from the treatment facility was to correspond with standards issued by Russian authorities. Research was based on ...

  14. Solar Receiver Design and Verification for Small Scale Polygeneration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Aichmayer, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Against a backdrop of our world’s changing climate solar thermal power generation shows great potential to move global energy production away from fossil fuels to non-polluting sources. The Department of Energy Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm is contributing to the development and research of solar thermal power by building a solar driven small scale polygeneration unit based on an externally fired micro gas turbine. This project focused on the design, analysis and v...

  15. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.; Federrath, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small-scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of star-forming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few ...

  16. Small-scale heterogeneity in sediments : experimental and modelling investigations.

    OpenAIRE

    Stockdale, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This thesis consists of several studies relating to small-scale heterogeneity in sediments. The principal aim was to further our understanding of processes occurring at microniches. The individual studies consist of: 1) a critical review of previous studies of microniches that used probes with high spatial resolution and modelling approaches; 2) an experimental study of analysis of oxyanions in sediment at high resolution that applied a newly developed preparation method for a combined AgI/Fe...

  17. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  18. Effectiveness of 3D Printing in Small Scale Production

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Jani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the effectiveness of two 3D printing methods (fused deposition modeling and stereolithography) for prototyping and small-scale production at a 3D printing laboratory at Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. The 3D printing technology is currently developing, so not much literature is available yet. That is the reason why before actual production a thorough analysis is needed of the advantages and disadvantages and of the effectiveness of the...

  19. Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-Scale Solar Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E

    2014-01-01

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, which we test for here using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly-formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the sub-surface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the field to emerge at random locations on the photo...

  20. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  1. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the level of industrial components and technology components were analyzed using the program "Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS". The survey results revealed that the industrial component is influenced by the core industry (level of difficulty in capital gain and raw materials, the buyer (customer satisfaction, related industry (quality and continuity of supply of packaging and institutional support (coaching on marketing and capitalization as well as guidance on the production of sanitary and food safety. Component technology is influenced by organoware (production management and marketing management and humanware (innovation and trust among the members.

  2. The legalization of small scale mining in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents conceptual and analytical elements that allow us to broaden the debate about the legalization of the mining in Colombia. Looking for items to be able to propose alternatives in order to consolidate a new mining process socially and environmentally sustainable, claiming the value of the ancestral practices and forms of the redistributive production. To this end, it is necessary to start with the discussion of the concepts of formalization and legality, so that we can generate a theoretical framework that will allow us to explore such delicate matter, we will continue to make the framework socio-political, in which it is based that strategy. Then there is a brief context of thereformulation of legal mining, focusing our attention particularly standards which involves or has effects on artisanal mining and/or small-scale mining. There we will find ourselves with a debate on the typology of the mining and the current difficulties to define schemasof legalization or formalization of small-scale mining in Colombia. To conclude with a proposal to formalize as a mechanism of transition to an administrative system - legislativethat will connect more effectively with the realities and skills of the ethnic communities that practice small-scale mining.

  3. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Pallavi; Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations to show that helical turbulence can generate large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale fields.During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large $k$. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small $k$ in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. The strength of such kinematic large-scale field $\\overline{B}$ relative to the total rms field $B_{rms}$ decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, $Re_{M}$. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic power spectrum in the saturated state shows peaks at both the forcing wavenumber $k=k_f$, and at the box scale, $k=1$. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, increas...

  4. The small-scale treatability study sample exemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an interim final rule that conditionally exempted ''waste samples collected solely for the purpose of monitoring or testing to determine their characteristics or composition'' from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulations. This exemption [40 CFR 261.4(d)] apples to the transportation of samples between the generator and testing laboratory, temporary storage of samples at the laboratory prior to and following testing, and storage at a laboratory for specific purposes such as an enforcement action. However, the exclusion did not include large-scale samples used in treatability studies or other testing at pilot plants or other experimental facilities. As a result of comments received by the EPA subsequent to the issuance of the interim final rule, the EPA reopened the comment period on the interim final rule on September 18, 1987, and specifically requested comments on whether or not the sample exclusion should be expanded to include waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies. Almost all responders commented favorably on such a proposal. As a result, the EPA issued a final rule (53 FR 27290, July 19, 1988) conditionally exempting waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies from full regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA. The question of whether or not to extend the exclusion to larger scale as proposed by the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council was deferred until a later date. This information Brief summarizes the requirements of the small-scale treatability exemption

  5. Driving small-scale fisheries in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Purcell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs engage the vast majority of the world’s fishers but are struggling to keep pace with coastal populations, and stocks are declining to levels that threaten reproductive capacity. The provision of food and livelihoods to low-income fishers into the future will be unlikely without radical changes to fisheries policy. We draw on repeating analogies of driving a car to illustrate fundamental reforms needed for driving (managing small-scale fisheries. SSFs will continue to be unsustainable by relying too heavily on output controls (the ‘brake’. Managers need to move away from routinely using moratoria (i.e. the ‘handbrake’ as a management measure, although these measures may be needed as a last resort. Scientists (‘backseat drivers’ must engage more directly with fishery management agencies to understand their constraints and needs. Resource managers must come to terms with regulating fishing inputs (the ‘accelerator’ by imposing limited-entry rules, vessel limitations or short fishing seasons in addition to sensible output controls. Reforms to resource management will need to entail unpopular measures if small-scale fisheries are to deliver sustained benefits to fishing communities into the future.

  6. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  7. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  8. Cyclic Behavior of the Sun's Small-scale Magnetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, C.

    2011-05-01

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and their cyclic behavior is analyzed in comparison with the changes of sunspot numbers and active region magnetic flux. From the small to large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)×1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. Unlike the correlated elements, which follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, the anti-correlated elements cover very broad range of latitude and do not show clear latitude migration during the cycle. These results provide insight for understanding the anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle. The quiet regions dominate the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23, their monthly average magnetic flux is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. For the 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, the six-month running average ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun is larger than 90.0%, which characterizes the gram minima in cycles 23 and 24 very well.

  9. Economic comparison between small-scale AFBC and PFBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Boyd-Powell, T. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Smith, D.H. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    When a utility, independent power producer, or commercial firm contemplates a new small-scale power, cogeneration, or steam plant, a choice must be made among the various available technologies. Many considerations are part of this decision, including technological, regulatory, operational, environmental, and economic criteria. Each technology has its own strengths and weaknesses. For example, relative to conventional pulverized-coal plants, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) are more efficient and are capable of burning lower-grade and waste materials, but may be less proven commercially, particularly in the case of PFBC. However, in the final analysis, perhaps the most significant influence in the choice among technologies may be economic criteria. In this case, of those technologies which are acceptable from a regulatory and environmental standpoint, which technology does the job at the least cost? To make such a cost assessment, the plant builder will naturally search for information on the relative costs of various technologies. The focus of this research paper is to compare on an economic basis small-scale (in general, less than 100 MW) AFBC and PFBC power plants. Small-scale AFBC plants are fully commercialized, and recently the more-modern PFBC technology has been successfully demonstrated by a 70 MW power plant at Brilliant, Ohio. Limited economic information on PFBC technology has been compiled into a data base (see Fuller and Scherr, 1995). The literature search for the current research effort consisted of reviewing three separate databases: (1) Compendex, (2) Department of Energy, and (3) Fuller and Scherr (1995). A different literature search strategy was used in reviewing the data for PFBC and for AFBC. The dates reviewed for the PFBC data were January 1990 to June 1996. The dates reviewed for the AFBC data were 1980 to September 1996.

  10. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agus Budiyono; Singgih S. Wibowo

    2007-01-01

    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterpart. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This work is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as a part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues with regards to control constraints are addressed.The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  11. Small-scale Testing of Bucket Foundations in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjørn S.; Østergaard, Martin Underlin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    For offshore foundation structures, the loads are of varying nature both in magnitude and duration. For the bucket foundation the dissipation of the pore pressure is highly relevant since it greatly affects the strength of the structure. The build up of pore pressures with varying loading rate...... skirt will provide valuable information of the quasi-static behaviour. For a number of small-scale tests performed in the laboratory at Aalborg University, a bucket foundation will be loaded with varying velocity to investigate the dissipation and general behaviour of bucket foundations used as offshore...

  12. Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li-Xin

    2001-01-01

    A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic field...

  13. Designing and implementing a small scale Internet Service Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Johan; Gustafsson Brokås, Alexander; Hurtig, Niklas; Johansson, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to design and implement a small scaleInternet Service Provider (ISP) for the NetCenter sub department atMälardalen University. The ISP is intended to give NetCenter a networkseparate from the University’s network, providing them with a moreflexible environment for lab purposes. This will give their students anopportunity to experience a larger backbone with Internet accessibility,which has not been previously available. At the same time it will place theteacher...

  14. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

  16. The Small Scale Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, W; Hu, Wayne; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) can be an important factor in the generation of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies on all scales, especially in a reionized curvature or lambda dominated universe. We present an analytic treatment of the ISW effect, which is analogous to thick last scattering surface techniques for the Doppler effect, that compares quite well with the full numerical calculations. The power spectrum of temperature fluctuations due to the small scale ISW effect has wave number dependence k^{-5} times that of the matter power spectrum.

  17. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soleri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  18. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  19. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  20. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  1. Small-Scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12). We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate) and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ~ 2.73 sigma and cor...

  2. The Small-Scale Dynamo at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-01-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(l) \\propto l^{theta}, where v(l) is the eddy velocity at a scale l. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with theta = 1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with theta = 1/2. In this work we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the...

  3. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  4. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

    2014-03-01

    Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  5. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  6. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  7. Development and Experimental Studies of a Small-scaled Solar-powered Sago Plant Dehydrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pendita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago is an important agricultural commodity of the largest state in Malaysia, Sarawak. This paper presents a small-scaled solar-powered sago dehydrator with temperature sensing and monitoring unit. The main focus is to provide a feasible solution for sago farmers or producers who live in isolated remote areas. The dehydrator system is controlled by a microcontroller PIC16F877A. The electrical circuit of the dehydrator allows the user to programmed desired time setting and the controller will interact with the temperature sensor and display unit of the dehydrator for the purpose of temperature monitoring within a specific range for the sago flour drying process.  This project has adopted the green technology concept as the system components are powered using the energy produced from the solar panels. A small portion of sample of the sago flour will be dehydrated in the proposed solar powered plant dehydrator. The operation of the dehydrator and the experimental results are presented.

  8. Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kitinoja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A pilot Postharvest Training and Services Center (PTSC was launched in October 2012 in Arusha, Tanzania as part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID funded project. The five key components of the PTSC are (1 training of postharvest trainers, (2 postharvest training and demonstrations for local small-scale clientele, (3 adaptive research, (4 postharvest services, and (5 retail sales of postharvest tools and supplies. During the years of 2011–2012, a one year e-learning program was provided to 36 young horticultural professionals from seven Sub-Saharan African countries. These postharvest specialists went on to train more than 13,000 local farmers, extension workers, food processors, and marketers in their home countries in the year following completion of their course. Evaluators found that these specialists had trained an additional 9300 people by November 2014. When asked about adoption by their local trainees, 79% reported examples of their trainees using improved postharvest practices. From 2012–2013, the project supported 30 multi-day training programs, and the evaluation found that many of the improved practices being promoted were adopted by the trainees and led to increased earnings. Three PTSC components still require attention. Research activities initiated during the project are incomplete, and successful sales of postharvest goods and services will require commitment and improved partnering.

  9. Manufacture of a Biodegradable Detergent on Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A. Aziz A. Majeed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an aggregate planning for a small scale production unit using a network flow model for full utilization of its capacity to meet the changing forecasted demand .The formulation of the problem is done by using the given inventory capacity with backorders by making a trade-off among inventory costs , backlog costs, production and subcontracting costs. The total cost function and the constraint inequalities were developed assuming the cost functions to be linear. The parameters of objective function and the constraints were estimated from the economics of the plant. The values of the work force, overtime, backlog, amount subcontracted were determined for a planning horizon of six months using an LP computer package. This method of production scheduling took care of the fluctuating demand utilizing the full capacity of the plant.

  10. Absence of small-scale structure in homogeneous superfluid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By contrast with classical turbulence, which is driven by large-scale shear instabilities, superfluid turbulence is driven homogeneously by the mutual friction between the normal fluid and the superfluid. We suggest that this difference implies that there is no equivalent to a Kolmogorov energy cascade in turbulent superfluid flows. We then compare a recent numerical simulation of superfluid turbulence by Schwartz [Phys. Rev. B 31, 5782 (1985)] with a recent simulation of singular vortex stretching in classical fluids by Siggia and Pumir. This comparison suggests that the rigidity of the quantum-mechanical vortex core inhibits any generation of small-scale structure in the superfluid case. Superfluid turbulence is essentially a two-length-scale phenomenon, where the scales are the average intervortex distance and the vortex-core diameter

  11. Small-Scale CMOS Pseudo SRAM Module Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昀; 刘振宇; 韩月秋

    2004-01-01

    An approach to design small scale CMOS static random access memory (SRAM) is proposed. The design of address decoder, memory cell, and the layout are included. This approach adopts flip-flop array structure. The flip-flops are used as the storage cells and they are stacked to form the whole SRAM module. The word select bit is generated from the address decoder. And one word at a time is selected for reading or writing. The design of the memory core's layout is also discussed since it should be optimized to save area and also should be convenient for realization. It's a full-custom layout. The address decoder is composed of combinational logic circuit and its layout is also designed as a full-custom layout. With all these modules, the integral structure of the SRAM is carried out.

