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Sample records for small-animal irradiation facility

  1. Design of small-animal thermal neutron irradiation facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The broad beam facility (BBF) at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) can provide a thermal neutron beam with flux intensity and quality comparable to the beam currently used for research on neutron capture therapy using cell-culture and small-animal irradiations. Monte Carlo computations were made, first, to compare with the dosimetric measurements at the existing BBF and, second, to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes and doses expected at the proposed BBF. Multiple cell cultures or small animals could be irradiated simultaneously at the so-modified BBF under conditions similar to or better than those individual animals irradiated at the existing thermal neutron irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the BMRR. The flux intensity of the collimated thermal neutron beam at the proposed BBF would be 1.7 x 10 10 n/cm 2 ·s at 3-MW reactor power, the same as at the TNIF. However, the proposed collimated beam would have much lower gamma (0.89 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) and fast neutron (0.58 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) contaminations, 64 and 19% of those at the TNIF, respectively. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed

  2. A Small-Animal Irradiation Facility for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the RA-3 Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Marcelo Miller; Silvia I. Thorp; Amanda E. Schwint; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica A. Trivillin; Leandro Zarza; Guillermo Estryk

    2007-11-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) has constructed a thermal neutron source for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CNEA have jointly conducted some initial neutronic characterization measurements for one particular configuration of this source. The RA-3 reactor (Figure 1) is an open pool type reactor, with 20% enriched uranium plate-type fuel and light water coolant. A graphite thermal column is situated on one side of the reactor as shown. A tunnel penetrating the graphite structure enables the insertion of samples while the reactor is in normal operation. Samples up to 14 cm height and 15 cm width are accommodated.

  3. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Pisciotta, P., E-mail: pietro.pisciotta@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Acquaviva, R. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Cuttone, G. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-21

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  4. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  5. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M.C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  6. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  7. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  8. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  9. Design and dosimetry of small animal radiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel R.

    The aim of this work was to develop an irradiation system for radiobiology studies. We designed a novel image-guided micro-irradiator capable of partial-body zebrafish embryo irradiation. The radiation source is a 50 kV photon beam from a miniature x-ray source (Xoft Inc., CA). The source is inserted in a cylindrical brass collimator, 3 cm in diameter and 3 cm in length. The collimator has a 1 mm-diameter pinhole along the longitudinal axis, which provides a well-focused beam with a sharp penumbra. A photodiode is installed at one exit of the pinhole collimator to monitor the photon dose rate. The source with the collimator is attached under a movable table. A video camera, connected to the computer, is placed above the movable table to record position of the specimens in relation to the pinhole collimator. The captured images are analyzed, and the relative distances between the specimens and the pinhole are calculated. The coordinates are sent to the computer-controlled movable table to accurately position the specimens in the beam. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to characterize dosimetric properties of the system, to determine dosimetric sensitivity, and to help in the design. The image-guidance and high precision of the movable table enable very accurate specimen position. The beam monitoring system provides accurate, fast and easy dose determination. Portability and self-shielding make this system suitable for any radiobiology laboratory. This novel micro-irradiator is appropriate for partial irradiation of zebrafish embryos; however its potential use is much wider like irradiation of cell cultures or other small specimens.

  10. STTARR: a radiation treatment and multi-modal imaging facility for fast tracking novel agent development in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Ivan; McKee, Trevor; Jaffray, David; Hill, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Small animal models play a pivotal role in the pipeline development of novel agents and strategies in personalized cancer therapy. The Spatio-Temporal Targeting and Amplification of Radiation Response Program (STTARR) consists of an animal imaging and precision radiation facility designed to provide innovative biologic imaging and targeted radiation treatment strategies in small animals. The design is to mirror the imaging and radiation treatment facility in a modern cancer center. The STTARR features imaging equipment of small animal scale including CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, Optical devices as well as image guided irradiators. The fleet of imaging and irradiation equipment provides a platform for identification of biological targets of the specific molecular pathways that influence both tumor progression and a patient's response to radiation therapy. Examples will be given in the utilization of the imaging facilities for development in novel approaches in cancer therapy including a PET-FAZA study for hypoxia measurement in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model. In addition, the cone-beam image guided small animal irradiator developed at our institute will also be described. The animal platform (couch) provides motion in 3 dimensions to position the animal to the isocentre of the beam. A pair of rotational arms supporting the X-ray/detector pair enables acquisition of cone-beam images of the animal which give rise to image guided precision of 0.5 mm. The irradiation energy ranges from 50 to 225 kVp at a dose rate from 10-400 cGy/min. The gantry is able to direct X-ray beam of different directions to give conformal radiation treatment to the animal. A dedicated treatment planning system is able to perform treatment planning and provide commonly used clinical metrics in the animal treatment plan. Examples will be given to highlight the use of the image guided irradiator for research of drug/irradiation regimen in animal models. (author)

  11. Performance of the first Japanese large-scale facility for radon inhalation experiments with small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Y.; Mitsunobu, F.; Yamaoka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kataoka, T.; Sakoda, A.

    2011-01-01

    A radon test facility for small animals was developed in order to increase the statistical validity of differences of the biological response in various radon environments. This paper illustrates the performances of that facility, the first large-scale facility of its kind in Japan. The facility has a capability to conduct approximately 150 mouse-scale tests at the same time. The apparatus for exposing small animals to radon has six animal chamber groups with five independent cages each. Different radon concentrations in each animal chamber group are available. Because the first target of this study is to examine the in vivo behaviour of radon and its effects, the major functions to control radon and to eliminate thoron were examined experimentally. Additionally, radon progeny concentrations and their particle size distributions in the cages were also examined experimentally to be considered in future projects. (authors)

  12. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. (paper)

  13. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  14. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A Colello; Mazaro, S J; Amaral, L L; Rego, E M; Oliveira, H F; Pavoni, J F

    2017-03-02

    This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  15. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colello Bruno

    Full Text Available This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current, the radiometric survey (leakage radiation and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1 and remained stable for long (constant and short (repeatability intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer. The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  16. Primary functions of the first Japanese large-scale facility for exposing small animals to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Sakoda, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Okayama University have carried out the experimental animal study and its related studies since 2007 in order to examine the physiological effects of radon in detail. Thus, a radon test facility for small animals was developed in order to increase the statistical certainty of our animal tests. This paper illustrates the performances of that facility, the first large-scale facility of its types in Japan. The facility has a potential of approximately 150 mouse-scale tests at the same time. The apparatus for exposing small animals to radon has six animal chamber groups each of which consists of five independent cages. Different radon concentrations in each animal chamber group are available. The major functions of the facility controlling radon and avoiding thoron were shown theoretically and experimentally. The relative standard deviation of radon concentration at the highest concentration group was about 5%, although the lower concentration groups seemed to be affected by variations in background radon. (author)

  17. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Admovics, John

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies

  18. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  19. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  20. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, M; Wilson, Z; Sio, T; Beltran, C; Tryggestad, E; Gupta, S; Blackwell, C; McCollough, K; Sarkaria, J; Furutani, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  2. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A. Joe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: PMaxim@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, “FLASH”) potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). Methods and Materials: We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Results: Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. Conclusions: We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community.

  3. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A Joe; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, "FLASH") potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Erich L.; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Limbrick, David; Jost, Sarah C.; Garbow, Joel R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Khullar, Divya; Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Parikh, Parag J.; Low, Daniel A.; Hope, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate methods for small-animal CNS radiotherapy using the microRT system. Materials and Methods: A custom head immobilizer was designed and built to integrate with a pre-existing microRT animal couch. The Delrin couch-immobilizer assembly, compatible with multiple imaging modalities (CT, microCT, microMR, microPET, microSPECT, optical), was first imaged via CT in order to verify the safety and reproducibility of the immobilization method. Once verified, the subject animals were CT-scanned while positioned within the couch-immobilizer assembly for treatment planning purposes. The resultant images were then imported into CERR, an in-house-developed research treatment planning system, and registered to the microRTP treatment planning space using rigid registration. The targeted brain was then contoured and conformal radiotherapy plans were constructed for two separate studies: (1) a whole-brain irradiation comprised of two lateral beams at the 90 degree sign and 270 degree sign microRT treatment positions and (2) a hemispheric (left-brain) irradiation comprised of a single A-P vertex beam at the 0 degree sign microRT treatment position. During treatment, subject animals (n=48) were positioned to the CERR-generated treatment coordinates using the three-axis microRT motor positioning system and were irradiated using a clinical Ir-192 high-dose-rate remote after-loading system. The radiation treatment course consisted of 5 Gy fractions, 3 days per week. 90% of the subjects received a total dose of 30 Gy and 10% received a dose of 60 Gy. Results: Image analysis verified the safety and reproducibility of the immobilizer. CT scans generated from repeated reloading and repositioning of the same subject animal in the couch-immobilizer assembly were fused to a baseline CT. The resultant analysis revealed a 0.09 mm average, center-of-mass translocation and negligible volumetric error in the contoured, murine brain. The experimental use of the head

  5. Minibeam radiotherapy with small animal irradiators; in vitro and in vivo feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R.; O'Brian, E. Timothy; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2017-12-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo. Using commercially available lead ribbon and polyethylene sheets, we constructed a collimator that converted the cone beam of an industrial irradiator to 44 identical beams (collimator size  ≈  4  ×  10 cm). The dosimetry characteristics of the generated beams were evaluated using two different radiochromic films (beam FWHM  =  246  ±  32 µm center-to-center  =  926  ±  23 µm peak-to-valley dose ratio  =  24.35  ±  2.10 collimator relative output factor  =  0.84  ±  0.04). Clonogenic assays demonstrated the ability of our method to induce radiobiological cell death in two radioresistant murine tumor cell lines (TRP  =  glioblastoma B16-F10  =  melanoma). A radiobiological equivalent dose (RBE) was calculated by evaluating the acute skin response to graded doses of MBRT and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Normal mouse skin demonstrated resistance to doses up to 150 Gy on peak. MBRT significantly extended the survival of mice with flank melanoma tumors compared to CRT when RBE were applied (overall p  film. In conclusion, the initial dosimetric, in vitro and in vivo evaluations confirmed the utility of this affordable and easy-to-replicate minibeam collimator for future preclinical studies.

  6. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena [University of Victoria (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  7. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  8. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  9. Pencilbeam irradiation technique for whole brain radiotherapy: technical and biological challenges in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Trippel, Michael; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Renier, Michel; Bartzsch, Stefan; Requardt, Herwig; Döbrössy, Máté D; Nikkhah, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted the first in-vivo experiments in pencilbeam irradiation, a new synchrotron radiation technique based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. In an animal model of adult C57 BL/6J mice we have determined technical and physiological limitations with the present technical setup of the technique. Fifty-eight animals were distributed in eleven experimental groups, ten groups receiving whole brain radiotherapy with arrays of 50 µm wide beams. We have tested peak doses ranging between 172 Gy and 2,298 Gy at 3 mm depth. Animals in five groups received whole brain radiotherapy with a center-to-center (ctc) distance of 200 µm and a peak-to-valley ratio (PVDR) of ∼ 100, in the other five groups the ctc was 400 µm (PVDR ∼ 400). Motor and memory abilities were assessed during a six months observation period following irradiation. The lower dose limit, determined by the technical equipment, was at 172 Gy. The LD50 was about 1,164 Gy for a ctc of 200 µm and higher than 2,298 Gy for a ctc of 400 µm. Age-dependent loss in motor and memory performance was seen in all groups. Better overall performance (close to that of healthy controls) was seen in the groups irradiated with a ctc of 400 µm.

  10. Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator-Based Small Animal Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Julian R; Lucero, Steven; Monjazeb, Arta M; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) scanning and printing technology is utilized to create phantom models of mice in order to assess the accuracy of ionizing radiation dosing from a clinical, human-based linear accelerator. Phantoms are designed to simulate a range of research questions, including irradiation of lung tumors and primary subcutaneous or orthotopic tumors for immunotherapy experimentation. The phantoms are used to measure the accuracy of dose delivery and then refine it to within 1% of the prescribed dose.

  11. Dosimetry of a Small-Animal Irradiation Model using a 6 MV Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, F. Moran; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    A custom made rat-like phantom was used to measure dose distributions using a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom has air cavities that simulate the lungs and cylindrical inserts that simulate the backbone. The calculated dose distributions were obtained with the BrainScan v.5.31 TPS software. For the irradiation two cases were considered: (a) near the region where the phantom has two air cavities that simulate the lungs, and (b) with an entirely uniform phantom. The treatment plan consisted of two circular cone arcs that imparted a 500 cGy dose to a simulated lesion in the backbone. We measured dose distributions using EBT2 GafChromic film and an Epson Perfection V750 scanner working in transmission mode. Vertical and horizontal profiles, isodose curves from 50 to 450 cGy, dose and distance to agreement (DTA) histograms and Gamma index were obtained to compare the dose distributions using DoseLab v4.11. As a result, these calculations show very good agreement between calculated and measured dose distribution in both cases. With a 2% 2 mm criteria 100% of the points pass the Gamma test for the uniform case, while 98.9% of the points do it for the lungs case.

  12. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A

  13. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  14. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm 2 cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be achieved

  15. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  16. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm 2 ) silicon sensors

  17. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  18. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  19. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  20. CERN IRRADIATION FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Fabio; Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Gkotse, Blerina; Richard Jaekel, Martin; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-09-28

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in dosimetry, metrology, intercomparison of radiation protection devices, benchmark of Monte Carlo codes and radiation damage studies to electronics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Positive ion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions about the mechanisms of the response of cells to ionizing radiation can best be investigated using monoenergetic heavy charged particle beams. Questions of the role of different types of damage in the LET effect, for example, are being answered by comparing repair kinetics for damage induced by electrons with that produced by helium ions. However, as the models become more sophicated, the differences between models can be detected only with more precise measurements, or by combining high- and low-LET irradiations in split-dose experiments. The design of the authors present cell irradiation beam line has limited the authors to irradiating cells in a partial vacuum. A new way to mount the dishes and bring the beam to the cells was required. Several means of irradiating cells in mylar-bottom dishes have been used at other laboratories. For example at the RARAF Facility, the dual ion experiments are done with the dish bottom serving as the beam exit window but the cells are in a partial vacuum to prevent breaking the window. These researchers have chosen instead to use the dish bottom as the beam window and to irradiate the entire dish in a single exposure. A special, very fast pumping system will be installed at the end of the beam line. This system will make it possible to irradiate cells within two minutes of installing them in the irradiation chamber. In this way, the interaction of electron and ion-induced damage in Chlamydomonas can be studied with time between doses as short as 5 minutes

  2. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  3. Evaluation of spatial sensitivity of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis facility for the in vivo determination of nitrogen in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Ioannina University; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the spatial dependence of the sensitivity of nitrogen measurement with a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for small animals and developed an analysis procedure that permits the reduction of systematic errors due to that dependence. The analysis procedure is based on neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP code in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the PGNAA facility. The system can be calibrated experimentally using a small number of phantoms of known size and composition. The calculation approach can then be used to predict responses for animal body sizes and shapes relatively to those experimentally determined and to include the effect of tissue inhomogeneities. Our calculations were verified by experimental measurements performed for a set of cylindrical inhomogeneous phantoms. The calculated to experimental ratios observed were within 6%. (author)

  4. URAM-2 Cryogenic Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Shabalin, E P; Kulikov, S A; Kulagin, E N; Melihov, V V; Belyakov, A A; Golovanov, L B; Borzunov, Yu T; Konstantinov, V I; Androsov, A V

    2002-01-01

    The URAM-2 irradiation facility has been built and mounted at the channel No. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor. It was constructed for study of radiolysis effects by fast neutron irradiation in some suitable for effective cold neutron production materials (namely: solid methane, methane hydrate, water ice, etc.). The facility cooling system is based on using liquid helium as a coolant material. The original charging block of the rig allows the samples to be loaded by condensing gas into irradiation cavity or by charging beads of ice prepared before. Preliminary tests for each facility block and assembling them at the working position were carried out. Use of the facility for study accumulation of chemical energy under irradiation at low temperature in materials mentioned above and its spontaneous release was started.

  5. Neutron irradiation facility and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Noda, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    A neutron irradiation facility utilizing spallation reactions with high energy protons is conceived as one of the facilities in 'Proton Engineering center (PEC)' proposed at JAERI. Characteristics of neutron irradiation field of the facility for material irradiation studies are described in terms of material damage parameters, influence of the pulse irradiation, irradiation environments other than neutronics features, etc., comparing with the other sorts of neutron irradiation facilities. Some perspectives for materials irradiation studies using PEC are presented. (author)

  6. Improvement of irradiation facilities performance in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masaru; Sakurai, Susumu; Honma, Kenzo; Sagawa, Hisashi; Nakazaki, Chousaburo

    1999-01-01

    Various kinds of irradiation facilities are installed in the JMTR for the purpose of irradiation tests on fuels and materials and of producing radioisotopes. The irradiation facilities have been improved so far at every opportunity of new irradiation requirements and of renewing them which reached the design lifetime. Of these irradiation facilities, improvements of the power ramping test facility (BOCA/OSF-1 facility) and the hydraulic rabbit No.2 (HR-2 facility) are described here. (author)

  7. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, M.

    1995-01-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons

  8. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, M. [Association EURATOM, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons.

  9. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  10. Cobalt 60 commercial irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.

    1985-01-01

    The advantage of using cobalt 60 for ionizing treatment is that it has excellent penetration. Gamma plants are also very efficient, in as much as there is very little mechanical or electrical equipment in a gamma irradiation facility. The average efficiency of a gamma plant is usually around 95% of all available processing time

  11. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  12. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  13. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  14. Irradiation facilities in JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Sigemoto, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Hidetake

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation facilities have been installed in the upgraded JRR-3 (JRR-3M) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). There are hydraulic rabbit facilities (HR), pneumatic rabbit facilities (PN), neutron activation analysis facility (PN3), uniform irradiation facility (SI), rotating irradiation facility and capsule irradiation facilities to carry out the neutron irradiation in the JRR-3M. These facilities are operated using a process control computer system to centerize the process information. Some of the characteristics for the facilities were satisfactorily measured at the same time of reactor performance test in 1990. During reactor operation, some of the tests are continued to confirm the basic characteristics on facilities, for example, PN3 was confirmed to have enough performance for activation analysis. Measurement of neutron flux at all irradiation positions has been carried out for the equilibrium core. (author)

  15. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.; Trego, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility is being designed to be constructed at Hanford, Washington, The system is designed to produce about 10 15 n/cm-s in a volume of approx. 10 cc and 10 14 n/cm-s in a volume of 500 cc. The lithium and target systems are being developed and designed by HEDL while the 35-MeV, 100-mA cw accelerator is being designed by LASL. The accelerator components will be fabricated by US industry. The total estimated cost of the FMIT is $105 million. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in September 1984

  16. Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.

  17. Prevalence and pattern of small animal orthopaedic conditions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small animal orthopaedic case records of a 20-year period were surveyed to obtain the prevalence and pattern of orthopaedic conditions presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, with the objective of providing data for planning on small animal healthcare facilities, policy ...

  18. Practical design of gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Sen-ichi

    1976-01-01

    In this report, it is intended to describe mainly the multi-purpose irradiation facilities which carry out the consigned irradiation for the sterilization of medical apparatuses, which is most of the demand of gamma irradiation in Japan. Gamma irradiation criterion is summed up to that ''Apply the specified dose properly and uniformly to product cases and be economic.'' Though the establishment of the design standard for irradiation facilities is not easy and is not solve simply, the factors to be considered in the design are as follows: (1) mechanism safety, (2) multipurpose irradiation structure, (3) irradiation criteria and practice, (4) efficiency of radiation source utilization and related problems, and (5) economical merit. Irradiation facilities are generally itemized as follows: irradiation equipments, radiation source-storing facility, package carrier, radiation source-driving equipments, facilities for safety and operational management and others. Examples and their characteristics are reported for the facilities of Japan Radio-isotope Irradiation Cooperative Association and Radie Industries Ltd. Expenses for construction, processing and radiation sources are shown on the basis of a few references, and the cost trially calculated under a certain presumptive condition is given. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Design of special facility for liquor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shibin; Chen Zigen

    1989-01-01

    The design principle, physical scheme, technological process, construction and safety features of a special facility used for irradiating liquors is briefly described. 0.925 x 10 15 Bq cobalt source is used and the irradiation capacity for liquors approaches 10 t per day. The facility bears advantages of simple in construction, easy to operate, safe, reliable and efficient in source utilization

  20. International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) was set up in November 1978 for a period of five years at the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation, Wageningen, The Netherlands under an Agreement between the FAO, IAEA and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Government of the Netherlands. Under this Agreement, the irradiation facilities, office space and services of the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation are put at IFFIT's disposal. Also the closely located Research Foundation, ITAL, provides certain facilities and laboratory services within the terms of the Agreement. The FAO and IAEA contribute US-Dollar 25,000. Annually for the duration of IFFIT. (orig.) [de

  1. Facts about food irradiation: Safety of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the safety of industrial irradiation facilities. Although there have been accidents, none of them has endangered public health or environmental safety, and the radiation processing industry is considered to have a very good safety record. Gamma irradiators do not produce radioactive waste, and the radiation sources at the facilities cannot explode nor in any other way release radioactivity into the environment. 3 refs

  2. Irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.

    1990-01-01

    The irradiation facilities for testing SSC components and detector systems are described. Very high intensity proton, neutron, and pion fluxes are available with beam kinetic energies of up to 800 MeV. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. UTN's gamma irradiation facility: design and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Noor Mohamad Yunus

    1986-01-01

    UTN is building a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility which compromises of research and pilot scale irradiation cells in The Fifth Malaysia Plan. The paper high-lights the basic futures of the facility in terms of its design and selection including layout sketches. Plant performances and limitations are discussed. Plants safety is briefly highlighted in block diagrams. Lastly, a typical specification brief is tabled in appendix for reference purposes. (author)

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment for food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Prasad, M.; Sonawane, A.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different considerations are required in PSA for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. ► We carried out PSA for food irradiation facility as a part of safety evaluation. ► The results indicate that the fatal exposure risk is below the ‘acceptable risk’. ► Adequate operator training and observing good safety culture would reduce the risk. - Abstract: Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is widely used for safety evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) worldwide. The approaches and methodologies are matured and general consensus exists on using these approaches in PSA applications. However, PSA applications for safety evaluation for non-reactor facilities are limited. Due to differences in the processes in nuclear reactor facilities and non-reactor facilities, the considerations are different in application of PSA to these facilities. The food irradiation facilities utilize gamma irradiation sources, X-ray machines and electron accelerators for the purpose of radiation processing of variety of food items. This is categorized as Non-Reactor Nuclear Facility. In this paper, the application of PSA to safety evaluation of food irradiation facility is presented considering the ‘fatality due to radiation overexposure’ as a risk measure. The results indicate that the frequency of the fatal exposure is below the numerical acceptance guidance for the risk to the individual. Further, it is found that the overall risk to the over exposure can be reduced by providing the adequate operator training and observing good safety culture.

  5. Startup of the Whiteshell irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.W.; Stanley, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation. (orig.)

  6. Startup of the whiteshell irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J. W.; Stanley, F. W.

    1989-04-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation.

  7. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  8. The construction of irradiated material examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Lee, Key Soon; Herr, Young Hoi

    1990-03-01

    A detail design of the examination process, the hot cell facility and the annexed facility of the irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) which will be utilized to examine and evaluate physical and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated materials, has been performed. Also a start-up work of the underground structure construction has been launched out. The project management and tasks required for the license application were duly carried out. The resultant detail design data will be used for the next step. (author)

  9. IRASM - A multipurpose irradiation facility in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.; Bratu, E.

    1998-01-01

    A multipurpose irradiation facility is under construction at IPNE, Bucharest, under the IAEA T.C. Project: ROM/8/011. It will be the first industrial facility in Romania. This paper presents the philosophy standing behind the design, the short and long term managing plans. Some dose calculations are added in the view of using the empty spaces in the irradiation room for cultural heritage conservation. An economic study is presented aiming to provide basic estimations for further management strategy. At the start the facility will be a state enterprise. The implications, advantages and disadvantages of this situation are discussed

  10. New multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G

    1985-01-01

    In the past 3 years much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product boxes with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product boxes around the gamma sources.

  11. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800 degrees C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and 60 Co;7.4 MBq/day

  12. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, R.

    1997-01-01

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics M ini Cell . A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local o nsite control . Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  13. The Portuguese gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.M.; Almeida, J.C.; Botelho, M.L.; Cavaco, M.C.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Andrade, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A Gamma Radiation Facility was built up in the National Laboratory of Industrial Technology and Engineering (LNETI), Lisbon, Portugal. This plant (UTR GAMA-Pi) is a Cobalt-60 dry storage continuous facility with a nominal capacity of 1.5 x 10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 1.1 x 10 16 Bq and the throughput capacity 10 3 ton/year for product with a bulk density of 0.2 g/cm 3 treated with a minimum absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Complementary control devices were installed: ventilation system, closed water refrigeration circuit, internal TV system, detection and extinction fire system and emergency power group. It must be emphasized that the best attention was given to the conception and efficiency of the interlock safety systems. This facility will be utilized mainly for radiosterilization of medical articles and decontamination of wine cork stoppers. (author)

  14. A standard fission neutron irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahasrabudhe, S.G.; Chakraborty, P.P.; Iyer, M.R.; Kirthi, K.N.; Soman, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    A fission neutron irradiation facility (FISNIF) has been set up at the thermal column of the CIRUS reactor at BARC. The spectrum and the flux have been measured using threshold detectors. The paper describes the setting up of the facility, measurement and application. A concentric cylinder containing UO 2 powder sealed inside surrounds the irradiation point of a pneumatic sample transfer system located in the thermal column of the reactor. Samples are loaded in a standard aluminium capsule with cadmium lining and transported pneumatically. A sample transfer time of 1 s can be achieved in the facility. Typical applications of the facility for studying activation of iron and sodium in fission neutrons are also discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR. In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation facility, a series of innovative designs and major modifications made to enhance the beam intensity and to ease the experimental sampling at BMRR were performed; including (1 in-core fuel addition to increase source strength and balance flux of neutrons towards two ports, (2 out of core moderator remodeling, done by replacing thicker D2O tanks at graphite-shutter interfacial areas, to expedite neutron thermalization, (3 beam shutter upgrade to reduce strayed neutrons and gamma dose, (4 beam collimator redesign to optimize the beam flux versus dose for animal treatment, (5 beam port shielding installation around the shutter opening area (lithium-6 enriched polyester-resin in boxes, attached with polyethylene plates to reduce prompt gamma and fast neutron doses, (6 sample holder repositioning to optimize angle versus distance for a single organ or whole body irradiation, and (7 holder wall buildup with neutron reflector materials to increase dose and dose rate from scattered thermal neutrons. During the facility upgrade, reactor dosimetry was conducted using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD for gamma dose estimate, using ion chambers to confirm fast neutron and gamma dose rate, and by the activation of gold-foils with and without cadmium-covers, for fast and thermal neutron flux determination. Based on the combined effect from the size and depth of tumor cells and the location and geometry of dosimeters, the measured flux from cadmium-difference method was 4–7

  16. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Holden, N. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Reciniello, R. N.