  12. Magnetic fields of our Galaxy on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jinlin

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been observed on all scales in our Galaxy, from AU to kpc. With pulsar dispersion measures and rotation measures, we can directly measure the magnetic fields in a very large region of the Galactic disk. The results show that the large-scale magnetic fields are aligned with the spiral arms but reverse their directions many times from the inner-most arm (Norma) to the outer arm (Perseus). The Zeeman splitting measurements of masers in HII regions or star-formation regions not only show the structured fields inside clouds, but also have a clear pattern in the global Galactic distribution of all measured clouds which indicates the possible connection of the large-scale and small-scale magnetic fields.

  13. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (active over most (if not all) of its history, a similar distribution of volcano size might be expected. Martian small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized

  14. Using dark energy to suppress power at small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2015-01-01

    The latest Planck results reconfirm the existence of a slight but chronic tension between the best-fit CMB and low-redshift observables: power seems to be consistently lacking in the late universe across a range of observables (e.g. weak lensing, cluster counts). We propose a two-parameter model for dark energy where the dark energy is sufficiently like dark matter at large scales to keep the CMB unchanged but where it does not cluster at small scales, preventing concordance collapse and erasing power. We thus exploit the generic scale-dependence of DE instead of the more usual time-dependence to address the tension in the data. The combination of CMB, distance and weak lensing data somewhat prefer our model to $\\Lambda$CDM, at $\\Delta\\chi^2=2.4$. Moreover, this improved solution has $\\sigma_8=0.79 \\pm 0.02$, consistent with the value implied by cluster counts.

  15. Design and Modelling of Small Scale Low Temperature Power Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit

    impact on the work output of the expander.The final part of this report deals with the performance of plate heat exchangers. Several plate heat exchanger correlations were reviewed focussing on their applicability to ORC systems. A framework for dynamic heat exchanger modelling was developed...... scale plate heat exchanger. Working towards a validation of heat transfer correlations for ORC conditions, a new test rig was designed and built. The test facility can be used to study heat transfer in both ORC and high temperature heat pump systems....... times and below 10−7 away from the phase boundaries.Regarding expansion devices for small scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems,this work focussed on reciprocating machines. A prototype of a reciprocating expander with a swept volume of 736 cm3 was tested and modelled. he model was written in object...

  16. Burn-rate Measurement on Small-scale Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maggi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale rocket motors are widely used by propulsion industries to carry out burn ratemeasurement for a variety of needs. Several automated data-reduction procedures have beenimplemented to derive burn rate from pressure-time profiles resulting from experimentation. Evenif these are easy and fast to use, these procedures are not completely reliable in that thesemeasure only the average behaviour of a motor. A new model has recently been proposed toovercome this problem. However, it was soon noticed that the results depend on the propellantgrain production and forming processes even if the motor hardware is the same. A series ofpropellant grains has been produced to be sampled to map the local ballistic behaviour andchanges introduced by the manufacturing process. In this study, sampling and testing proceduresare reported and the results of an almost complete grain mapping are discussed.

  17. Sizing aspects of a small scale grid connected PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartha, S.; Teodoreanu, D.I.; Teodoreanu, M.; Negreanu, C. [I.C.P.E.-New Energy Sources Laboratory (NESL), Bucharest (Romania); Farkas, I.; Seres, I. [Szent Istvan University, Goedoelloe (Hungary). Department of Physics and Process Control

    2008-07-01

    Photovoltaics can be used in grid connected mode in two ways: as array installed at the end use site, such as on rooftops, or as utility-scale generating stations. The present paper describes a small-scale grid connected Photovoltaic system. The paper starts with the structure and characterization of the system. The principal technical parameter data are also presented. The used monitoring parameters indicate the principal meteorological data, air temperature and solar radiation data for the location sited at Agigea, at the Black Sea and the produced energy by the PV modules. The present application is made by 1 subsystem with 1200 Wp power and with the panel inclination possibility, using different type of PV modules. The paper presents a simulation model for this system realized with commercial software packages and with a one self made Matlab model that evaluates the energy balance of the PV system. All the simulation and measurements data are presented. (orig.)

  18. Modelling Relativistic Astrophysics at the Large and Small Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Haugbölle, T

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis different numerical methods, as well as applications of the methods to a number of current problems in relativistic astrophysics, are presented. In the first part the theoretical foundation and numerical implementation of a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code is discussed. A new form of the equations of motion using global coordinates, but evolving the dynamical variables from the point of view of a local observer is presented. No assumptions are made about the background metric and the design is ready to be coupled with methods solving the full Einstein equations. In the second part of the thesis important results concerning the understanding of collisionless shocks, obtained from experiments with a relativistic charged particle code, are presented. Relativistic collisionless shocks are important in a range of astrophysical objects; in particular in gamma ray burst afterglows and other relativistic jets. It is shown that a strong small scale, fluctuating, and predominantly trans...

  19. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  20. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  1. Observational Evidence for Small Scale Distributed Energy Release and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, Nicole

    Particle acceleration in solar flares is a challenging issue. Not only, is it necessary to convert a large fraction of the free magnetic energy to supra-thermal particles on relatively short time scales, but it is also required to produce in some flares ultra-relativistic particles on timescales of a few tens of seconds. Several approaches have been considered in the solar physics literature for acceleration models: either the acceleration takes place in large scale features (shocks or current sheets) or it occurs in small scale distributed energy release sites. I shall review here some of the observations which support the scenario of spatially distributed energy release and acceleration sites: existence of narrow-band millisecond bursts in the radio range and spatial distributions of these emissions, distribution of time scales of energy release, statistical properties of flares and HXR pulses, waiting time distributions in flares,. . .

  2. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Federrath, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small-scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of star-forming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning met...

  3. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  4. Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpasuo, Pentti [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd. P.O. Box 10, 00048 Fortum (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

  5. Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

  6. Research on the Urban Integration of Land-losing Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishbone chart is used to analyze the status of the living ability of land-losing farmers, as well as its causation from the aspects of system layer, social support network, land-losing farmer themselves, and economic layer. Result shows that the system layer includes the unreasonable land compensation, the lack of social security for land-losing farmers, and the employment exclusion of land-losing farmers. Small scale and low heterogeneity are the causations for social support network. Low willingness to become citizens, low cultural quality and difficulty in role change are the causations of land-losing farmers themselves. The low expected return and high living cost are the causations for economic layer. Based on the above analysis, countermeasures to improve the urban-living ability of land-losing farmers are put forward, such as improving the land expropriation system, establishing a multi-level social security system, enhancing the training and employment mechanism of land-losing farmers, and improving the quality of land-losing farmers.

  7. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  8. 76 FR 73647 - National Healthy Worksite Program; Information Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... long-term sustainability including evaluation, wellness committees, program champions, and leadership.... Worksite farmer's market, nutrition counseling/education, menu labeling on healthy foods, healthy foods...

  9. Logistic modelling of smallholder livestock farmers’ adoption of tree-based fodder technology in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Jera, R.; Ajayi, Olu Clifford

    2008-01-01

    Based on field data collected from 131 small scale dairy farmers that were randomly selected from four agro-ecological zones, this study assessed the potential of adoption of fodder bank technology as a means for improving livestock production and income generation for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. Using a logit modelling approach, it also identified the drivers of adoption of the technology by analysing the influence of household characteristics and ecological factors on farmers’ decisi...

  10. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal regulatory...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean....

  11. Danish farmers and investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some evidence on the push and pull factors that motivate farmers to expand across their home countries’ borders. The focus is on Danish expansion farmers and investor farmers setting up activities in Central and Eastern European countries like Slovakia...... model. The results indicate that the important factors for Danish farmers to extend overseas are price and availability of land, institutional governance, network and image with regard to farming. These findings generally support the literature regarding reasons for farmers to increase their cross...

  12. 京郊农民专业合作社发展问题探析%Analysis of Farmers' Professional Cooperatives Development Issues in the Suburbs of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车红莉

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, farmers' professional cooperatives in the suburbs of Beijing already have certain basis and scale, and played a leading role in guiding farmers to develop regional industry. In the process of rapid development of the farmers' professional cooperatives in the suburbs of Beijing, there was some problem such as cooperatives' small-scale, single product, the non-standard management and operation, lack of personnel, general shortage of funds, and limited management level, which restricted the development of cooperatives. So we should integrate the resource advantages, grow size of the farmers' professional cooperatives, trengthen cooperatives' standardized construction, improve farmers' professional cooperatives operating level, in order to ensure a healthy and sustainable large-scale development of farmers' professional cooperatives in the suburbs of Beijing.%近年来,京郊农民专业合作社已经具有一定基础和规模,在引导农民发展地区产业中发挥了主导作用。同时在京郊农民专业合作社快速发展的过程中也出现了合作社规模小、产品单一、管理运作不规范、人才匮乏、资金普遍短缺、经营管理水平有限等制约合作社发展的问题,因此应整合资源优势,不断壮大农民专业合作社规模,加强合作社的规范化建设,提升农民专业合作社的经营水平,保证京郊农民专业合作社的健康持续规模化发展。

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  14. Family farmers and Manioc in contemporary Brazil: the management of agrobiodiversity and change

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food in the North and NE of Brazil and is the main crop and source of sustenance for many thousands of small-scale family farmers. It is native to Brazil and has been cultivated and adapted over thousands of years by indigenous peoples and small-scale farmers. Some 500 million people in the tropics of the Americas, Africa and the Far East currently rely on manioc as a staple crop for their daily energy needs. The study focuses bo...

  15. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  16. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  17. The interaction effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer on the yield of wheat on small scale farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial to investigate the possibility of using farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer in small-scale farms was conducted at two sites in Njoro and Lare Divisions of Nakuru district. The manure levels were 6 tons /ha, 3 tons, 2 t/ha 3 tons /ha + 65kg DAP/ha while DAP at 130 kg/ha and DAP at 130 kg/ha + 40 kg N/ha were compared. Results showed that manure at 2 tons /ha had the lowest yield. The highest yield was obtained from application of 6 tons FYM/ha which did not differ significantly from that obtained from application 130 kg DAP/ha or 130 kg DAP/ha + 40 kg N/ha. This means that farmers in these areas can use FYM and get a reasonable yield. (author)

  18. Small Scale Evaporation Kinetics of a Binary Fluid Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdeo, Carl; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Mechanical Engineering Team; Pharmaceutical Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Evaporation induces a concentrating effect in liquid mixtures. The transient process has significant influence on the dynamic behaviors of a complex fluid. To simultaneously investigate the fluid properties and small-scale evaporation kinetics during the transient process, the quartz crystal microbalance is applied to a binary mixture droplet of light alcohols including both a single volatile component (a fast evaporation followed by a slow evaporation) and a mixture of two volatile components with comparable evaporation rates. The density and viscosity stratification are evaluated by the shear wave, and the evaporation kinetics is measured by the resonant signature of the acoustic p-wave. The evaporation flux can be precisely determined by the resonant frequency spikes and the complex impedance. To predict the concentration field, the moving interface, and the precision evaporation kinetics of the mixture, a multiphase model is developed to interpret the complex impedance signals based on the underlying mass and momentum transport phenomena. The experimental method and theoretical model are developed for better characterizing and understanding of the drying process involving liquid mixtures of protein pharmaceuticals.

  19. Small Scale Parallel Manipulator Kinematics for Flexible Snake Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisuddin Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale parallel manipulator is designed in this paper. The kinematic analysis of the manipulator is also elucidated for the development of multilinked snake robot. A compliant central colum is used to connect two parallel platforms of Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM. The compliant column allows the configuration to achieve 3 DOFs with 3 tendons of active materials connected between the upper and loer platform of the mechanism. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing an active linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. For an arbitrary angular displacement of the platforms, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. From the experimental result, the extreme bending of the central column plane of 30° angular displacement with the of the horizontal axis.

  20. Development of the Small Scale Violence Thermal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorber, Susan

    2011-06-01

    When developing new explosive formulations, one of the most important safety goals is to characterise the formulations' scale of response to thermal insults. Established tests provide indications of violence of response from thermal stimuli through dent/fragment analysis of heater anvils and visual observations. Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. Furthermore, the test has been designed so that it can accept pressed explosive pellets. This enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be if use in the screening of new materials. In continuation of previously published work describing the test development, twenty-seven new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to produce a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

  1. Small-scale dynamo action in rotating compressible convection

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Benjamin F N

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamo action in a convective layer of electrically-conducting, compressible fluid, rotating about the vertical axis. At the upper and lower bounding surfaces, perfectly-conducting boundary conditions are adopted for the magnetic field. Two different levels of thermal stratification are considered. If the magnetic diffusivity is sufficiently small, the convection acts as a small-scale dynamo. Using a definition for the magnetic Reynolds number $R_M$ that is based upon the horizontal integral scale and the horizontally-averaged velocity at the mid-layer of the domain, we find that rotation tends to reduce the critical value of $R_M$ above which dynamo action is observed. Increasing the level of thermal stratification within the layer does not significantly alter the critical value of $R_M$ in the rotating calculations, but it does lead to a reduction in this critical value in the non-rotating cases. At the highest computationally-accessible values of the magnetic Reynolds number, the saturation levels...

  2. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  3. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2011-01-01

    of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships......In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper, the behaviour of two non-slender piles in sand subjected to lateral loading are analysed by means...... it is revealed that the uncertainties of the results for the pile with a diameter of 40mm are large. The load-deflection relationships normalised as H/(L2Dγ’) and y/D indicate that the lateral load, H, is proportional to L2D. Comparison of the normalised load-deflection relationships for different stress levels...

  4. Velocities measured in small scale solar magnetic elements

    CERN Document Server

    Langangen, O; van der Voort, L R; Stein, R F; Carlsson, Mats; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution spectrograms of small scale magnetic structures with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We present Doppler measurements at $0\\farcs{2}$ spatial resolution of bright points, ribbons and flowers and their immediate surroundings, in the C {\\small{I}} 5380.3 {\\AA} line (formed in the deep photosphere) and the two Fe {\\small{I}} lines at 5379.6 {\\AA} and 5386.3 {\\AA}. The velocity inside the flowers and ribbons are measured to be almost zero, while we observe downflows at the edges. These downflows are increasing with decreasing height. We also analyze realistic magneto-convective simulations to obtain a better understanding of the interpretation of the observed signal. We calculate how the Doppler signal depends on the velocity field in various structures. Both the smearing effect of the non-negligible width of this velocity response function along the line of sight and of the smearing from the telescope and atmospheric point spread function are discussed. These studies lead us to t...