    2014-05-23

    Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation facility, a series of innovative designs and major modifications made to enhance the beam intensity and to ease the experimental sampling at BMRR were performed; including (1) in-core fuel addition to increase source strength and balance flux of neutrons towards two ports, (2) out of core moderator remodeling, done by replacing thicker D2O tanks at graphite-shutter interfacial areas, to expedite neutron thermalization, (3) beam shutter upgrade to reduce strayed neutrons and gamma dose, (4) beam collimator redesign to optimize the beam flux versus dose for animal treatment, (5) beam port shielding installation around the shutter opening area (lithium-6 enriched polyester-resin in boxes, attached with polyethylene plates) to reduce prompt gamma and fast neutron doses, (6) sample holder repositioning to optimize angle versus distance for a single organ or whole body irradiation, and (7) holder wall buildup with neutron reflector materials to increase dose and dose rate from scattered thermal neutrons. During the facility upgrade, reactor dosimetry was conducted using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD for gamma dose estimate, using ion chambers to confirm fast neutron and gamma dose rate, and by the activation of gold-foils with and without cadmium-covers, for fast and thermal neutron flux determination. Based on the combined effect from the size and depth of tumor cells and the location and geometry of dosimeters, the measured flux from cadmium-difference method was 4 - 7

  17. Irradiation facilities at the advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a facility, centered around a new 330MW(f) heavy-water cooled and reflected research reactor, proposed for construction at Oak Ridge. The main scientific justification for the new source is the United States' need for increased capabilities in neutron scattering and other neutron beam research, but the technical objectives of the project also cater for the need to replace the irradiation facilities at the aging High Flux Isotope Reactor and to provide other research capabilities to the scientific community. This document provides a description of the ANS facilities

  18. Omega: A 24-beam UV irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.C.; Beich, W.; Delettrez, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on the characterization and performance of the 24-beam Omega laser facility under full third harmonic (351-nm) upconversion. This system provides for the first time a multibeam laser facility for the illumination of spherical targets with UV laser light in symmetric irradiation conditions with energies in the kilojoule range. This facility is capable of providing sufficient irradiation uniformity to test concepts of direct drive laser fusion with UV-driven ablation targets. The results of initial studies of ablatively driven DT-fueled glass microballoon targets will be described. The 24-beam Omega Nd:phosphate glass facility is capable of providing at 1054 nm output powers in excess of 10 TW in short ( 10 4 full system shots to date) irradiation facility with beam synchronism of approx. =3 psec, beam placement accuracy on target of 10 μm, and interbeam energy variance of approx. =2%. From measured target plane intensity distributions, overall illumination uniformity with tangentially focused beams is estimated to be approx. =5%. In 1984, a symmetric set of six beams was upconverted to 351-nm radiation using the polarization-mismatch scheme developed by Craxton. Monolithic cells of 20-cm clear aperture containing both frequency and doubler and tripler type II KDP crystals in index-matching propylene carbonate liquid were incorporated to output of six of the Omega beams with a full set of UV beam diagnostics

  19. TRIGA out of core gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Pregl, G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility to irradiate extended objects in a gamma field inside the shielding water tank and above the core of operating TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been investigated. The irradiation cask is shielded with Cd cover to filter out thermal neutrons. The dose rate of the gamma field strongly depends on the distance of the irradiation position above the core. At 25 cm above the core, the gamma dose rate is 2.2 Gy/s and epithermal neutron flux is ∼ 8.10 6 ncm -2 s -1 ∼ 3 as measured by TLD (CaF 2 : Mn) dosimeters and Au foils respectively. Tentative applications of the gamma irradiation facility are in the studies of radiation induced accelerated aging and within the Nuclear Power Plant Equipment Qualification Program (EQP). A complete characterization of the neutron spectrum and optimization of the 7 radiation field within the cask has still to be performed. (author)

  20. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  1. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R. [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  2. User Support of Electron Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Cha, H. K.; Lee, B. C.

    2007-06-01

    The KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) high-power electron beam irradiation facility, operating at the energies between 0.3 MeV and 10 MeV,has provided irradiation services to users in industries, universities, and institutes via 'Project of utilization and cooperation of users of a large research facility' since 2004. A great attraction of many researchers, almost 750 persons so far according to surveys, to e-beam irradiation technology as well as the growth of participants on Workshop on Electron Beam Applications from 121 to 176 indicate the increase of demands of irradiation service. Comparing to the cases of advanced nations in this area, such as America, Japan, China, and Russia, Korea is relatively much behind in radiation technology. It is mainly due to the lack of governmental supports and investments. Active support and investment on construction and operation of electron beam user facilities would be principal factors on developments of advanced technologies. In this project, we would like to satisfy users' requests by developing the effective managing and operating system for prompt services, processes, and QA and to ultimately assist users to create additional new results, by maximizing the utilization of all available resources and activating the developments of technologies of electron beam processing

  3. Upgrading safety systems of industrial irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.S.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, E.L.C.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D.

    2017-01-01

    The first industrial irradiation facility in operation in Brazil was designed in the 70s. Nowadays, twelve commercial and research facilities are in operation and two already decommissioned. Minor modifications and upgrades, as sensors replacement, have been introduced in these facilities, in order to reduce the technological gap in the control and safety systems. The safety systems are designed in agreement with the codes and standards at the time. Since then, new standards, codes and recommendations, as well as lessons learned from accidents, have been issued by various international committees or regulatory bodies. The rapid advance of the industry makes the safety equipment used in the original construction become obsolete. The decreasing demand for these older products means that they are no longer produced, which can make it impossible or costly to obtain spare parts and the expansion of legacy systems to include new features. This work aims to evaluate existing safety systems at Brazilian irradiation facilities, mainly the oldest facilities, taking into account the recommended IAEA's design requirements. Irrespective of the fact that during its operational period no event with victims have been recorded in Brazilian facilities, and that the regulatory inspections do not present any serious deviations regarding the safety procedures, it is necessary an assessment of safety system with the purpose of bringing their systems to 'the state of the art', avoiding their rapid obsolescence. This study has also taken into account the knowledge, concepts and solutions developed to upgrading safety system in irradiation facilities throughout the world. (author)

  4. Upgrading safety systems of industrial irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, R.S.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, E.L.C.; Costa, M.L.L., E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The first industrial irradiation facility in operation in Brazil was designed in the 70s. Nowadays, twelve commercial and research facilities are in operation and two already decommissioned. Minor modifications and upgrades, as sensors replacement, have been introduced in these facilities, in order to reduce the technological gap in the control and safety systems. The safety systems are designed in agreement with the codes and standards at the time. Since then, new standards, codes and recommendations, as well as lessons learned from accidents, have been issued by various international committees or regulatory bodies. The rapid advance of the industry makes the safety equipment used in the original construction become obsolete. The decreasing demand for these older products means that they are no longer produced, which can make it impossible or costly to obtain spare parts and the expansion of legacy systems to include new features. This work aims to evaluate existing safety systems at Brazilian irradiation facilities, mainly the oldest facilities, taking into account the recommended IAEA's design requirements. Irrespective of the fact that during its operational period no event with victims have been recorded in Brazilian facilities, and that the regulatory inspections do not present any serious deviations regarding the safety procedures, it is necessary an assessment of safety system with the purpose of bringing their systems to 'the state of the art', avoiding their rapid obsolescence. This study has also taken into account the knowledge, concepts and solutions developed to upgrading safety system in irradiation facilities throughout the world. (author)

  5. Intense neutron irradiation facility for fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio; Kato, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Technical R and D of d-Li stripping type neutron irradiation facilities for development of fusion reactor materials was carried out in Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) project and Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT) program. Conceptual design activity (CDA) of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), of which concept is an advanced version of FMIT and ESNIT concepts, are being performed. Progress of users` requirements and characteristics of irradiation fields in such neutron irradiation facilities, and outline of baseline conceptual design of IFMIF were described. (author)

  6. Radiation facilities and irradiation technology for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Progress made during these 30 years in the field of radiation treatment of food is reviewed by describing features of the process including elementary processes, quality control of the products and the dosimetric techniques widely employed. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation facilities to be used for radiation-sterilization of medical supplies and food preservation are presented. For electron beam irradiation, accelerators for processing with the energy from 0.3 to 10 MeV are generally employed. The electron-guns, the method of acceleration such as rectification, types of acceleration as Cockcroft-Walton, dynamitron, or linear acceleration and X-ray producing facility, with various countermeasures for safety management, are briefly explained. The concepts of dose and traceability are given. The dosimeters including reference dosimeter and routine ones with validation are explained. (S. Ohno)

  7. FMIT - the fusion materials irradiation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A joint effort by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has produced a preliminary design for a Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) that uses a high-power linear accelerator to fire a deuteron beam into a high-speed jet of molten lithium. The result is a continuous energy spectrum of neutrons with a 14-MeV average energy which can irradiate material samples to projected end-of-life levels in about 3 years, with a total accumulated fluence of 10 21 to 10 22 n/cm 2

  8. Capsule safety analysis of PRTF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Power Ramp Test Facility (PRTF) is an irradiation facility used for fuel testing of power reactor. PRTF has a capsule which is a test fuel rod container. During operation, pressurized water of 160 bars flows through in the capsule. Due to the high pressure it should be analyzed the impact of the capsule on reactor core safety. This analysis has purpose to calculate the ability of capsule pressure capacity. The analysis was carried out by calculating pressure capacity. From the calculating results it can be concluded that the capsule with pressure capacity of 438 bars will be safe to prevent the operation pressure of PRTF. (author)

  9. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others

    1999-03-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  10. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Fabian [Aachen Univ. (RWTH) (Germany). Chair of Experimental Molecular Imaging; Pichler, Bernd J. (eds.) [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation

    2011-07-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  11. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  12. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Pichler, Bernd J.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  13. Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human

  14. Performance of Shiva as a laser fusion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, D.R.; Bliss, E.S.; Glaze, J.A.; Johnson, B.C.; Manes, K.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Rupert, P.R.; Simmons, W.W.; Swift, C.D.; Thompson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Shiva is a 20 beam Nd:Glass Laser and Target Irradiation Facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The laser system and integrated target facility evolved during the last year from a large, untested, experimental laser system to a target irradiation facility which has provided significant laser driven inertial confinement fusion data. The operation of the facility is discussed

  15. Gamma irradiation facility: Evaluation of operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A.; Ali, M.S.; Shonowo, O.A.; Akueche, E.C.; Sadare, O.O.; Mustapha, T.K.; Yusuf, U.; Inyanda, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC), Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHETSCO), Abuja, Nigeria is designed as a semi-commercial plant with facilities for research and development (R and D). The design takes into account the different needs of the various research applications which require a wide dose range, a variety of techniques, different product sizes, shapes, mass, volume, densities and types. Programmable doses are used for food irradiation (0.04 - 10 kGy), biological seed mutation breeding and sterile insect technique (STI) (0.01- 5 kGy) sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and packages (up to 25 kGy) and cross-linking of polymers (up to 100 kGy). The six different modes of operations (sample elevator, stationary, swiveling, 2-path inner lane and 2-path outer lane and 4-path line) were evaluated. The dose range, mass range and range of irradiation time practicable were established and advantages for radiation processing of food and industrial products were enumerated for the six modes of operations for the first time

  16. Dose evaluation of three-dimensional small animal phantom with film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo

    2017-01-01

    The weight of small animal dosimetry has been continuously increased in pre-clinical studies using radiation in small animals. In this study, three-dimensional(3D) small animal phantom was fabricated using 3D printer which has been continuously used and studied in the various fields. The absorbed dose of 3D animal phantom was evaluated by film dosimetry. Previously, the response of film was obtained from the materials used for production of 3D small animal phantom and compared with the bolus used as the tissue equivalent material in the radiotherapy. When irradiated with gamma rays from 0.5 Gy to 6 Gy, it was confirmed that there was a small difference of less than 1% except 0.5 Gy dose. And when small animal phantom was irradiated with 5 Gy, the difference between the irradiated dose and calculated dose from film was within 2%. Based on this study, it would be possible to increase the reliability of dose in pre-clinical studies using irradiation in small animals by evaluating dose of 3D small animal phantom

  17. Dose evaluation of three-dimensional small animal phantom with film dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Chul [Div. of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Woo [Radilogcial and Medico-Oncological Sciences, University of Sciences and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The weight of small animal dosimetry has been continuously increased in pre-clinical studies using radiation in small animals. In this study, three-dimensional(3D) small animal phantom was fabricated using 3D printer which has been continuously used and studied in the various fields. The absorbed dose of 3D animal phantom was evaluated by film dosimetry. Previously, the response of film was obtained from the materials used for production of 3D small animal phantom and compared with the bolus used as the tissue equivalent material in the radiotherapy. When irradiated with gamma rays from 0.5 Gy to 6 Gy, it was confirmed that there was a small difference of less than 1% except 0.5 Gy dose. And when small animal phantom was irradiated with 5 Gy, the difference between the irradiated dose and calculated dose from film was within 2%. Based on this study, it would be possible to increase the reliability of dose in pre-clinical studies using irradiation in small animals by evaluating dose of 3D small animal phantom.

  18. Low Current Irradiation Facility at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yi-Sub; Park, Sung-Kyun; Park, Jeong-Min; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) is branched off from Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The 100 MeV linear proton accelerator as well as the various types of the ion accelerator have been operated and developed in KOMAC. The operation of these accelerators included in the KOMAC site should be approved by Nuclear Safety and Security Committee (NSSC). To aims at the operation in 2017, a research facility to irradiate low current beam has been prepared. The radiation safety analysis was performed again to adopt with the change. As a result of these changes, an easy access into the facility will be got to. This paper introduces the activity in terms of the radiation safety for these accelerator operations. Radiation analysis was performed depending on the planned changes, and it was confirmed that there is no effect by the changes. This facility is expected to be made the best use at a field which could be irradiated with proton beam which has an energy up to 100 MeV and current up to 10 nA.

  19. Hyperpolarized singlet NMR on a small animal imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Pileio, Giuseppe; Tayler, Michael C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization makes a significant advance toward overcoming the sensitivity limitations of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, particularly in the case of low-gamma nuclei. The sensitivity may be improved further by storing the hyperpolarization in slowly relaxing singlet...... populations of spin- 1/2 pairs. Here, we report hyperpolarized 13C spin order transferred into and retrieved from singlet spin order using a small animal magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For spins in sites with very similar chemical shifts, singlet spin order is sustained in high magnetic field without...... requiring strong radiofrequency irradiation. The demonstration of robust singlet-to-magnetization conversion, and vice versa, on a small animal scanner, is promising for future in vivo and clinical deployments....

  20. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs.

  1. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C.

    1997-07-01

    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs

  2. Dosimetry and operation of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiation has required, from the very first, the measurement of delivered and absorbed doses; hence the necessity of providing dosimetric systems. Laboratories, scientists, industries and potential equipment manufacturers have all collaborated in this new field of activity. Dosimetric intercomparisons have been made by each industry at their own facilities and in collaboration with specialists, national organizations and the IAEA. Dosimetry has become a way of ensuring that treatment by irradiation has been carried out in accordance with the rules. It has become in effect assurance of quality. Routine dosimetry should determine a maximum and minimum dose. Numerous factors play a part in dosimetry. Industry is currently in possession of routine dosimetric systems that are sufficiently accurate, fairly easy to handle and reasonable in cost, thereby satisfying all the requirements of industry and the need for control. Dosimetry is important in the process of marketing irradiated products. The operator of an industrial irradiation facility bases his dosimetry on comparison with reference systems. Research aimed at simplifying the practice of routine dosimetry should be continued. New physical and chemical techniques will be incorporated into systems already in use. The introduction of microcomputers into the operation of radiation facilities has increased the value of dosimetry and made the conditions of treatment more widespread. Stress should be placed on research in several areas apart from reference systems, for example: dosimetric systems at temperatures from +8 deg. C to -45 deg. C, over the dose range 100 krad to a little more than 1 Mrad, liquids and fluidized solids carried at high speed through ducts, thin-film liquids circulating at a high flow rate, and various other problems. (author)

  3. Irradiation and experimental facilities at Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Kunal; Mondal, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Research reactors are utilized to produce radioisotopes and offer irradiation facilities for testing various nuclear materials such as fuel and structural materials. Apart from providing large volume of neutron source for carrying out a variety of experiments, the research reactor forms the basic training ground for grooming up scientists and engineers for the various aspects of nuclear programme. Dhruva one of the high flux research reactors offers a maximum neutron flux level of 1.8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec. It uses natural metallic uranium fuel with aluminium cladding and heavy water as coolant, moderator and reflector

  4. The proposed irradiation facility and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.; Navarro, Q.O.

    As early as 1972, the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission proposed the setting up of a radiation facility for the sterilization of medical products. A result of a market survey with the assistance of an IAEA expert was conducted to determine the market potential for such venture. With the Food Terminal, Inc. (FTI) a government agro-industrial fair which explored the economic benefits of project, encouraging results have been obtained with finances from FAO and IAEA. The proposed pilot plant will serve as a multi purpose facility for the sterilization of medical and laboratory products, irradiation of food and agricultural produce and manufacture of wood plastic compositions for the textile and furniture industries. With the benefits derived from the said project, it is hoped that its early installation be pushed through. (author)

  5. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Technische Univ. Dresden; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2014-01-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  6. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  8. Upgrade to the Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin- Reyes; Parker, K; Wilson, J; Baca, M

    2015-01-01

    The Birmingham Irradiation Facility was developed in 2013 at the University of Birmingham using the Medical Physics MC40 cyclotron. It can achieve High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) fluences of 10^15 (1 MeV neutron equivalent (neq)) cm^-2 in 80 s with proton beam currents of 1 μA and so can evaluate effectively the performance and durability of detector technologies and new components to be used for the HL-LHC. Irradiations of silicon sensors and passive materials can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box which moves continuously through the homogenous beamspot. This movement is provided by a pre-configured XY-axis Cartesian robot scanning system. In 2014 the cooling system and cold box were upgraded from a recirculating glycol chiller system to a liquid nitrogen evaporative system. The new cooling system achieves a stable temperature of 50 1C in 30 min and aims to maintain sub-0 1C temperatures on the sensors during irradiations. This paper reviews the design, development, commissioning and perform...

  9. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova, Magdalena, E-mail: bazalova@stanford.edu; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.; Graves, Edward E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200 kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCT scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4 Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan followed by

  10. Study on increasing commercial benefits of 60Co irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuizi; Qi Huanjiang; Xei Tong

    2004-01-01

    Estimating commercial benefits of irradiation facilities adopts commercial benefits coefficient. The effect factors are the utilization rate of irradiation energy (E), the consistency of irradiation facilities (Ci), the utilization rate of time (T), the utilization rate of space, the minimum efficient adsorption dose (Dmin), the irradiation adsorption dose uriformity (U), the sale (S), the running cost (C) et. al, and E, Ci, S, C are main in all factors. (authors)

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Initial Operation of a Reusable Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherly, D.W.; Thoms, K.R.; Siman-Tov, I.I.; Hurst, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    A Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program project, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop reusable materials irradiation facilities in which metallurgical specimens of reactor pressure vessel steels could be irradiated. As a consequence, two new, identical, reusable materials irradiation facilities have been designed, fabricated, installed, and are now operating at the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. The facilities are referred to as the HSSI-IAR facilities with the individual facilities being designated as IAR-1 and IAR-2. This new and unique facility design requires no cutting or grinding operations to retrieve irradiated specimens, all capsule hardware is totally reusable, and materials transported from site to site are limited to specimens only. At the time of this letter report, the facilities have operated successfully for approximately 2500 effective full-power hours

  12. Operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Park, Kwang Joon; Jeon, Yong Bum [and others; Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    In 1995, the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuels was performed as follows. The relation between burnup and top nozzle spring force of fuel assembly was obtained by measuring the holddown spring force on the Kori-1 reactor fuel assemblies. The resonance ultrasonic test for inspection of defect and moisture in fuel rod was carried out on fuel rods of C15 and J14 assemblies, and the change of fuel rod condition by storing in pool has been analyzed on the intentionally defected fuel rods (ID-C and ID-L) as well as intact fuel rod (1-2) by NDT in ht cell. The oxide layer thickness on cladding surface of J44-L12 fuel rod was measured by NDT method and metallography to reveal the oxidation as a function of temperature in the fuel rod, and the burnup of J44 fuel assembly was measured by chemical analysis. HVAC system and pool water treatment system of the PIE facility were continuously operated for air filtration and water purification. The monitoring of radiation and pool water in PIE facility has been carried out to maintain the facility safety, and electric power supply system was checked and maintained to supply the electric power to the facility normally. The developed measurement techniques of oxide layer thickness on fuel rod cladding and holddown spring force of top nozzle in fuel assembly were applied to examine the nuclear fuels. Besides, a radiation shielding glove box was designed and a hot cell compressor for volume reduction of radioactive materials was fabricated. 19 tabs., 38 figs., 7 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided

  14. Clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis in small animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Baptista Galvão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, has importance in human and veterinary medicine. Animals can be direct or indirect source of infection to man, and this intermediate host, the disease may be responsible for encephalitis and deaths due to congenital form as coinfection in neonates and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The man and animals can acquire the disease by eating undercooked meat or cures, infected with tissue cysts, as well as food and water contaminated with oocysts. Iatrogenic, such as, blood transfusion and organ transplantation are other less frequent routes of transmission. The causative agent of this disease is Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan obligate intracellular coccidian. In small animals, the infection has been reported in several countries, promoting varied clinical manifestations and uncommon but severe and fatal, which is a challenge in the clinical diagnosis of small animals, especially when the nervous system involvement. Thus, constitute the purpose of this review address the participation of small animals in the spread of the disease, clinical aspects related to it, as well as discuss methods of diagnosis, therapeutic measures, prophylaxis and control of this disease.

  15. Small Animal Models for Evaluating Filovirus Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2018-05-11

    The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (such as mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model. In the past several years, however, the filovirus field has witnessed the continued refinement of the mouse and guinea pig models of disease, as well as the introduction of the hamster and ferret models. We now have small animal models for most human-pathogenic filoviruses, many of which are susceptible to wild type virus and demonstrate key features of disease, including robust virus replication, coagulopathy, and immune system dysfunction. Although none of these small animal model systems perfectly recapitulates Ebola virus disease or Marburg virus disease on its own, collectively they offer a nearly complete set of tools in which to carry out the preclinical development of novel antiviral drugs.

  16. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  17. Operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. G.; Jeon, Y. B.; Ku, D. S.

    1996-12-01

    In 1996, the post-irradiation examination(PIE) of nuclear fuels was performed as follows. It has been searched for the caution of defection of defected fuel rods of Youngkwang-4 reactor through NDT and metallographic examination that had been required by KEPCO. And in-pool inspection of Kori-1 spent fuel assembly(FO2) was carried out. HVAC system and pool water treatment system have been operated to maintain the facility safely, and electric power supply system was checked and maintained for the normal and steady supply electric power to the facility. Image processing software was developed for measurement of defection of spent fuel rods. Besides, a radiation shielding glove box was fabricated and a hot cell compressor for volume reduction of radioactive materials was fabricated and installed in hot cell. Safeguards of nuclear materials were implemented in strict accordance with the relevant Korean rules and regulations as well as the international non-proliferation regime. Also the IAEA inspection was carried out on the quarterly basis. (author). 31 tabs., 71 figs., 4 refs.

  18. Reconstruction of Co-60 Irradiation Facility No.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Takada, Isao; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Hirao, Toshio; Haneda, Noriyuki; Mitomo, Shouichi; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Kenzou

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt Irradiation Facility No.1 was constructed in 1964 as the first large scale Co-60 irradiation facility equipped a deep water pool for source storage of Co-60 sources. Recently, the reconstruction of the facility was decided because the aging of various parts of the facility became remarkable and new research programs required upgradings of the facility. Important points of upgradings are as follows: A shielding capacity of the source storage and pool is increased to 55.5 PBq from 18.5 PBq. The opening in a floor of the irradiation room which is used for the source lifting in the room, is enlarged in order to utilize a large and high intensity source. Radiation resistance of the irradiation apparatus and installed equipments in the radiation room is increased for a high dose rate irradiation. Basic structure and shape of the facility building such as shielding, pool and building roof is not changed but electrical, mechanical equipments and systems are completely renewed. To increase a reliability, the irradiation apparatus and systems are also replaced with an improved and up-to-date one designed based on operation experiences of Co-60 facilities at TRCRE through many years. In addition, auxiliary equipments such as radiation monitors, manipulators, water treatment system and so on are replaced. This report presents the reconstruction of Co-60 Irradiation Facility No.1 stressing on the replacement and modification of the irradiation apparatus. (author)

  19. Mechanical Design and Manufacturing Preparation of Loading Unloading Irradiation Facility in Reflector Irradiation Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2004-01-01

    Base on planning to increase of the irradiation service quality in Multi purpose Reactor-GAS, the mechanical design and manufacturing of the (n,γ) irradiation facility has been done. The designed of (n,γ) irradiation facility is a new facility in Multi purpose Reactor-GAS. The design doing by design of stringer, guide bar and hanger. By the design installation, the continuous irradiation service of non fission reaction will be easy to be done without reactor shut down. The design of the facility needs 3 pieces Al pipe by 36 x 1.5 mm, a peace of Al round bar by 80 mm diameter and a piece of Al plate by 20 x 60 x 0.2 mm for the stringer and guide bar manufacturing. By the building of non fission irradiation facility in the reflector irradiation position, will make the irradiation service to be increased. (author)

  20. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility: experimental capabilities and test matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the experimental capabilities of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) and reference material specimen test matrices. The description of the experimental capabilities and the test matrices has been updated to match the current single test cell facility ad assessed experimenter needs. Sufficient detail has been provided so that the user can plan irradiation experiments and conceptual hardware. The types of experiments, irradiation environment and support services that will be available in FMIT are discussed

  1. A new materials irradiation facility at the Kyoto university reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiie, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Yanagita, S.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Tsujimoto, H.; Kozuka, T.; Kamae, K.; Mishima, K.; Shiroya, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Utsuro, M.; Fujita, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A new materials irradiation facility with improved control capabilities has been installed at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Several deficiencies of conventional fission neutron material irradiation systems have been corrected. The specimen temperature is controlled both by an electric heater and by the helium pressure in the irradiation tube without exposure to neutrons at temperatures different from the design test conditions. The neutron spectrum is varied by the irradiation position. Irradiation dose is changed by pulling the irradiation capsule up and down during irradiation. Several characteristics of the irradiation field were measured. The typical irradiation intensity is 9.4x10 12 n/cm 2 s (>0.1 MeV) and the irradiation temperature of specimens is controllable from 363 to 773 K with a precision of ±2 K

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory irradiation facilities and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.P.; Herring, J.S.; Korenke, R.E.; Harker, Y.D.

    1986-05-01

    Although there is a growing need for neutron and gamma irradiation by governmental and industrial organizations in the United States and in other countries, the number of facilities providing such irradiations are limited. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, there are several unique irradiation facilities producing high neutron and gamma radiation environments. These facilities could be readily used for nuclear research, materials testing, radiation hardening studies on electronic components/circuitry and sensors, and production of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon and special radioisotopes. In addition, a neutron radiography unit, suitable for examining irradiated materials and assemblies, is also available. This report provides a description of the irradiation facilities and the neutron radiography unit as well as examples of their unique applications

  3. Post irradiation examinations cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Status of post irradiation examinations in Studsvik's facilities, cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities, was described. Studsvik cooperate with irradiation facilities, as Halden, CEA and JAEA, as well as other hot cell facilities (examples, PSI, ITU and NFD) universities (example, the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden) in order to be able to provide everything asked for by the nuclear community. Worldwide cooperation for effective use of expensive and highly specialized facilities is important, and the necessity of cooperation will be more and more recognized in the future. (author)

  4. Development of new irradiation facility for BWR safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yuji; Magome, Hirokatsu; Iida, Kazuhiro; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Ohmi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), about the irradiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel and the stress corrosion cracking of reactor core composition apparatus concerning the long-term use of the light water reactor (BWR), in order to check the influence of the temperature, pressure, and water quality, etc on BWR condition. The water environmental control facility which performs irradiation assisted stress corrosion-cracking (IASCC) evaluation under BWR irradiation environment was fabricated in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor). This report is described the outline of manufacture of the water environmental control facility for doing an irradiation test using the saturation temperature capsule after JMTR re-operation. (author)

  5. IAEA Post Irradiation Examination Facilities Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, Haakon; Blanc, J.Y.; Dobuisson, P.; Manzel, R.; Egorov, A.A.; Golovanov, V.; Souslov, D.

    2005-01-01

    The number of hot cells in the world in which post irradiation examination (PIE) can be performed has diminished during the last few decades. This creates problems for countries that have nuclear power plants and require PIE for surveillance, safety and fuel development. With this in mind, the IAEA initiated the issue of a catalogue within the framework of a coordinated research program (CRP), started in 1992 and completed in 1995, under the title of ''Examination and Documentation Methodology for Water Reactor Fuel (ED-WARF-II)''. Within this program, a group of technical consultants prepared a questionnaire to be completed by relevant laboratories. From these questionnaires a catalogue was assembled. The catalogue lists the laboratories and PIE possibilities worldwide in order to make it more convenient to arrange and perform contractual PIE within hot cells on water reactor fuels and core components, e.g. structural and absorber materials. This catalogue was published as working material in the Agency in 1996. During 2002 and 2003, the catalogue was converted to a database and updated through questionnaires to the laboratories in the Member States of the Agency. This activity was recommended by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (TWGFPT) at its plenary meeting in April 2001. The database consists of five main areas about PIE facilities: acceptance criteria for irradiated components; cell characteristics; PIE techniques; refabrication/instrumentation capabilities; and storage and conditioning capabilities. The content of the database represents the status of the listed laboratories as of 2003. With the database utilizing a uniform format for all laboratories and details of technique, it is hoped that the IAEA Member States will be able to use this catalogue to select laboratories most relevant to their particular needs. The database can also be used to compare the PIE capabilities worldwide with current and future

  6. Technology challenges in small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging modality allowing biochemical processes to be investigated in vivo with sensitivity in the picomolar range. For this reason, PET has the potential to play a major role in the emerging field of molecular imaging by enabling the study of molecular pathways and genetic processes in living animals non-invasively. The challenge is to obtain a spatial resolution that is appropriate for rat and mouse imaging, the preferred animal models for research in biology, while achieving a sensitivity adequate for real-time measurement of rapid dynamic processes in vivo without violating tracer kinetic principles. An overview of the current state of development of dedicated small animal PET scanners is given, and selected applications are reported and discussed with respect to performance and significance to research in biology

  7. γ irradiation facility at ENEA-Casaccia Centre (Rome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.; Pasquali, A.

    2005-09-01

    A description of Calliope γ irradiation plant of ENEA-Casaccia Centre (Rome) is presented in this paper. In particular the main characteristics of the irradiation facility necessary to define time and irradiation procedure are summarised. The plant is equipped with dosimetric services that evaluate absorbed doses in materials during irradiation. Dosimetric techniques used are Fricke, RedPerspex and alanine-ESR dosimetries. In the first case, absorbed dose is determined by chemical changes induced in a solution by irradiation and the second method uses the optical density increase induced in dosimeter by irradiation. The last method is based on the analysis of the free radical concentration induced in α-alanine amino-acid during irradiation. The paper provides also a simulation of the γ radiation field inside the irradiation cell realised by using FLUKA code, which includes a good description of the electromagnetic physics down to about 0.1 KeV [it

  8. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  9. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  10. The BLAIRR Irradiation Facility Hybrid Spallation Target Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos N.; Hanson A.; Brown, D.; Elbakhshawn, M.

    2016-04-11

    BLAIRR STUDY STATUS OVERVIEW Beamline Complex Evaluation/Assessment and Adaptation to the Goals Facility Radiological Constraints ? Large scale analyses of conventional facility and integrated shield (concrete, soil)Target Optimization and Design: Beam-target interaction optimization Hadronic interaction and energy deposition limitations Single phase and Hybrid target concepts Irradiation Damage Thermo-mechanical considerations Spallation neutron fluence optimization for (a) fast neutron irradiation damage (b) moderator/reflector studies, (c) NTOF potential and optimization (d) mono-energetic neutron beam

  11. Monte Carlo studies for irradiation process planning at the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Botelho, M.L.M. Luisa; Ferreira, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a Monte Carlo study for planning the irradiation of test samples for microbiological validation of distinct products in the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility. Three different irradiation geometries have been used. Simulated and experimental results are compared and good agreement is observed. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulation improves process understanding, predicts absorbed dose distributions and calculates dose uniformity in different products. Based on these results, irradiation planning of the product can be performed

  12. Process control and dosimetry in a multipurpose irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalfin, E. G.; Lanuza, L. G.; Solomon, H. M.

    1999-08-01

    Availability of the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has encouraged several local industries to use gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of various products. Prior to routine processing, dose distribution studies are undertaken for each product and product geometry. During routine irradiation, dosimeters are placed at the minimum and maximum dose positions of a process load.

  13. Blended learning in the small animal clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Basic Surgical Skills are taught in groups of 30-35 students in the first year of the master program (4th year students). The eight day course is an example of ‘blended learning’ in which students use our e-learning-material (Step 1) to prepare...... for the practical part of the course (Step 2, 3 and 4). From their home computers, students log on to the e-learning platform of Copenhagen University: https://absalon.ku.dk and go to the Basic Surgical Skills course, which consist of a line of chapters concerning a variety of surgical subjects. Each subject...... the implementation of these new teaching methods (e-learning and Skills Lab), teachers have ascertained a more satisfactory level of preparation, students that seem more focused and live-animal surgery that is conducted at a more ‘professional’ level than before. Finally, our research in this field shows...

  14. The present situation of the irradiation application industry and irradiation facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, K.; Baba, T.

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation application industry and irradiation facilities in Japan have been making slow but steady progress for the past 2-3 years. Beside conventional applications, new ones such as carbon fibers and membrane filters have come into the market. There are a lot of new applications about to emerge. PE tubing, already is in the European market, is being evaluated by end users in Japan. Cleaning of dioxin in exhaust gas was successfully tested at a pilot plant. Cross-linked PTFE and polyamide are waiting customers' evaluations as an engineering plastic. Surface cross-linking of artificial polycarbonate teeth has yielded remarkable experimental results. Cross-linking of polycaprolactone will be useful for biodegradable products. Being aware of the future growth of irradiation industry, contract service providers opened new facilities or increased their capability. Beside in-house facilities, there are now three Co-60 facilities and nine EB facilities available for contract irradiation in Japan

  15. Progress towards a new Canadian irradiation-research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Lidstone, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    As reported at the second meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is evaluating its options for future irradiation facilities. During the past year significant progress has been made towards achieving consensus on the irradiation requirements for AECL's major research programs and interpreting those requirements in terms of desirable characteristics for experimental facilities in a research reactor. The next stage of the study involves identifying near-term and long-term options for irradiation-research facilities to meet the requirements. The near-term options include assessing the availability of the NRU reactor and the capabilities of existing research reactors. The long-term options include developing a new irradiation-research facility by adapting the technology base for the MAPLE-X10 reactor design. Because materials testing in support of CANDU power reactors dominates AECL's irradiation requirements, the new reactor concept is called the MAPLE Materials Testing Reactor (MAPLE-MTR). Parametric physics and engineering studies are in progress on alternative MAPLE-MTR configurations to assess the capabilities for the following types of test facilities: - fast-neutron sites, that accommodate materials-irradiation assemblies, - small-diameter vertical fuel test loops that accommodate multielement assemblies, - large-diameter vertical fuel test loops, each able to hold one or more CANDU fuel bundles, - horizontal test loops, each able to hold full-size CANDU fuel bundles or small-diameter multi-element assemblies, and - horizontal beam tubes

  16. Standard irradiation facilities for use in TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.N.; Luse, R.A.

    1972-01-01

    The standard neutron irradiation facility (SNIP) was developed under IAEA and FAO co-ordinated research program for the standardization of neutron irradiation facilities for radiobiological research, resulting in the possibility to use fast neutrons from pool-type reactors for radiobiological studies. The studies include irradiation of seeds for crop improvement, of Drosophila for genetic studies, and of microorganisms for developing industrially useful mutants, as well as fundamental studies in radiation biology. The facilities, located in the six pool-type reactors (in Austria, Bulgaria, India, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan), have been calibrated and utilized to compare the response to fast neutrons of barley seeds (variety Himalaya CI 000620) which were selected as a standard biological monitor by which to estimate neutron fluxes in different reactors. These comparative irradiation studies showed excellent agreement and reproducibility

  17. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Kim, Eun Ka; Hong, Gye Won; Herr, Young Hoi; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Myeong Han; Baik, Sang Youl; Choo, Yong Sun; Baik, Seung Je

    1989-02-01

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  18. National Low-Temperature Neutron-Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Klabunde, C.E.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    The Materials Sciences Division of the United States Department of Energy will establish a National Low Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) which will utilize the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility will provide high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions for qualified experiments at no cost to users. This report describes the planned experimental capabilities of the new facility

  19. Explotation of irradiation facilities. Safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Franscisco; Melo Crespo, Jose Carlos

    1997-01-01

    At present in the world there are more of 160 gamma radiation facilities and more of 600 electron bean accelerators in operation, at least one in each member state of International Atomic Energy Agency. In this paper is elaborated a Manual with the security criteria to operation of these facility types

  20. Radiation safety of gamma and electron irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    There are currently some 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation throughout virtually all Member States of the IAEA. The most widespread uses of these facilities are for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, and the eradication of insect infestation. The safety record of this industry has been very good. Nevertheless, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, so that a person accidentally present in the irradiation chamber can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds. Precautions against uncontrolled entry must therefore be taken. Furthermore, gamma irradiation facilities contain large amounts of radioactivity and if the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed, inhibiting direct access to carry out remedial work. Contamination can result from corroded or damaged sources, and decontamination can be very expensive. These aspects clearly indicate the need to achieve a high degree of safety and reliability in the facilities. This can be accomplished by effective quality control together with careful design, manufacture, installation, operation and decommissioning. The guidance in this Safety Series publication is intended for competent authorities responsible for regulating the use of radiation sources as well as the manufacturers, suppliers, installers and users of gamma and electron beam facilities. 20 refs, 6 figs

  1. Commissioning dosimetry at SINAGAMA irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali; Hasan Sham; Taiman Kadni

    2000-01-01

    Dose mapping is one of the important factors in the commissioning of the irradiation plant. Comparison of the dose distribution obtained through the dose mapping exercise carried out since 1991 for Sinagama plant are described in this paper. It is aimed to confirmed the need for a thorough dose-mapping before the plant can be proceed with routine irradiation. The dose measurement was performed using a routine ceric-cerous dosimeter, supplied by the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory, SSDL. The quality assurance of these service was maintain and verify through regular participation in dose intercomparison organised by the IAEA

  2. Neutron flux and gamma dose measurement in the BNCT irradiation facility at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Ferrari, M.; Postuma, I.; Fatemi, S.; Prata, M.; Ballarini, F.; Carante, M. P.; Farias, R.; González, S. J.; Marrale, M.; Gallo, S.; Bartolotta, A.; Iacoviello, G.; Nigg, D.; Altieri, S.

    2018-01-01

    University of Pavia is equipped with a TRIGA Mark II research nuclear reactor, operating at a maximum steady state power of 250 kW. It has been used for many years to support Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research. An irradiation facility was constructed inside the thermal column of the reactor to produce a sufficient thermal neutron flux with low epithermal and fast neutron components, and low gamma dose. In this irradiation position, the liver of two patients affected by hepatic metastases from colon carcinoma were irradiated after borated drug administration. The facility is currently used for cell cultures and small animal irradiation. Measurements campaigns have been carried out, aimed at characterizing the neutron spectrum and the gamma dose component. The neutron spectrum has been measured by means of multifoil neutron activation spectrometry and a least squares unfolding algorithm; gamma dose was measured using alanine dosimeters. Results show that in a reference position the thermal neutron flux is (1.20 ± 0.03) ×1010 cm-2 s-1 when the reactor is working at the maximum power of 250 kW, with the epithermal and fast components, respectively, 2 and 3 orders of magnitude lower than the thermal component. The ratio of the gamma dose with respect to the thermal neutron fluence is 1.2 ×10-13 Gy/(n/cm2).

  3. Low temperature irradiation facility at Kyoto University Reactor (KUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Okada, Moritami; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kodaka, Hisao; Miyata, Kiyomi.

    1977-01-01

    A new refrigeration system has been substituted to the low temperature irradiation facility at KUR instead of the previous one, since April in 1975. The model 1204 CTi He liquifier was designed to be modified for the refrigerator with the capacity of 30 watts at 10 K. The refrigeration capacity of 38 watts at 10 K was defined using a special cryostat and transfer-tubes, and the lowest temperature of about 18 K was measured using the irradiation loop without reactor operation. The reconstructed facility enables us to hold the many specimens simultaneously in the sample chamber of the irradiation loop at about 25 K during reactor operation of 5 MW. The irradiation dose has been reached about 6.6 x 10 16 n sub(f)/cm 2 and 6.1 x 10 17 n sub(th)/cm 2 with the normal reactor operation cycle of up to 77 hours. The stable operation condition of the machine and the special safety system for the refrigeration system enable us to maintain easily the facility with a constant operation condition for such a long time irradiation. Many kinds of low temperature neutron irradiation experiments are carried out using the facility, which techniques are partially reported. (auth.)

  4. Definition of the dose(tempo)-distribution in the biological irradiation-facility of the RIVM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, F.J.M.

    1990-02-01

    The RIVM biological irradiation facility (BBF) for the irradiation of biological samples and small animals is a self shielded device and can be safely operated in an existing laboratory environment. There are two 137 Cs sources (15TBq) in a bilateral geometry to give maximum dose uniformity. The easily accessible irradiation chamber is housed in a rotating lead shielding. The dosimetry of BBF was performed by the Dosimetry Section of the RIVM. Experiments were made to determine the absorbed dose in plastic tubes filled with water and the dose distribution over the tube-holder. Separate experiments were made to determine the absorbed dose during the rotation of the irradiation chamber and to check the irradiation timer. For the experiments LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) extruded ribbons were used. The TLDs were calibrated in a collimated beam of 137 Cs gamma rays. The determination of the absorbed dose in water was based on a users biological irradiation set up. The TLDs were individually sealed in thin plastic foil and put in plastic tubes filled for 1/3 with water. The tubes were vertically placed in the tube-holder and placed in the centre of the irradiation chamber. The results show that the absorbed dose in water (determined on January 1, 1990) is equal to 0.97 Gy/timer-unit, with a total uncertainty of 7 percent (1σ). During the rotation of the irradiation chamber the absorbed dose (determined on January 1, 1990) is equal to 0.38 Gy, with a total uncertainty of 15 percent (1σ). The variation of the dose distribution was determined at 15 different measurement points distributed over the tube-holder. The dosis in the measurement point in the centre of the tube-holder was taken as reference value. The maximum observed deviation over the other 14 measurement points amounts to -16 percent of it. The BBF-timer was checked against a special timer. The results indicate that within a range from 2-11 'timer-units' no differences are present. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 fotos

  5. Development of a quality system for a contract irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyakus, G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of Industrial Irradiation Systems, in order to process medical supplies and food commodities, has almost 50 years experiences in the world. The food irradiation process has been approved by more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or supported by numerous national and international organizations and professional groups. Today, radiation sterilization of medical supplies is the most preferred technology in almost every developed country. Other applications: such as waste and flue gas treatment, polymer processing are also put into practice in wider range than before. Higher capital cost compared to the operation cost, the nature of continuous decay of the radiation sources used to obtain gamma rays, obligate the owners of gamma facilities to operate systems based on the 24 hours a day and 7 days per week. On the other hand, higher throughput capacity and economical brake point for profitability, force irradiation companies to offer service for the varied products of the companies. Industrial irradiation facilities providing services for varied companies by irradiating different kind of commodities so called contract irradiator or multipurpose irradiator and most of the irradiation facilities, particularly gamma irradiators running in different locations of the World, operates as contract irradiators. The radiation facilities are considered as a part of the manufacturing process, and must conform to the pertinent general Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) which has been declared by the principal producer. Customers of these facilities may have petitions, such as irradiation temperature, dose rate, minimal and maximal doses; storage conditions before and after irradiation. Design parameters related to the dose rate, product size, density and weight, irradiation and storage temperatures are the main limitations. Varied process conditions can be easily applied in the laboratory may set forth difficulties in industrial processes

  6. Facilities for studying radiation damage in nonmetals during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1984-08-01

    Two facilities have been developed for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements on a single sample before, during and after irradiation. One facility uses 60 Co gamma rays and the other 0.5 to 3 MeV electrons from an accelerator. Optical relays function as spectrophotometers, luminescenc detectors, etc. All radiation sensitive components are outside of walk-in irradiation chambers; all measurement control and data recording is computerized. Irradiations are made at controlled temperatures between 5K and 900 0 C. The materials studied include glasses, quartz, alkali halides (especially natural rock salt), organic crystals, etc. As determined from color center measurements the damage formation rate in all materials studied at 25 0 C or above is strongly temperature dependent. The defect concentration during irradiation is usually much greater than that measured after irradiation. The fraction of defects annealing after irradiation and the annealing rate usually increases as the irradiation temperature increases. The completed studies demonstrate that, in most cases, the extent of maximum damage and the damage formation and annealing kinetics can be determined only by making measurements during irradiation

  7. Innovations to increase throughput of the multipurpose irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G; Lanuza, Luvimina G; Maningas, Aurelio L; Solomon, Haydee M [Irradiation Services Unit, Nuclear Services and Training Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1998-07-01

    With the installation and operation of the PNRI [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute] multipurpose irradiation facility, several local industries are now aware of, and in fact using gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of medical and pharmaceutical products, packaging materials and for food preservation. However, the multipurpose irradiation facility has limited capacity and capability, since this was designed as a pilot scale irradiator for research and development. To meet the increasing demand of gamma irradiation service, a new product handling system was locally designed, fabricated and installed. Performance, in terms of total loading and more importantly, radiation dose distribution of the new product handling system, was evaluated. An increase in product throughput was realized effectively with the new product handling system. (Author)

  8. Innovations to increase throughput of the multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G.; Lanuza, Luvimina G.; Maningas, Aurelio L.; Solomon, Haydee M.

    1998-01-01

    With the installation and operation of the PNRI [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute] multipurpose irradiation facility, several local industries are now aware of, and in fact using gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of medical and pharmaceutical products, packaging materials and for food preservation. However, the multipurpose irradiation facility has limited capacity and capability, since this was designed as a pilot scale irradiator for research and development. To meet the increasing demand of gamma irradiation service, a new product handling system was locally designed, fabricated and installed. Performance, in terms of total loading and more importantly, radiation dose distribution of the new product handling system, was evaluated. An increase in product throughput was realized effectively with the new product handling system. (Author)

  9. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10 13 n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail

  10. Monte Carlo simulations and dosimetric studies of an irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchior, A. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada nacional no. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: anabelchior@itn.pt; Botelho, M.L; Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada nacional no. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2007-09-21

    There is an increasing utilization of ionizing radiation for industrial applications. Additionally, the radiation technology offers a variety of advantages in areas, such as sterilization and food preservation. For these applications, dosimetric tests are of crucial importance in order to assess the dose distribution throughout the sample being irradiated. The use of Monte Carlo methods and computational tools in support of the assessment of the dose distributions in irradiation facilities can prove to be economically effective, representing savings in the utilization of dosemeters, among other benefits. One of the purposes of this study is the development of a Monte Carlo simulation, using a state-of-the-art computational tool-MCNPX-in order to determine the dose distribution inside an irradiation facility of Cobalt 60. This irradiation facility is currently in operation at the ITN campus and will feature an automation and robotics component, which will allow its remote utilization by an external user, under REEQ/996/BIO/2005 project. The detailed geometrical description of the irradiation facility has been implemented in MCNPX, which features an accurate and full simulation of the electron-photon processes involved. The validation of the simulation results obtained was performed by chemical dosimetry methods, namely a Fricke solution. The Fricke dosimeter is a standard dosimeter and is widely used in radiation processing for calibration purposes.

  11. Irradiation facilities on the TRIGA-SSR thermal column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, C; Aioanei, L; Preda, M; Gugiu, D [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania); Garlea, I; Kelerman, C; Garlea, C [SENDRA ' Nuclear Technologies' ltd. Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    The development of thermal and intermediate energy neutron irradiation facilities at the steady state core of the Romanian TRIGA Reactor is described. The reference thermal neutron irradiation facility consists of a dry spherical cavity placed into the graphite thermal column of the SSR core and the intermediate energy neutron irradiation facility is a {sigma}{sigma} system located into the thermal flux cavity. The implementation of the irradiation facilities into the under-water thermal column represented an important challenge from the standpoint of instrumentation solutions. The neutron flux and spectrum measurements were performed using foil activation techniques and fission rate measurements by sealed fission chambers, followed by spectrum unfolding procedure. The absolute fission reaction measurements, using calibrated fission chambers, allow the neutron flux density unit transfer from international reference neutron fields. The MCNP-4C code package was used for neutron spectrum computations in the thermal flux cavity and in the {sigma}{sigma} system. The neutron characterization program demonstrates the accuracy of the spectrum characteristics and neutron flux densities reported to the local monitoring system count rates. Some discrepancies, as compared to other similar facilities, were identified and discussed. These are caused by thermal column particularities: the presence of a water layer between the graphite cells (thermal neutron absorption) and smaller geometrical dimensions (neutron escape phenomena). Based on these results the metrological certification process, according to Romanian metrological laws requirements, is now in progress. (nevyjel)

  12. New irradiation facilities at the Australian national medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parcell, S.K.; Arnott, D.W.; Conard, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two new irradiation facilities have been developed at the National Medical Cyclotron for radionuclide production. The first relocates PET irradiations from the cyclotron vault to a dedicated PET beam room, to improve accessibility and reduce radiation exposures associated with target maintenance. This new facility consists of a beam line to transport 16-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to 1 of 8 PET targets mounted on a target rack. The target rack has increased the number of targets available for production and experimentation. The second is a completely independent solid target irradiation facility for SPECT. This facility consists of a beam line to transport 26-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to a dedicated beam room containing one solid target station. A new pneumatic target transfer system was also developed to transport the solid target to and from the existing chemistry hot cells. The beam line and target components are operated under the control of a dedicated PLC with a PC based user interface. The development and some technical aspects of these new irradiation facilities are discussed here. (author)

  13. Hot cell facilities for post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Bhandekar, Anil; Pandit, K.M.; Dhotre, M.P.; Rath, B.N.; Nagaraju, P.; Dubey, J.S.; Mallik, G.K.; Singh, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable performance of nuclear fuels and critical core components has a large bearing on the economics of nuclear power and radiation safety of plant operating personnel. In view of this, Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) is periodically carried out on fuels and components to generate feedback information which is used by the designers, fabricators and the reactor operators to bring about changes for improved performance of the fuel and components. Examination of the fuel bundles has to be carried out inside hot cells due to their high radioactivity

  14. Metallographic examination in irradiated materials examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Yoo, Byoung Ok

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to have equipment of metallographic examination in hot-cell to observe the micro-structure of nuclear fuels and materials irradiated at nuclear power and/or research reactor. Those equipment should be operated by master-slave manipulators, so they are designed, manufactured and modified to make exercise easy and no trouble. The metallographic examination equipment and techniques as well as its operation procedure are described, so an operator can practice the metallography in hot-cell. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  15. Irradiation Facilities of the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kurashima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion beam facility at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, consists of a cyclotron and three electrostatic accelerators, and they are dedicated to studies of materials science and bio-technology. The paper reviews this unique accelerator complex in detail from the viewpoint of its configuration, accelerator specification, typical accelerator, or irradiation technologies and ion beam applications. The institute has also irradiation facilities for electron beams and 60Co gamma-rays and has been leading research and development of radiation chemistry for industrial applications in Japan with the facilities since its establishment. The configuration and utilization of those facilities are outlined as well.

  16. Electron beam irradiation facility for low to high dose irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Wanmode, Yashwant; Verma, Vijay Pal; Bhisikar, Abhay; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Shrivastava, P.; Gupta, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam based irradiation facilities are becoming more and more popular over the conventional irradiator facilities due to many inherent advantages such as tunability of beam energy, availability of radiation both in electron mode and X-ray mode, wide range of the dose rate, control of radiation from a ON-OFF switch and other safety related merits. A prototype experimental facility based on electron accelerator has been set-up at RRCAT to meet the low-dose, medium dose and high-dose requirements for radiation processing of food, agricultural and medical products. The facility can be operated in the energy range from 7-10 MeV at variable power level from 0.05-3 kW to meet the dose rate requirement of 100 Gy to kGy. The facility is also equipped with a Bremsstrahlung converter optimized for X-ray irradiation at 7.5 MV. Availability of dose delivery in wide range with precision control and measurement has made the facility an excellent tool for researchers interested in electron/X-ray beam irradiation. A precision dosimetry lab based on alanine EPR and radiochromic film dosimetry system have been established to characterize the radiation field and precise dose measurements. Electron beam scattering technique has been developed to achieve low dose requirement for EB irradiation of various seeds such as groundnut, wheat, soybeans, moong beans, black gram etc. for mutation related studies. This paper describes various features of the facility together with the dosimetric measurements carried out for qualification of the facility and recent irradiation experiments carried out using this facility. (author)

  17. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Kim, Hyeon Sik; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyung Jae; Moon, Seung Min; Kwon, Seung Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Choi, Eun Seo

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  18. Proceedings of the Seminar 'Irradiation Technologies and the IRASM Facility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, Corneliu Catalin; Moise, Ioan Valentin

    1999-01-01

    The seminar devoted to 'Irradiation Technologies and the IRASM Facility' aimed at debating the principal problems related to one of the most important project ever developed in Romania, at the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, in collaboration with IAEA. IRASM (an acronym for Multiple Purpose Irradiation Facility) is using initially a 60 Co of 100 kCi irradiation source (to be replaced after an promotional stage by a 2 MCi Co source). It is designed to irradiate a materials volume of about 35,000 m 3 /year. Health, agriculture, food industry and materials industry are the most targeted customers. It will be used for sterilization of medical materials and pharmaceuticals products, peat and seed (and other agricultural products) decontamination and sterilization, experimental irradiation of food products, irradiation of composite plastics and other industrial products, etc. The seminar was a first meeting of Romanian specialists in radiation processing with potential users of these technologies as well as with decision making persons working with national governmental and regulation authorities. Twelve communications were presented as a basis for discussion. These were: 1. IRASM - a technical assistance IAEA project and the prospects for technological irradiation in Romania (Serban Dobrescu); 2. IRASM facility - goal, present stage, perspectives (Corneliu C. Ponta); 3. Nuclear safeguards and radioprotection at IRASM (Ioan Valentin Moise); 4. Nuclear safeguard policy for IRASM (Mariana Irimia, Gabriela Vladescu, Ion Cristian); 5. Technological dosimetry at IRASM (Rodica Macrin, Rodica Moraru, Nicolae Valcov); 6. Quality assurance in building and exploiting IRASM (Ioana Domsa); 7. Current status of irradiation technologies in IFIN-HH (Mitica Dragusin); 8. Chemical-pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical product sterilization (Paul Adrian, Eleonora Gheorghiu); 9. The concept of sterilization and the sterilization testing (Ileana Petcu

  19. Lessons learned from accidents in industrial irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research for technical development continues to increase throughout the world. One application with a high growth rate is irradiation suing high energy gamma photons and electron beams. There are currently more than 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation in almost all IAEA Member States. The most common uses of these facilities are to sterilize medical and pharmaceutical products, to preserve foodstuffs, to synthesize polymers and to eradicate insects. Although this industry has a good safety record, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences to human health because of the high dose rates produced by these sources. Fatal accidents have occurred at installations in both developed and developing countries. Such accidents have prompted a review of several accidents, including five with fatalities, by a team of manufacturers, regulatory authorities and operating organizations. Having looked closely at the circumstances of each accident and the apparent deficiencies in design, safety and regulatory systems and personnel performance, the team made a number of recommendations on the ways in which the safety of irradiators can be improved. The findings of extensive research pertaining to the lessons that can be learned from irradiator accidents are presented. This publication is intended for manufacturers, regulatory authorities and operating organizations dealing with industrial irradiators. It was drafted by J.E. Glen, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, United States of America, and P. Zuniga-Bello, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Technologia, Mexico

  20. The international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.; Cozzani, F.; Crandall, D.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Katsuta, H.; Kondo, T.; Teplyakov, V.; Zavialsky, L.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the development of materials for fusion systems requires a high flux, 14 MeV neutron source. The European Union, Japan, Russia and the US have initiated the conceptual design of such a facility. This activity, under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Fusion Materials Agreement, will develop the design for an accelerator-based D-Li system. The first organizational meeting was held in June 1994. This paper describes the system to be studied and the approach to be followed to complete the conceptual design by early 1997

  1. Irradiation Facilities at the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the third generation and largest test reactor built in the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (formerly known as the Test Reactor Area), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The RTC was established in the early 1950s with the development of the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), which operated until 1970. The second major reactor was the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), which operated from 1957 to 1981, and finally the ATR, which began operation in 1967 and will continue operation well into the future. These reactors have produced a significant portion of the world's data on materials response to reactor environments. The wide range of experiment facilities in the ATR and the unique ability to vary the neutron flux in different areas of the core allow numerous experiment conditions to co-exist during the same reactor operating cycle. Simple experiments may involve a non-instrumented capsule containing test specimens with no real-time monitoring or control capabilities. More sophisticated testing facilities include inert gas temperature control systems and pressurized water loops that have continuous chemistry, pressure, temperature, and flow control as well as numerous test specimen monitoring capabilities. There are also apparatus that allow for the simulation of reactor transients on test specimens

  2. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Facilities and Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blaine Grover; Raymond V. Furstenau

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world's premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These different capabilities include passive sealed capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. The ATR has enhanced capabilities in experiment monitoring and control systems for instrumented and/or temperature controlled experiments. The control systems utilize feedback from thermocouples in the experiment to provide a custom blended flowing inert gas mixture to control the temperature in the experiments. Monitoring systems have also been utilized on the exhaust gas lines from the experiment to monitor different parameters, such as fission gases for fuel experiments, during irradiation. ATR's unique control system provides axial flux profiles in the experiments, unperturbed by axially positioned control components, throughout each reactor operating cycle and over the duration of test programs requiring many years of irradiation. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 1.6 cm (0.625 inches) to 12.7 cm (5.0 inches) over an active core length of 122 cm (48.0 inches). Thermal and fast neutron fluxes can be adjusted radially across the core depending on the needs of individual test programs. This paper will discuss the different irradiation capabilities available and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. Examples of different experiments will also be discussed to demonstrate the use of the capabilities and facilities at ATR for performing irradiation experiments

  3. Planning a 60Co irradiation facility for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design for a conveyor system is proposed for use in fruit irradiation. The seasonal nature of the fruit harvest requires that the 60 Co source inventory should be sufficient to meet the demand at peak season, but this would be excessive at the beginning and towards the end of the harvest. Because of the short crop period the possibility of other irradiation services should be exploited to ensure full utilization of the facility. For successful extension of fruit shelf-life rigid practices in pre-irradiation treatment are essential and careful packaging is indispensable to the operation of the irradiator. Based on the time required for construction and equipment supply, a period of 18 months should be assumed for completion of the project. (author)

  4. Current status of irradiation facilities in JRR-3 and JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Naohiko; Wada, Shigeru; Sasajima, Fumio; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Research Reactor has operated two research reactors, JRR-3 and JRR-4. These reactors were constructed in the Tokai Research Establishment. Many researchers and engineers use these joint-use facilities. JRR-3 is a light water moderated and cooled, pool type research reactor using low-enriched silicide fuel. JRR-3's maximum thermal power is 20MW. JRR-3 has nine vertical irradiation holes for RI production, nuclear fuels and materials irradiation at reactor core area. JRR-3 has many kinds of irradiation holes in a heavy water tank around the reactor core. These are two hydraulic rabbit irradiation facilities, two pneumatic rabbit irradiation facilities, one activation analysis irradiation facilities, one uniform irradiation facility, one rotating irradiation facility and one capsule irradiation facility. JRR-3 has nine horizontal experimental holes, that are used by many kinds of neutron beam experimental facilities using these holes. JRR-4 is a light water moderated and cooled, swimming pool type research reactor using low-enriched silicide fuel. JRR-4's maximum thermal power is 3.5MW. JRR-4 has five vertical irradiation tubes at reactor core area, three capsule irradiation facilities, one hydraulic rabbit irradiation facility, and one pneumatic rabbit irradiation facility. JRR-4 has a neutron beam hole, and it has used neutron beam experiments, irradiations for activation analysis and medical neutron irradiations. (author)

  5. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  6. Construction plan of ion irradiation facility in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1987-01-01

    The Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started the construction of an ion irradiation facility to apply ion beam to the research and development of radiation resistant materials for severe environment, the research on biotechnology and new functional materials. This project was planned as ion beam irradiation becomes an effective means for the research on fundamental physics and advanced technology, and the national guideline recently emphasizes the basic and pioneering field in research and development. This facility comprises an AVF cyclotron with an ECR ion source (maximum proton energy: 90 MeV), a 3 MV tandem accelerator, a 3 MV single end type Van de Graaf accelerator and a 400 kV ion implanter. In this report, the present status of planning the accelerators and the facility to be constructed, the outline of research plan, the features of the accelerators, and the beam characteristics are described. In this project, the research items are divided into the materials for space environment, the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, biotechnology, new functional materials, and ion beam technology. The ion beams required for the facility are microbeam, pulsed beam, multiple beam, neutron beam and an expanded irradiation field. (Kako, I.)