  5. Efficient small-scale dynamo in solar convection zone

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate small-scale dynamo action in the solar convection zone through a series of high resolution MHD simulations in a local Cartesian domain with 1$R_\\odot$ (solar radius) of horizontal extent and a radial extent from 0.715 to 0.96$R_\\odot$. The dependence of the solution on resolution and diffusivity is studied. For a grid spacing of less than 350 km, the root mean square magnetic field strength near the base of the convection zone reaches 95% of the equipartition field strength (i.e. magnetic and kinetic energy are comparable). For these solutions the Lorentz force feedback on the convection velocity is found to be significant. The velocity near the base of the convection zone is reduced to 50% of the hydrodynamic one. In spite of a significant decrease of the convection velocity, the reduction in the enthalpy flux is relatively small, since the magnetic field also suppresses the horizontal mixing of the entropy between up- and downflow regions. This effect increases the amplitude of the entropy pe...

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota.

  7. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Green

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a water-tight barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachement complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement.. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organising cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  8. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  9. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, T. S.; Price, D. J.; Federrath, C.

    2016-05-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small- scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of starforming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning method may be used to achieve ∇ • B = 0 to machine precision, albeit at significant computational expense.

  10. Small Scale Energy Cascade of the Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrova, O; Veltri, P; Sorriso-Valvo, L

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are distributed according to Kolmogorov's power law $f^{-5/3}$ below the ion cyclotron frequency $f_{ci}$. Above this frequency, the observed steeper power law is usually interpreted in two different ways: a dissipative range of the solar wind turbulence or another turbulent cascade, the nature of which is still an open question. Using the Cluster magnetic data we show that after the spectral break the intermittency increases toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of non-linear interactions inherent to a new inertial range and not to the dissipative range. At the same time the level of compressible fluctuations raises. We show that the energy transfer rate and intermittency are sensitive to the level of compressibility of the magnetic fluctuations within the small scale inertial range. We conjecture that the time needed to establish this inertial range is shorter than the eddy-turnover time, and is related to dispersive effects. A simple phenomenological mod...

  11. Some features of the small-scale solar wind fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastenker, G.; Eiges, P.; Avanov, L.; Astafyeva, N.; Zurbuchen, Th.; Bochsler, P.

    1995-06-01

    We have investigated small-scale variations of the solar wind ion flux measured with Faraday cups onboard the Prognoz-8 satellite. These measurements have a high time resolution of 1.24 seconds for intervals with a duration of several hours and as high as 0.02 seconds for some periods of about 1 hour duration. The main goal of this work is the determination of the quantitative features of fast ion flux fluctuations using mainly spectral analysis but also other methods. We also identify their association with interplanetary plasma parameters. Particularly, it is shown that the slope of the power spectra in the frequency range from 1E-4 to 6E-2 Hz is close to the classical Kolmogorov (-5/3) law. We also discuss some intervals with a very high level of the relative amplitude of flux fluctuations (10-20 percent) which were observed near the Earth's bow shock in the foreshock region. The use of the wavelet method for the long time series allows us to study the temporal evolution of power spectra.

  12. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  13. Small Scale Clustering of Late Forming Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Shankar; Das, Subinoy; Rasera, Yann

    2014-01-01

    We perform a study of the non-linear clustering of matter in the Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) scenario in which dark matter results from the transition of non-minimally coupled scalar field from radiation to collisionless matter. A distinct feature of this model is the presence of a damped oscillatory cut-off in the linear matter power spectrum at small scales. We use a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to study the imprints of LFDM on the non-linear matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and the halo density profiles. The model satisfies high-redshift matter power spectrum constraints from Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest measurements. We find suppressed abundance of low mass halos ($\\sim 10^{9}-10^{10}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$) at all redshifts compared to a vanilla $\\Lambda$CDM model. Furthermore, in this mass range we find significant deviations with respect to predictions from the Sheth-Tormen mass function. Halos with mass $M\\gtrsim 10^{11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$ show minor departures of the density pr...

  14. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350,000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows.

  15. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  16. Decision making pattern of subsistence farmers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Philip Kostov

    2004-01-01

    Economic research by and large is dominated by a ‘rationality’ paradigm. Economic decision making within this paradigm is viewed as a maximising procedure. In general the latter represents the decision-making as a choice amongst a well defined set of alternatives. In this paper we question this and analyse the options of the small-scale subsistence farmers in Bulgaria in the way they see them. By applying mental accounting methodology we deduce some significant characteristics of Bulgarian su...

  17. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiri G. Amedjoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or using backhoes. Sluicing, panning followed by mercury amalgamation and then roasting to recover the gold is the beneficiation method in use. Riverine waste rocks/tailings disposal is the main management invoked, however some companies do sell their waste to construction firms. Environmentally mining operations are impacting rivers with siltation, mercury pollution, channel diversions and possibly change in heavy metals concentration and water chemistry. Vast arable lands are degraded leaving peasant farmers with no livelihood due to failure by concessionaires to reclaim lands after closure. Only two companies out of the eleven somehow demonstrated environmental consciousness by constructing small tailings dam and backfilling some pits.

  18. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  19. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

  20. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah K. Okuthe; Felix Kioli; Paul Abuom

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies a...

  1. Efficiency of small-scale farmers in Ethiopia: a case study in the Baso and Warana sub-district

    OpenAIRE

    Belete, Abenet; Dillon, John L.; Anderson, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the possibilities of improving production and income on small farms through better allocation of resources. It pertains to the area that represents the low potential cereal crops zone (LPCZ) of Ethiopian highlands in the Shoa region. The basic primary data were drawn from 50 randomly selected farms in the area, and secondary data were obtained from ILCA. LP and MOTAD are used as analytical tools. The results of the study indicates a substantial potent...

  2. Interactive Design of Farm Conversion : linking Agricultural Research and Farmer Learning for Sustainable Small Scale Horticulture Production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  4. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  5. Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  7. Modelling Relativistic Astrophysics at the Large and Small Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugboelle, Troels

    2005-10-01

    In this thesis different numerical methods, as well as applications of the methods to a number of current problems in relativistic astrophysics, are presented. In the first part the theoretical foundation and numerical implementation of a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code is discussed. A new form of the equations of motion using global coordinates, but evolving the dynamical variables from the point of view of a local observer is presented. No assumptions are made about the background metric and the design is ready to be coupled with methods solving the full Einstein equations. In the second part of the thesis important results concerning the understanding of collisionless shocks, obtained from experiments with a relativistic charged particle code, are presented. Relativistic collisionless shocks are important in a range of astrophysical objects; in particular in gamma ray burst afterglows and other relativistic jets. It is shown that a strong small scale, fluctuating, and predominantly transversal magnetic field is unavoidably generated by a two-stream instability. The magnetic energy density reaches a few percent of equipartition. A new acceleration mechanism for electrons in ion-electron collisionless shocks is proposed. The mechanism is capable of creating a powerlaw electron distribution in a collisionless shocked region. The non-thermal acceleration of the electrons is directly related to the ion current channels generated by the two-stream instability and is local in nature. Thus the observed radiation field may be tied directly to the local conditions of the plasma and could be a strong handle on the physical processes. (abridged)

  8. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  9. Small Scale Structure of the ISM Toward NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. D.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Murphy, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    The spatial structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) is affected by many processes including bulk turbulence, winds from massive stars, and supernovae. But it has only been in the last few years that structure on scales ~1 parsec and less have been recognized. Most studies have been done by observing spatial or temporal changes in optical and radio spectra. For example, ground-based time series observations of Na I toward δ Ori A spanning several decades (Price, Crawford, & Barlow 2000, MNRAS 312, L43) as well as observations of Na I toward stars in globular cluster M92 (Andrews, Meyer, & Lauroesch, 2001, ApJ 552, L73) reveal structure on scales of 102 to 104 AU, respectively. Frail et al. (1991, ApJ 382, 168) inferred variation in the H I column density over tens of AU from 21 cm observations of a pulsar moving through the ISM. We report on observations of four stars in the open cluster NGC 2264, covering 910-1187Å, using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. These are among the first UV studies of the small scale structure of the ISM. All target stars are classified as B2V or B3V, and have similar reddening characteristics, 0.05 <= EB-V <= 0.08. At a cluster distance of 750 pc the star-to-star separations range from 1.4 to 3.6 pc. We discuss variations in column densities of several species along these sight lines, including H2 and Fe II. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-32985 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  10. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. The Internationalization of Alternative Food Networks: Farmers' Markets, Community Gardens, and Agricultural Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Cody, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on various sites of an international farmer exchange program, this research examines the geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural relevance of Northern-based alternative food networks in the context of a less developed country, specifically Peru. In theory, alternative food networks (AFNs) revalorize small-scale farmers, rebuild local food systems, and strengthen ties between consumers and producers. Efforts to promote AFNs and scholarship exploring these efforts are largely confined ...

  12. Is the Production of Embryos in Small-Scale Farming an Economically Feasible Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Z; Lammoglia, M A; Alarcón, M A; Romero, J J; Galina, C S

    2015-08-01

    The present assay attempts to evaluate the feasibility of using embryo transfer in small community farmers by in vivo study and by modelling the results obtained. From the total of 59 donor cows, 62.7% responded to treatment, with a significant difference (p = 0.002) in the percentage of the response between breeds, being 90.5% (19/21) in Holstein and 47.4% (18/38) in Brahman. A total of 283 embryos were graded as transferable, while 141 as non-transferable, without difference in the percentage of transferable embryo by breed (p = 0.18). The mean of transferable embryos graded as class I and II was not different between Holstein and Brahman (p = 0.96 and p = 0.92, respectively); besides, no differences were observed in the other grades (non-transferable). The highest difference in costs, regardless of its quality by breed, was seen in the lower levels of probable fertility of the embryo transferred, even reaching several hundred dollars. When modelling the expected costs for embryo produced and transferred, values can reach nearly $2000.00 when the probable fertility is only 10%. However, when the probable fertility was 60%, embryo cost was close to $300.00. This technology seems to be viable on average or high-scale systems, having a superovulatory response between 60 and 80% with 4-6 transferrable embryos. Yet, in small-scale farming, due to the reduced number of donors and/or recipients, the costs surpass the economical feasibility of the technique. PMID:25916499

  13. Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Castano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale digesters, similar to popular Chinese designs, have the potential to address the energy needs of smaller dairy farmers in temperate U.S. climates. To assess this potential, a 1.14 m3 (300 gallon modified fixed-dome digester was installed and operated, at variable temperatures (5.3 to 27.9 °C typical of the Midwestern United States, from March 2010 to March 2011 (363 days. Temperature, gas production, and other variables were recorded. The system was fed with dilute dairy manure with 6% volatile solids (VS and an organic loading rate (OLR ranging from 0.83 to 2.43 kg volatile solids (VS/m3/day. The system was loaded with no interruption and exhibited no signs of inhibition from July 2010 to mid-November 2010 (129 days. During this period the digester temperature was over 20 °C with an average daily biogas production of 842 ± 69 L/day, a methane yield of 0.168 m3/kg VS added, and a Volatile Solids reduction of 36%. After the temperature dropped below 20 °C, the digester showed signs of inhibition and soured. These findings suggest that an ambient temperature, modified fixed dome digester could operate without temperature inhibition for approximately six months (169 days a year in a temperate climate when digester temperatures exceed 20 °C. However, during colder months the digester temperature must maintained above 20 °C for viable gas production year round.

  14. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1) on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, L; Kume, K.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha) is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1) of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P), Limousi...

  15. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  16. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop

  17. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  18. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  19. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop

  20. Small-Scale Industries in Jordan in the Globalization Era Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem M. Lozi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research probes the implications of globalization and domestic economic liberalization for small-scale industries and analysis its growth performance. The research concludes with policy recommendations to ensure the sustenance and competitive growth of small-scale industries in Jordan. Results of the study show that the growth of small scale industries in Jordan in terms of units, employment, output and exports has come up due to globalization, domestic liberalization and dilution of sector specific measures. The government should involve the private sector in the development of infrastructure, to enable efficient monitoring and good facilities to the small scale industries. There is a need to create fund at the government level for disbursement as margin money through district industries centers to small scale industries units to encourage them to undertake technological innovations. A technological vibrant, internationally competitive small scale industries sector should be encouraged to emerge, to make a sustainable contribution to national income, employment and exports.

  1. Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Ilja Sonnemann; Hans Pfestorf; Florian Jeltsch; Susanne Wurst

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calc...

  2. Mercury Pollution Due to Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Orbeta, Aniceto C.; Israel, Danilo C.; Asirot, Jasminda

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews small-scale gold mining in the Philippines and economically assesses mercury pollution and other development problems in the industry. The end purpose is to suggest measures to address the problems and promote better environmental and overall management of small-scale mining. The study has used secondary data from mining institutions and primary data from key informants and small-scale gold miners and processors in the two case study sites. brazzer

  3. Mercury Pollution Due to Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Asirot, Jasminda

    2002-01-01

    The study reviews small-scale gold mining in the Philippines and assesses economically mercury pollution and other development problems of the industry. The end purpose is to suggest measures to address the problems and promote better environmental and overall management of small-scale mining. The study uses secondary data from mining institutions as well as primary data from key informants and small-scale gold miners and processors in the two case study sites.

  4. Technical efficiency and small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian coastal villages: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sesabo, J.K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effort to conserve fisheries resources and improve the welfare of small-scale fishing households is an important objective of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) in Tanzania. The success of such strategies depends both on the variation and the level of efficiency within small-scale fishing households. This paper examines the technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzania using data from two coastal villages (Mlingotini and Nyamanzi). A stochastic frontier (with technica...

  5. Small-scale expression of proteins in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbs, Sarah; Giuliani, Sarah; Collart, Frank

    2014-01-01

    . Despite these advantages, many targets are unsuitable for expression in E. coli, and attempts will not yield protein that can be utilized in downstream applications. A thorough understanding of the protein target, the requirements of the final application, and available tools are all essential for planning a successful expression experiment. This protocol is designed to optimize expression and solubility using an E. coli host and expression vector with an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter. The general features of the method are easily extended to other organisms and expression systems. Small-scale expression cultures are used to identify the optimum expression parameters for a given target. Thorough analysis of the total cell content and soluble fraction is used to screen out failed targets and those unlikely to succeed in large-scale purification cultures. The protocol listed here can be used in individual tubes for a small number of targets or adapted for use in 48-well plates for high throughput applications (Abdullah et al., 2009). Using the same culture for initial expression analysis and solubility analysis reduces variability between expression trials and saves the time required to produce separate cultures.

  6. Small-scale expression of proteins in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbs, Sarah; Giuliani, Sarah; Collart, Frank

    2014-01-01

    . Despite these advantages, many targets are unsuitable for expression in E. coli, and attempts will not yield protein that can be utilized in downstream applications. A thorough understanding of the protein target, the requirements of the final application, and available tools are all essential for planning a successful expression experiment. This protocol is designed to optimize expression and solubility using an E. coli host and expression vector with an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter. The general features of the method are easily extended to other organisms and expression systems. Small-scale expression cultures are used to identify the optimum expression parameters for a given target. Thorough analysis of the total cell content and soluble fraction is used to screen out failed targets and those unlikely to succeed in large-scale purification cultures. The protocol listed here can be used in individual tubes for a small number of targets or adapted for use in 48-well plates for high throughput applications (Abdullah et al., 2009). Using the same culture for initial expression analysis and solubility analysis reduces variability between expression trials and saves the time required to produce separate cultures. PMID:24423272

  7. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    develop into potholes; - Although in general the natural infiltration of the terrains surrounding the roads is sufficient, in some road sections water from adjacent sloping terrain brings extra water on the road; - A thin cover of leaves on the footpaths and road sections with low car traffic improves the infiltration in the road, and reduces the run-off to other the road sections to nearly zero. Leaves along the roadside also help to retard and reduce the run-off over the roads. However leaves on or along the road are not tolerated by most inhabitants, the roads need to be 'clean'. Our conclusion: Each dirt road is unique, but also within one dirt road there are important geological differences that have consequences for its maintenance. Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small-scale erosion processes can help to improve the management of dirt roads. References Gemeente Ede, Nota Zandwegen, 2009.

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  10. An Impact Analysis of Farmer Field School in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Cai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Farmer Field School (FFS intervention among small-scale tomato farmers in Beijing. Using data collected by face-to face-interview from 358 households on 426 planting plots in 2009, we evaluate the yield effect and find evidence of positive impact. We then examine the determining factors of farmers’ FFS attendance using the zero-inflated Poisson model. We find evidence of the positive impact of the FFS program on male participants but no impact on female participants. We find that some factors, such as being the household head, wealth level and land size affect both FFS participation decisions and attendance decisions, whereas other factors may affect only one decision but not the other. The results suggest that FFS is a useful way to increase production of farmers in Beijing and that the approach is especially effective for male and wealthy producers with smaller farm sizes and higher literacy.

  11. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  12. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  13. Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafiriti, EM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001. The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Farmers' preferred varieties with short to medium maturity period, which produce many tillers and mature uniformly; and with long translucent aromatic grains for their own use and marketing. This study identified qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria which farmers are using for selecting rice varieties. The implication for further research on rice in south east Tanzania is that the breeding programme should incorporate these attributes to address farmers' preferences, rather than to go for absolute maximum yield levels.

  14. Are Co-operatives a Way to Integrate Small Farmers in Supply Chain Networks? Preliminary Thoughts on Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon H.; Török, Timea

    2009-01-01

    Vertical coordination in agri-food chains is a significant and increasing phenomenon in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). It has been observed that this development prefers large scale production. However, the agricultural sector is still a mixture of small scale and large scale farming in these countries. Hence, for small scale farmers, horizontal collaboration can be assumed to be a prerequisite for remaining in the market. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to investigate wh...

  15. Economic importance of the dutch non-commercial small-scale fleet

    OpenAIRE

    BARTELINGS H.; Oostenbrugge, van, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics, costs and revenues of the so-called noncommercial small-scale fleet based on a survey sent to all the skippers owning a vessel that according to the LEI definition falls within the category of non-commercial small-scale fisheries. With this data the economic importance of this part of the fleet can be determined.

  16. Methodological foundations of evaluation of effectiveness indicators of small-scale business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological approach to the measurement of financial indicators of small-scale enterprises has been developed. It enables to secure the comparability of financial condition indicators and the results of small-scale enterprise activities, and also to develop the methods of vertical integral estimate calculation at separate aspects of financial condition and the results of smallscale enterprise activities.

  17. Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on th

  18. Wine Grape Production: A Promising Enterprise for Small Scale Enterprises in North Carolina?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson-Moore, Kenrett Y.; Bynum, Jarvetta S.; Mosley, Jannety M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate wine grape production as a promising enterprise for small scale enterprises in North Carolina. Although results indicate that wine grape production is an ideal alternative enterprise for small scale producers, growers will have to wait at least 15 years to receive a complete return on the initial investment.

  19. FarmLime manual: for small-scale production of agricultural lime

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.; Mwanza, M.

    2005-01-01

    This manual is a concise guide to the small-scale production of agricultural lime. It was developed as part of a research project, ‘Low-cost lime for small-scale farming’ otherwise known as FarmLime (Mitchell, CJ, 2005). The ideal agricultural lime is a ground dolomite or dolomitic limestone with a particle size of 100%

  20. Category, narrative and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, small-scale fisheries have had an important place in fisheries social science and in fisheries management. While there has been substantial discussion of what constitutes the category of small-scale fisheries, its considerable ambiguity is nevertheless often passed over. This paper

  1. 15N tracer application to evaluate nitrogen dynamics of food webs in two subtropical small-scale aquaculture ponds under different managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Johannes; Mayrhofer, Richard; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Focken, Ulfert

    2014-01-01

    Small, semi-intensively managed aquaculture ponds contribute significantly to the food security of small-scale farmers around the world. However, little is known about nutrient flows within natural food webs in such ponds in which fish production depends on the productivity of natural food resources. (15)N was applied as ammonium at 1.1 and 0.4 % of total nitrogen in a traditionally managed flow-through pond and a semi-intensively managed stagnant pond belonging to small-scale farmers in Northern Vietnam and traced through the natural food resources over 7 days. Small-sized plankton (1-60 μ m) was the dominant pelagic biomass in both ponds with higher biomass in the stagnant pond. This plankton assimilated major portions of the applied tracer and showed a high sedimentation and turnover rate. High re-activation of settled nutrients into the pelagic food web was observed. The tracer was removed more quickly from the flow-through pond than from the stagnant pond. A steady nutrient supply could increase fish production.

  2. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  3. Farmer research and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Anna; Lilja, Nina

    2004-01-01

    In this brief, we learn that "combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective action for different purposes and at different stages in the innovation process. Collective action can be useful in sharing knowledge, setting priorities, and experimenting with, evaluating, and disseminating technologies." The authors describe various partic...

  4. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  5. Farmer Productivity at Various Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1993-01-01

    The productivity of farmers at six different age cohorts was computed by estimating production functions using 1987 census data. The results suggest that farmers of different ages operate with slightly different technologies and use various inputs at different efficiencies. Compared with previous 1978 estimates, the productivity of middleaged farmers appears to be even greater than the productivity of younger and older farmers. The average age of U.S. farmers exceeds the age of highest produc...

  6. Binary Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Evidence for Excess Clustering on Small Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Hennawi, J F; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, Neta A; Brunner, R J; Brinkmann, J; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Richards, Gordon T.; Pindor, Bartosz; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Fan, Xiaohui; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brunner, Robert J.; Brinkman, Jon

    2006-01-01

    We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R_prop 3 Mpc/h quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to ~ 30 at R_prop ~ 10 kpc/h, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

  7. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  8. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  9. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  10. Impact of small-scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kengo; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type-Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. The existence of the small-scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger-diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small-scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter α(z) as a function of the redshift z so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter α(z) satisfying 0≤α(z)≤1 is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small-scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

  11. Regeneratively-Cooled, Turbopump-Fed, Small-Scale Cryogenic Rocket Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To-date, the realization of small-scale, high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines has largely been limited by the inability to operate at high chamber...

  12. Small-scale gold mining : examples from Bolivia, Philippines and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Norman S

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three small-scale mining operations in Bolivia, the Philippines and Zimbabwe. Focuses on issues of health and safety, legislation, links with large mines, and the coordination of assistance.

  13. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  14. Hyperdiffusion in non-linear, large and small-scale turbulent dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, K

    2003-01-01

    The generation of large-scale magnetic fields is generically accompanied by the more rapid growth of small-scale fields. The growing Lorentz force due to these fields back reacts on the turbulence to saturate the mean-field and small-scale dynamos. For the mean-field dynamo, in a quasi-linear treatment of this saturation, it is generally thought that, while the alpha-effect gets renormalised and suppressed by non-linear effects, the turbulent diffusion is left unchanged. We show here that this is not true and the effect of the Lorentz forces, is also to generate additional non-linear hyperdiffusion of the mean field. A combination of such non-linear hyperdiffusion with diffusion at small scales, also arises in a similar treatment of small-scale dynamos, and is crucial to understand its saturation.

  15. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  16. A new framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the "shortwave approximation", which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a "background metric", but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an "effective stress-energy tensor" that is traceless and has positive energy density---corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy....

  17. Evaluation in Component Technology Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Gunarif Taib; Santosa Santosa; Masrul Djalal; Helmi Helmi

    2014-01-01

    The development of small-scale food industry cluster is influenced by the technology component. Because it required accurate information about the importance of existing technology components. This study aims to evaluate the technology components that are known several important factors that need to be improved so that clusters of small-scale food industries can thrive. This research using the program Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the level of importance of each variable based...

  18. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

  19. Design and testing of small-scale thin-film palm oil refinery

    OpenAIRE

    Kooptanond, C.; Wanichwiriya, S.; Limworaphan, C.; Klinpikul, S.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing improvement of a small-scale palmoil refinery was carried out as a continuity of the development of palmoil refinery under the Royal Project for promotion of Small-scale Palmoil Industry. The intended objective is to develop a continuous palmoil refining process which has a higher effeciency than the existing batch refining process. The thin-film refining thechnique was selected among various semi-continuous and continuous refining processes. A pilot palmoil refinery at...

  20. Measurements on the small scale Sterrebeek and full scale Herzele test sections in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    BERGIERS, Anneleen; GOUBERT, Luc; Cesbron, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Two small scale 'pilot' test sections have been constructed in Sterrebeek on a private road without traffic to gain experience with the construction method. These construction works demonstrated that a 'regular' asphalt paver can be used for onsite PERS constructions. Then a full scale test track has been constructed on a road with regular traffic in Herzele. The result of the first small scale construction was an inhomogeneous test section as the mix hardened too quickly and the construct...

  1. Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.

  2. Effective Utilization of a Small-Scale Municipal Solid Waste for Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Ujama; F. Ebohb; T.O.Chimec

    2013-01-01

    Quantity of small scale municipal solid waste available in each of the states of Nigeria was assessed and determined. Physical and Chemical characteristics of the various types of solid wastes were analysed and their values estimated. Thermal analysis of a small-scale municipal solid waste-fired steam generator was done. The analysis was based on the selected design parameters: operating steam pressure of 10 bar, with fuel consumption rate of 500 Kg/h and combustion chamber which utilizes mas...

  3. Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, S

    2011-01-01

    In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and adverse health outcomes among women working in small...

  4. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Niladri Basu; Renne, Elisha P.; Rachel N. Long

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Thou...

  5. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  6. Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

  7. Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health - theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...

  8. Organic and alike farming in Latin America: state and relevance for small-scale livestock keepers

    OpenAIRE

    Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2007-01-01

    While the organic movement is growing, its contribution to small-scale livestock farm-ing in Latin America is contentious. Secondary literature and available statistics were used for this study. Farms and area under certified organic agriculture are rising, but small-scale livestock farming is little represented. The latter is yet to be found in non-certified organic-like farms, offering locally adapted paths to securing livelihoods.

  9. Rural Small Scale Enterprises in Zambia: Results of a 1985 Country-Wide Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Milimo, John T.; Fisseha, Yacob

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a nationwide survey of small scale enterprises in Zambia conducted during 1985. The survey was undertaken in the rural and semi-urban (population below 50,000) localities of the country except for those in the Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. All small scale non-farm enterprises employing 50 people or less and operating from a fixed location in these areas were included.

  10. Inclusion of small-scale milk producers in modern dairy value chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee(이복, Bok-Rye, 례)

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for milk is ever-increasing. The question we address here is how small-scale milk producers, mainly based in developing countries, can participate in modern dairy value chains? First, markets should have the preconditions of a reliable market, a competitive milk price and access to essential services and inputs. Second, small-scale producers need to improve farm management practices (feeding, breeding, control animal diseases) to become economically and environmentally mo...