  7. Dose mapping of the multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G; Lanuza, L G; Villamater, D T [Irradiation Services, Nuclear Services and Training Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1989-12-01

    In radiation processing, reliable dosimetry constitutes a very important part of process control and quality assurance. Radiation dosimetry is the only acceptable method to guarantee that the irradiated product has undergone the correct radiation treatment. In preparation therefore, for the routine operation of the newly installed multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), dose mapping distribution studies were undertaken. Results of dose distribution in air as well as in dummy product are presented. The effects of product bulk density, product geometry and product to source distance on minimum absorbed dose and uniformity ratio have been determined. (Author).

  8. Dose mapping of the multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Villamater, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In radiation processing, reliable dosimetry constitutes a very important part of process control and quality assurance. Radiation dosimetry is the only acceptable method to guarantee that the irradiated product has undergone the correct radiation treatment. In preparation therefore, for the routine operation of the newly installed multi-purpose gamma irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), dose mapping distribution studies were undertaken. Results of dose distribution in air as well as in dummy product are presented. The effects of product bulk density, product geometry and product to source distance on minimum absorbed dose and uniformity ratio have been determined. (Author)

  9. Final safety analysis report for the irradiated fuels storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, G.E.; Evans, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel storage facility has been constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to provide safe storage for spent fuel from two commercial HTGR's, Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom, and from the Rover nuclear rocket program. The new facility was built as an addition to the existing fuel storage basin building to make maximum use of existing facilities and equipment. The completed facility provides dry storage for one core of Peach Bottom fuel (804 elements), 1 1 / 2 cores of Fort St. Vrain fuel (2200 elements), and the irradiated fuel from the 20 reactors in the Rover program. The facility is designed to permit future expansion at a minimum cost should additional storage space for graphite-type fuels be required. A thorough study of the potential hazards associated with the Irradiated Fuels Storage Facility has been completed, indicating that the facility is capable of withstanding all credible combinations of internal accidents and pertinent natural forces, including design basis natural phenomena of a 10,000 year flood, a 175-mph tornado, or an earthquake having a bedrock acceleration of 0.33 g and an amplification factor of 1.3, without a loss of integrity or a significant release of radioactive materials. The design basis accident (DBA) postulated for the facility is a complete loss of cooling air, even though the occurrence of this situation is extremely remote, considering the availability of backup and spare fans and emergency power. The occurrence of the DBA presents neither a radiation nor an activity release hazard. A loss of coolant has no effect upon the fuel or the facility other than resulting in a gradual and constant temperature increase of the stored fuel. The temperature increase is gradual enough that ample time (28 hours minimum) is available for corrective action before an arbitrarily imposed maximum fuel centerline temperature of 1100 0 F is reached

  10. 3D absorbed dose calculation with GATE Monte Carlo simulation for the image-guided radiation therapy dedicated to the small animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noblet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Innovating irradiators dedicated to small animal allow to mimic clinical treatments in image-guided radiation therapy. Clinical practice is scaled down to the small animal by reducing beam dimensions (from cm to mm) and energy (from MeV to keV). Millimeter medium energy beams ( [fr

  11. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  12. Technical note - Considerations for MR imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine clinical veterinary use of MR scanning is becoming more common. This article addresses the major technical considerations for radiographers performing MR examinations on small animals and provides practical advice for scanning techniques.

  13. Development of the flow control irradiation facility for JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroi, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Shun-ichi

    1998-05-01

    This report describes the present situation and problems with the development of the flow control irradiation facility (FLORA). The purpose of FLORA is to run the cladding breach (RTCB) irradiation test under loss of flow conditions in the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. FLORA is a facility like FPTF (Fuel Performance Test Facility) plus BFTF (Breached Fuel Test Facility) in EBR-II, USA. The technical feature of FLORA is its annular linear induction pump (A-LIP), which was developed in response to a need identified through the experiences in the mechanical flow control of FPTF. We have already designed the basic system facility of FLORA for the JOYO MK-II core. However, to put FLORA to practical use in the future, we have to confirm the stability of the JOYO MK-III core condition, solve problems and improve the design. We are going to freeze and review the FLORA project, taking into consideration the fuel development situation and the research project of JOYO MK-III core. (J.P.N.)

  14. Seed irradiation facilities at TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fast neutrons and gamma-rays with their high and low LET respectively are excellent complementary tools for investigation of the effect of different types of mutations. TRIGA Irradiation Facility and Thermal Column Irradiation Facility were designed and installed for the first time in the TRIGA tank and thermal column respectively. The basic idea of design was the use of depleted uranium as gamma-ray and thermal neutron shield and simultaneously as thermal to fast neutron converter. Low LET radiation, due to direct and thermal neutron capture gamma-rays, is strongly attenuated while fast neutron flux is increased. GIF is made of a cadmium tube inserted in a graphite block. It is located in the central thermal column channel. The basic idea is to convert thermal neutrons to gamma-rays by capture in the cadmium

  15. The proposed cold neutron irradiation facility at the Breazeale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimeo, R. M.; Sokol, P. E.; Carpenter, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the design considerations of a Cold Neutron Irradiation Facility (CNIF) originally to have been installed at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The goal of this project was to study the effects of radiation-induced damage to cryogenic moderators and, in particular, solid methane. This work evolved through the design stage undergoing a full safety analysis and received tentative approval from the PSBR Safeguards Committee but was discontinued due to budgetary constraints. (auth)

  16. Irradiation setup at the U-120M cyclotron facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Filip; Ferencei, Jozef; Matlocha, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Jan; Príbeli, Peter; Raskina, Valentina; Isakov, Artem; Štursa, Jan; Vaňát, Tomáš; Vysoká, K.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 894, č. 6 (2018), s. 87-95 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk LM2015058 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : particle irradiation facility * radiation hardness * dosimetry * single event effect * single event upset * single event transient Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  17. Implementing an environmental management system in a irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, James

    1998-01-01

    Environmental management is at different stages in the countries where there are commercial irradiation facilities. There are therefore differing perspectives on the role of an Environmental Management System, ranging from compliance with the Regulatory framework to a desire to be proactive. An effective Environmental Management System (EMS) facilitates compliance, while also providing the framework for assessment and improvement of a company's environmental impact and overall performance

  18. Radiation Safety of Gamma, Electron and X Ray Irradiation Facilities. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements of the BSS with regard to irradiation facilities. This Safety Guide provides specific, practical recommendations on the safe design and operation of gamma, electron and X ray irradiators for use by operating organizations and the designers of these facilities, and by regulatory bodies. SCOPE. The facilities considered in this publication include five types of irradiator, whether operated on a commercial basis or for research and development purposes. This publication is concerned with radiation safety issues and not with the uses of irradiators, nor does it cover the irradiation of product or its quality management. The five types of irradiator are: - Panoramic dry source storage irradiators; - Underwater irradiators, in which both the source and the product being irradiated are under water; - Panoramic wet source storage irradiators; - Electron beam irradiation facilities, in which irradiation is performed in an area that is potentially accessible to personnel, but that is kept inaccessible during the irradiation process; - X ray irradiation facilities, in which irradiation is performed in an area that is potentially accessible to personnel, but that is kept inaccessible during the irradiation process. Consideration of non-radiation-related risks and of the benefits resulting from the operation of irradiators is outside the scope of this Safety Guide. The practices of radiotherapy and radiography are also outside the scope of this Safety Guide. Category I gamma irradiators (i.e. 'self-shielded' irradiators) are outside the scope of this Safety Guide

  19. Fusion materials irradiation test facility: description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.; Parker, E.F.; Hagan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility will generate a high-flux, high-energy neutron source that will provide a fusion-like radiation environment for fusion reactor materials development. The neutrons will be produced in a nuclear stripping reaction by impinging a 35 MeV beam of deuterons from an Alvarez-type linear accelerator on a flowing lithium target. The target will be located in a test cell which will provide an irradiation volume of over 750l within which 10 cm 3 will have an average neutron flux of greater than 1.4 x 10 15 n/cm 2 -s and 500 cm 3 an average flux of greater than 2.2 by 10 14 n/cm 2- s with an expected availability factor greater than 65%. The projected fluence within the 10 cm 3 high flux region of FMIT will effect damage upon the materials test specimens to 30 dpa (displacements per atom) for each 90 day irradiation period. This irradiation flux volume will be at least 500 times larger than that of any other facility with comparable neutron energy and will fully meet the fusion materials damage research objective of 100 dpa within three years for the first round of tests

  20. Gamma irradiation for sewage treatment at US army facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.J.; Hollis, H.D.; Musselman, H.D.; Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has been sponsoring research for many years on the use of gamma irradiation for disinfection and sterilization of sewage plant effluents. Initial research was directed to laboratory experiments using sterile solutions to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on E. coli, M-pyogenes and M-smegmatis organisms, and on the chemical constituents of sewage such as phenols, surfactants and pesticides. The results of the initial research warranted further study using municipal sewage secondary effluent as test samples. Current research is directed towards investigating the effects of radiation on the constituents of sewage sludge and on the cyst stage of the amoebic protozoa. Consideration has been given by the Corps to the management of waste-waters by disposal on land. Legal and medical reasons dictate that the plant effluents be sterilized before being used as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Gamma radiation from isotopic sources appears to be the best source of sterilizing energy for Army waste-water disposal. The Corps of Engineers is considering the construction of an experimental gamma irradiation pilot facility to validate laboratory experimental work and to establish design criteria for operating plants. The data obtained will provide a basis for performing detailed cost effectiveness studies on gamma irradiation as a method to treat secondary plant effluent. In addition, optimization work will be conducted to determine where in the sewage treatment cycle the use of gamma irradiation will produce the best results in meeting current and anticipated standards. (author)

  1. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  2. Prospects of establishing food irradiation facilities in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, A.O.; Patel, J.P.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Hashim, N.O.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A national project of food irradiation in the country is being proposed. At present there are no facilities for food irradiation (and food irradiation research) in Kenya. This report is therefore largely comparative between the traditional and the conventional food preservation methods on the one hand and the irradiation technique on the other. The report is also based on information from other countries where food irradiation is practiced (Kawabata, 1981) or is being also contemplated (Diop et al, 1997), as well as on the relevant report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this topic (IAEA, 1993). The paper presents the statement of the research problem, i.e., in Kenya large quantities of food and other farm produces go to waste annually as a result of the inadequacies of the preservation techniques currently in use. These (other) preservation techniques, although often less controversial than the irradiation techniques, have also been found to be more expensive to run when compared to irradiation techniques. Such techniques, presently employed in Kenya, include the traditional methods (e.g. sun drying, smoke and fire drying, etc.) and modern techniques such as freezing or refrigeration, lyophilization, etc., as well as application of chemicals like insecticides and fumigants. The latter combines the disadvantages of high costs with environmental pollution and associated health risks. In this preliminary research, aimed at studying the prospects of a national food irradiation project, the following food items that are selected for their importance to the economy of the country, include potatoes, rice, maize, coffee, tea, various fruits, fish and meat. The paper also explores the economic feasibility as well as the human and technological requirements of establishing a commercial food irradiation plant, with aim of assessing the applicability of food irradiation as alternative or a complimentary approach for preservation technique in

  3. The operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Min, Duk Ki; Lee, Young Kil

    1994-12-01

    The operation of post-irradiation examination facility was performed as follow. HVAC and pool water treatment system were continuously operated, and radiation monitoring in PIE facility has been carried out to maintain the facility safely. Inspection of the fuel assembly (F02) transported from Kori Unit 1 was performed in pool, and fuel rods extracted from the fuel assembly (J44) of Kori Unit 2 NPP were examined in hot cell. A part of deteriorated pipe line of drinking water was exchanged for stainless steel pipe to prevent leaking accidents. Halon gas system was also installed in the exhausting blower room for fire fighting. And IAEA inspection camera for safeguard of nuclear materials was fixed at the wall in pool area. Radiation monitoring system were improved to display the area radioactive value at CRT monitor in health physics control room. And automatic check system for battery and emergency diesel generator was developed to measure the voltage and current of them. The performance test of oxide thickness measuring device installed in hot cell for irradiated fuel rod and improvement of the device were performed, and good measuring results using standard sample were obtained. The safeguard inspection of nuclear materials and operation inspection of the facility were carried out through the annual operation inspection, quarterly IAEA inspection and quality assurance auditing. 26 tabs., 43 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new

  4. Neutron irradiation facilities for fission and fusion reactor materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of energy-conversion machines based upon nuclear fission or fusion reactors is critically dependent upon the behavior of the engineering materials used to construct the full containment and primary heat extraction systems. The development of radiation damage-resistant materials requires irradiation testing facilities which reproduce, as closely as possible, the thermal and neutronic environment expected in a power-producing reactor. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reference core design for the Center for Neutron Research (CNR) reactor provides for instrumented facilities in regions of both hard and mixed neutron spectra, with substantially higher fluxes than are currently available. The benefits of these new facilities to the development of radiation damage resistant materials are discussed in terms of the major US fission and fusion reactor programs

  5. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility: a facility for fusion-materials qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.; Hagan, J.W.; Opperman, E.K.; Burke, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility will provide a unique testing environment for irradiation of structural and special purpose materials in support of fusion power systems. The neutron source will be produced by a deuteron-lithium stripping reaction to generate high energy neutrons to ensure damage similar to that of a deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum. The facility design is now ready for the start of construction and much of the supporting lithium system research has been completed. Major testing of key low energy end components of the accelerator is about to commence. The facility, its testing role, and the status and major aspects of its design and supporting system development are described

  6. Irradiation facilities for materials research: IFMIF and small scale installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J. M.; Victoria, M.

    2007-01-01

    The research of advance materials in nuclear fields such as new fission reactors (Generation-IV), Accelerator Driven Systems for Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes and Nuclear Fusion, is becoming very much common in the types of low activation and radiation resistant Materials. Ferritic-Martensitic Steels (based in 9-12 Cr) with or without Oxide Dispersion Techniques (Ytria Nanoparticles), Composites materials are becoming the new generation to answer requirements of high temperature, high radiation resistance of structural materials. Special dedication is appearing in general research programmes to this area of Materials. The understanding of their final performance needs a wider knowledge of the mechanisms of radiation damage in these materials from the atomistic scale to the macroscopic responses. New extensive campaigns are being funded to irradiate from simple elements to model alloys and finally the complex materials themselves. That sequence and its state of art will be presented One clear technique for that understanding is the Multi scale Modelling which includes simulation techniques from quantum mechanics, molecular dynamics, defects diffusion, mesoscopic modelling and finally the macroscopic constitutive relations for macroscopic analysis. However, in each one of these steps is necessary a systematic and well established program of experiments that combines the irradiation and the very detailed analysis with techniques such as Transmission Electron Microscope, Positron Annihilation, SIMS, Atom Probe, Nanoindebntation. A key aspect that wants to be presented in this work is the state of art and discussion of Irradiation Facilities for Materials studies. Those facilities goes from ion implantation sources, small accelerator, Experimental Reactors such High Flux Reactor, sophisticated Triple Beams Sources as JANNUS in France to generate at the same time displacements-hydrogen-helium, and projected very large neutron installation such as IFMIF. The role to

  7. An irradiation facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czub, J.; Adamus, T.; Banas, D.

    2006-01-01

    A facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological experiments with heavy ions has been designed and constructed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory in Warsaw University. The facility is optimal to investigate the radiobiological effects of charged heavy particles on a cellular or molecular level as the plateau of the Bragg curve as well as in the Bragg peak. The passive beam spread out by a thin scattering foil provides a homogeneous irradiation field over an area of at least 1 x 1 cm 2 . For in vitro irradiation of biological samples the passive beam spreading combined with the x - y mechanical scanning of the irradiated sample was found to be an optimum solution. Using x - y step motor, the homogenous beam of ions with the energy loss range in the cells varied from 1 MeV/μm to 200 keV/μm is able to cover a 6 cm in diameter Petri dish that holds the biological samples. Moreover on-line fluence monitoring based on single-particle counting is performed to determine the dose absorbed by cells. Data acquisition system for dosimetry and ion monitoring based on a personal computer is described. (author)

  8. An industrial 60Co gamma irradiation facility in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yongling; Zhou Ruiying; Wang Binglin

    1990-01-01

    The radiation processing has developed very fast in China since 1980. There are more than 100 of 60 Co radiation facilities having been set up. Majority of them was with relatively small capacity and was used mainly for the laboratory study. An industrial radiation facility has been established and put into operation in Beijing Radiation Application Center (BRAC) recently. The project was based on the research works of irradiation technology during the period of 1980-1985. The main pre-research work was radiation sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. This work has obtained an award from State Commission of Science and Technology. The Commission has arranged the construction of an industrial sterilization plant for medical products as a major import project. The project has also been supported by IAEA as project CPR/8/002. The project includes a plant of production of 100,000,000 needles per year, a plant of production of 50,000,000 syringes per year and an automatic irradiation plant. All three parts have been set up now. The maximum capacity of 60 Co sources is 3.7 x 10 16 Bq, the first-time-loaded source is 12.21 x 10 15 Bq. (author)

  9. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  10. Small animal PET and its applications in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Feichan

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. As the leading technology in nuclear medicine, PET has extended its applications from the clinical field to the study of small laboratory animals. In recent years, the development of new detector technology has dramatically improved the spatial resolution and image quality of small animal PET scanner, which is being used increasingly as a basic tool in modern biomedical research. In particular, small animal PET will play an important role in drug discovery and development, in the study of small animal models of human diseases, in characterizing gene expression and in many other ways. (authors)

  11. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  12. Automatically controlled facilities for irradiation of silicon crystals at the Rossendorf Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the facilities for neutron transmutation doping of silicon in GDR. The irradiation of silicon single crystals began at Rossendorf in 1978 with simple equipment. Only a small amount of silicon could be irradiated in it. The fast increasing need of NTD-silicon made it necessary to design and construct new and better facilities. The new facilities are capable of irradiating silicon from 2'' to 3'' in diameter. The irradiation process takes place automatically with the assistance of a computer. Material produced has an axial homogeneity of ± 7%. Irradiation riggs, techniques, irradiation control and quality control are discussed. (author). 4 figs

  13. Progress in developing the concept for the irradiation research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Bishop, W.E.; Gillespie, G.E.; Zeng, Y.

    1996-04-01

    At the 16th annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference, AECL presented the case for replacing the NRU reactor with an Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) to test CANDU fuels and materials and to perform advanced materials research using neutrons. AECL developed a cost estimate of $500 million for the reference IRF concept, and estimated that it would require 87 months to complete. AECL has initiated a pre-project program to develop the IRF concept and to minimize uncertainties related to feasibility and licensability, and to examine options for reducing the overall project cost before project implementation begins. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs

  14. Shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Mann, F.M.; Morford, R.J.; Wilcox, A.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Huang, S.T.

    1983-03-01

    The shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility is based upon one-, two- and three-dimensional transport calculations with experimental measurements utilized to refine the nuclear data including the neutron cross sections from 20 to 50 MeV and the gamma ray and neutron source terms. The high energy neutrons and deuterons produce activation products from the numerous reactions that are kinematically allowed. The analyses for both beam-on and beam-off (from the activation products) conditions have required extensive nuclear data libraries and the utilization of Monte Carlo, discrete ordinates, point kernel and auxiliary computer codes

  15. NEW IRRADIATION RESEARCH FACILITIES AT THE ARMY NATICK LABORATORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. D.; Brynjolfsson, A.

    1963-03-15

    New facilities built by the U. S. Army for research on the preservation of food by ionizing radiation consist of a food processing and packaging facility and a radiation sources laboratory with two powerful low-energy radiation sources. One is a 1.3 million-curie Co/sup 60/ source consisting of 98 tubes each containing four doubly encapsulated Co/sup 60/ slugs. The second source is an electron linear accelerator with energy variable between 2 and 32 Mev. Research with the Co/sup 60/ source is concentrated on investigation of macroscopic and microscopic dose distribution in different materials irradiated with Co/sup 60/ gamma rays. Research with the linear accelerator is concentrated on dosimetry and photonuclear reactions. (A.G.W.)

  16. East Area Irradiation Test Facility: Preliminary FLUKA calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Calviani, M; Gatignon, L; Glaser, M; Moll, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) mitigation project, the testing of electronic equipment in a radiation field similar to the one occurring in the LHC tunnel and shielded areas to study its sensitivity to single even upsets (SEU) is one of the main topics. Adequate irradiation test facilities are therefore required, and one installation is under consideration in the framework of the PS East area renovation activity. FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to estimate the radiation field which could be obtained in a mixed field facility using the slowly extracted 24 GeV/c proton beam from the PS. The prompt ambient dose equivalent as well as the equivalent residual dose rate after operation was also studied and results of simulations are presented in this report.

  17. The proceedings of 1993-workshop on 'development and application of facilities for low temperature irradiation as well as controlled irradiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi; Okada, Moritami

    1993-03-01

    This is the proceedings of 1992-workshop of the working group on 'Development and Application of Facilities for Low Temperature Irradiation as well as Controlled Irradiation' held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on February 23 and 24, 1993. In this workshop until now, studies on irradiation effects in many materials irradiated at lower and higher temperatures have been reported. It has been clearly defined that a careful choice of irradiation conditions is most important. At the present time, a setting plan of exactly controlled irradiation facility, which is able to irradiate with higher temperatures, is in progress. On the other hand, a plan of vertical low temperature irradiation facility has not yet been performed for lack of funds. In last year, a middle scale plan of low temperature irradiation facility, which is possible to irradiate a fast-neutron dose above 10 17 n/cm 2 at about 5K, was proposed in this workshop. In this proceedings, the advanced facility is required to construct to the KUR as soon as possible by many of the workshop members. (author)

  18. Proposal for an irradiation facility at the TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirköz, B.; Gencer, A.; Kiziloren, D.; Apsimon, R.

    2013-12-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority's (TAEK's) Proton Accelerator Facility in Ankara, Turkey, has been inaugurated in May 2012 and is under the process of being certified for commercial radio-isotope production. Three of the four arms of the 30 MeV cyclotron are being used for radio-isotope production, while the fourth is foreseen for research and development of novel ideas and methods. The cyclotron can vary the beam current between 12 μA and 1.2 mA, sufficient for irradiation tests for semiconductor materials, detectors and devices. We propose to build an irradiation facility in the R&D room of this complex, open for use to the international detector development community.

  19. The radiological accident at the irradiation facility in Nesvizh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    More than 40 years of experience in radiation processing has shown that such technology is generally used safely, and steady improvement in the design of facilities and careful selection and training of operators have contributed to this good safety record. However, some cases of circumvention of safety systems have been registered and it is documented that the consequences of radiological accidents at industrial radiation facilities can be extremely serious. The causes of accidents may have some points in common, but at the same time may be highly specific. A detailed study of these common and specific features seems to be of great importance for further improvements in safety systems. One such event occurred on 26 October 1991 at an industrial sterilization facility in Nesvizh, Belarus, when the operator entered the irradiation chamber and was severely exposed to a lethal dose of radiation. The significant feature of this case was related to the medical management. It should be underlined that some circumstances of the accident only came to light during the post-accident review made by the IAEA. To document the causes and consequences of the accident and to define the lessons learned are of help to those people with responsibility for the safety of such facilities and to those medical authorities who might be involved in the management of a radiation event. 16 refs, figs, tabs, photographs

  20. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær

    2012-01-01

    was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...

  1. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  2. Frequency domain fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Plehanov, Vladimir I.; Balalaeva, Irina V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Kleshnin, Michail S.

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds for selective cancer cell marking are used for development of novel medical diagnostic methods, investigation of the influence of external factors on tumor growth, regress and metastasis. Only special tools for turbid media imaging, such as optical diffusion tomography permit noninvasive monitoring of fluorescent-labeled tumor alterations deep in animal tissue. In this work, the results of preliminary experiments utilizing frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography (FD FDT) experimental setup in small animal are presented. Low-frequency modulated light (1 kHz) from Nd:YAG laser with second harmonic generation at the wavelength of 532 nm was used in the setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Models of deep tumors were created by two methods: (1) glass capsules containing fluorophore solution were inserted into esophagus of small animals to simulate marked tumors; (2) a suspension of transfected HEΚ293-Turbo-RFP cells was subcutaneously injected to small animal. The conducted experiments have shown that FD FDT allows one to detect the presence of labeled tumor cells in small animals, to determine the volume of an experimental tumor, to perform 3D tumor reconstruction, as well as to conduct monitoring investigations. The obtained results demonstrate the potential capability of the FD FDT method for noninvasive whole-body imaging in cancer studies, diagnostics and therapy.

  3. Quantification in dynamic and small-animal positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disselhorst, Johannes Antonius

    2011-01-01

    This thesis covers two aspects of positron emission tomography (PET) quantification. The first section addresses the characterization and optimization of a small-animal PET/CT scanner. The sensitivity and resolution as well as various parameters affecting image quality (reconstruction settings, type

  4. Marketing small animal theriogenology services--one perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A

    2007-08-01

    Once a decision is made to add small animal theriogenology services to a practice, marketing strategies must be developed and implemented to attract clients to the new services. Marketing strategies for the niche market of theriogenology include start-up marketing methods, referral programs, internal marketing, and continued marketing. Marketing theriogenology services is a dynamic, ongoing process that never ends.

  5. Staged deployment of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Nakamura, H.

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) employs an accelerator based D-Li intense neutron source as defined in the 1995-96 Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) study. In 1999, IEA mandated a review of the CDA IFMIF design for cost reduction without change to its original mission. This objective was accomplished by eliminating the previously assumed possibility of potential upgrade of IFMIF beyond the user requirements. The total estimated cost was reduced from $797.2 M to $487.8 M. An option of deployment in 3 stages was also examined to reduce the initial investment and annual expenditures during construction. In this scenario, full performance is achieved gradually with each interim stage as follows. 1st Stage: 20% operation for material selection for ITER breeding blanket, 2nd Stage: 50% operation to demonstrate materials performance of a reference alloy for DEMO, 3rd Stage: full performance operation ( 2MW/m 2 at 500cm 3 ) to obtain engineering data for potential DEMO materials under irradiation up to 100-200 dpa. In summary, the new, reduced cost IFMIF design and staged deployment still satisfies the original mission. The estimated cost of the 1st Stage facility is only $303.6 M making it financially much more attractive. Currently, IFMIF Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) is underway to reduce the key technology risk factors. (author)

  6. Process control and dosimetry in a multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Solomon, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. To introduce and demonstrate radiation processing to the local industries, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has set up a pilot scale multipurpose gamma irradiation facility. Though on a limited scale, this has led to the commercial radiation sterilization and decontamination of various products, such as empty aluminum tubes, empty gelatin capsules, spices and fresh onions. Process control in this facility involves dose measurement to ensure that the products receive the required dose to get the desired beneficial effect. Prior to routine processing, dose distribution studies to determine the locations of minimum and maximum absorbed dose are undertaken for each product and product-source geometry. The product loading pattern, which meets the required dose uniformity ratio and which gives the optimum amount of product per loading is then chosen. During routine irradiation, dosimeters are placed at the minimum and maximum absorbed dose positions of a process load. If locations of minimum or maximum dose are not readily accessible, dosimeters are placed at reference positions. The relationship of the absorbed dose at these reference positions with the absorbed dose at the minimum or maximum position is established beforehand. Fricke and ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters are used to measure absorbed dose. PNRI participates in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. Results show that absorbed dose as measured by alanine agreed with ECB within 5%, while that from Fricke agreed to within 2%

  7. Process control and dosimetry in a multipurpose irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G; Lanuza, L G; Solomon, H M [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1999-12-31

    Complete text of publication follows. To introduce and demonstrate radiation processing to the local industries, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has set up a pilot scale multipurpose gamma irradiation facility. Though on a limited scale, this has led to the commercial radiation sterilization and decontamination of various products, such as empty aluminum tubes, empty gelatin capsules, spices and fresh onions. Process control in this facility involves dose measurement to ensure that the products receive the required dose to get the desired beneficial effect. Prior to routine processing, dose distribution studies to determine the locations of minimum and maximum absorbed dose are undertaken for each product and product-source geometry. The product loading pattern, which meets the required dose uniformity ratio and which gives the optimum amount of product per loading is then chosen. During routine irradiation, dosimeters are placed at the minimum and maximum absorbed dose positions of a process load. If locations of minimum or maximum dose are not readily accessible, dosimeters are placed at reference positions. The relationship of the absorbed dose at these reference positions with the absorbed dose at the minimum or maximum position is established beforehand. Fricke and ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters are used to measure absorbed dose. PNRI participates in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. Results show that absorbed dose as measured by alanine agreed with ECB within 5%, while that from Fricke agreed to within 2%.

  8. Status on the construction of the fuel irradiation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kook Nam; Sim, Bong Shick; Lee, Chung Young; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2005-01-01

    As a facility to examine general performance of nuclear fuel under irradiation condition in HANARO, Fuel Test Loop(FTL) has been developed which can accommodate 3 fuel pins at the core irradiation hole(IR1 hole) taking consideration user's test requirement. 3-Pin FTL consists of In-Pile Test Section (IPS) and Out-of- Pile System (OPS). Test condition in IPS such as pressure, temperature and the water quality, can be controlled by OPS. 3-Pin FTL Conceptual design was set up in 2001 and had completed detail design including a design requirement and basic Piping and Instrument Diagram (P and ID) in 2004. The safety analysis report was prepared and submitted in early 2005 to the regulatory body(KINS) for review and approval of FTL. In 2005, the development team is going to purchase and manufacture hardware and make a contract for construction work. In 2006, the development team is going to install an FTL system performance test shall be done as a part of commissioning. After a 3-Pin FTL development which is expected to be finished by the 2007, FTL will be used for the irradiation test of the new PWR-type fuel and the usage of HANARO will be enhanced

  9. A discussion on establishment of GIP management system for food irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiang; Shi Hua; Li Ruisong; Li Shurong; Zhou Hongjie; Ha Yiming

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the hazard factors and selects Critical Control Point (CCP) for food irradiation process (including staff, facilities and processing) using HACCP version. The principles and method of GIP system for food irradiation plant are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Installation of the water environment irradiation facility for the IASCC research under the BWR irradiation environment (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yuji; Magome, Hirokatsu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Ohmi, Masao; Kanno, Masaru; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Shibata, Mitsunobu; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu

    2013-10-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material is advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. This material irradiation test facility and power ramping test facility for doing the neutron irradiation test of the fuel and material for light water reactors is scheduled to be manufactured and installed between the 2008 fiscal year and the 2012 fiscal year. This report summarizes manufacture and installation of the material irradiation test facility for IASCC research carried out from the 2008 fiscal year to the 2010 fiscal year. (author)

  11. DECOMMISSIONING THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY BUILDING 830 GAMMA IRRADIATION FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN, B.S.; SULLIVAN, P.T.

    2001-08-13

    The Building 830 Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned because its design was not in compliance with current hazardous tank standards and its cobalt-60 sources were approaching the end of their useful life. The facility contained 354 stainless steel encapsulated cobalt-60 sources in a pool, which provided shielding. Total cobalt-60 inventory amounted to 24,000 Curies when the sources were shipped for disposal. The decommissioning project included packaging, transport, and disposal of the sources and dismantling and disposing of all other equipment associated with the facility. Worker exposure was a major concern in planning for the packaging and disposal of the sources. These activities were planned carefully according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles. As a result, the actual occupational exposures experienced during the work were within the planned levels. Disposal of the pool water required addressing environmental concerns, since the planned method was to discharge the slightly contaminated water to the BNL sewage treatment plant. After the BNL evaluation procedure for discharge to the sewage treatment plant was revised and reviewed by regulators and BNL's Community Advisory Council, the pool water was discharged to the Building 830 sanitary system. Because the sources were sealed and the pool water contamination levels were low, most of the remaining equipment was not contaminated; therefore disposal was straightforward, as scrap metal and construction debris.

  12. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gencer, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between View the MathML source10μA and View the MathML source1.2mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam ...

  13. Proposed rf system for the fusion materials irradiation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Johnson, H.P.; Hoffert, W.J.; Boyd, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary rf system design for the accelerator portion of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is in progress. The 35-MeV, 100-mA, cw deuteron beam will require 6.3 MW rf power at 80 MHz. Initial testing indicates the EIMAC 8973 tetrode is the most suitable final amplifier tube for each of a series of 15 amplifier chains operating at 0.5-MW output. To satisfy the beam dynamics requirements for particle acceleration and to minimize beam spill, each amplifier output must be controlled to +-1 0 in phase and the field amplitude in the tanks must be held within a 1% tolerance. These tolerances put stringent demands on the rf phase and amplitude control system

  14. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Intense Neutron Source Lab.; Jameson, R.A.; Blind, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Teplyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fur Angewandte Phys.; Ferdinand, R.; Lagniel, J.-M. [CEA Saclay LNS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miyahara, A. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Olivier, M. [CEA DSM, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piechowiak, E. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States); Tanabe, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  15. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M.; Teplyakov, V.; Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J.; Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K.; Miyahara, A.; Olivier, M.; Piechowiak, E.; Tanabe, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Monte Carlo simulations in small animal PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Susana [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: susana.silva@fc.ul.pt; Jan, Sebastien [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV/DRM, Orsay (France); Almeida, Pedro [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-10-01

    This work is based on the use of an implemented Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simulation system dedicated for small animal PET imaging. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), a Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 libraries, is well suited for modeling the microPET FOCUS system and to implement realistic phantoms, such as the MOBY phantom, and data maps from real examinations. The use of a microPET FOCUS simulation model with GATE has been validated for spatial resolution, counting rates performances, imaging contrast recovery and quantitative analysis. Results from realistic studies of the mouse body using {sup -}F and [{sup 18}F]FDG imaging protocols are presented. These simulations include the injection of realistic doses into the animal and realistic time framing. The results have shown that it is possible to simulate small animal PET acquisitions under realistic conditions, and are expected to be useful to improve the quantitative analysis in PET mouse body studies.

  17. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  18. Simulation of time curves in small animal PET using GATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Luc; Strul, Daniel; Santin, Giovanni; Krieguer, Magalie; Morel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The ClearPET project of the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) is building spin-off technology for high resolution small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Monte Carlo simulation is essential for optimizing the specifications of these systems with regards to their most important characteristics, such as spatial resolution, sensitivity, or count rate performance. GATE, the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission simulates the passing of time during real acquisitions, allowing to handle dynamic systems such as decaying source distributions or moving detectors. GATE output is analyzed on an event-by-event basis. The time associated with each single event allows to sort coincidences and to model dead-time. This leads to the study of time curves for a prospective small animal PET scanner design. The count rates of true, and random coincidences are discussed together with the corresponding Noise Equivalent Count (NEC) rates as a function of some PET scanner specifications such as detector dead time, or coincidence time window

  19. RF structure design of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxing; He, Yuan; Xu, Xianbo; Zhang, Zhouli; Wang, Fengfeng; Dou, Weiping; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Tieshan

    2017-10-01

    The radio frequency structure design of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the front end of China Material Irradiation Facility (CMIF), which is an accelerator based neutron irradiation facility for fusion reactor material qualification, has been completed. The RFQ is specified to accelerate 10 mA continuous deuteron beams from the energies of 20 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u within the vane length of 5250 mm. The working frequency of the RFQ is selected to 162.5 MHz and the inter-vane voltage is set to 65 kV. Four-vane cavity type is selected and the cavity structure is designed drawing on the experience of China Initiative Accelerator Driven System (CIADS) Injector II RFQ. In order to reduce the azimuthal asymmetry of the field caused from errors in fabrication and assembly, a frequency separation between the working mode and its nearest dipole mode is reached to 17.66 MHz by utilizing 20 pairs of π-mode stabilizing loops (PISLs) distributed along the longitudinal direction with equal intervals. For the purpose of tuning, 100 slug tuners were introduced to compensate the errors caused by machining and assembly. In order to obtain a homogeneous electrical field distribution along cavity, vane cutbacks are introduced and output endplate is modified. Multi-physics study of the cavity with radio frequency power and water cooling is performed to obtain the water temperature tuning coefficients. Through comparing to the worldwide CW RFQs, it is indicated that the power density of the designed structure is moderate for operation under continuous wave (CW) mode.

  20. UTIs in small animal patients: part 1: etiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Nicole; Loyd, Kimberly; Grauer, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur and how to classify them can help the practitioner to make a plan for treatment. This review summarizes the etiology, pathogenesis, and host defense mechanisms associated with bacterial UTIs in dogs and cats. UTIs in Small Animal Patients: Part 2: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Complications will appear in the March/April 2013 issue of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

  1. The biological application of small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    The short history of small animal PET is reviewed in the context of its application in the laboratory. Early work has demonstrated a role for the technique in both drug development and in the in vivo monitoring of neuroreceptor function with time. As spatial resolution approaches 1 mm, challenges in quantification remain. However, the ability to carry out animal PET studies that are analogous to human PET will form an important bridge between laboratory and clinical sciences

  2. Euthanasia of Small Animals with Nitrogen; Comparison with Intravenous Pentobarbital

    OpenAIRE

    Quine, John P.; Buckingham, William; Strunin, Leo

    1988-01-01

    Intravenous pentobarbital (with or without addition of saturated potassium chloride) was compared with nitrogen gas exposure for euthanasia of small animals (dogs, cats, and rabbits) in a humane society environment. Initially, electrocardiographic) and electroencephalographic monitoring were used to establish the time of death in presedated animals given either pentobarbital or exposed to nitrogen; later, nitrogen euthanasia alone was studied. Sedation with acepromazine delayed the effects of...

  3. Current concepts in oncologic surgery in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Brad M

    2015-05-01

    Surgical oncology is experiencing rapid transition in veterinary medicine. Mast cell tumors and soft tissue sarcomas are two of the most common neoplasms in small animal patients. Clinicians should be familiar with the need for staging and the procedures involved in treating patients with these tumors. Clinicians should be comfortable with available adjuvant therapies and when to use them in certain patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrinsic respiratory gating in small-animal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartling, Soenke H.; Dinkel, Julien; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram; Semmler, Wolfhard; Grasruck, Michael; Madisch, Ijad; Gupta, Rajiv; Kiessling, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Gating in small-animal CT imaging can compensate artefacts caused by physiological motion during scanning. However, all published gating approaches for small animals rely on additional hardware to derive the gating signals. In contrast, in this study a novel method of intrinsic respiratory gating of rodents was developed and tested for mice (n=5), rats (n=5) and rabbits (n=2) in a flat-panel cone-beam CT system. In a consensus read image quality was compared with that of non-gated and retrospective extrinsically gated scans performed using a pneumatic cushion. In comparison to non-gated images, image quality improved significantly using intrinsic and extrinsic gating. Delineation of diaphragm and lung structure improved in all animals. Image quality of intrinsically gated CT was judged to be equivalent to extrinsically gated ones. Additionally 4D datasets were calculated using both gating methods. Values for expiratory, inspiratory and tidal lung volumes determined with the two gating methods were comparable and correlated well with values known from the literature. We could show that intrinsic respiratory gating in rodents makes additional gating hardware and preparatory efforts superfluous. This method improves image quality and allows derivation of functional data. Therefore it bears the potential to find wide applications in small-animal CT imaging. (orig.)

  5. In vivo small animal imaging: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Loudos, George; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Langer, Steve G.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to commercial translation to clinical practice. Whole-body small animal imaging is a particularly elegant and cost-effective experimental platform for the timely validation and commercialization of novel agents from the bench to the bedside. Biomedical imaging is now listed along with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics as an integral part of biological and medical sciences. Miniaturized versions of clinical diagnostic modalities, including but not limited to microcomputed tomography, micromagnetic resonance tomography, microsingle-photon-emission tomography, micropositron-emission tomography, optical imaging, digital angiography, and ultrasound, have all greatly improved our investigative abilities to longitudinally study various experimental models of human disease in mice and rodents. After an exhaustive literature search, the authors present a concise and critical review of in vivo small animal imaging, focusing on currently available modalities as well as emerging imaging technologies on one side and molecularly targeted contrast agents on the other. Aforementioned scientific topics are analyzed in the context of cancer angiogenesis and innovative antiangiogenic strategies under-the-way to the clinic. Proposed hybrid approaches for diagnosis and targeted site-specific therapy are highlighted to offer an intriguing glimpse of the future.

  6. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  7. Advances in endoscopic surgery for small animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katic, N; Dupré, G

    2016-09-01

    Although endoscopic surgery entered its "golden era" in the mid-1980s, it is still advancing at a tremendous pace. Novel surgical techniques and devices are continuously developed and applied, and new indications (and/or contraindications) for the use of endoscopic surgery are routinely reported in the literature and subjected to systematic assessments. Although endoscopic surgery (laparoscopy in particular) has already become established as the gold standard in human medicine, it has yet to be proven as a viable alternative to open surgery in the field of veterinary medicine. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery include better intra-operative visualization, reduced postoperative pain, reduced scar formation and increased postoperative mobility. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the application of this will continue to expand. Small animal reproduction, a field within the broad discipline of veterinary medicine, has already recognized and begun to reap the benefits of endoscopic surgery. Herein, we retrospectively review the most recent successful novel applications of endoscopic surgery in the small animal reproduction system to provide small animal reproductive surgeons with important knowledge to help improve their own veterinarian medical practice. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. New facilities in Japan materials testing reactor for irradiation test of fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Sagawa, H.; Ishitsuka, E.; Sakamoto, N.; Niiho, T.

    1996-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of fusion reactor components, i.e. blanket, plasma facing components (divertor, etc.) and vacuum vessel with neutron irradiation is required for the design of fusion reactor components. Therefore, four new test facilities were developed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor: an in-pile functional testing facility, a neutron multiplication test facility, an electron beam facility, and a re-weldability facility. The paper describes these facilities

  9. Characterization of the fast neutron irradiation facility of the Portuguese Research Reactor after core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.G.; Sousa, M.; Santos, J.P.; Fernandes, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The fast neutron irradiation facility of the Portuguese Research Reactor was characterized after the reduction in uranium enrichment and rearrangement of the core configuration. In this work we report on the determination of the hardness parameter and the 1 MeV equivalent neutron flux along the facility, in the new irradiation conditions, following ASTM E722 standard.

  10. Questionnaire survey and technical guideline of blood irradiation on medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hironori; Okumura, Masahiko; Sonoda, Tatsuo; Osada, Koji.

    1997-01-01

    We know that transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) is a serious side effect associated with blood transfusion and the onset is independent on the immunological conditions of patients. We have only prophylactic treatment against TA-GVHD. The most reliable method is to irradiate the blood for transfusion. In Japanese medical facilities, however, the risk of TA-GVHD is poorly understood and actual conditions of the blood irradiation are unclear. We sent a questionnaire to randomly selected 426 medical facilities in Japan, which had the department of radiology, to investigate the actual conditions of blood irradiation for transfusion and the problems on the irradiation dose measurement of the external apparatus for blood irradiation. The questionnaire involved 19 questions about the blood irradiation for transfusion. The survey took place for one month (June 1-June 30, 1995). Replies were obtained from a total of 306 medical facilities (72%). The results showed that blood irradiation was done by several methods in the 75% of the medical facilities, and the external irradiation apparatus was used in 83%. Some problems were shown, including irradiation period, cost of the irradiation, the operating procedure of the apparatus, requested number of the irradiation, and the request after usual hours. There was no significant problem on the irradiation dose, irradiation method, etc. We also sent a questionnaire to 74 facilities of the Red Cross Blood Center, in which the frequency of blood irradiation have increased since May, 1976. The X-ray apparatus as the external irradiation apparatus has practical advantages; lower cost, compact and out of the legal control on the ionizing radiation, however, it has some problems on the uniformity of the absorption dose when a single X-ray tube-type apparatus is used. We discuss about the possible onset of TA-GVHD or other accidents by the incorrect irradiation of the blood preparations. (K.H.)

  11. Monte Carlo studies of the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility. The irradiator geometry and its influence on process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Ferreira, L.; Salgado, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes a Monte Carlo study of dose distributions, minimum dose and uniformity ratio for the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility. These process parameters are calculated using the MCNP code for several irradiator geometries. The comparison of the simulated results with the experimental results carried out using Amber Perspex dosimeters in a routine process of the gamma facility for a given material composition and density reveals good agreement. The results already obtained allow to conclude that the dose uniformity is not very sensitive to the irradiator geometry for density value ρ = 0.1 and for a dynamic process. (orig.)

  12. Installation of the water environment irradiation facility for the IASCC research under the BWR/PWR irradiation environment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Masaru; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Shibata, Mitsunobu

    2014-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. This report summarizes manufacture and installation of the material irradiation test facility for IASCC research carried out from 2012 to 2014 in the follow-up report reported before (JAEA-Technology 2013-019). (author)

  13. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J. [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging (CIDI), Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 32892 (United States); Bagci, Ulas, E-mail: ulasbagci@gmail.com [Center for Research in Computer Vision (CRCV), University of Central Florida (UCF), Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Kramer-Marek, Gabriela [The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW7 3RP (United Kingdom); Luna, Brian [Microfluidic Laboratory Automation, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-2715 (United States); Kubler, Andre [Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay [Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Foster, Brent [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95817 (United States); Papadakis, Georgios Z. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 32892 (United States); Camp, Jeremy V. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 (United States); Jonsson, Colleen B. [National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Bishai, William R. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815 and Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  14. Hyperspectral small animal fluorescence imaging: spectral selection imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas; Jiang, Yanan; Patsekin, Valery; Hall, Heidi; Vizard, Douglas; Robinson, J. Paul

    2008-02-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing area of research, fueled by needs in pharmaceutical drug-development for methods for high-throughput screening, pre-clinical and clinical screening for visualizing tumor growth and drug targeting, and a growing number of applications in the molecular biology fields. Small animal fluorescence imaging employs fluorescent probes to target molecular events in vivo, with a large number of molecular targeting probes readily available. The ease at which new targeting compounds can be developed, the short acquisition times, and the low cost (compared to microCT, MRI, or PET) makes fluorescence imaging attractive. However, small animal fluorescence imaging suffers from high optical scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence. Much of these problems can be overcome through multispectral imaging techniques, which collect images at different fluorescence emission wavelengths, followed by analysis, classification, and spectral deconvolution methods to isolate signals from fluorescence emission. We present an alternative to the current method, using hyperspectral excitation scanning (spectral selection imaging), a technique that allows excitation at any wavelength in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. In many cases, excitation imaging may be more effective at identifying specific fluorescence signals because of the higher complexity of the fluorophore excitation spectrum. Because the excitation is filtered and not the emission, the resolution limit and image shift imposed by acousto-optic tunable filters have no effect on imager performance. We will discuss design of the imager, optimizing the imager for use in small animal fluorescence imaging, and application of spectral analysis and classification methods for identifying specific fluorescence signals.

  15. Small-Animal Imaging Using Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott C; Tichauer, Kenneth M

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) has been developed to image the spatial distribution of fluorescence-tagged tracers in living tissue. This capability facilitates the recovery of any number of functional parameters, including enzymatic activity, receptor density, blood flow, and gene expression. However, deploying DFT effectively is complex and often requires years of know-how, especially for newer mutlimodal systems that combine DFT with conventional imaging systems. In this chapter, we step through the process of using MRI-DFT imaging of a receptor-targeted tracer in small animals.

  16. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2016-01-01

    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Despite their wide and variable use, only a very small number of placebo-controlled studies has been published. Positive effects in preventing kitten mortality and in treating feline stomatitis have been reported, however, no statistically significant effect of their therapeutic use in canine parvovirus infection, feline leukemia infection virus infection or canine papillomavirus infection could be demonstrated. For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective.

  17. Role of surgery in multimodal cancer therapy for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Sarah; Henderson, Ralph A

    2014-09-01

    Surgery is a critical component in the treatment of most solid tumors in small animals. Surgery is increasingly combined with adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation so surgeons who are treating cancer must have a good understanding of surgical oncology principles, cancer biology, and the roles and potential interactions of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The sequencing plan for these modalities should be determined before treatment is initiated. The surgical oncologist must have a working knowledge of chemotherapy agents and radiation and the effect of these treatments on the ability of tissues to heal and the outcome for the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Small Animal Massage Therapy: A Brief Review and Relevant Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenton, Maira Rezende; Pereira, Marco Aurélio Amador; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi

    2017-12-01

    Massage therapy is becoming increasingly popular in human and animal physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Wider application of the technique led to research efforts aimed at providing scientific support to anecdotal beneficial effects, particularly pain relief. Recent studies have shown that massage therapy alters dopamine and serotonin levels, decreases noradrenaline levels, and modulates the immune system. Psychological effects such as reduction of stress and anxiety, with improvement of depressive patients, have been reported in humans. This article set out to review the major aspects of massage therapy based on recent publications on the topic, and to extrapolate concepts and practical aspects described in human physiotherapy to the veterinary patient, particularly the applicability of different techniques in Small Animal Medicine. Indications of massage therapy in small animals include pain relief, orthopedic rehabilitation, Canine Sports Medicine, intensive care, and management of nonspecific edema. Techniques described in this article were originally intended for use in humans and scientific data supporting anecdotal, beneficial effects in domestic animals are still lacking; this fruitful area for research is therefore open to veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flux and energy deposition distribution studies inside the irradiation room of the portuguese 60Co irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, Luis; Oliveira, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In December 2003 the irradiator of the Portuguese 60 Co irradiation facility, UTR, was replenished. Eighteen new sources were loaded and the older ones (156) were rearranged. The result was an irradiator with about 10.2 P Bq of total activity. The active area of the irradiator has also increased. Now it uses twenty five of the thirty tubes of the source rack, nine more than in the previous geometry. This facility was designed mainly for sterilisation of medical devices. However it is also used for the irradiation of other products such as cork stoppers, plastics and a limited number of food and feed. The purpose of this work is to perform dosimetric studies inside the irradiation room of a 60 Co irradiation facility, particularly, the flux and energy deposition distributions. The MCNPX code was used for the simulation of the facility. The track average mesh tally capabilities of MCNPX were used to plot the photon flux and energy deposition distributions. This tool provides a fast way for flux and energy deposition mapping. The absorbed dose distribution near the walls of the irradiation room was also calculated. Instead of using meshtallys as before, the average absorbed dose inside boxes lined with the walls was determined and afterwards a plot of its distribution was made. The absorbed dose rates obtained ranged from 5 to 500 Gy.h -1 depending on material being irradiated in process and the location on the wall. These positions can be useful for fixed irradiation purposes. Both dosimetric studies were done considering two different materials being irradiated in the process: cork stoppers and water, materials with quite different densities (0.102 and 1 g.cm-3, respectively). These studies showed some important characteristics of the radiation fields inside the irradiation room, namely its spatial heterogeneity. Tunnelling and shadow effects were enhanced when the product boxes increases its density. Besides a deeper dosimetric understanding of the

  20. Semiautomated analysis of small-animal PET data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam L; Dahlbom, Magnus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Hsueh, Wei-Ann; Pio, Betty S; Czernin, Johannes; Kreissl, Michael; Wu, Hsiao-Ming; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop and test automated methods to calculate biodistribution of PET tracers using small-animal PET images. After developing software that uses visually distinguishable organs and other landmarks on a scan to semiautomatically coregister a digital mouse phantom with a small-animal PET scan, we elastically transformed the phantom to conform to those landmarks in 9 simulated scans and in 18 actual PET scans acquired of 9 mice. Tracer concentrations were automatically calculated in 22 regions of interest (ROIs) reflecting the whole body and 21 individual organs. To assess the accuracy of this approach, we compared the software-measured activities in the ROIs of simulated PET scans with the known activities, and we compared the software-measured activities in the ROIs of real PET scans both with manually established ROI activities in original scan data and with actual radioactivity content in immediately harvested tissues of imaged animals. PET/atlas coregistrations were successfully generated with minimal end-user input, allowing rapid quantification of 22 separate tissue ROIs. The simulated scan analysis found the method to be robust with respect to the overall size and shape of individual animal scans, with average activity values for all organs tested falling within the range of 98% +/- 3% of the organ activity measured in the unstretched phantom scan. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) measured from actual PET scans using this semiautomated method correlated reasonably well with radioactivity content measured in harvested organs (median r = 0.94) and compared favorably with conventional SUV correlations with harvested organ data (median r = 0.825). A semiautomated analytic approach involving coregistration of scan-derived images with atlas-type images can be used in small-animal whole-body radiotracer studies to estimate radioactivity concentrations in organs. This approach is rapid and less labor intensive than are

  1. The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Bretón-López, Juana; Ortega, Mario; Brotons, Daniel Beneito

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an interactive projection-based augmented-reality system for treating small-animal phobias. It aims to increase patient-therapist communication, promote more natural interaction, and improve the patient's engagement in the therapy.

  2. Attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Rutao; Liow, JeihSan; Seidel, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated two methods of attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: 1) a CT-based method that derives 511 keV attenuation coefficients (mu) by extrapolation from spatially registered CT images; and 2) an analytic method based on the body outline of emission images and an empirical mu. A specially fabricated attenuation calibration phantom with cylindrical inserts that mimic different body tissues was used to derive the relationship to convert CT values to (I for PET. The methods were applied to three test data sets: 1) a uniform cylinder phantom, 2) the attenuation calibration phantom, and 3) a mouse injected with left bracket **1**8F right bracket FDG. The CT-based attenuation correction factors were larger in non-uniform regions of the imaging subject, e.g. mouse head, than the analytic method. The two methods had similar correction factors for regions with uniform density and detectable emission source distributions.

  3. Advances in SPECT Instrumentation (Including Small Animal Scanners). Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental major efforts have been devoted to the development of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modality over the last few decades. Recently, a novel surge of interest in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology has occurred, particularly after the introduction of the hybrid SPECT-CT imaging system. This has led to a flourishing of investigations in new types of detectors and collimators, and to more accurate refinement of reconstruction algorithms. Along with SPECT-CT, new, fast gamma cameras have been developed for dedicated cardiac imaging. The existing gap between PET and SPECT in sensitivity and spatial resolution is progressively decreasing, and this trend is particularly apparent in the field of small animal imaging where the most important advances have been reported in SPECT tomographs. An outline of the basic features of SPECT technology, and of recent developments in SPECT instrumentation for both clinical applications and basic biological research on animal models is described. (author)

  4. Utility of Small Animal Models of Developmental Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Any effective strategy to tackle the global obesity and rising noncommunicable disease epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these conditions that manifest as a consequence of complex gene-environment interactions. In this context, it is now well established that alterations in the early life environment, including suboptimal nutrition, can result in an increased risk for a range of metabolic, cardiovascular, and behavioral disorders in later life, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. To date, most of the mechanistic knowledge around the processes underpinning development programming has been derived from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. This review will cover the utility of small animal models in developmental programming, the limitations of such models, and potential future directions that are required to fully maximize information derived from preclinical models in order to effectively translate to clinical use.

  5. Development of a Magnetoencephalograph System for Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. E.; Kim, I. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kwon, H.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. [Brain and Cognition Measurement Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We developed a four-channel first order gradiometer system to measure magnetoencephalogram for mice. We used double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS). The diameter of the pickup coil is 4 mm and the distance between the coils is 5 mm. Coil distance was designed to have good spatial resolution for a small mouse brain. We evaluated the current dipole localization confidence region for a mouse brain, using the spherical conductor model. The white noise of the measurement system was about 30 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}/cm when measured in a magnetically shielded room. We measured magnetic signal from a phantom having the same size of a mouse brain, which was filled with 0.9% saline solution. The results suggest that the developed system has a feasibility to study the functions of brain of small animals.