  11. A Methodological Approach to Evaluate Livestock Innovations on Small-Scale Farms in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Antón García-Martínez; José Rivas-Rangel; Jaime Rangel-Quintos; José Antonio Espinosa; Cecilio Barba; Carmen de-Pablos-Heredero

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was deepening the knowledge of livestock innovations knowledge on small-scale farms in developing countries. First, we developed a methodology focused on identifying potential appropriate livestock innovations for smallholders and grouped them in innovation areas, defined as a set of well-organized practices with a business purpose. Finally, a process management program (PMP) was evaluated according to the livestock innovation level and viability of the small-scale farms....

  12. Farming of rabbit local breed as an alternative activity on small scale farms in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Llambiri A.; Papa L.; Kume K.

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit breeding on small scale family farms is carried on as an alternative production activity, in Albania. Extensive production system and breeding of local rabbit breed are most frequent. Albanian local rabbit can be classified in middle size breed group. It is a population with high morphological and biological variability, with variation in coat colour. Rabbit farming is a useful production activity on small scale family farms. Breeding 2-3 couples of reproducing rabbits could increase t...

  13. The Problematic of Small-Scale Land Acquisition (Less than 5 Hectares for Public Interest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Okhtalia Setiabudhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land acquisition for public interest development is stipulated in Act No. 2 of 2012 concerning Land Acquisition for Development of Public Interest. One arrangement of land acquisition in legal substances that have been formed are small-scale land acquisition (less than 5 hectares, but it is still governed by very vague and thus susceptible to the multi-interpretation and raises doubts in its implementation. This paper discusses the problematic that arise due to unclear regulations concerning small-scale land acquisition and to provide solutions to these problems. Based on the discussion the authors concluded first, the problematic of small-scale land acquisition is the arrangement of land acquisition that is so vague that there is no clarity regarding the procedures for determining of location, the phase of land acquisition, which excludes public consultation, there is no regulation regarding preventive measures against the impact for the community around location of land acquisition. Second, the solution could be found to this problem is a regulation of small-scale land acquisition should ideally be regulated more comprehensively considering that small-scale land acquisition allows the emergence of adverse effects for the community around location of land acquisition so that the stages of planning and preparation that is set for the large-scale land acquisition is similarly applied for small-scale.

  14. Bringing farmers together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zake, J.; Walaga, C.; Jager, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs

  15. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  16. Age and Farmer Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1994-01-01

    Farmer productivity by age was estimated, allowing for differences because of efficiency and returns to scale. Using Census of Agriculture data, estimates vary by state, but returns to scale average 1.07. Efficiency increases average 4.5 percent every ten years of age, to the age interval 35 to 44, and then decreases at that same rate.

  17. Influence of guanxi, trust and farmer-specific factors on participation in emerging vegetable markets in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Feng, S.

    2008-01-01

    The fast development of market outlets (e.g., supermarkets, processing industries, international markets) in China provides rich opportunities for small-scale farmers to upgrade quality and increase income. However, the high level of transaction costs incurred in small-volume-based vegetable transac

  18. Ways of removal of legislative and regulatory contradictions in sphere of small-scale business state administration

    OpenAIRE

    Mytnyk, Ulyana Mykolayivna

    2011-01-01

    Author investigated the problems of small-scale business state administration. The legislative and regulatory basis which regulates the small-scale business management was considered in the article. Legislative and regulatory contradictions were revealed in sphere of small-scale business state administration. The ways of removal of the conflictness were offered.

  19. Determining the economic liability of implementing irrigation on small-scale farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, limited resource farmers are often the primary providers of fresh foods for rural communities. However, they face often insurmountable economic challenges to staying in business. The small and limited resource farmer has declined at an alarming rate. The reasons for the decline or disappearan...

  20. Assessing the Efficiency of Small-Scale and Bottom Trawler Vessels in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pinello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the technical and scale efficiency of two types of Greek fishing vessels, small-scale vessels and bottom trawlers, using a bias-corrected input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis model. Moreover, the associations between efficiency scores and vessel’s and skipper’s characteristics are also explored. The results indicate that small-scale vessels achieve a very low average technical efficiency score (0.42 but a much higher scale efficiency score (0.81. Conversely, bottom trawlers achieve lower scale but higher technical efficiency scores (0.68 and 0.73, respectively. One important finding of this study is that the technical efficiency of small-scale vessels, in contrast to trawlers, is positively associated with the experience of the skipper. In a looser context, it can be said that small-scale fisheries mainly rely on skill, whereas bottom trawlers rely more on technology. This study concludes that there is space for improvement in efficiency, mainly for small-scale vessels, which could allow the achievement of the same level of output by using reduced inputs.

  1. Government Policies on Small Scale Poultry Business and Environmental Health in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The government paid great attention to develop small-scale poultry business, to reduce poverty alleviation and increase employment opportunities. The government has established various policies to encourage the growth of poultry production cluster (PPC in rural areas. However, the fact shows that these policies have not been able to solve the problems. Small-scale poultry business is particularly vulnerable to economic changes, including animal diseases. The economic crisis of 1997-1998 and avian influenza outbreaks in 2004-2006 had caused most of small-scale enterprises collapsed. Government policies to develop small scale poultry business which is environmental friendly are required so its existence does not disturb the public. Since 2006, the government has established various policies, ie. Village Poultry Farming (VPF and compartment structuring. Based on evaluation and existing cases, the results have no meet the expectation yet, due to lack of sustain supervision. On the other hand, small scale poultry business has been set up on PPC’s under partnerships with companies. The government is expected to continue VPF program and should pay attention to the development of PPC that basically has been accepted by rural communities.

  2. A small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Mu, Wenjun; Zhang, Luyang; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    A magneto-rheological bearing (MRB) is proposed to improve the vibration isolation performance of a floating slab track system. However, it's difficult to carry out the test for the full-scale track vibration isolation system in the laboratory. In this paper, the research is based on scale analysis of the floating slab track system, from the point view of the dimensionless of the dynamic characteristics of physical quantity, to establish a small scale test bench system for the MRBs. A small scale MRB with squeeze mode using magneto-rheological grease is designed and its performance is tested. The major parameters of a small scale test bench are obtained according to the similarity theory. The force transmissibility ratio and the relative acceleration transmissibility ratio are selected as evaluation index of system similarity. Dynamics of these two similarity systems are calculated by MATLAB experiment. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the prototype and scale models have good similarity. Further, a test bench is built according to the small-scale model parameter analysis. The experiment shows that the bench testing results are consistency with that of theoretical model in evaluating the vibration force and acceleration. Therefore, the small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system based on similarity theory reveals the isolation performance of a real slab track prototype system.

  3. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  4. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling.

  6. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina; Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal;

    -slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models p-y curves are conducted and compared to current design regulations. It is found that the recommendations in API (1993) and DNV...... (1992) are in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p-y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p-y curves, is found to be dependent on the pile diameter, i.e. the initial stiffness increases with increasing pile diameter. Further, the dependency is found to be in agreement...... with the suggestions in Sørensen et al. (2010). It is found that considerable uncertainties are related to small-scale testing, and the different evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure....

  7. Crustal concealing of small-scale core-field secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Olsen, Nils; Thebault, E.;

    2009-01-01

    out, on empirical grounds, that temporal changes in the field of internal origin produced by the induced part of the lithospheric magnetization could dominate the core field signal beyond degree 22. This short note revisits this issue by taking advantage of our improved knowledge of the small-scale...... field changes and of the likely sources of the lithospheric field. We rely on a simple extrapolation of the observed spatial spectrum of the field changes beyond degree 16 and use a forward approach based on a recent geological model of lithospheric magnetization. This leads us to confirm that the main...... limitation to the observation of the core field small-scale secular variation is not so much its concealing by the field of lithospheric origin but its fast changing nature and small magnitude. This leads us to conclude that whereas cumulative small-scale lithospheric field changes might be detected some day...

  8. Small Scale Effect on Thermal Vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Nonlocal Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a single beam model has been developed to analyze the thermal vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT. The nonlocal elasticity takes into account the effect of small size into the formulation and the boundary condition. With exact solution of the dynamic governing equations, the thermal-vibrational characteristics of a cantilever SWCNT are obtained. Influence of nonlocal small scale effects, temperature change and vibration modes of the CNT on the frequency are investigated. The present study shows that the additional boundary conditions from small scale do not change natural frequencies at different temperature change. Thus for simplicity, one can apply the local boundary condition to replace the small scale boundary condition.

  9. Shelterbelts and farmers needs

    OpenAIRE

    Onyewotu, L.O.Z.; Stigter, C.J.; Abdullahi, Y.; Ariyo, J.

    2003-01-01

    As a response to desertification and long periods of drought in Northern Nigeria in the 1970s, the Kano State Forestry Department designed a programme of land rehabilitation using shelterbelts. It soon became clear, however, that the shelterbelts had design errors and had many disadvantages. Farmers had not been consulted when they had been established and this added to their sense of dissatisfaction with the measures implemented. In this article the authors use the Nigerian experience to str...

  10. Diffusion and radiation in magnetized collisionless plasmas with small-scale Whistler turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2016-04-01

    > Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas - which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation - is tightly related to their energy and pitch-angle diffusion. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of particle transport in cold, `small-scale' Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  11. Preferential Sampling and Small-Scale Clustering of Gyrotactic Microswimmers in Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, K.; Berglund, F.; Jonsson, P. R.; Mehlig, B.

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies show that spherical motile microorganisms in turbulence subject to gravitational torques gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. By analyzing a statistical model we analytically compute how shape affects the dynamics, preferential sampling, and small-scale spatial clustering. We find that oblong organisms may spend more time in up-welling regions of the flow, and that all organisms are biased to regions of positive fluid-velocity gradients in the upward direction. We analyze small-scale spatial clustering and find that oblong particles may either cluster more or less than spherical ones, depending on the strength of the gravitational torques.

  12. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...... levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners....

  13. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  14. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  15. A small scale magnetically levitated train for project-based laboratory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glehn Gregor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The drive train of a small scale magnetically levitated train reveals the principles of a mechatronic system and offers challenges related to design, construction and control. Therefore, it is used at the Institute of electrical Machines (IEM of the RWTH Aachen University as a demonstrator for engineering solutions. Instead of being a part of a static predefined student laboratory, the small scale magnetically levitated train is part of dynamic individual student projects. This approach provides the advantage that the students are directly involved in the engineering process and gain motivation out of their personal ideas becoming reality.

  16. A small scale cell culture system to analyze mechanobiology using reporter gene constructs and polyurethane dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefried, Lothar; Mueller-Deubert, Sigrid; Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz;

    2010-01-01

    of mechanotransduction and its crosstalk with biochemically induced signal transduction, AP1 and SP1 luciferase reporter gene constructs were cloned and transfected into various cell lines and primary cells. A newly developed bioreactor and small-scale 24-well polyurethane dishes were used to apply cyclic stretching...... to the transfected cells. 1 Hz cyclic stretching for 30 min in this system resulted in a significant stimulation of AP1 and SP1 mediated luciferase activity compared to unstimulated cells. In summary we describe a small-scale cell culture/bioreactor system capable of analyzing subcellular crosstalk mechanisms...

  17. A Review of Milk Production in Pakistan with Particular Emphasis on Small-scale Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Otto; Mahmood, Kalid; Hemme, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the economics of dairy farming in Pakistan and the prospects for improving the dairy income for small-scale producers, which currently form the backbone of the dairy industry. The document begins with a general overview of milk production in the country, followed by a detailed study of dairy farming in the province of Punjab, with a particular focus on the small-scale producers. Preliminary estimates of the margins in the formal and informal market for li...

  18. 农村小型水利设施建设主体缺位研究%Research on Absence of Construction Subject of Rural Water Conservancy Projects of Small Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦春生

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of rural water conservancy projects of small scale were elaborated.The reasons of investment subject absence on rural water conservancy projects of small scale were analyzed from the investors define,grassroots cadres management and the confidence of farmers,and the appropriate countermeasures were proposed.%阐述了农村小型农田水利设施的现状,从投资主体界定、基层干部管理和农户信心3方面分析了农村小型水利建设投资主体缺位的原因,并提出了相应的对策。

  19. Tailoring conservation agriculture to the needs of small farmers in developing countries: An analysis of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The defining characteristics of conservation agriculture (CA) are retention of crop residues on the soil surface and minimized soil disturbance. A major barrier to adoption of CA is the extensive prerequisite knowledge required for successful implementation. Other factors inhibiting the spread of CA among small scale farmers are the prevalence of crop-livestock systems, which often depend upon crop residues for animal feed; limited access to markets, capital or credit;...

  20. Amplitude and frequency modulation of the small scales in a turbulent jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G.E.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Westerweel, J.

    2013-01-01

    This work involves the large-scale amplitude and frequency modulation of the small-scale motions in fullydeveloped turbulence of a high Reynolds number jet. The scales responsible for the production of turbulent kinetic energy (large scales), and those responsible for its viscous dissipation (small

  1. Performance of a small scale prototype of cellular honeycomb proportional chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ahammed, Z; CERN. Geneva; Bhati, A K; Chattopadhyay, S; Dubey, A K; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Mahapatra, D P; Ganti, M S; Nayak, T K; Singaraju, R N; Trivedi, M D; Viyogi, Y P; Aggarwal, M M

    1999-01-01

    Beam test results for the first small-scale prototype of a honeycomb cellular proportional chamber to be used in ALICE PMD are presented. The overall efficiency for MIP detection is found to be around 93%. The efficiency drops to about 75% at the corners of the hexagon. Improvement in design is suggested.

  2. Geographical distribution of investment in small-scale rural fish ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Kosy, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a detailed empirical study of investment patterns in small-scale rural aquaculture and its relation to pond location based on a systematic fish pond survey in Lao PDR. Nominal investment categories of fish ponds were created based on stocking rate, feed and water and then spati

  3. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  4. Aquaponics - how to build your own food producing, small scale, aquaponics system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.

    2015-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual is made for people that want to create a small-scale sustainable way of retrieving food. At first it will be presented on how the system works and what it can benefit to your residence.

  5. Acoustic assessment of small-scale military-style nozzles with chevrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuo, C.-W.; Veltin, J.; McLaughlin, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of more powerful fighter aircraft, supersonic jet noise reduction devices are being intensively researched. Small-scale measurements are a crucial step in evaluating the potential of noise reduction concepts at an early stage in the design process. With this in mind, the present s

  6. Inclusion of small-scale milk producers in modern dairy value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for milk is ever-increasing. The question we address here is how small-scale milk producers, mainly based in developing countries, can participate in modern dairy value chains? First, markets should have the preconditions of a reliable market, a competitive milk price and access

  7. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important c

  8. Economic, Environmental, and Social Evaluation of Africa's Small-Scale Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report is the culmination of a cross-African countries analytical and empirical study commissioned by the World Bank, which set out to improve the understanding of the characteristics and environmental, economic, and social performances of small-scale fisheries in Africa. It applies a common evaluation tool, called Fishery Performance Indicators (FPIs), which evaluates the ecological,...

  9. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, Kharis Erasta Reza; Ertsen, Maurits Willem

    2016-10-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the form of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both the development of intervention and research, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the development of the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as hydrological research is often designed without adequate consideration of how to account for human agency and that these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning for hydrological research, based on evaluating three hydrological research efforts targeting small-scale water development initiatives in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three cases was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention initiatives, we propose two analysis steps, including (1) consideration of possible surprises and possible actions and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout small-scale hydrological intervention-based initiatives, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  10. Small-scale structure formation properties of chilled sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the free-streaming length and the phase space density of dark-matter sterile neutrinos produced from decays of a gauge singlet in the Higgs sector. These quantities, which depend on the dark matter production mechanism, are relevant to the study of small-scale structure formation and may be used to constrain or rule out dark matter candidates.

  11. Small-scale topology of solar atmosphere dynamics I: wave sources and wave diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, N.M.; Rutten, R.J.; Brandt, P.N.; Shine, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the small-scale topology of dynamical phenomena in the quiet-sun internet w ork atmosphere,using short-duration Fourier analysis of high-resolution filtergram sequences to obtain statistical estimates for the co-location probability of different fine-structure elements and wave modes. In th

  12. Small-scale topology of solar atmosphere dynamics : II : granulation, K2v grains and waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, N.M.; Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    We continue studying the small-scale topology of dynamical phenomena in the quiet-sun internetwork atmosphere throug statistical estimation of the co-location probability of different fine-structure elements and wave modes.In this paper we chart spatial alignments between the granular brig tness st

  13. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  14. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...

  15. High-Performance Small-Scale Solvers for Moving Horizon Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Vukov, Milan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2015-01-01

    implementation techniques focusing on small-scale problems. The proposed MHE solver is implemented using custom linear algebra routines and is compared against implementations using BLAS libraries. Additionally, the MHE solver is interfaced to a code generation tool for nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC...

  16. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2013-04-26

    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  17. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  18. Musculoskeletal pain in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; Kromhout, H.; London, L.; Naidoo, R.N.; Burdorf, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is associated with demographic, occupational and physical factors. METHODS: Our study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in 911 women working in small-scale agriculture in rural northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 us

  19. Local adaptation of the clonal plant Ranunculus reptans to flooding along a small-scale gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, J.P.M.; Kleunen, M. van; Fischer, M.; Kroon, J.C.J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant species are known to segregate along small-scale flooding gradients. We tested whether differences in flooding duration can also result in genetic differentiation in the clonal species Ranunculus reptans, which naturally grows in both a lakeside microhabitat and a landside microhabitat with

  20. Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Msamanga, G.I.; Burstyn, I.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Heederik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Workers in small-scale wood industries (SSWI) have increased risks of developing asthma and other respiratory diseases. Wood dust and microbial agents have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured endotoxin exposure in SSWI in Africa. We assessed inhalable dust levels in 281

  1. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  2. Physico-chemical treatment of wastewater from clusters of small scale cotton textile units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathe, P P; Biswas, A K; Rao, N N; Kaul, S N

    2005-03-01

    Small scale industries can not own individual wastewater treatment facility due to non-availability of land and skilled manpower for operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. A centralized wastewater treatment facility for clusters of small scale industries is appropriate. This concept is gaining popularity in recent years. In India, various textile process operations are undertaken by individual small scale units. The wastewater generated at these units is conveyed to a common effluent treatment facility comprising of equalization, flocculation-clarification, activated sludge process, secondary clarification and finally discharge into inland surface water bodies. The wastewater from small scale cotton textile processing units was highly coloured and alkaline with average BOD and COD concentration of 205 and 790 mg l(-1), respectively. Due to the presence of several dyes, particularly reactive dyes, the biological treatment is often found less effective. Therefore, applicability of various physico-chemical treatment methods needs to be investigated in pursuit of an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. A physico-chemical treatment scheme, involving chemical coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon adsorption followed by chemical oxidation was investigated in this paper. The quality of final treated wastewater in terms of BOD and COD was 18-24 and 230-240 mg l(-1), respectively through this scheme. A scheme of treatment comprising coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon, chemical oxidation may be considered as an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:15881028

  3. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-lo

  4. The economic logic of persistent informality: Artisanal and small-scale mining in the Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    This article critically evaluates existing causal explanations for the persistence of informality in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). These explanations share a legalistic focus on entry barriers and political impediments that prevent or discourage the formalization of poverty-driven ASM oper

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann;

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...

  6. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  7. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  8. Prepublishing the Topics for a Test of Writing Skills: A Small-Scale Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A small-scale simulation investigated the impact of making essay topics available to test takers before the test. Results with 11 college students reveal little effect of the prepublished topic. Implications for teacher licensure examinations are discussed with reference to the Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers being…

  9. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  10. Technological adaptation and employment in the small-scale farm machinery industry: uttar pradesh, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on industrial development, based on a sample of 81 small scale industries producing agricultural machinery in Uttar Pradesh, India - explains industries' stagnation due to failure to produce technological change and innovations; stresses need for marketing and publicity for inexpensive agricultural equipment rather than state subsidy to produce expensive tractors, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  11. Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Perret, S.; Haese, D' L.; Haese, D' M.

    2008-01-01

    Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the deter

  12. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  13. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, O.; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface.

  14. A semi-operational agricultural inventory using small scale aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, W. C.; Pettinger, L. R.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography was studied. The results were encouraging on two counts: (1) The very practical problems of an operational survey are being faced and solutions are being found. (2) It seems that a fully operational agricultural inventory using space photography is not beyond the scope of present technology.

  15. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    loading are issues that should be investigated. In the present work, a small-scale test campaign of a stiff pile was performed in order to validate methodologies proposed by recent studies. Cyclic loading was not found to degrade the ultimate static resistance of the pile, which contrasts with current...

  16. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  17. “MAJOR PROBLEMS OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL UNITS IN KURNOOL DISTRICT, A.P, INDIA”

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sreenivasulu; C. Lakshmikantha Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Kurnool is the regarded as an industrially backward district in India. The rate of industrial development is reality low, through several measures have been initiated to accelerate industrial development in the district. These include offering investment subsidies, providing industrial infrastructure, extending vocational training support and offering concessional finances especially for the small and tiny units. The activitywise distribution of small scale units ar...

  18. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  19. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  20. A Feasibility Study of a Field-specific Weather Service for Small-scale Farms in a Topographically Complex Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. O.; Shim, K. M.; Shin, Y. S.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Adequate downscaling of synoptic forecasts is a prerequisite for improved agrometeorological service to rural areas in South Korea where complex terrain and small farms are common. Geospatial schemes based on topoclimatology were used to scale down the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) temperature forecasts to the local scale (~30 m) across a rural catchment. Local temperatures were estimated at 14 validation sites at 0600 and 1500 LST in 2013/2014 using these schemes and were compared with observations. A substantial reduction in the estimation error was found for both 0600 and 1500 temperatures compared with uncorrected KMA products. Improvement was most remarkable at low lying locations for the 0600 temperature and at the locations on west- and south-facing slopes for the 1500 temperature. Using the downscaled real-time temperature data, a pilot service has started to provide field-specific weather information tailored to meet the requirements of small-scale farms. For example, the service system makes a daily outlook on the phenology of crop species grown in a given field using the field-specific temperature data. When the temperature forecast is given for tomorrow morning, a frost risk index is calculated according to a known phenology-frost injury relationship. If the calculated index is higher than a pre-defined threshold, a warning is issued and delivered to the grower's cellular phone with relevant countermeasures to help protect crops against frost damage. The system was implemented for a topographically complex catchment of 350km2with diverse agricultural activities, and more than 400 volunteer farmers are participating in this pilot service to access user-specific weather information.

  1. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  2. Entrepreneurial younger farmers and the 'young farmer problem' in England

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, William; Bosworth, Gary; Ruto, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the “Young Farmer Problem” in Europe with a specific focus on how it applies in England. Recent reforms of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have specifically targeted young farmers for increased support; with young farmers being seen as more innovative, entrepreneurial and amenable to change. Furthermore, the EU has stated that the “generational renewal” of agriculture is critical for the long term viability of the sector. This paper ...

  3. Traditional pharmacopeia in small scale freshwater fish farms in West Java, Indonesia : an ethnoveterinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Domenico; Lusiastuti, A. M.; Taukhid,; Slembrouck, Jacques; Komarudin, O.; Legendre, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The use of plants for herbal medicine in the Indonesian aquaculture is still poorly known. The present study aimed to provide an inventory of the plants used by fish farmers, establishing their respective ethnobotanic importance and identifying the variables that determine the use and the choice of these plants in fish health management. A survey based on a semi-directive questionnaire was conducted using a representative sample of fish farmers (n = 504 from 176 villages) from the province of...

  4. The development of small-scale convection below evolving oceanic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, N.; Garnero, E.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloor of older ages shows a constancy of heat flow, and bathymetry that is different from what is expected for a half-space cooling model. These observations led to consideration of the existence of small-scale convection below the lithosphere (Parsons and McKenzie, 1978). Previous studies have characterized the detailed physics of such processes (Davaille and Jaupart, 1994; Choblet and Sotin, 2000; Solomatov and Moresi, 2000; Korenaga and Jordan, 2003 among others). However, questions remain for applications to the Earth: what is the shape of developed small-scale convection, what length-scales are involved, how does associated small-scale convection depend on the plate layout and its time-dependence. Using 3D spherical models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour (Tackley, 2008), we will present a study of developed small-scale convection in a context of self-organization of plates and mantle flow. Small-scale convection depends on the resistance of the lithosphere, and its development beneath large plates produce network shapes with specific length-scales and orientations (see figure). We will show the impact of the size of plates and the evolution of subduction on the small-scale convection, and characterize how the age-heat flow relationship can change with time. The potential for seismic detection of the spatiotemporal patterns of temperature heterogeneity will also be discussed. ReferencesChoblet, G., and C. Sotin, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 119, 321-336 (2000). Davaille, A., and C. Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 19,853-19,866 (1994). Korenaga, J., and T. H. Jordan, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2333, (2003). Parsons, B., and D. McKenzie, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4485-4496 (1978). Solomatov, V. S., and L. N. Moresi, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,795-21,817 (2000). Tackley, P. J., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 171, 7-18 (2008). Figure: Age of the seafloor in Myrs and white countour of a cold temperature isotherm showing the network of small-scale convection.

  5. High-Temperature Structural Analysis of a Small-Scale PHE Prototype under the Test Condition of a Small-Scale Gas Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process heat exchanger (PHE) is a key component for transferring the high-temperature heat generated from a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to a chemical reaction for the massive production of hydrogen. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has designed and assembled a small-scale nitrogen gas loop for a performance test on VHTR components and has manufactured a small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X alloy. A performance test on the PHE prototype is underway in the gas loop, where different kinds of pipelines connecting to the PHE prototype are tested for reducing the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype. In this study, to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, a realistic and effective boundary condition imposing the stiffness of the pipelines connected to the PHE prototype was suggested. An equivalent spring stiffness to reduce the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype was computed from the bending deformation and expansion of the pipelines connected to the PHE. A structural analysis on the PHE prototype was also carried out by imposing the suggested boundary condition. As a result of the analysis, the structural integrity of the PHE prototype seems to be maintained under the test condition of the gas loop.

  6. High-Temperature Structural Analysis of a Small-Scale PHE Prototype under the Test Condition of a Small-Scale Gas Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Nam Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A process heat exchanger (PHE is a key component for transferring the high-temperature heat generated from a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR to a chemical reaction for the massive production of hydrogen. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has designed and assembled a small-scale nitrogen gas loop for a performance test on VHTR components and has manufactured a small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X alloy. A performance test on the PHE prototype is underway in the gas loop, where different kinds of pipelines connecting to the PHE prototype are tested for reducing the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype. In this study, to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, a realistic and effective boundary condition imposing the stiffness of the pipelines connected to the PHE prototype was suggested. An equivalent spring stiffness to reduce the thermal stress under the expansion of the PHE prototype was computed from the bending deformation and expansion of the pipelines connected to the PHE. A structural analysis on the PHE prototype was also carried out by imposing the suggested boundary condition. As a result of the analysis, the structural integrity of the PHE prototype seems to be maintained under the test condition of the gas loop.

  7. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148, 255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  8. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Lambert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148,255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  9. New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2011-04-01

    We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett’s formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

  10. The adapted yam minisett technique for producing clean seed yams (Dioscorea Rotundata): Agronomic performance and varietal differences under farmer-managed conditions in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, S; McNamara, N.