  6. Imaging of hypoxia in small animals with 18F fluoromisonidasole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of automated synthesis of [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO for application in preclinical studies on small animals was presented. A remote-controlled synthesizer Synthra RNplus was used for nucleophilic substitution of NITTP (1′-(2′-nitro-1-imidazolyl-2-O-tetrahydropyranyl-3-O-toluenesulfonyl-propanediol with 18F anion. Labeling of 5 mg of precursor was performed in anhydrous acetonitrile at 100°C for 10 min, and the hydrolysis with HCl was performed at 100°C for 5 min. Final purification was done with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the radiochemical purity of radiotracer was higher than 99%. Proposed [18F]FMISO synthesis was used as a reliable tool in studies on hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC in mouse models.

  7. Development of a Magnetoencephalograph System for Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. E.; Kim, I. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kwon, H.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a four-channel first order gradiometer system to measure magnetoencephalogram for mice. We used double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS). The diameter of the pickup coil is 4 mm and the distance between the coils is 5 mm. Coil distance was designed to have good spatial resolution for a small mouse brain. We evaluated the current dipole localization confidence region for a mouse brain, using the spherical conductor model. The white noise of the measurement system was about 30 fT/Hz 1/2 /cm when measured in a magnetically shielded room. We measured magnetic signal from a phantom having the same size of a mouse brain, which was filled with 0.9% saline solution. The results suggest that the developed system has a feasibility to study the functions of brain of small animals.

  8. Hazard evaluation of The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it

    2005-01-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for fusion. Liquid lithium is being circulated through a loop and is kept at a temperature above its freezing point. In the frame of the design phase called Key Element technology Phase (KEP), jointly performed by an international team to verify the most important risk factors, safety assessment of the whole plant has been required in order to identify the hazards associated with the plant operation. This paper discusses the safety assessments that were performed and their outcome: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) approach has been adopted in order to accomplish the task. Main conclusions of the study is that, on account of the safety and preventive measures adopted, potential plant related hazards are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries and great care must be exercised to protect workers and site personnel from operating the plant. The analysis has provided as a result a set of Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs), that is off-normal events, that could result in hazardous consequences for the plant, together with the total frequency and the list of component failures which could induce the PIE: this assures the exhaustive list of major initiating events of accident sequences, helpful to the further accident sequence analysis phase. Finally, for each one of the individuated PIEs, the evaluation of the accident evolution, in terms of effects on the plant and relative countermeasures, has allowed to verify that adequate measures are being taken both to prevent the accident occurrence and to cope with the accident consequences, thus assuring the fulfilment of the safety requirements.

  9. Coded Aperture Nuclear Scintigraphy: A Novel Small Animal Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and demonstrate the utility of coded aperture (CA nuclear scintigraphy for imaging small animals. CA imaging uses multiple pinholes in a carefully designed mask pattern, mounted on a conventional gamma camera. System performance was assessed using point sources and phantoms, while several animal experiments were performed to test the usefulness of the imaging system in vivo, with commonly used radiopharmaceuticals. The sensitivity of the CA system for 99mTc was 4.2 × 103 cps/Bq (9400 cpm/μCi, compared to 4.4 × 104 cps/Bq (990 cpm/μCi for a conventional collimator system. The system resolution was 1.7 mm, as compared to 4–6 mm for the conventional imaging system (using a high-sensitivity low-energy collimator. Animal imaging demonstrated artifact-free imaging with superior resolution and image quality compared to conventional collimator images in several mouse and rat models. We conclude that: (a CA imaging is a useful nuclear imaging technique for small animal imaging. The advantage in signal-to-noise can be traded to achieve higher resolution, decreased dose or reduced imaging time. (b CA imaging works best for images where activity is concentrated in small volumes; a low count outline may be better demonstrated using conventional collimator imaging. Thus, CA imaging should be viewed as a technique to complement rather than replace traditional nuclear imaging methods. (c CA hardware and software can be readily adapted to existing gamma cameras, making their implementation a relatively inexpensive retrofit to most systems.

  10. A new apparatus at hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Narui, Makoto; Omata, Takao [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In the hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, the University of Tokyo, following apparatuses were newly installed for accelerator relating apparatus on 1995 fiscal year; (1) Hyper ion microbeam analysis apparatus, (2) Fourier conversion infrared microscopy, (3) Pico second two-dimensional fluorescence measuring apparatus, (4) Femto second wave-length reversible pulse laser radiation apparatus, and others. In addition to double irradiation, pulse beam irradiation experiment and so forth characteristic in conventional hyper irradiation research apparatus, upgrading of material irradiation experiments using these new apparatuses are intended. (G.K.)

  11. A new apparatus at hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Narui, Makoto; Omata, Takao

    1996-01-01

    In the hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, the University of Tokyo, following apparatuses were newly installed for accelerator relating apparatus on 1995 fiscal year; 1) Hyper ion microbeam analysis apparatus, 2) Fourier conversion infrared microscopy, 3) Pico second two-dimensional fluorescence measuring apparatus, 4) Femto second wave-length reversible pulse laser radiation apparatus, and others. In addition to double irradiation, pulse beam irradiation experiment and so forth characteristic in conventional hyper irradiation research apparatus, upgrading of material irradiation experiments using these new apparatuses are intended. (G.K.)

  12. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    CT: Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 20 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  13. Small Animal [18F]FDG PET Imaging for Tumor Model Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2008-01-01

    PET allows non-invasive, quantitative and repetitive imaging of biological function in living animals. Small animal PET imaging with [ 18 F]FDG has been successfully applied to investigation of metabolism, receptor, ligand interactions, gene expression, adoptive cell therapy and somatic gene therapy. Experimental condition of animal handling impacts on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]FDG in small animal study. The small animal PET and CT images were registered using the hardware fiducial markers and small animal contour point. Tumor imaging in small animal with small animal [ 18 F]FDG PET should be considered fasting, warming, and isoflurane anesthesia level. Registered imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of tumor. Small animal experimental condition of animal handling and registration method will be of most importance for small lesion detection of metastases tumor model

  14. Economics of gamma processing in cobalt-60 irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H. G.; Kotler, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma processing by cobalt-60 is well established. However, since irradiation of food is relatively new from the commercial point of view, it is important to assess costs of gamma irradiation in the context of food processing. Five different types of AECL-RCC irradiation equipment are examined in terms of their throughputs, and capital and operating costs. Using these figures, costs of irradiation of nine types of food products are presented. In general, these represent about 2-10% of the wholesale cost of these products

  15. NRI experimental facility for the testing of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Zamboch, M.

    1998-01-01

    IASCC influencing reactor internals of both BWR and PWR reactors is a complex phenomenon covering influences of material structure, neutron fluence, neutron flux, chemistry of environment, gamma radiation and mechanical stress. To evaluate such degradation, tests should be performed under conditions similar to those in real structure. Nuclear Research Institute has built several experimental facilities in order to be able to test IASCC degradation of materials. Basically, reactor water loops, both PWR and BWR, could be used to model environmental conditions including gamma and neutron irradiation. Pre-irradiation can be done in irradiation channels under well controlled temperature conditions. During the experiment, in-pile conditions can be compared with those out of pile. It enables to clarify pure influence of irradiation. For testing of irradiated specimens, hot cell facility has been developed for slow strain rate tests. The paper will show all above mentioned facilities as well as some of the results observed with them. (author)

  16. Fast-neutron dosimetry in the seed-irradiation facility, ASTRA reactor, Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.; Burtscher, A.; Casta, J.

    1967-01-01

    An important part of the co-ordinated programme on the neutron irradiation of seeds has been the construction of a fast-neutron irradiation facility for swimming-pool reactors. This facility was installed around 70 cm from the core in the ASTRA reactor swimming-pool at the end of December, 1966. Also, for this programme a pair of constant potential ionization chambers have been constructed at the Institute of Biochemistry, Stockholm University. These chambes are of the type described in the technical annex and are the same size as the seed-irradiation vials to be used in the seed-irradiation container (diam. =15 mm, length = 60 mm). Some preliminary dosimetry experiments were undertaken to test the irradiation facility and the ionization chambers, and to investigate the usefulness of the dosimetry instructions in the Technical Annex. The results of these experiments are discussed in this paper. 3 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  17. A simple irradiation facility for radiobiological experiments with low energy protons from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental facility for irradiation of small biological targets with low-energy protons has been developed. The depth-dose distribution in soft-tissue is calculated from the proton energy spectrum. (orig.)

  18. Present status of ESNIT (energy selective neutron irradiation test facility) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Ohno, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Kato, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Sawai, T.; Usui, T.; Oyama, Y.; Kondo, T.

    1994-01-01

    The present status of technical studies of a high energy neutron irradiation facility, ESNIT (energy selective neutron irradiation test facility), is summarized. Technological survey and feasibility studies of ESNIT have continued since 1988. The results of technical studies of the accelerator, the target and the experimental systems in ESNIT program were reviewed by an International Advisory Committee in February 1993. Recommendations for future R and D on ESNIT program are also summarized in this paper. ((orig.))

  19. Design and selection criteria of a commercial irradiation facility for spices and dry products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Apart from cost considerations, various factors which should be taken into consideration in design of a commercial irradiation facility for spices and dry products and the factors which a user should consider for selecting a food irradiator are discussed in brief. (author)

  20. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Ford, Eric; Wong, John

    2009-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  1. A New High-intensity Proton Irradiation Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, B; Lima, P; Matli, E; Moll, M; Ravotti, F

    2014-01-01

    and IRRAD2), were heavily and successfully used for irradiation of particle detectors, electronic components and materials since 1992. These facilities operated with particle bursts - protons with momentum of 24GeV/c - delivered from the PS accelerator in “spills” of about 400ms (slow extraction). With the increasing demand of irradiation experiments, these facilities suffered from a number of restrictions such as the space availability, the maximum achievable particle flux and several access constraints. In the framework of the AIDA project, an upgrade of these facilities has been realized during the CERN long shutdown (LS1). While the new proton facility (IRRAD) will continue to be mainly devoted to the radiation hardness studies for the High Energy Physics (HEP) experimental community, the new mixed-field facility (CHARM) will mainly host irradiation experiments for the validation of electronic systems used in a...

  2. A new generation of PET scanners for small animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyesi, G.; Imrek, J.; Kalinka, G.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Valastyan, I.; Balkay, L.; Emri, M.; Kis, S.; Tron, L.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Research on small animal PET scanners has been a hot topic in recent years. These devices are used in the preclinical phases of drug tests and during the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. They also provide a cost efficient way to test new materials, new design concepts and new technologies that later can be used to build more efficient human medical imaging devices. The development of a PET scanner requires expertise on different fields, therefore a consortium was formed that brought together Hungarian academic and industrial partners: the Nuclear Research Institute (which has experience in the development of nuclear detectors and data acquisition systems), the PET Center of the University of Debrecen (which has clinical experience in the application of nuclear imaging devices and background in image processing software), Mediso Ltd. (which has been developing, manufacturing, selling and servicing medical imaging devices since 1990) and other academic partners. This consortium has been working together since 2003: the knowledge base acquired during the development of our small animal PET scanners (miniPET-I and miniPET-II) is now being utilized to build a commercial multimodal human PET scanner. The operation of a PET scanner is based on the simultaneous detection ('coincidence') of two gamma photons originating from a positron annihilation. In traditional PET scanners coincidence is detected by a central unit during the measurement. In our system there is no such central module: all detected single gamma events are recorded (list mode data acquisition), and the list of events are processed using a computer cluster (built from PCs). The usage of independent detector modules and commercial components reduce both development and maintenance costs. Also, this mode of data acquisition is more suitable for development purposes, since once the data is collected and stored it can be used many times to test different signal

  3. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  4. Fundamental image quality limits for microcomputed tomography in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, N.L.; Thornton, M.M.; Holdsworth, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Small-animal imaging has become increasingly more important as transgenic and knockout mice are produced to model human diseases. One imaging technique that has emerged is microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). For live-animal imaging, the precision in the images will be determined by the x-ray dose given to the animal. As a result, we propose a simple method to predict the noise performance of an x-ray micro-CT system as a function of dose and image resolution. An ideal, quantum-noise limited micro-CT scanner, assumed to have perfect resolution and ideal efficiency, was modeled. Using a simplified model, the coefficient of variation (COV) of the linear attenuation coefficient was calculated for a range of entrance doses and isotropic voxel sizes. COV calculations were performed for the ideal case and with simulated imperfections in efficiency and resolution. Our model was validated in phantom studies and mouse images were acquired with a specimen scanner to illustrate the results. A simplified model of noise propagation in the case of isotropic resolution indicates that the COV in the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to (dose) -1/2 and to the (isotropic voxel size) -2 in the reconstructed volume. Therefore an improvement in the precision can be achieved only by increasing the isotropic voxel size (thereby decreasing the resolution of the image) or by increasing the x-ray dose. For the ideal scanner, a COV of 1% in the linear attenuation coefficient for an image of a mouse exposed to 0.25 Gy is obtained with a minimum isotropic voxel size of 135 μm. However, the same COV is achieved at a dose of 5.0 Gy with a 65 μm isotropic voxel size. Conversely, for a 68 mm diameter rat, a COV of 1% obtained from an image at 5.0 Gy would require an isotropic voxel size of 100 μm. These results indicate that short-term, potentially lethal, effects of ionizing radiation will limit high-resolution live animal imaging. As improvements in detector technology allow the

  5. A small animal PET prototype based on Silicon Photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, S; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Del Guerra, A.; Collazuol, G.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Sportelli, G.; Marzocca, C.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should full fill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) matrices is proposed for the construction of a small animal PET system consisting of two detector heads based on Lyso continuos crystals. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector capabilities. At the University of Pisa and INFN Pisa we developed a DAQ board for the read-out of 2 64-pixel Si P M matrices in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The proof of principles is based on 64-pixel detectors, but the whole system has been conceived to be easily scalable to a higher number of channels. Here we describe the Group-V INFN DASi P M 2 (Development and Application of Si P M) project and related results.

  6. Bone scintigraphy for the investigation of lameness in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolln, G.; Franke, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has been used as a helpful method in diagnosing lameness in small animals. It is a sensitive, non-invasive method to evaluate bone lesions and orthopaedic disorders. It provides a functional image of the skeleton and thereby aiding in the localisation and diagnosing of obscure lameness. Compared to human medicine one important difference is the inability of an animal to characterize its pain to the examiner. Another difference is the lacking cooperation of an animal during bone scintigraphy. Before this background are shown on the basis of 5 examples the advantages, the method and the different indication of bone scintigraphy. The technique of this method arrives from a human medicine protocol of a 2-phase-bone-scintigraphy and has to be done under light anaesthesia, to avoid artefacts of movement during acquisitions. The authors are convinced that bone scintigraphy is a very useful and diagnostic method for evaluation of obscure lameness because it can give a quick diagnosis and aimed therapy. Therefore secondary changes and additional costs can be avoided for the animal and its owner. (orig.)

  7. Filtering and deconvolution for bioluminescence imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkoul, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to analysis of bioluminescence images applied to the small animal. This kind of imaging modality is used in cancerology studies. Nevertheless, some problems are related to the diffusion and the absorption of the tissues of the light of internal bioluminescent sources. In addition, system noise and the cosmic rays noise are present. This influences the quality of the images and makes it difficult to analyze. The purpose of this thesis is to overcome these disturbing effects. We first have proposed an image formation model for the bioluminescence images. The processing chain is constituted by a filtering stage followed by a deconvolution stage. We have proposed a new median filter to suppress the random value impulsive noise which corrupts the acquired images; this filter represents the first block of the proposed chain. For the deconvolution stage, we have performed a comparative study of various deconvolution algorithms. It allowed us to choose a blind deconvolution algorithm initialized with the estimated point spread function of the acquisition system. At first, we have validated our global approach by comparing our obtained results with the ground truth. Through various clinical tests, we have shown that the processing chain allows a significant improvement of the spatial resolution and a better distinction of very close tumor sources, what represents considerable contribution for the users of bioluminescence images. (author)

  8. Quantifying the limitations of small animal positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: dco@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Nolan, P.J.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Beveridge, T.E. [School of Materials and Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-06-01

    The application of position sensitive semiconductor detectors in medical imaging is a field of global research interest. The Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit GEANT4 [ (http://geant4.web.cern.ch/geant4/)] was employed to improve the understanding of detailed {gamma}-ray interactions within the small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET), high-purity germanium (HPGe) imaging system, SmartPET [A.J. Boston, et al., Oral contribution, ANL, Chicago, USA, 2006]. This system has shown promising results in the field of PET [R.J. Cooper, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (2009), accepted for publication] and Compton camera imaging [J.E. Gillam, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 579 (2007) 76]. Images for a selection of single and multiple point, line and phantom sources were successfully reconstructed using both a filtered-back-projection (FBP) [A.R. Mather, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool, 2007] and an iterative reconstruction algorithm [A.R. Mather, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool, 2007]. Simulated data were exploited as an alternative route to a reconstructed image allowing full quantification of the image distortions introduced in each phase of the data processing. Quantifying the contribution of uncertainty in all system components from detector to reconstruction algorithm allows the areas in need of most attention on the SmartPET project and semiconductor PET to be addressed.

  9. Cell and small animal models for phenotypic drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mihaly Szabo,1 Sara Svensson Akusjärvi,1 Ankur Saxena,1 Jianping Liu,2 Gayathri Chandrasekar,1 Satish S Kitambi1 1Department of Microbiology Tumor, and Cell Biology, 2Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Abstract: The phenotype-based drug discovery (PDD approach is re-emerging as an alternative platform for drug discovery. This review provides an overview of the various model systems and technical advances in imaging and image analyses that strengthen the PDD platform. In PDD screens, compounds of therapeutic value are identified based on the phenotypic perturbations produced irrespective of target(s or mechanism of action. In this article, examples of phenotypic changes that can be detected and quantified with relative ease in a cell-based setup are discussed. In addition, a higher order of PDD screening setup using small animal models is also explored. As PDD screens integrate physiology and multiple signaling mechanisms during the screening process, the identified hits have higher biomedical applicability. Taken together, this review highlights the advantages gained by adopting a PDD approach in drug discovery. Such a PDD platform can complement target-based systems that are currently in practice to accelerate drug discovery. Keywords: phenotype, screening, PDD, discovery, zebrafish, drug

  10. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A

    2013-03-09

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.

  11. Design considerations and construction of a small animal PET prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanakos, G.; Nikolaou, M.; Drakoulakos, D.; Karamitros, D.; Kontaxakis, G.; Logaras, E.; Panayiotakis, G.; Pavlopoulos, S.; Skiadas, M.; Spyrou, G.; Thireou, T.; Vamvakas, D.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a small animal PET scanner consisting of two block detectors, each made of 216 BGO crystals of dimensions 3.75 mmx3.75 mmx20 mm, cylindrically arranged and coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (R2486 PSPMT). Our design was based on a very detailed Monte Carlo, that simulates the function of a PET scanner from the system level down to the individual γ-ray detectors. We have made laboratory measurements of the individual detector performance as well as measurements of characteristics of the PSPMTs. The two detector blocks which will form the basic tomographic unit have been assembled. We are developing electronics to individually process (amplify and digitize) anode signals, and use field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the position determination and energy measurement of the γ-rays. At present, as an intermediate step, we are using the electronics supplied from Hamamatsu to study various aspects of the system and produce initial images

  12. Imaging modalities used to confirm diaphragmatic hernia in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Leveille, R.; Myer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    When a patient is presented for treatment following a traumatic accident such as being hit by a car, thoracic radiographs are usually an integral part of the overall diagnostic evaluation. Diagnosis at diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is often challenging in small animals. The thorax may contain substantial fluid, thereby masking the presence of cranially displaced abdominal soft tissues (e.g., liver or spleen). The most common cause of decreased radiographic visualization of the diaphragm on survey radiographs is pleural fluid; however, the second most common cause is DH. Obviously, if a gas-filledviscus is identified within the thoracic cavity on survey radiographs, the diagnosis of DH is straightforward and relatively routine. If, however, there is substantial pleural effusion and the herniated structure is a soft tissue parenchymal organ (e.g., liver or spleen), the diagnosis is less clearly defined on survey radiographs. This review discusses the various imaging modalities (survey, positional, and contrast-enhanced radiographs and ultrasonography) that can be used in the diagnosis or confirmation of DH

  13. Laser surgery for selected small animal soft-tissue conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1991-05-01

    With the acquisition of a Nd:YAG and a CO2 laser in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University in 1989, over 100 small animal clinical cases have been managed with these modern modalities for surgical excision and tissue vaporization. Most procedures have been for oncologic problems, but inflammatory, infectious, or congenital conditions including vaporization of acral lick 'granulomas,' excision/vaporization of foreign body induced, infected draining tracts, and resection of elongated soft palates have been successfully accomplished. Laser excision or vaporization of both benign and malignant neoplasms have effectively been performed and include feline nasal squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumors, and rectal/anal neoplasms. Results to date have been excellent with animals exhibiting little postoperative pain, swelling, and inflammation. Investigations involving application of laser energy for tissue welding of esophageal lacerations and hepatitic interstitial hyperthermia for metastatic colorectal cancer have also shown potential. A review of cases with an emphasis on survival time and postoperative morbidity suggests that carefully planned laser surgical procedures in clinical veterinary practice done with standardized protocols and techniques offer an acceptable means of treating conditions that were previously considered extremely difficult or virtually impossible to perform.

  14. Evaluate of environment quality for γ irradiation facilities using fuzzy comprehensive judgment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2002-01-01

    The environment quality of Jining Irradiation Centre new γ radiation facility was evaluated by fuzzy comprehensive judgment method. The result showed that the place of γ radiation facility was well and the measures of radiate shelter and environment protect were effective. The environment quality of its area was not obvious change and the result of environment evaluation was first-rate

  15. Irradiation test of the HCAL Forward and Endcap upgrade electronics at the CHARM facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068434; Costanza, Francesco; Karakaya, Tugba; Sahin, Mehmet Ozgur; Lincoln, Don; Strobbe, Nadja; Kaminskiy, Alexander; Tlisov, Danila; Wang, Yanchu; Hirschauer, James Francis

    2016-01-01

    In the period October 21 – 28, 2015, the CMS HCAL group did a radiation tolerance study for the Phase I Upgrade HF, HE and HB front end electronics. The test was conducted at the CERN CHARM facility, which is a mixed field radiation facility. No permanent damages were observed. Effects observed during the irradiation are presented.

  16. A GIF++ Gamma Irradiation Facility at the SPS H4 Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Linssen, L; Moll, M; Rembser, C

    2009-01-01

    The current document describes a proposal to implement a new gamma irradiation facility, combined with a high-energy particle beam in the SPS H4 beam line in hall EHN1. This new GIF++ facility is motivated by strong needs from the LHC and sLHC detector and accelerator communities for the tests of LHC components and systems.

  17. Development of post-irradiation test facility for domestic production of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Taketoshi; Yonekawa, Minoru; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kurosawa, Makoto; Nishikata, Kaori; Ishida, Takuya; Kawamata, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    JMTR focus on the activation method. By carrying out the preliminary tests using irradiation facilities existing, and verification tests using the irradiation facility that has developed in the cutting-edge research and development strategic strengthening business, as irradiation tests towards the production of 99 Mo, we have been conducting research and development that can contribute to supply about 25% for 99 Mo demand in Japan and the stable supply of radiopharmaceutical. This report describes a summary of the status of the preliminary tests for the production of 99 Mo: Maintenance of test equipment in the facility in JMTR hot laboratory in preparation for research and development for the production of 99 Mo in JMTR and using MoO 3 pellet irradiated at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). (author)

  18. IFMIF [International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility], an accelerator-based neutron source for fusion components irradiation testing: Materials testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1988-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proposed as an advanced accelerator-based neutron source for high-flux irradiation testing of large-sized fusion reactor components. The facility would require only small extensions to existing accelerator and target technology originally developed for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility. At the extended facility, neutrons would be produced by a 0.1-A beam of 35-MeV deuterons incident upon a liquid lithium target. The volume available for high-flux (>10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-s) testing in IFMITF would be over a liter, a factor of about three larger than in the FMIT facility. This is because the effective beam current of 35-MeV deuterons on target can be increased by a factor of ten to 1A or more. Such an increase can be accomplished by funneling beams of deuterium ions from the radio-frequency quadruple into a linear accelerator and by taking advantage of recent developments in accelerator technology. Multiple beams and large total current allow great variety in available testing. For example, multiple simultaneous experiments, and great flexibility in tailoring spatial distributions of flux and spectra can be achieved. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Conceptual design of a conveyor system for the Philippine multipurpose cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility at the PNRI presently utilizes the batch irradiation method using turntables to rotate the product boxes. The target materials or products are being carried manually or with the use of pushcart through the personnel maze. This paper presents a conceptual design for the best suitable product-handling or conveyor system for the Philippine Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility. The main irradiation conveyor line shall be a 55 cm x 200 cm slat-type conveyor made of SUS 304 material that could be operated in a semi-batch continuous flow and/or shuffle-dwell method with a tact-time range of 10 min to 7 h. The products can be irradiated in a single direction, two-pass, two-sided method. (auth.). 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. IRRAD: The New 24GeV/c Proton Irradiation Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Moll, Michael; Ravotti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities at the CERN PS East Area (known as IRRAD1 and IRRAD2), have been heavily exploited for irradiation of particle detectors, electronic components and materials since 1992. With the increasing demand of irradiation experiments, and in view of the High-Luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), these facilities suffered of a number of unpleasant restrictions such as the space availability, the maximum achievable particle flux and several access constraints. In the framework of the AIDA project, an upgrade of these facilities was carried out during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) of the CERN accelerator complex. The new combined East Area IRRADiation facility (EA-IRRAD) started the commissioning in October 2014. While the new proton facility (IRRAD) continue to be mainly devoted to the radiation hardness studies for the High Energy Physics community, the new mixed-field facility (CHARM) mainly hosts irradiation experiments for the validation of electr...

  1. Dosimetry. Standard practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food and non-food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Ghana Standard outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetry procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification and routine processing in facilities that process food and non-food with gamma rays. This is to ensure that the product has been treated with predetermined range of absorbed dose. It is not intended for use in X-ray and electron beam facilities and therefore dosimetry systems in such facilities are not covered

  2. NRX and NRU reactor research facilities and irradiation and examination charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-08-01

    This report details the irradiation and examination charges on the NRX and NRU reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Labs. It describes the NRX and NRU research facilities available to external users. It describes the various experimental holes and loops available for research. It also outlines the method used to calculate the facilities charges and the procedure for applying to use the facilities as well as the billing procedures.

  3. An irradiation facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czub, J.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Choinski, J.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wojcik, A.

    2006-01-01

    A facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological experiments with heavy ions has been designed and constructed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory in Warsaw Univ.. The facility is optimal to investigate the radiobiological effects of charged heavy particles on a cellular or molecular level as in the region of the Bragg peak. (authors)

  4. Summary of ionizing and displacive irradiation fields in various facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to estimate the ionizing and displacive irradiation fields that will occur in ceramics during irradiation in accelerators and fission and fusion reactors. A useful measure of the relative strength of ionizing vs. displasive radiation is the ratio of the absorbed ionizing dose to the displacement damage dose, which in the case of ion irradiation is equal to the ratio of the electronic stopping power to the nuclear stopping power. In ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , this ratio is about 20 at a fusion reactor first wall, and has a typical value of about 100 in a fusion reactor blanket region and in mixed spectrum reactors such as HFIR. Particle accelerator sources typically have much higher ionizing to displacive radiation ratios, ranging from about 2000 for 1 MeV protons to >10,000 for 1 MeV electrons

  5. Discrete tomography in an in vivo small animal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, Elke; Perilli, Egon; Van Aarle, Wim; Reynolds, Karen J; Sijbers, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the feasibility of a discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) to be used in in vivo small animal bone studies. The advantage of discrete tomography is the possibility to reduce the amount of X-ray projection images, which makes scans faster and implies also a significant reduction of radiation dose, without compromising the reconstruction results. Bone studies are ideal for being performed with discrete tomography, due to the relatively small number of attenuation coefficients contained in the image [namely three: background (air), soft tissue and bone]. In this paper, a validation is made by comparing trabecular bone morphometric parameters calculated from images obtained by using DART and the commonly used standard filtered back-projection (FBP). Female rats were divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) and a sham-operated group. In vivo micro-CT scanning of the tibia was done at baseline and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The cross-section images were reconstructed using first the full set of projection images and afterwards reducing them in number to a quarter and one-sixth (248, 62, 42 projection images, respectively). For both reconstruction methods, similar changes in morphometric parameters were observed over time: bone loss for OVX and bone growth for sham-operated rats, although for DART the actual values were systematically higher (bone volume fraction) or lower (structure model index) compared to FBP, depending on the morphometric parameter. The DART algorithm was, however, more robust when using fewer projection images, where the standard FBP reconstruction was more prone to noise, showing a significantly bigger deviation from the morphometric parameters obtained using all projection images. This study supports the use of DART as a potential alternative method to FBP in X-ray micro-CT animal studies, in particular, when the number of projections has to be drastically minimized, which directly reduces

  6. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R; Moats, Rex A; Conti, Peter S; Smith, Desmond J; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M

    2005-01-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour

  7. Fluence compensated photoacoustic tomography in small animals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Altaf; Pool, Martin; Daoudi, Khalid; de Vries, Liesbeth G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2017-03-01

    Light fluence inside turbid media can be experimentally mapped by measuring ultrasonically modulated light (Acousto-optics). To demonstrate the feasibility of fluence corrected Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, we have realized a tri-modality (i.e. photoacoustic, acousto-optic and ultrasound) tomographic small animal imaging system. Wherein PA imaging provides high resolution map of absorbed optical energy density, Acousto-optics yields the fluence distribution map in the corresponding PA imaging plane and Ultrasound provides morphological information. Further, normalization of the PA image with the acousto-optically measured fluence map results in an image that directly represents the optical absorption. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is commonly found overexpressed in human cancers, among which breast cancers, resulting in a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Identification of HER2-expression is clinically relevant, because cancers overexpressing this marker are amenable to HER2-directed therapies, among which antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Here, we investigate the feasibility and advantage of acousto-optically assisted fluence compensated PA imaging over PA imaging alone in visualizing and quantifying HER2 expression. For this experiment, nude mice were xenografted with human breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474 (both HER2 overexpressing), as well as HER2-negative MDA-MB-231. To visualize HER2 expression in these mice, HER2 monoclonal antibody pertuzumab (Perjeta®, Roche), was conjugated to near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW (800CW, LICOR Biosciences) at a ratio of 1∶2 antibody to 800CW. When xenograft tumors measured ≥ 100 mm3, mice received 100 µg 800CW-pertuzumab intravenously. Three days post injection, mice were scanned for fluorescence signal with an IVIS scanner. After fluorescence scans, mice were euthanized and imaged in our PA tomographic imaging system.