    2014-01-01

    White yam (Dioscorea rotundata) is a major root crop grown throughout West Africa but one of the major factors that limits its production is the availability of good quality planting material. This paper described the results of farmer-managed demonstration plots established in 2012 and 2013 designed to promote the Adapted Yam Minisett Technique (AYMT) in Nigeria. The AYMT was developed between 2005 and 2008 to produce quality seed yam tubers at a cost that is viable for small-scale farmers. ...

  11. Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from

  12. The Contribution of Small Scale Irrigation Water Use to Households Food Security in Gorogutu District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwafik Kelilo; Mengistu Ketema; Adem Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Small scale irrigation expansion has got vital role in assisting the development of sustainable agriculture in Ethiopia. And more number of small scale irrigation schemes were developed in the country including Gorogutu district of Oromia Region, considering the reality that irrigation is the obvious response to low agricultural productivity. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the contribution of small-scale irrigation to household’s food security in Gorogutu district. Primary...

  13. An Investigation into Effect of Randomly Distributed Small Scale Vortices on Vortex Self-Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhexian; LI Chunhu

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of dual vortices have been made generally in the determin-istic framework. In this paper, by using an advection equation model, eight numerical experiments whose integration times are 30 h are performed in order to analyze the interaction of dual vortices and the vortex self-organization in a coexisting system of deterministic and stochastic components. The stochastic compo-nents are introduced into the model by the way that the Iwayama scheme is used to produce the randomly distributed small-scale vortices which are then added into the initial field. The different intensity of the small-scale vortices is described by parameter K being 0.0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively. When there is no small-scale vortex (K=0.0), two initially separated meso-beta vortices rotate counterclockwise mutu-ally, and their quasi-final flow pattern is still two separated vortices; after initially incorporating small-scale vortices (K=0.8, 1.0), the two separated meso-beta vortices of initially same intensity gradually evolve into a major and a secondary vortex in time integration. The major vortex pulls the secondary one, which gradually evolves into the spiral band of the major vortex. The quasi-final flow pattern is a self-organized vortex with typhoon-like circulation, and the relative vorticity at its center increases with increasing in K value, suggesting that small-scale vortices feed the self-organized vortex with vorticity. This may be a pos-sible mechanism responsible for changes in the strength of the self-organized vortex. Results also show that the quasi-final pattern not only relates with the initial intensity of the small-scale vortices, but also with their initial distribution. In addition, three experiments are also performed in the case of various boundary conditions. Firstly, the periodic condition is used on the E-W boundary, but the fixed condition on the S-N boundary; secondly, the fixed condition is set on all the

  14. 湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅美; 匡远配

    2014-01-01

    以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。%Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.

  15. Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province%湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅美; 匡远配

    2014-01-01

    Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.%以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。

  16. Extensional basin evolution in the presence of small-scale convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni Dinesen; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.;

    2011-01-01

    . This is formulated by assuming that the temperature at a fixed depth (the asymptotic thickness of the lithosphere) is constant. It is implicitly assumed, that this temperature is maintained by sub-lithospheric, small-scale convection, but the dynamics, controlling this process, are not considered. Here, we apply...... a two-dimensional, numerical, thermo-mechanical model of the lithosphere and upper mantle to asses the effects of small-scale convection. Given a particular mantle rheology, our model features such convection, and, over time, the horizontally averaged geotherm converges towards a self-consistent, quasi......-steady-state. Extension of the convecting equilibrium model causes the formation of rifts or continental margins which, posterior to extension, cools and subsides as predicted by the plate model. However, in contrast to the plate model, the ascended asthenosphere is not instantaneously decoupled from the convecting upper...

  17. Application of earned value based metrics on small-scale construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Avlijaš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of earned value based metrics in Serbia lags significantly behind other developed economies, regardless of the fact that is has proven to be a very useful and flexible tool for prediction of total cost and time of construction projects. This paper aims to contribute to the wider use of earned value management (EVM as a practical metrics that can be used to track performance of small-scale construction projects. Literature review reveals how the method evolved as a fundamental tool for construction projects monitoring and refers to specific issues concerning its implementation. In order to enable practitioners to realize all advantages of earned value based performance monitoring of small-scale construction projects, the applicability of such methodology is demonstrated through a case study.

  18. Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Networks of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-01-01

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  19. Design study of coated conductor direct drive wind turbine generator for small scale demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 6...... to realize such a generator with a peak flux density in the airgap of B0 = 1.5 T. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editors.......We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 68...

  20. Diffusion and Radiation in Magnetized Collisionless Plasmas with High-Frequency Small-Scale Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas, which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and their energy and pitch-angle diffusion are tightly related. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of the particles' transport in both cold, "small-scale" Langmuir and Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary, and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  1. The Small-Scale Dynamo and Non-Ideal MHD in Primordial Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely...

  2. Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yinzhen

    2011-10-01

    To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

  3. Considerations in small-scale modeling of pool swell in BWR containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, P.W.; Sonin, A.A.; Anderson, W.G.; Burke, R.P.; Ruggieri, N.G.

    1979-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale test system to study limitations to the hydrodynamic scaling laws used in reduced scale simulations of BWR pool swell. Detailed experimental records of pool swell are presented. Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. Based on a simple model for the vent flow and pool swell processes, calculations are performed to illustrate the effects that mis-scaling of vent volume and orifice placement can have on typical small-scale pool swell simulations in single-vent systems.

  4. Considerations in small-scale modeling of pool swell in BWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale test system to study limitations to the hydrodynamic scaling laws used in reduced scale simulations of BWR pool swell. Detailed experimental records of pool swell are presented. Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. Based on a simple model for the vent flow and pool swell processes, calculations are performed to illustrate the effects that mis-scaling of vent volume and orifice placement can have on typical small-scale pool swell simulations in single-vent systems

  5. Inference from the small scales of cosmic shear with current and future Dark Energy Survey data

    CERN Document Server

    MacCrann, N; Amara, A; Bridle, S L; Bruderer, C; Chang, C; Dodelson, S; Eifler, T F; Huff, E M; Huterer, D; Kacprzak, T; Refregier, A; Suchyta, E; Wechsler, R H; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Allam, S; Annis, J; Armstrong, R; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Krause, E; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Menanteau, F; Miquel, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Sheldon, E; Soares-Santos, M; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Vikram, V

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic shear is sensitive to fluctuations in the cosmological matter density field, including on small physical scales, where matter clustering is affected by baryonic physics in galaxies and galaxy clusters, such as star formation, supernovae feedback and AGN feedback. While muddying any cosmological information that is contained in small scale cosmic shear measurements, this does mean that cosmic shear has the potential to constrain baryonic physics and galaxy formation. We perform an analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) cosmic shear measurements, now extended to smaller scales, and using the Mead et al. 2015 halo model to account for baryonic feedback. While the SV data has limited statistical power, we demonstrate using a simulated likelihood analysis that the final DES data will have the statistical power to differentiate among baryonic feedback scenarios. We also explore some of the difficulties in interpreting the small scales in cosmic shear measurements, presenting estim...

  6. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per;

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material....... glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full...

  7. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  9. Remarks on Some Mechanical Small-Scale Tests Applied to Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardu, Marilena; Seccatore, Jacopo

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of test campaigns on small-scale strength properties (particularly, micro-hardness) performed on two homogeneous materials: calcite, a very common and widespread mineral that is characterized by its relatively low Mohs hardness and its high reactivity with even weak acids; and glass, an amorphous solid characterized by the absence of the long-range order which defines crystalline materials. After a synthetic description of the principles underlying two of the three classical comminution laws, known as Kick's law and Rittinger's law, experimental results are discussed. The results of the tests performed show that both scale effect and size effect contribute to the non-constancy of mechanical properties at small scale for crystalline materials. On the other hand, for amorphous materials, a theoretical law considering size effects gives considerably different results from empirical measurements. Considerations and an extended discussion address these findings.

  10. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Bucket Foundations in Dense Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2011-01-01

    Monopod bucket foundations promise to become a reliable and cost-effective option for offshore wind turbine. In this paper, six small-scale tests of a steel bucket foundation subjected to quasi-static lateral load, are When conducting small-scale experiments on soil, scale effects can considerably...... affect the tests outcome. To overcome this issue, a novel testing system based on the application of suction between the soil surface and a membrane, is employed. By means of the suction the effective stress of the soil is increased. The tests are conducted at stress levels of 0 kPa, 10 kPa, 15 kPa, 20 k...... to the instantaneous centre of rotation distribution. Further cyclic loading studies may be carried out adopting this testing system to investigate the accumulated rotation of bucket and monopile foundations....

  11. Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Pat; Akrami, Yashar

    2012-01-01

    Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

  12. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  13. Experiments and Numerical Simulation of Small-scale Slapper Driven by Electrical Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-ji; JIANG Ji-hao; DENG Xiang-yang; TAN Fu-li; ZHANG Ning; ZHAO Jian-heng; WU Gang; HAN Mei; TANG Xiao-song

    2009-01-01

    Based on the low inductance technology and parallel-plate transmission principle, an experimental apparatus of small-scale slapper initiating primary high explosives driven by electrical explosion is designed and established. The problem of instantaneously and continuously measuring the velocity of the small-scale slapper is successfully solved by using the technique of laser interference. Compared with the results published on the literatures at home and abroad, data of the experimental and the numerical simulation shown in this paper are more proper to reflect the physical process of electrical explosion driving slapper. One-dimensional numerical simulation of electrical explosion driving slapper is done using the hydrodynamic code. The experimental results are consistent with the computed ones by introducing a power correction factor. In the end, the introduced power correction factor is discussed.

  14. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  15. Effect of orientation and loading rate on compression behavior of small-scale Mo pillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, much work has focused on the size effect in face centered cubic (fcc) structures, however few pillar studies have focused on body centered cubic (bcc) metals. This paper explores the role of bcc crystal structure on the size effect, through compression testing of [001] and [235] Molybdenum (Mo) small-scale pillars manufactured by focused ion beam (FIB). The pillar diameters ranged from 200 nm to 5 μm. Results show that the relationship between yield stress and diameter exhibits an inverse relationship (σy ∝ d-0.22 for [001] Mo and σy ∝ d-0.34 for [235] Mo) weaker than that observed for face centered cubic (fcc) metals (σy ∝ d-0.6to-1.0). Additional tests at various loading rates revealed that small-scale Mo pillars exhibit a strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk Mo.

  16. Formation and fate of marine snow : small-scale processes with large-scale implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Marine snow aggregates are believed to be the main vehicles for vertical material transport in the ocean. However, aggregates are also sites of elevated heterotrophic activity, which may rather cause enhanced retention of aggregated material in the upper ocean. Small-scale biological-physical...... to the aggregate. Also, suspended bacteria may enjoy the elevated concentration of organic solutes in the plume. I explore these small-scale formation and degradation processes by means of models, experiments and field observations. The larger scale implications for the structure and functioning of pelagic food...... interactions govern the formation and fate of marine snow. Aggregates may form by physical coagulation: fluid motion causes collisions between small primary particles (e.g. phytoplankton) that may then stick together to form aggregates with enhanced sinking velocities. Bacteria may subsequently solubilise...

  17. Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, $\\epsilon$. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral and irregular galaxies takes the form of a dissipative plasma which evolves in response to various heating and cooling processes. It has been argued previously that such dynamics can account for the inferred cored density profiles of galaxies and other related structural features. Here we focus on the apparent deficit of nearby small galaxies ("missing satellite problem"), which these dissipative models have the potential to address through small-scale power suppression by acoustic and diffusion damping. Using a variant o...

  18. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  19. Capturing Compostables: A Case Study of Small Scale Composting in Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeway, Elizabeth Ashley

    2013-01-01

    This research study explores the role of small-scale composting for the processing of food scraps in the City of Vancouver within the nexus of organics diversion and the municipality’s Greenest City policy goals. Conceptually the study is informed by the integration of public policy, the policy cycle, and concepts relating to diversified, scalable technology. Empirically the study adopts a soft systems methodology that employs an inquiry-based approach, predicated on in-depth semi-structure...

  20. Factors influencing Norwegian small-scale private forest owners' ability to meet the political goals

    OpenAIRE

    Follo, Gro Irene

    2011-01-01

    Norwegian forest policy has high-level, complex objectives for the products and benefits from the forest, including increased contribution to the climate, preservation of biodiversity, and creation of economic values. In Norway, it is first and foremost small-scale private forest owners who have to deliver on these expanded goals. The article reveals owners’ lack of forestry competence, and elaborates on the role of forestry employees (advisers) in owners’ decision-making processes, be it for...

  1. Opportunities and Contradictions in Maritime Heritage and Small-scale Fishing - A Case Study of Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Eliseu

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the crisis in fisheries caused by the critical reduction in catches and about the strategies developed by local communities of fishers in response. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that the use of maritime heritage can also be considered part of these strategies. Like fishers elsewhere, Catalan small-scale fishers face severe threats to their professional survival. Recently some of them have became involved in activities related to maritime...

  2. Laser altimetry of small-scale features on 433 Eros from NEAR-Shoemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A F; Barnouin-Jha, O; Zuber, M T; Veverka, J; Smith, D E; Neumann, G A; Robinson, M; Thomas, P; Garvin, J B; Murchie, S; Chapman, C; Prockter, L

    2001-04-20

    During the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR)-Shoemaker's low-altitude flyover of asteroid 433 Eros, observations by the NEAR Laser Rangefinder (NLR) have helped to characterize small-scale surface features. On scales from meters to hundreds of meters, the surface has a fractal structure with roughness dominated by blocks, structural features, and walls of small craters. This fractal structure suggests that a single process, possibly impacts, dominates surface morphology on these scales. PMID:11313491

  3. Design of a small-scale organic Rankine cycle engine used in a solar power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Emeline; Declaye, Sébastien; Dumont, Olivier; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Under the economic and political pressure due to the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming concerns, it is necessary to develop more sustainable techniques to provide electrical power. In this context, the present study aims at designing, building and testing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) solar power plant ( 3 kWe) in order to define and optimize control strategies that could be applied to larger systems. This paper presents a first step of the design of the s...

  4. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Sonnemann

    Full Text Available Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae larvae (43% in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height, and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio. Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of

  5. Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion in CO2 small scale experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerketvedt, Dag; Egeberg, Kjersti; Ke, Wei; Gaathaug, Andre Vagner; Vågsæther, Knut; Nilsen, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage systems require handling large volumes of high pressure CO2. Having thorough knowledge of the related hazards is essential, as is knowing how to prevent, detect, control and mitigate accidents. This paper gives a short description of CO2 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVEs) and presents results from preliminary, small scale experiments with CO2 BLEVEs. The mechanism of superheated liquid CO2 boiling is not fully understood. Analogies can be made betwe...

  6. SRP radioactive glass studies: small-scale process development and product performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-scale joule-heated ceramic melter contained in the Shielded Cells Facility has demonstrated the vitrification process for actual Savannah River Plant radioactive waste. Losses of radionuclides due to volatility are low and easily treated, and the glass produced is of comparable quality to laboratory-prepared simulated glass. Future work will include studies with wastes from other tanks, using new frit compositions. Leaching tests will continue, with emphasis being placed on long-term tests under anticipated repository conditions

  7. Response of deep-sea macrobenthos to a small-scale environmental disturbance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Rathod, V.; Rodrigues, N.

    Response of Deep-Sea Macrobenthos to a Small-scale Environmental Disturbance B. S. Ingole? , Z. A. Ansari, V. Rathod & N. Rodrigues National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403004. Abstract To assess the possible effect... al. 1992). Possible effects are expected to involve biochemical changes resulting in biotic responses (Raghukumar et al. 2001) as well as direct impacts on organisms (Bluhm, 1994;1999; Shirayama, 1999; Ingole et al. 1999). Although commercial...

  8. Small-scale structure formation properties of chilled sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the free-streaming length and the phase space density of dark-matter sterile neutrinos produced from decays, at the electroweak scale, of a gauge singlet in the Higgs sector. These quantities, which depend on the dark-matter production mechanism, are relevant to the study of small-scale structure formation and may be used to constrain or rule out dark-matter candidates.

  9. To Improve Productivity By Using Work Study & Design A Fixture In Small Scale Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Dev Singh; Shah Saurabh K; Patel Sachin B; Patel Rahul B; Pansuria Ankit P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve production capabilities for small scale industry and this research focused on the company, which produce Stay vane of Francis turbine. This research used work study technique to improve work process in company, and the research objectives towards accomplished this study is to identify problems in the production work process and improved it in terms of production time, number of process and production rate by proposing an efficient work process to com...

  10. Nutritional and Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Agriculture in Imbaburra, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jake

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional and Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Agriculture in Imbabura, Ecuador Intervention projects in the developing world normally aim to satisfy either the nutritional needs of a group, or advancing the economic stability, but not both. One of the many issues that may arise by narrowly focusing and creating an aid program is that although a group may be fed, they are not equipped to mitigate risks that will arise after project completion and thus continue or revert back to a malnourish...

  11. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  12. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang-Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4-3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40-0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23-0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4-3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3-3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60-1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30-0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment-magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts. PMID:26581905

  13. Small-Scale Industries In The Era Of Globalisation: An Explorative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakrishna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to assess the level of awareness about WTO and its agreements, and to identify the factors contributing to the sales turnover of the small-scale industries in Karnataka. The paper has used both qualitative and quantitative data for the period 1999–02 as well as descriptive statistics and multiple regression for analysis. The paper found poor awareness among entrepreneurs about WTO agreements and its implication, growth rates are positive but inconsistent among ...

  14. Financial Appraisal of a Small Scale Wind Turbine with a Case Study in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to evaluate the economic benefits to be gained by installing a small-scale wind turbine for a customer with a three-phase electrical supply requirement. The evidence for the claims made in this paper is obtained by using actual data obtained from the installed equipment over a three year period. The objective is to accurately appraise the financial investment using real data. There appears to be limited studies conducted into this type of research, possibly because the ren...

  15. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; David J Hodgson; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identi...

  16. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  17. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and university curricula: a small-scale study

    OpenAIRE

    Baughan, P

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of sustainability and wather there is a case for sustainability issues to be incorporated into university curricula, within the context of a single university. After discussing selected literature on sustainability, the main body of the work reports on a small-scale study undertaken at City University London by the author. Four members of staff were interviewed and invited to give their views on what sustainability is, and whether it should be incorporated into ...

  18. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  19. Policy of Onsite and Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Options in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Klammer, Ines

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was done to explain the current Finnish policy on onsite and small-scale sanitation in depth. The most relevant legislation on national and European level was included as well as financing options for upgrades and new installments. In 2011 the latest legislation concerning rural wastewater treatment in Finland came into force. Private households are required to clean their wastewater from organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen, before releasing it to nature. The most used on...

  20. Observational signatures of numerically simulated MHD waves in small-scale fluxtubes

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, E; Felipe, T

    2008-01-01

    We present some results obtained from the synthesis of Stokes profiles in small-scale flux tubes with propagating MHD waves. To that aim, realistic flux tubes showing internal structure have been excited with 5 min period drivers, allowing non-linear waves to propagate inside the magnetic structure. The observational signatures of these waves in Stokes profiles of several spectral lines that are commonly used in spectropolarimetric measurements are discussed.

  1. Fast reactors as a solution for future small-scale nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world safe and sustainable development in the 21st century depends on the ability to build a new global energy infrastructure that could provide efficient access to energy resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In a growing number of countries there is an increasing interest in decentralized, small-scale energy systems. Small nuclear power plants, based on fast reactor technology, could become a new platform of the decentralized energy system. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the joint effect of glyphosate and dimethoate using a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, MJG; Morgado, R; Ferreira, NGC; Soares, AMVM; Loureiro, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem (STEM) containing a soil collected from an agricultural field in Central Portugal was used to evaluate the effects of the combination of the herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide dimethoate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei), isopods (Porcellionides pruinosus), turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), and bait-lamina strips were placed in the STEM. The results showed that the application of the recommended field dose of both pesticides did not cause a...

  3. Small-scale biogas production in the province of Pampanga, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Trosgård, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to sustainable development in the Pampanga province, Philippines. The Philippines are facing several major environmental problems; pig production represents a major contributing factor to pollution and eutrophication of water bodies in the country. At present there is no requirement for purification of wastewater from backyard (small-scale) farms. With the help of anaerobic digestion the manure could be used to produce biogas. The study’s objective ...

  4. Missing bits of the solar jigsaw puzzle: small-scale, kinetic effects in coronal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiklauri, David

    2009-01-01

    The solar corona, anomalously hot outer atmosphere of the Sun, is traditionally described by magnetohydrodynamic, fluid-like approach. Here we review some recent developments when, instead, a full kinetic description is used. It is shown that some of the main unsolved problems of solar physics, such as coronal heating and solar flare particle acceleration can be viewed in a new light when the small-scale, kinetic plasma description methods are used.

  5. Some comparisons between small-scale pool swell experiments and model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small-scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. An experimental record of air bubble growth history is compared with the predictions from an axisymmetric pool swell code calculation. 10 refs

  6. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Marjo de Theije; Marieke Heemskerk

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpei...

  7. Myths and Superstition in the Small Scale Gold Mining Industry of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    C. Addei; Amankwah, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...

  8. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF SMALL SCALE HEAT SINKS USING VIBRATING PIN FIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suabsakul Gururatana; Xianchang Li

    2013-01-01

    Heat sinks are widely adopted in electronics cooling together with different technologies to enhance the cooling process. For the small electronics application, the small scale pin fins heat sinks are extensively used to dissipate heat in electronics devices. Due to the limit of space in the small devices, it is impossible to increase heat transfer area. In order to improve the heat transfer performance, the applying the forced vibration is one of challenging method. This study applies the vi...

  9. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers: Aspects of data interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-02-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Some aspects of data interpretation and gain measurements in such systems are discussed. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Implementation Of 5S Methodology In The Small Scale Industry A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Agrahari; P.A. Dangle; K.V.Chandratre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 5S is a basic foundation of Lean Manufacturing systems. It is a tool for cleaning sorting organizing and providing the necessary groundwork for workpiece improvement. This paper dealt with the implementation of 5S methodology in the small scale industry. By following the 5S methodology it shows significant improvements to safety productivity efficiency and housekeeping. The improvements before and after 5S implementation is shown by pictures in the paper. It also intends to build a s...

  11. The Preliminary Study on the Small-scale Test of the Microbial Quick-degumming Ramie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜; XU Ming-yao; CHEN Fei-ming; HU Yu-hua; WANG Shou-guo

    2008-01-01

    During the experiments with low temperature plasma treating the ramie degumming microbe, the authors found some kinds of microbe which can degum ramie in 5-6L fluid very quickly. In comparison with some standards of microbiological experiments, 5L or 6L-scale can be called the small-scale. Therefore, the authors believe that the experiments of the microbial quick-degumming ramie can be enlarged from the laboratory-scale test to be applied in the future.

  12. Determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    EHINMOWO O.O.; AFOLABI J.A.; FATUASE A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically analyzed the determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in Southwest, Nigeria. Three States were considered for the study which was Ogun, Oyo and Ondo. A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 373 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models. The findings revealed that the cassava processing business was profitable in the study area given the value of gross margin...

  13. A review of the mallet impact test for small scale explosive formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M.; Blair, LH; N. Flood; Stennett, C

    2016-01-01

    Development of new explosive formulations begins with the generation of only a few milligrams of material which is investigated using a number of small scale tests such as DSC, TGA, response to flame, mallet impact (mallet friction either glancing or direct blow) to determine whether the formulation is safe to scale up to 10 g. The latter of these tests, mallet impact, can be particularly subjective as the result is directly influenced by the operator carrying out the assessment. Not only can...

  14. Thermal characteristics of various biomass fuels in a small-scale biomass combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass combustion is a mature and reliable technology, which has been used for heating and cooking. In the UK, biomass currently qualifies for financial incentives such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). Therefore, it is vital to select the right type of fuel for a small-scale combustor to address different types of heat energy needs. In this paper, the authors attempt to investigate the performance of a small-scale biomass combustor for heating, and the impact of burning different biomass fuels on useful output energy from the combustor. The test results of moisture content, calorific value and combustion products of various biomass samples were presented. Results from this study are in general agreement with published data as far as the calorific values and moisture contents are concerned. Six commonly available biomass fuels were tested in a small-scale combustion system, and the factors that affect the performance of the system were analysed. In addition, the study has extended to examine the magnitude and proportion of useful heat, dissipated by convection and radiation while burning different biomass fuels in the small-scale combustor. It is concluded that some crucial factors have to be carefully considered before selecting biomass fuels for any particular heating application. - Highlights: • Six biomass materials combustion performance in a small combustor was examined. • Fuel combustion rate and amount of heat release has varied between materials. • Heat release by radiation, convection and flue gasses varied between materials. • Study helps engineers and users of biomass systems to select right materials

  15. Multiobjective Programming of Income and Employment Generation in Small Scale Agriculture: A Case Study from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhebi, Adrian Wekulo

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of generating substantially higher (20 percent or more) income and employment in Kenyan small scale agriculture under various policy options, using data from a selected area. Specific objectives are to: assess the impact of a declining land-labour ratio upon farm enterprise combination; measure and contrast the income and employment generating capacity of two agricultural development strategies--one which pursues the income m...

  16. Will Small-Scale Dairy Producers in Kenya Disappear Due to Economies of Scale in Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Omiti, John M.; Wanyoike, F.; Staal, Steven J.; Delgado, Christopher L.; Njoroge, L.

    2006-01-01

    There is growing policy concern regarding the competitiveness of small-scale livestock production in the wake of the contemporary livestock revolution in many developing countries. In Kenya, this debate has focused on economies of scale and the undue influence of policy distortions on promoting the scaling up of dairy farms. This paper seeks to investigate economies of scale in Kenyan dairy in terms of relative profit efficiency at different levels of output, and identify policy and technolog...

  17. Self-sufficiency of fuels for tractive power in small-scale organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, S.; Belfrage, K.

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale organic agriculture, with integrated crop and animal production has the potential of producing significant amounts of food. Self-sufficiency of fuel for farm work has been investigated closer in this study, based on a set of prerequisites that were identified as important for future sustainability. An implication of the study is that low-tech solutions are more likely to be renewable in the production. Fuel production for farm work at the farm also facilitates nutrient recycling. ...

  18. Small scale commercial production of tilapia fingerlings in floating bamboo net-hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The inadequate supply of tilapia seed is considered as one of the major present constraints to the development of the culture industry in Nigeria. The floating bamboo net-hapa hatchery/nursery system was observed to be very efficient in the mass production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry and fingerlings at Kainji Lake Research Institute. This system was therefore, recommended for small-scale (artisanal) commercial operators consisting of fishermen families in order to increase their pr...

  19. Small scale model for experimental investigations of the dynamic behavior of spherical steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of imperfections on the earthquake response of spherical steel containments corresponding theoretical and experimental investigations were started. The experimental investigations will be performed with a small scale model with a diameter of 1.3 m and a wall thickness of about 1 mm. The necessary high precision of the spherical model required a complicated manufacturing process. The steps of this process and the resulting tolerances of the model are discussed in this paper

  20. Building and site reconstruction from small scale unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s)

    OpenAIRE

    Fraundorfer, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of small scale unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) for the 3D reconstruction of buildings and urban sites. The paper discusses the current stateof-the-art and benefits of using UAV imagery. Furthermore, the paper describes the steps of a highly automated 3D reconstruction pipeline. Experiments are carried out to show the benefits of UAV imagery for urban building reconstruction and results are compared to these of traditional aerial imaging.