  8. Safety protection and technical improvement of 60Co irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongxing; Liang Cannan

    1993-01-01

    To ensure personal safety, some improvements has been made in the design of 60 Co irradiation compartment. The shielding door was interlocked while the 60 Co source to be lifted to the irradiation position or lowered to the shielded position. A universal change-over switch was used to cut the power supply when the source moved beyond the limits. Both γ-ray alarm and a closed-TV system were adopted. The electromagnetic attraction method was employed to shift the 60 Co source from the Pb container to the source pipe

  9. Dose rate determinations in the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility: Monte Carlo simulations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Ferro de Carvalho, A.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation study of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility, UTR, has been carried out using the MCNP code. The work focused on the optimisation of the dose distribution inside the irradiation cell, dose calculations inside irradiated samples and dose calculations in critical points for protection purposes. Calculations were carried out at points inside and outside the irradiation cell, where different behaviour was expected (distance from the source, radiation absorption and scattering in irradiator structure and walls). The contributions from source, irradiator structure, sample material, carriers, walls, ceiling and floor to the photon spectra and air kerma at those points are reported and discussed. Air kerma measurements were also carried out using an ionisation chamber. Good agreement was found between experimental and calculated air kermas. (author)

  10. Developing of the protocol for electron beam food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petreska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    By establishing the needs for institution of new technologies in the process of food processing, in this case a randomized choice of electron beam accelerator facility, arises the need for designing a protocol for safe and secure performance of the facility. The protocol encompasses safety and security measures for protection from ionizing radiation of the individuals who work at the facility, as well as, the population and the environment in the immediate neighborhood of the facility. Thus, the adopted approach is the establishment of appropriate systems responding to the protocol. Dosimetry system, which includes appropriate procedures for accurate measure and recording of the absorbed dose values, according to the provisions for protection from ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation protection system and providing the safety and security of the facility for food processing by means of ionizing radiation. System for providing quality and safety control of the facility for food processing by means of ionizing radiation. Pursuant to the designed a protocol for safe and secure performance of the facility for electron beam food processing, contributes to protection against ionizing radiation as occupationally exposed persons as well the population. (Author)

  11. Neutronics analysis of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Japanese contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Noda, Kenji; Kosako, Kazuaki.

    1997-10-01

    In fusion reactor development for demonstration reactor, i.e., DEMO, materials tolerable for D-T neutron irradiation are absolutely required for both mechanical and safety point of views. For this requirement, several kinds of low activation materials were proposed. However, experimental data by actual D-T fusion neutron irradiation have not existed so far because of lack of fusion neutron irradiation facility, except fundamental radiation damage studies at very low neutron fluence. Therefore such a facility has been strongly requested. According to agreement of need for such a facility among the international parties, a conceptual design activity (CDA) of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been carried out under the frame work of the IEA-Implementing Agreement. In the activity, a neutronics analysis on irradiation field optimization in the IFMIF test cell was performed in three parties, Japan, US and EU. As the Japanese contribution, the present paper describes a neutron source term as well as incident deuteron beam angle optimization of two beam geometry, beam shape (foot print) optimization, and dpa, gas production and heating estimation inside various material loading Module, including a sensitivity analysis of source term uncertainty to the estimated irradiation parameters. (author)

  12. Chemotherapy drug handling in first opinion small animal veterinary practices in the United Kingdom: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, E G

    2017-05-27

    To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy. British Veterinary Association.

  13. High resolution propagation-based imaging system for in vivo dynamic computed tomography of lungs in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissner, M.; Murrie, R. P.; Pinar, I.; Werdiger, F.; Carnibella, R. P.; Zosky, G. R.; Fouras, A.; Dubsky, S.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed an x-ray imaging system for in vivo four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of small animals for pre-clinical lung investigations. Our customized laboratory facility is capable of high resolution in vivo imaging at high frame rates. Characterization using phantoms demonstrate a spatial resolution of slightly below 50 μm at imaging rates of 30 Hz, and the ability to quantify material density differences of at least 3%. We benchmark our system against existing small animal pre-clinical CT scanners using a quality factor that combines spatial resolution, image noise, dose and scan time. In vivo 4DCT images obtained on our system demonstrate resolution of important features such as blood vessels and small airways, of which the smallest discernible were measured as 55–60 μm in cross section. Quantitative analysis of the images demonstrate regional differences in ventilation between injured and healthy lungs.

  14. Breathing new life into your production irradiator the case for reinvesting in your facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aube, Robert; Wynnyk, Mike

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the important technology issues facing the gamma processing industry today: that of strategically planning for extending the useful life of a production irradiator. Production irradiator owners are typically faced with the difficult question of whether or not to significantly reinvest in their facilities after 15-20 years of service. At this point in time the irradiator has likely provided many years of safe, reliable service and has paid for itself many times over. As the equipment ages, it may become less reliable, due to wear and maintenance practices, and more costly to operate. The cost of refurbishing the equipment may be significant and the downtime required to complete the refurbishment is also likely to be a challenge. This makes it essential to present a clear and rational justification for reinvesting in the facility. There has been a growing trend in recent years for irradiator owners to refurbish or upgrade their facilities. This trend is driven by the need to keep the facilities operating efficiently and safely as well as by the desire to take advantage of advancements that have occurred in the technology over the years. These advancements can enhance equipment efficiency, improve operational effectiveness and maintain or exceed quality assurance requirements. This paper illustrates the value of reinvesting in irradiator facilities, and highlights the significant benefits derived

  15. Final report of the HFIR [High Flux Isotope Reactor] irradiation facilities improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, B.H.; Thoms, K.R.; West, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    The High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has outstanding neutronics characteristics for materials irradiation, but some relatively minor aspects of its mechanical design severely limited its usefulness for that purpose. In particular, though the flux trap region in the center of the annular fuel elements has a very high neutron flux, it had no provision for instrumentation access to irradiation capsules. The irradiation positions in the beryllium reflector outside the fuel elements also have a high flux; however, although instrumented, they were too small and too few to replace the facilities of a materials testing reactor. To address these drawbacks, the HFIR Irradiation Facilities Improvement Project consisted of modifications to the reactor vessel cover, internal structures, and reflector. Two instrumented facilities were provided in the flux trap region, and the number of materials irradiation positions in the removable beryllium (RB) was increased from four to eight, each with almost twice the available experimental space of the previous ones. The instrumented target facilities were completed in August 1986, and the RB facilities were completed in June 1987

  16. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  17. Irradiation facilities at the spallation neutron source SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E.; Ledermann, J.; Aebersold, H.; Kuehne, G.; Kohlik, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Four independent experiments for sample irradiation are under construction and in preparation for operational tests at the spallation source SINQ. Three of them are located inside a thermal beam port with end positions inside or near the moderator tank. The other experiment will be established at the end position of a super mirror lined neutron guide for applications with cold neutrons. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  18. Design of an irradiation facility with thermal, epithermal and fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, G.; Bernnat, W.; Seidel, R.; Schatz, A.K.; Wagner, F.M.; Waschkowski, W.; Schraube, H.

    1992-01-01

    The main features of a neutron irradiation facility to be installed at the planned research reactor FRM-II are presented. In addition to the operational possibilities of the existing facility at the reactor FRM-I, the new facility will produce quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields and a neutron beam in the keV region whose spectrum can be modified by application of suitable filters and scatterers. For this beam, which is well suited for boron capture therapy, calculated boron reaction rates inside a phantom and an experimental verification of the calculations at the existing facility are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Performance studies under high irradiation and ageing properties of resistive bulk Micromegas chambers at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiropoulou, O.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Bianco, M.; Farina, E.M.; Iengo, P.; Longo, L.; Pfeiffer, D.; Wotschack, J.

    2017-01-01

    Resistive bulk Micromegas chambers, produced at CERN, have been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) in order to study the effects of ageing and to evaluate the detector behaviour under high irradiation. The chambers have an active area of 10×10 cm 2 , strip pitch of 400 μm and an amplification gap of 128 μm. We present the detector performance as a function of the background rate of up to 20 MHz/cm 2 . - Highlights: • Small-size resistive bulk Micromegas detectors have been exposed to the new GIF++. • 9 months irradiation to γ up to 20 Mhz/cm 2 . 0.09 C/cm 2 collected integrated charge. • Νo degradation of the detector performance was observed. • Muon tracks successfully reconstructed up to 68 kHz/cm 2 gamma background. • Higher background rates will be studied in the coming months.

  20. State-of-the-art of small animal imaging with high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaus, S.; Wirrwar, A.; Antke, C.; Kley, K.; Mueller, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    During the recent years, in vivo imaging of small animals using SPECT has become of growing relevance. Along with the development of dedicated high-resolution small animal SPECT cameras, an increasing number of conventional clinical scanners has been equipped with single or multipinhole collimators. This paper reviews the small animal tomographs, which are operating at present and compares their performance characteristics. Furthermore, we describe the in vivo imaging studies, which have been performed so far with the individual scanners and survey current approaches to optimize molecular imaging with small animal SPECT. (orig.)

  1. Industrial gamma irradiation facility with a wet storage source in Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Moussa, A.; Stepanov, D.G.; Ermakov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma radiation facility was built in Damascus, Syria. The plant (ROBO) is a Co-60 wet storage, batch/continuous facility with nominal capacity of 1.85x10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 3.7x10 15 Bq. The ratio of maximum absorbed dose to the minimum one within irradiated materials is around 1.3+/-0.03. The irradiator consists of two sections to select required sources for irradiation. Two pools were constructed. The main pool will serve as biological shield for the main sources frame. The second pool will host a fixed circular frame to be used as calibration source or to irradiate small samples to low doses. The conveyor consists of a chain facility moving along trucks. A repair section is provided on the conveyor route in the load-unload area for carrying out inspection, repair, etc. The trucks are holed with a rectangular frames. Loading, unloading and rearrangement of the products is carried out automatically. This mechanism is carried out by seven pneumatic cylinders, lifting devices and roller conveyors. Many safety features were included: push-back platform, followed by pit used as a physical barrier. Interlocks are connected to the platform, pit cover and to ionization chambers. In case of power failure or any overriding of interlocks, the irradiator comes to emergency dropping. Ventilation system, fire system, emergency power and closed water purification system are indicated on control panel. The facility will be utilized for medical products sterilization, research and calibration

  2. A 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility with an automated fast cyclic pneumatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M.T.; Yoho, M.D.; Biegalski, S.R.; Landsberger, S.; Welch, L.

    2016-01-01

    This work details the design criteria, construction, controls, and optimization of the 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at the University of Texas, built with the motivation of performing neutron activation analysis on samples with short half-lives. The facility couples a D-T neutron generator with a pneumatic transfer system capable of transit of approximately one second between source and detector, while the cyclic automated nature allows for many irradiation/count trials with any number of samples, translating to significantly improved counting statistics. (author)

  3. Investigation of high flux test module for the international fusion materials irradiation facilities (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Makoto; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2007-03-01

    This report describes investigation on structure of a high neutron flux test module (HFTM) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facilities (IFMIF). The HFTM is aimed for neutron irradiation of a specimen in a high neutron flux domain of the test cell for irradiation ground of IFMIF. We investigated the overall structure of the HFTM that was able to include specimens in a rig and thermocouple arrangement, an interface of control signal and support structure. Moreover, pressure and the amount of the bend in the module vessel (a rectangular section pressure vessel) were calculated. The module vessel did a rectangular section from limitation of a high neutron flux domain. Also, we investigated damage of thermocouples under neutron irradiation, which was a temperature sensor of irradiation materials temperature control demanded high precision. Based on these results, drawings on the HTFM structure. (author)

  4. 2 MeV, 60 kW dual-beam type electron accelerator irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsumoto, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Takao; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Sunaga, Hiromi; Washino, Masamitsu; Tamura, Naoyuki

    1984-02-01

    The specification of new irradiation facility which has been constructed from 1978 through 1981 as the replacement of 1st Accelerator of JAERI, TRCRE are described. The accelerator is the Cockcroft-Walton type and both vertical and horizontal accelerating tubes are arranged on a single high voltage generator. Transferring of the high voltage to the horizontal accelerating tube is performed with the high voltage changing system in the pressure vessel. The output ratings of the accelerator are 2 MV of acceleration voltage and 30 mA of beam current. By providing the dual beam system, two irradiation rooms, one for vertical and the other for horizontal beam, are independently operationable. Persons can enter the horizontal irradiation room for experimental setting even when the vertical irradiation room is in operation. The specification of the buildings, the exhaust air treatment system, the irradiation conveyor and the safety observation system are also described. (author)

  5. The operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Park, Kwang Jun; Lee, Won Sang [and others; Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    The operation and management of PIE facility was executed in 1993. An indigenous 16 x 16 PWR type fuel assembly (ID No. J44) which was discharged from Kori unit 2 power reactor was transported to KAERI`s PIE facility and in-pool nondestructive examination and hot cell examination for the fuel were carried out. Because the above-mentioned 16 x 16 fuel is different from 14 x 14 fuel in its size and array of fuel rods, several examination and handling equipment for the 16 x 16 type fuel were designed and fabricated. PIE facility was operated in normal condition with the periodical check and inspection of the devices. The filter housing on the roof hood in chemical analysis hot cell was modified mounting air pressure gauge to indicate the optimal filter exchanging time. The burst air heating coil plate and the broken blowing fan of the HVAC system were repaired. The defaced grand packing in pool water circulation pump was replaced with the mechanical seal to prevent the leakage from the pump shaft sealing. The radiation monitoring in the facility was carried out to maintain the safe working condition and several radiation monitors were repaired. Spare parts for the radiation monitoring system were prepared to maintain the facility safely. The performance test of the emergency electric power supply system including UPS, battery and diesel generator was carried out. Oxide layer thickness measuring device for the performance test. Several devices including spent fuel handling equipment for the 17 x 17 PWR type fuel assembly were designed and fabricated for the subsequent PIE of nuclear fuels. 35 tabs., 17 figs., 7 refs. (Author) .new.

  6. The Juelich compact cyclotron - a multi-purpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.; Hoelzle, R.; Kogler, W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercially available variable-energy compact cyclotron has been installed at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. It is equipped to accelerate protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles. A +- 60 0 switching magnet allows to switch the beam to any of seven external target stations. Three separately shielded target rooms allow a flexible use of the cyclotron for a wide range of applications such as production of short-lived nuclides, activation analysis, radiation damage studies in metals and studies of biological effects of fast neutron irradiation. (orig.) [de

  7. A high resolution small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) with x-ray tomographic guidance capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Armour, Elwood; Kazanzides, Peter; Iordachita, Iulian; Tryggestad, Erik; Deng, Hua; Matinfar, Mohammad; Kennedy, Christopher; Liu, Zejian; Chan, Timothy; Gray, Owen; Verhaegen, Frank; McNutt, Todd; Ford, Eric; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the CT imaging, conformal irradiation and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods The SARRP employs a dual-focal spot, constant voltage x-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120° from vertical. Eighty to 100 kVp x-rays from the smaller 0.4 mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4 mm and 3.0 mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam (CB) CT imaging is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between the stationary x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. Radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to (60 × 60) mm2. Dosimetry is measured with radio-chromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results The SARRP spans 3 ft × 4 ft × 6 ft (WxLxH). Depending on filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at 1 cm depth in water range from 22 to 375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20% to 80% dose fall-off spans 0.16 mm. CBCT with (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6) mm3 voxel resolution is acquired with less than 1 cGy. Treatment planning is performed at sub-mm resolution. Conclusions The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. PMID:18640502

  8. Remote-handling demonstration tests for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Hussey, M.W.; Kelly, V.P.; Yount, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to create a fusion-like environment for fusion materials development. Crucial to the success of FMIT is the development and testing of remote handling systems required to handle materials specimens and maintenance of the facility. The use of full scale mock-ups for demonstration tests provides the means for proving these systems

  9. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  10. Technical Note: System for evaluating local hypothermia as a radioprotector of the rectum in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian A; Bing, Chenchen; Futch, Cecil; Wodzak, Michelle; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Medin, Paul M; Chopra, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. This work describes the development of a system to evaluate local hypothermia for a radioprotective effect of the rat rectum during a large dose of radiation relevant to prostate SBRT. This includes the evaluation of a 3D-printed small animal rectal cooling device and the integration with a small animal irradiator. A 3-cm long, dual-lumen rectal temperature control apparatus (RTCA) was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The RTCA was capable of recirculating flow in a device small enough for insertion into the rat rectum, with a metal support rod for strength as well as visibility during radiation treatment planning. The outer walls of the RTCA comprised of thin heat shrink plastic, achieving efficient heat transfer into adjacent tissues. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within the rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. Integration with an image-guided small animal irradiator and associated treatment planning system included evaluation for imaging artifacts and effect of brass tubing on dose calculation. The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature to 15°C within 10-20 min from device insertion and was maintained at 15 ± 3°C during active cooling for the evaluated time of one hour. MR thermometry revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device with the desired

  11. The maintenance and the radiological safety in gamma irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, G.

    1991-01-01

    Presently work the outstanding aspects of the operation and maintenance of the Industrial Irradiator JS 6500 are described that the ININ operates, in the Nuclear Center of Salazar, Estado de Mexico and its relationship with the radiological security for the occupationally exposed personnel. The signal devices are described and of control of the associate teams, as the system of cooling of the source; the plant of treatment of water of the pool and the system of extraction of ozone. On the other hand the procedures are mentioned for the sure operation and the application of the annual programs of maintenance, in their aspects of more interest, to reduce to the maximum the correction of faults, during the routine operation

  12. Safety design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamaki, Daiju; Katsuta, Hiroji; Moeslang, Anton; Jameson, R.A.; Martone, Marcello; Shannon, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    In the Conceptual Design Activity of the IFMIF, major subsystems, as well as the entire facility is carefully designed to satisfy the safety requirements for any possible construction sites. Each subsystem is qualitatively analyzed to identify possible hazards to the workers, public and environments using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The results are reflected in the design and operation procedure. Shielding of radiation, particularly neutron around the test cell is one of the most important issue in normal operation. Radiation due to beam halo and activation is a hazard for operation personnel in the accelerator system. For the maintenance, remote handling technology is designed to be applied in various facilities of the IFMIF. Lithium loop and target system hold the majority of the radioactive material in the facility. Tritium and beryllium-7 are generated by the nuclear reaction during operation and thus needed to be removed continuously. They are also the potential hazards of airborne source in off-normal events. Minimization of inventory, separation and immobilization, and multiple confinement are considered in the design. Generation of radioactive waste is anticipated to be minor, but waste treatment systems for gas, liquid and solid wastes are designed to minimize the environmental impact. Lithium leak followed by a fire is a major concern, and extensive prevention plan is made in the target design. One of the design option considered is composed of; primary enclosure of the lithium loop, secondary containment filled with positive pressure argon, and an air tight lithium cell made of concrete with a steel lining. This study will report some technical issues considered in the design of IFMIF. It was concluded that the IFMIF can be designed and constructed to meet or exceed current safely standards for workers, public and the environment with existing technology and reasonable construction cost. (J.P.N.)

  13. Development of the irradiation facilities for silicon neutron doping in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breant, P.; Cherruau, F.; Genthon, J.P.

    1980-08-01

    Irradiation facilities for silicon irradiations in France may be classified in two categories: on the one hand the devices directly implemented in the light water of α swimming-pool reactor and on the other hand the devices implemented in a neutronic medium -heavy water here- providing a high value of the thermal to fast neutron flux ratio. The tools used in France for silicon neutron doping are recapitulated according to this classification in tables, with their main characteristics; in addition it is specified that all existing facilities are instrumented with ingot rotation, flux monitoring, automatic time integration and are associated with handling, storage, cleaning, decontamination and activity control equipment. Finally, concerning the irradiation capacities given in these tables, it is pointed out that they are realistic and present capacities, for presently running devices and according to the way they are used on an average; that is to say that they take into account the real average dimensions of the ingot supplied and not the maximum possible loading with the maximum diameters. Further extensions of capacity are possible if need be by the installation of supplementary standard irradiation modules in the pools. Particular attention will given to the new developments: -new irradiaton facilities with a high Oth/Or ratio being developed in the new research reactor ORPHEE: - developments in the OSIRIS H 2 O reactor. In particular and in connection with the facilities developped in OSIRIS, neutronic problems typical and swimming-pool reactors will be contemplated and the adopted solutions given

  14. An economic benefit analysis on the cobalt-60 irradiation facility of Beijing Radiation Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binlin

    1995-01-01

    The peculiarity, the investment and annual operating cost of the 3.7 x 10 16 Bq (MCi) cobalt-60 irradiation facility at Beijing Radiation Application Research Centre are described. Its economic benefits each year are analyzed according to several year operating practice. Some related questions on carrying out radiation processing are raised and discussed. (author)

  15. An automatic device for sample insertion and extraction to/from reactor irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloni, L.; Venturelli, A.; Meloni, S.

    1990-01-01

    At the previous European Triga Users Conference in Vienna,a paper was given describing a new handling tool for irradiated samples at the L.E.N.A plant. This tool was the first part of an automatic device for the management of samples to be irradiated in the TRIGA MARK ii reactor and successively extracted and stored. So far sample insertion and extraction to/from irradiation facilities available on reactor top (central thimble,rotatory specimen rack and channel f),has been carried out manually by reactor and health-physics operators using the ''traditional'' fishing pole provided by General Atomic, thus exposing reactor personnel to ''unjustified'' radiation doses. The present paper describes the design and the operation of a new device, a ''robot''type machine,which, remotely operated, takes care of sample insertion into the different irradiation facilities,sample extraction after irradiation and connection to the storage pits already described. The extraction of irradiated sample does not require the presence of reactor personnel on the reactor top and,therefore,radiation doses are strongly reduced. All work from design to construction has been carried out by the personnel of the electronic group of the L.E.N.A plant. (orig.)

  16. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  17. Source rack reload of the Tunisian gamma irradiation facility using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Foued; Kadri, Omrane

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo study of the cylindrical source rack geometry of the tunisian gamma irradiation facility, using Ge ant code of CERN. The study investigates the question of the reload of the source rack. studied configurations consist on housing four new pencils, two in the upper and two in the lower cylinder of the source rack. global dose rate uniformity inside a ''dummy's' product for the case of routine and non routine irradiation and as function of the product bulk density was calculated for eight hypothetical configurations. the same calculation was also performed for both of the original and the ideal, but not practical configuration. It was shown that hypothetical cases produced dose uniformity variations, according to product density, that were statistically no different than the original and the ideal configurations and that reload procedure can not improve the irradiation quality inside the tunisian facility

  18. An overview of the PIREX Proton Irradiation facility and its research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, M.; Gavillet, D. [Association EURATOM, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The main design characteristics of PIREX (Proton Irradiation Experiment) are described. The facility is installed in the 590 MeV proton beam of the PSI accelerator system. Its main task is the irradiation and testing of fusion reactor candidate materials. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously in the target material displacement damage and impurities, amongst them helium. They can therefore simulate possible synergistic effects between helium and damage that would result from irradiations with the fusion neutrons. The research program being developed includes studies on both materials of technological interest, such as martensitic stainless steels and Mo - based alloys and basic radiation damage research on pure metals. The facility is also being used for actinide transmutation studies, in the so called ATHENA experiment. The main directions of the research program are described and examples of present results are given.

  19. Improvement of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kenta, E-mail: murakami@tokai.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo, E-mail: iwai@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Yamagata-shi 990-9585 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto, E-mail: sekimura@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the modification of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo (HIT). The HIT facility was severely damaged during the 2011 earthquake, which occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. A damaged 1.0 MV tandem Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was replaced with a 1.7 MV accelerator, which was formerly used in another campus of the university. A decision was made to maintain dual-beam irradiation capability by repairing the 3.75 MV single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator and reconstructing the related beamlines. A new beamline was connected with a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) to perform in-situ TEM observation under ion irradiation.

  20. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardt, P von der [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Petten Establishment, Petten (Netherlands)

    1983-06-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  1. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der

    1983-01-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  2. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy, Christopher W [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Armour, Elwood [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jiang Licai [OSMIC Inc., 1900 Taylor Rd., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min{sup -1} at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  3. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang, Licai; Wong, John

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min(-1) at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of +/-5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  4. MOSFET assessment of radiation dose delivered to mice using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Korideck, Houari; Chin, Lee M; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

    2011-12-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel isocentric irradiation system that enables state-of-the-art image-guided radiotherapy research to be performed with animal models. This paper reports the results obtained from investigations assessing the radiation dose delivered by the SARRP to different anatomical target volumes in mice. Surgically implanted metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) dosimeters were employed for the dose assessment. The results reveal differences between the calculated and measured dose of -3.5 to 0.5%, -5.2 to -0.7%, -3.9 to 0.5%, -5.9 to 2.5%, -5.5 to 0.5%, and -4.3 to 0% for the left kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, left lung, and brain, respectively. Overall, the findings show less than 6% difference between the delivered and calculated dose, without tissue heterogeneity corrections. These results provide a useful assessment of the need for tissue heterogeneity corrections in SARRP dose calculations for clinically relevant tumor model sites.

  5. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang Licai; Wong, John

    2007-01-01

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min -1 at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of ±5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD

  6. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  7. Performance studies under high irradiation of resistive bulk-micromegas chambers at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Bortfeldt, J; Farina, E; Iengo, P; Longo, L; Sidiropoulou, O; Wotschack, J

    2017-01-01

    Radiation studies on several resistive bulk-Micromegas chambers produced at CERN will be viewed in this document. Two resistive bulk-Micromegas chambers have been installed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) exposed to an intense gamma irradiation with the aim of evaluating the detector behaviour under high irradiation and carrying out a long-term age- ing study. The chambers under study have an active area of 10 x 10 cm 2 , a strip pitch of 400 m m , an ampli- fication gap of 128 m m , and a drift gap of 5 mm. The results on the detector performance as a function of the photon flux up to 44 MHz/cm 2 will be shown as well as the ageing properties as function of the integrated charge and the current intensity and its stability with time. In addition, the results of the efficiency measurements before, during, and after the irradiation will also be presented as a function of the amplification voltage at which the chambers are operated.

  8. Towards a Unified Environmental Monitoring, Control and Data Management System for Irradiation Facilities: the CERN IRRAD Use Case

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Jouvelot, Pierre; Matli, Emanuele; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Ravotti, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The qualification of materials, electronic components and equipment for the CERN High Energy Physics experiments and beyond requires testing against possible radiation effects. These quite complex tests are performed by specialized teams working in irradiation facilities such as IRRAD, the Proton Irradiation Facility at CERN. Building upon the details of the overall irradiation control, monitoring, and logistical systems of IRRAD as a use case, we introduce the motivations for and general architecture of its new data management framework, currently under development at CERN. This infrastructure is intended to allow for the seamless and comprehensive handling of IRRAD irradiation experiments and to help manage all aspects of the facility. Its architecture, currently focused on the specific requirements of the IRRAD facility, is intended to be upgraded to a general framework that could be used in other irradiation facilities within the radiation effects community, as well as for other applications.

  9. SATIF-2 shielding aspects of accelerators, targets and irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last 50 years from simple devices to powerful machines, and will continue to have an important impact on research, technology and lifestyle. Today they cover a wide range of applications, from television and computer displays in households to the investigation of the origin and structure of matter. It has become common practice to use them for material science and medical applications. In recent years, requirements from new technological and research applications have emerged, such as increased particle beams intensities, higher flexibility, etc., giving rise to new radiation shielding aspects and problems. These proceedings review recent progress in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities, and evaluate advancements with respect to international co-operation in this field

  10. Economic study for the establishment of A food irradiation facility at port said harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Gameel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study discusses the economic aspects of establishing food irradiation facility at Port Said harbour and the effect of various parameters on the unit processing costs. The study is concerned with carrying out an economic evaluation for the application of food exports from Port Said harbour and the marketing and technical aspects where the suitable commodity mix has been determined for the agricultural crops which were proposed for irradiation. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (IRR) and pay back period (PEP). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the establishment of food irradiation unit in Port Said harbour in Egypt would be economically feasible

  11. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the LAMPF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at LAMPF. The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 40 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  12. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, S., E-mail: stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, E.; Martin, H. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chaabane, N.; Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, J.P.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  13. Pagure {sup 60}Co panoramic irradiation facility; Pagure irradiateur panoramique au {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, J R; Laizier, J; Lorin, M; Laroche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a description of the various parts of 'PAGURE', a 10 KCi panoramic irradiation facility, and of the operations data, a critic scrutiny is given. From the experience of five years operations, working of the facility can be thought of very satisfying. From the point of view of standardization of irradiation facilities, PAGURE can be taken, in its range, as a standard design. (authors) [French] Apres avoir decrit les differents elements constitutifs de 1'irradiateur panoramique de 10 KCi 'PAGURE' et precise les donnees d'exploitation, on en fait l'examen critique. A la lumiere de cinq annees d'utilisation, le fonctionnement de 1'irradiateur apparait extremement satisfaisant. Dans une perspective de standardisation des appareils, on peut, dans sa gamme, le considerer comme une realisation type. (auteurs)

  14. Description of the PIE facility for research reactors irradiated fuels in CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisca, A.; Coronel, R.; Homberger, V.; Quinteros, A.; Ratner, M.

    2002-01-01

    The PIE Facility (LAPEP), located at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), was designed to carry out destructive and non-destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) on research and power reactor spent fuels, reactor internals and other irradiated materials, and to perform studies related with: Station lifetime extension; Fuel performance; Development of new fuels; and Failures and determination of their causes. LAPEP is a relevant facility where research and development can be carried out. It is worth mentioning that in this facility the PIE corresponding to the Surveillance Program for the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-1) were successfully performed. Materials testing during the CNA-1 repair and the study of failures in fuel element plugs of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (CNE) were also performed. (author)

  15. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.; Fusco, Y.; Kadi, Y.; Luis, R.; Romanets, Y.; Behzad, M.; Aleksan, R.; Bousson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The EU's FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the proposed DEMO fusion reactor, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550 deg. C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum over a volume occupying one litre. The entire 'TMIF' facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility. (authors)

  16. In-cell facility for performing mechanical-property tests on irradiated cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaggee, F.L.; Haglund, R.C.; Mattas, R.F.

    1978-11-01

    A new facility was developed for testing cladding sections of LWR fuel rods. This facility and the accompanying test procedures have improved the level of in-cell mechanical-testing capabilities, making them comparable to existing capabilities for unirradiated cladding. The new facility is currently being used to study the susceptibility of irradiated Zircaloy cladding from LWR fuel rods to iodine stress-corrosion cracking. Preliminary testing results indicate a systematic effect of temperature, stress and irradiation on the susceptibility of annealed and stress-relieved Zircaloy-2. Experimental data obtained to date are being used to develop a stress-corrosion cracking model for LWR fuel rod failure. SEM examination of the undisturbed fracture surface of specimens that failed by pinhole leakage provides useful information on crack propagation and morphology

  17. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  18. A new tissue segmentation method to calculate 3D dose in small animal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, C; Delpon, G; Supiot, S; Potiron, V; Paris, F; Chiavassa, S

    2018-02-26

    In pre-clinical animal experiments, radiation delivery is usually delivered with kV photon beams, in contrast to the MV beams used in clinical irradiation, because of the small size of the animals. At this medium energy range, however, the contribution of the photoelectric effect to absorbed dose is significant. Accurate dose calculation therefore requires a more detailed tissue definition because both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) affect the dose distribution. Moreover, when applied to cone beam CT (CBCT) acquisitions, the stoichiometric calibration of HU becomes inefficient as it is designed for highly collimated fan beam CT acquisitions. In this study, we propose an automatic tissue segmentation method of CBCT imaging that assigns both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) in small animal dose calculation. The method is based on the relationship found between CBCT number and ρ*Z eff product computed from known materials. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of ρZ eff variation on the absorbed dose in tissues. These results led to the creation of a tissue database composed of artificial tissues interpolated from tissue values published by the ICRU. The ρZ eff method was validated by measuring transmitted doses through tissue substitute cylinders and a mouse with EBT3 film. Measurements were compared to the results of the Monte Carlo calculations. The study of the impact of ρZ eff variation over the range of materials, from ρZ eff  = 2 g.cm - 3 (lung) to 27 g.cm - 3 (cortical bone) led to the creation of 125 artificial tissues. For tissue substitute cylinders, the use of ρZ eff method led to maximal and average relative differences between the Monte Carlo results and the EBT3 measurements of 3.6% and 1.6%. Equivalent comparison for the mouse gave maximal and average relative differences of 4.4% and 1.2%, inside the 80% isodose area. Gamma analysis led to a 94.9% success rate in the 10% isodose

  19. Collimator optimization for small animal radiation therapy at a micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Manuela C. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Jens [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Brockmann, Marc A. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; University Medical Center Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2017-05-01

    In radiation therapy of small animals treatment depths range from a few millimetres to several centimetres. In order to spare surrounding organs at risk steep dose gradients are necessary. To minimize the treatment time, and therefore the strain to the animals, a high dose rate is required. A description how these parameters can be optimized through an appropriate choice of collimators with different source surface distances (SSD) as well as different materials and geometries is presented. An industrial micro-CT unit (Y.Fox, YXLON GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was converted into a precision irradiator for small animals. Different collimators of either stainless steel (Fe) with cylindrical bores (SSD = 42 mm) or tungsten (W) with conical bores (SSD = 14 mm) were evaluated. The dosimetry of very small radiation fields presents a challenge and was performed with GafChromic EBT3 films (Ashland, Vayne, KY, USA) in a water phantom. The films were calibrated with an ionization chamber in the uncollimated field. Treatments were performed via a rotation of the objects with a fixed radiation source. As expected, the shorter SSD of the W-collimators resulted in a (4.5 ± 1.6)-fold increase of the dose rates compared to the corresponding Fe-collimators. The ratios of the dose rates at 1 mm and 10 mm depth in the water phantom was (2.6 ± 0.2) for the Fe- and (4.5 ± 0.1) for the W-collimators. For rotational treatments in a cylindrical plastic phantom maximum dose rates of up to 1.2 Gy/min for Fe- and 5.1 Gy/min for W-collimators were measured. Choosing the smallest possible SSD leads to a high dose rate and a high surface dose, which is of advantage for the treatment of superficial target volumes. For larger SSD the dose rate is lower and the depth dose curve is shallower. This leads to a reduction of the surface dose and is best suited for treatments of deeper seated target volumes. Divergent collimator bores have, due to the reduced scatter within the collimators, a steeper

  20. The food irradiation and perspectives for installing irradiation facilities in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Campos, Luiz; Pinto, Fausto C.

    1996-01-01

    Joint studies on the use of the radiation process for the treatment of foods and agricultural commodities are under way at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear-CDTN, Universidade Federal de Lavras and Secretaria de Estado da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, aiming to collect information needed for a feasibility analysis. The analysis will allow the business manager to evaluate benefits and risks in order to estimate the profitability of a contemplated venture on risks food irradiation. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities (FMF, AGF, MMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Ebihara, Hikoe; Matsushima, Yasuyoshi; Kashiwabara, Hidechiyo

    1975-02-01

    Wide review is given on the problems associated with the transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities, FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility), AGF (Alpha Gamma Facility), and MMF (Material Monitoring Facility) at the Oarai Engineering Center, PNC. The test facilities are connected with the JOYO plant, an experimental fast reactor being constructed at Oarai. As introductory remarks, some special features of transferring irradiated materials are described. In the second part, problems on the management of nuclear materials and radio isotopes are described item by item. In the third part, the specific materials that are envisaged to be transported between JOYO and the test facilities are listed together with their geometrical shapes, dimensions, etc. In the fourth part, various routes and methods of transportation are explained with many block charts and figures. Brief explanation with lists and drawings is also given to transportation casks and vessels. Finally, some future problems are discussed, such as the prevention of diffusive contamination, ease of decontamination, and the identification of test samples. (Aoki, K.)

  2. Reconstruction of exposures to the public from a cobalt-60 irradiator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    A study was performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the radiation exposure received by the public from the operation of a cobalt-60 irradiator facility. Located south of Davis, California, at the former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, the facility was an indoor-outdoor gamma irradiator operated for the DOE by the University of California, Davis. From 1970 to 1985, outdoor radiation exposure experiments conducted at the facility resulted in environmental radiation doses of 80 to 120 mSv per year along the facility's perimeter fence. Comprehensive environmental monitoring was not performed in the adjacent, uncontrolled areas and personnel who occupied these areas were not routinely monitored for radiation exposure. Because of incomplete environmental monitoring data, computer modeling was required to reconstruct the environmental dose rates present when the facility was in operation. Personnel occupancy times for the adjacent areas were determined from population statistics, historical records, and personal interviews. The potential dose equivalents calculated for the individuals who lived or worked in neighboring areas ranged from 0.02 to 3.6 mSv per year. These exposures, some of which exceed the current DOE standard of 1 mSv/y, were less than the DOE regulatory limit of 5 mSv/y for exposure to the public that was in effect when the facility was in operation

  3. Facility for gamma irradiations of cultured cells at low dose rates: design, physical characteristics and functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Anello, Pasquale; Pecchia, Ilaria; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Campa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a low dose/dose rate gamma irradiation facility (called LIBIS) for in vitro biological systems, for the exposure, inside a CO_2 cell culture incubator, of cells at a dose rate ranging from few μGy/h to some tens of mGy/h. Three different "1"3"7Cs sources are used, depending on the desired dose rate. The sample is irradiated with a gamma ray beam with a dose rate uniformity of at least 92% and a percentage of primary 662 keV photons greater than 80%. LIBIS complies with high safety standards. - Highlights: • A gamma irradiation facility for chronic exposures of cells was set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. • The dose rate uniformity and the percentage of primary 662 keV photons on the sample are greater than 92% and 80%, respectively. • The GEANT4 code was used to design the facility. • Good agreement between simulation and experimental dose rate measurements has been obtained. • The facility will allow to safely investigate different issues about low dose rate effects on cultured cells.

  4. Dismantling of Irradiation Facility Selfshielded of Investigation Model MPX- γ-25M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soguero, D.; Rapado, M.; Prieto, E.; Desdin, L.; Guerra, M.; Castillo, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is described the dismantling a category I selfshielded gamma irradiation facility model MPX - γ - 25M. The following specific objectives were established: a) identify aspects of the insurance contract, human and technical resources b) assess the radiological situation of the process and c) analyze potential radiological extraordinary events in each step of the process, ensuring appropriate responses, based on an evaluation of process safety. The assessment of radiological events can serve as a reference for addressing the process of dismantling other similar irradiators. (Author)

  5. Isodose distributions and dose uniformity in the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility calculated using the MCNP code

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C

    2001-01-01

    A systematic study of isodose distributions and dose uniformity in sample carriers of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility was carried out using the MCNP code. The absorbed dose rate, gamma flux per energy interval and average gamma energy were calculated. For comparison purposes, boxes filled with air and 'dummy' boxes loaded with layers of folded and crumpled newspapers to achieve a given value of density were used. The magnitude of various contributions to the total photon spectra, including source-dependent factors, irradiator structures, sample material and other origins were also calculated.

  6. Influence of different irradiation facilities on the response of radioprotection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeren de Oliveira, A.

    1984-05-01

    An EIC 1 extrapolation chamber, flushed with a methan based tissue equivalent gas is presented. This measuring device serves as a reference instrument to calibrate in tissue absorbed dose beta beams from different irradiation facilities; point radioactive sources, sources used with beam flattening filters, large area sources simulated by moving a point source. The source to detector distance has to be greater than 3 cm, requiring a transfer dosemeter for smaller distances. Influence of these different irradiation geometries has been studied on several radioprotection instruments (babyline, individual dosemeter, ionisation chamber), using three radionucleides: 147 Pm, 204 Tl, 90 Sr + 90 Y [fr

  7. Feasibility for the setting up of a multipurpose food irradiation facility in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Y.; Marchioni, E.; Hasswlmann, C.; Ba, D.; Kuntz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The setting up of a cobalt-60 (activity 500 kCi) irradiation facility in the highest populated region of Senegal (Dakar district) to treat a wide range of foodstuffs for local consumption (millet/sorghum, rice, maize, cowpeas, potatoes, onions, mangoes, citrus fruits and dried fishes) is considered as profitable for a private investor or a Senegalese food producer (or trader), provided the tonnage of foodstuffs treated is adequate, more than 22,000 t·kGy, i.e. a total tonnage above 77,000 t, taking into account the irradiation doses used for the various foodstuffs. (author)

  8. Use of the SPIRAL 2 facility for material irradiations with 14 MeV energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Ridikas, D.; Ledoux, X.; Pellemoine, F.; Anne, R.; Huguet, Y.; Lipa, M.; Magaud, P.; Marbach, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of an irradiation facility for fusion applications will be to generate a material irradiation database for the design, construction, licensing and safe operation of a fusion demonstration power station (e.g., DEMO). This will be achieved through testing and qualifying material performance under neutron irradiation that simulates service up to the full lifetime anticipated in the power plant. Preliminary investigations of 14 MeV neutron effects on different kinds of fusion material could be assessed by the SPIRAL 2 Project at GANIL (Caen, France), aiming at rare isotope beams production for nuclear physics research with first beams expected by 2009. In SPIRAL 2, a deuteron beam of 5 mA and 40 MeV interacts with a rotating carbon disk producing high-energy neutrons (in the range between 1 and 40 MeV) via C (d, xn) reactions. Then, the facility could be used for 3-4 months y -1 for material irradiation purposes. This would correspond to damage rates in the order of 1-2 dpa y -1 (in Fe) in a volume of ∼10 cm 3 . Therefore, the use of miniaturized specimens will be essential in order to effectively utilize the available irradiation volume in SPIRAL 2. Sample package irradiation temperature would be in the range of 250-1000 deg. C. The irradiation level of 1-2 dpa y -1 with 14 MeV neutrons (average energy) may be interesting for micro-structural and metallurgical investigations (e.g., mini-traction, small punch tests, etc.) and possibly for the understanding of specimen size/geometric effects of critical material properties. Due to the small test cell volume, sample in situ experiments are not foreseen. However, sample packages would be, if required, available each month after transfer in a special hot cell on-site

  9. Characterization of the neutron irradiation system for use in the Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the neutron irradiation system consisting of americium-241 beryllium (241AmBe) neutron sources placed in a polyethylene shielding for use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF). With a total activity of 0.3 TBq (9 Ci), the source consisted of three recycled 241AmBe sources of different activities that had been combined into a single source. The source in its polyethylene shielding will be used in neutron irradiation testing of components. The characterization of the source-shielding system was necessary to evaluate the radiation environment for future experiments. Characterization of the source was also necessary because the documentation for the three component sources and their relative alignment within the Special Form Capsule (SFC) was inadequate. The system consisting of the source and shielding was modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP). The model was validated by benchmarking it against measurements using multiple techniques. To characterize the radiation fields over the full spatial geometry of the irradiation system, it was necessary to use a number of instruments of varying sensitivities. First, the computed photon radiography assisted in determining orientation of the component sources. With the capsule properly oriented inside the shielding, the neutron spectra were measured using a variety of techniques. A N-probe Microspec and a neutron Bubble Dosimeter Spectrometer (BDS) set were used to characterize the neutron spectra/field in several locations. In the third technique, neutron foil activation was used to ascertain the neutron spectra. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to characterize the photon spectrum. The experimentally measured spectra and the MCNP results compared well. Once the MCNP model was validated to an adequate level of confidence, parametric analyses was performed on the model to optimize for potential

  10. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  11. Practice for dosimetry in electron and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice describes dosimetric procedures to be followed in facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing for electron beam and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing to ensure that product receives an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to facility characterization, process qualification, and routine product processing that may influence and be used to monitor absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355 and F 1356). The electron energy range covered in this practice is from 0.3 MeV to 10 MeV. Such electrons can be generated in continuous or pulse modes. The maximum electron energy of bremsstrahlung facilities covered in this practice is 10 MeV. A photon beam can be generated by inserting a bremsstrahlung converter in the electron beam path (See ISO/ASTM Practice 51608

  12. Small animal MRI: clinical MRI as an interface to basic biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkernelle, J.G.; Stelter, L.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.

    2008-01-01

    The demand for highly resolved small animal MRI for the purpose of biomedical research has increased constantly. Dedicated small animal MRI scanners working at ultra high field strengths from 4.7 to 7.0 T and even above are MRI at its best. However, using high resolution RF coils in clinical scanners up to 3.0 T, small animal MRI can achieve highly resolved images showing excellent tissue contrast. In fact, in abundant experimental studies, clinical MRI is used for small animal imaging. Mostly clinical RF coils in the single-loop design are applied. In addition, custom-built RF coils and even gradient inserts are used in a clinical scanner. For the reduction of moving artifacts, special MRI-compatible animal ECG und respiration devices are available. In conclusion, clinical devices offer broad availability, are less expense in combination with good imaging performance and provide a translational nature of imaging results. (orig.)

  13. Cone Beam Micro-CT System for Small Animal Imaging and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouping Zhu

    2009-01-01

    in this paper. Experimental results show that the system is suitable for small animal imaging and is adequate to provide high-resolution anatomic information for bioluminescence tomography to build a dual modality system.

  14. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility (open-quotes OHBISclose quotes, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility

  15. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, S.; Akiba, M.; Kawamura, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop plasma facing components which can resist these. We have established electron beam heat facility ('OHBIS', Oarai hot-cell electron beam irradiating system) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50 kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30 kV (constant) and 1.7 A, respectively. The loading time of the electron beam is more than 0.1 ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the main dimensions are 500 mm in inside diameter, 1000 mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for the thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. The performance of the electron beam is being evaluated at this time. In the future, the equipment for conducting static heat loadings will be incorporated into the facility. (orig.)

  16. An estimate of radiation fields in a gamma irradiation facility using fuel elements from a swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Rajendra

    2002-01-01

    A simple gamma irradiation facility set up using a few irradiated or partially irradiated swimming pool elements can be assembled to provide a convenient facility for irradiation of small and medium sized samples for research. The paper presents results of radiation levels with an arrangement using four elements from a reactor core operating at a power of 20 MW. A maximum gamma field of higher than 1 KGy/h at locations adjacent to fuel elements with negligible neutron contamination can be achieved. (author)

  17. Planning of gamma-fields: forming and checking dose-rate homogeneity in irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.; Foldiak, G.; Horvath, Zs.; Naszodi, L.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal geometry of the sources of an 80000-Ci 60 Co irradiation facility was calculated. The array of the sources is suitable for fundamental research and pilot-plant radiosterilization simultaneously. A method was developed to compensate the inhomogeneity of the dose-rate field: it is no worse than that of the continuous large-scale facilities. In five years the activity of the sources decreased by about half; therefore, this recharge became inevitable. Experience proved that with the new source geometry optimalized by calculations a dose-rate of 1.2 +-10% became available with the packages. (author)

  18. Code of practice for the design and safe operation of non-medical irradiation facilities (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code establishes requirements for the design and operation of irradiation facilities which use X-rays, electrons or gamma radiation for non-medical purposes such as the sterilisation of therapeutic goods. These requirements aim to ensure that exposure of workers and members of the public to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation as well as to noxious gases and radioactive contamination of the environment and facilities are controlled through the design of engineering safety features, approved administrative controls and appropriate radiation monitoring [fr

  19. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  20. Design of a high-flux test assembly for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Vogel, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Fusion Material Test Facility (FMIT) will provide a high flux fusion-like neutron environment in which a variety of structural and non-structural materials irradiations can be conducted. The FMIT experiments, called test assemblies, that are subjected to the highest neutron flux magnitudes and associated heating rates will require forced convection liquid metal cooling systems to remove the neutron deposited power and maintain test specimens at uniform temperatures. A brief description of the FMIT facility and experimental areas is given with emphasis on the design, capabilities and handling of the high flux test assembly

  1. Facilities for post-irradiation examination of experimental fuel elements at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizzan, E.; Chenier, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Expansion of post-irradiation facilities at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories and steady improvement in hot-cell techniques and equipment are providing more support to Canada's reactor fuel development program. The hot-cell facility primarily used for examination of experimental fuels averages a quarterly throughput of 40 elements and 110 metallographic specimens. New developments in ultrasonic testing, metallographic sample preparation, active storage, active waste filtration, and fissile accountability are coming into use to increase the efficiency and safety of hot-cell operations. (author)

  2. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D + )-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm 3 for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  3. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-01-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  4. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analysis are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  5. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schankula, M.H.; Plaice, E.L.; Woodworth, L.G.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analyses are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  6. National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF). The status of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In May 1983, the Department of Energy authorized the establishment of a National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) at ORNL's Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR). The NLTNIF, which will be available for qualified experiments at no cost to users, will provide a combination of high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions that have not been previously available in the US. Since the DOE authorization, work has proceeded on the design and construction of the new facility without interruption. This report describes the present status of the development of the NLTNIF and the anticipated schedule for completion and performance testing. There is a table of the major specifications and capabilities and a schematic layout of the irradiation cryostate for design and dimensioning of test and experiment assemblies

  7. Improvement of plant parameters of the robo gamma irradiation facility due to design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Del Valle Odar, C.; Seminario, A.; Linares, M.; Huamanlazo, P.; Aymar, J.; Chu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two industrial scale, 'ROBO' type 60 Co gamma irradiation facilities have recently been put into operation in Syria and Peru, and the dosimetry commissioning of both plants have been carried out to determine dose distribution within products and to calculate plant parameters such as efficiency, dose uniformity ratio and throughput. There are some design modifications between the two plants in connection with the location of the carriers with respect to the source plaque and also to each other. The effect of these construction modifications on the plant parameters is discussed in the analysis of the dose distribution data measured in the carriers with depth and height among the four irradiation rows on both sides of the source plaque. The plant parameters were also calculated for different product densities using the technical data of the facilities, and the calculated and measured results were compared to each other

  8. Reference equilibrium core with central flux irradiation facility for Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israr, M.; Shami, Qamar-ud-din; Pervez, S.

    1997-11-01

    In order to assess various core parameters a reference equilibrium core with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) was assembled. Due to increased volume of reference core, the average neutron flux reduced as compared to the first higher power operation. To get a higher neutron flux an irradiation facility was created in centre of the reference equilibrium core where the advantage of the neutron flux peaking was taken. Various low power experiments were performed in order to evaluate control rods worth and neutron flux mapping inside the core. The neutron flux inside the central irradiation facility almost doubled. With this arrangement reactor operation time was cut down from 72 hours to 48 hours for the production of the required specific radioactivity. (author)

  9. Doserate mapping studies of the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility after hoist cable replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K.; Emi-Reynolds, G.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of ethanol chlorobenzene dosimeters (ECB) in air have been carried out in an attempt to map out and confirm the gamma dose field for the inner and outer chambers of the Gamma Irradiation Facility at the Radiation Technology Centre after the replacement of the 5mm diameter stainless weak hoist cables by a 6mm one. The results obtained were compared with expected dose rate values (regressed from the suppliers readings) for the various positions within the irradiation chamber. Our study reveal that the replacement of the hoist cables have been done correctly within specifications and that the dose rate map has not been affected. The significance of the work to routine radiation processing are discussed. (author). 6 refs.; 8 figs

  10. Determination of proton and neutron spectra in the LANSCE spallation irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Fowler, M.M.; Dry, D.; Ferguson, P.D.; Mueller, G.; Corzine, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Materials samples were recently irradiated in the Los Alamos Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to provide data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project on the effect of irradiation on the mechanical and physical properties of materials. The targets were configured to expose samples to a variety of radiation environments including, high-energy protons, mixed protons and high-energy neutrons, and low-energy neutrons. The samples were irradiated for approximately six months during a ten month period using an 800 MeV proton beam with a circular Gaussian shape of approximately 2σ = 3.0 cm. At the end of this period, the samples were extracted and tested. Activation foils were also extracted that had been placed in proximity to the materials samples. These were used to quantify the fluences in various locations

  11. Characterisation of the epithermal neutron irradiation facility at the Portuguese research reactor using MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, D G; Fernandes, A C; Santos, J P; Ramos, A R; Marques, J G; King, A

    2015-05-01

    The radiation field at the epithermal beamline and irradiation chamber installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear of Instituto Superior Técnico was characterised in the context of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) applications. Radiographic films, activation foils and thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neutron fluence and photon dose rates in the irradiation chamber. A fixed-source MCNPX model of the beamline and chamber was developed and compared to measurements in the first step towards planning a new irradiation chamber. The high photon background from the reactor results in the saturation of the detector and the current facility configuration yields an intrinsic insensitivity to various elements of interest for PGNAA. These will be addressed in future developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment of components and systems at SCK.CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, S.; Decreton, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the different gamma irradiation facilities available at SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium). With gamma dose rates ranging from 1 Gy/h up to 50 kGy/h, extensive environmental control and on-line instrumentation possibilities, they offer ideal test environments for the radiation tolerance assessment of components and systems for many applications where radiation tolerance is a concern. (authors)

  13. Characterization of third-harmonic target plan irradiance on the National Ignition Facility Beamlet demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, P.J.; Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Dixit, S.N.; Henesian, M.A.; Barker, C.E.; Thompson, C.E.; Seppala, L.G.; Caird, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Beamlet laser is a single-aperture prototype for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We have recently installed and activated a 55 m 3 vacuum vessel and associated diagnostic package at the output of the Beamlet that we are using to characterize target plane irradiance at high power. Measurements obtained both with and without a kinoform diffractive optic are reported. Dependences on critical laser parameters including output power, spatial filtering, and wavefront correction are discussed and compared with simulations

  14. Bulk-shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Mann, F.M.; Morford, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.; Huang, S.T.

    1982-07-01

    The accelerator-based Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility will provide a high-fluence, fusion-like radiation environment for the testing of materials. While the neutron spectrum produced in the forward direction by the 35 MeV deuterons incident upon a flowing lithium target is characterized by a broad peak around 14 MeV, a high energy tail extends up to about 50 MeV. Some shield design considerations are reviewed

  15. High flux materials testing reactor HFR Petten. Characteristics of facilities and standard irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettger, H.; Hardt, P. von der; Tas, A.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    For the materials testing reactor HFR some characteristic information is presented. Besides the nuclear data for the experiment positions short descriptions are given of the most important standard facilities for material irradiation and radionuclide production. One paragraph deals with the experimental set-ups for solid state and nuclear structure investigations. The information in this report refers to a core type, which is operational since March 1977. The numerical data compiled have been up-dated to January 1981

  16. International fusion materials irradiation facility and neutronic calculations for its test modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokcic-Kostic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a projected high intensity neutron source for material testing. Neutron transport calculations for the IFMIF project are performed for variety of here explained reasons. The results of MCNP neutronic calculations for IFMIF test modules with NaK and He cooled high flux test cells are presented in this paper. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies.

  18. X-ray microbeam stand-alone facility for cultured cells irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.bozek@yahoo.com [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Pharmaceutical Biophysics, Krakow (Poland); Bielecki, Jakub; Wiecheć, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Stachura, Zbigniew; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Lipiec, Ewelina; Tkocz, Konrad; Kwiatek, Wojciech M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • An X-ray microbeam line for irradiation of living cultured cells was constructed. • A step by step explanation of working principles with engineering details, procedures and calculations is presented. • A model of beam and cell interaction is presented. • A method of uniform irradiation of living cells with an exact dose per a cell is presented. • Results of preliminary experiments are presented. - Abstract: The article describes an X-ray microbeam standalone facility dedicated for irradiation of living cultured cells. The article can serve as an advice for such facilities construction, as it begins from engineering details, through mathematical modeling and experimental procedures, ending up with preliminary experimental results and conclusions. The presented system consists of an open type X-ray tube with microfocusing down to about 2 μm, an X-ray focusing system with optical elements arranged in the nested Kirckpatrick-Baez (or Montel) geometry, a sample stand and an optical microscope with a scientific digital CCD camera. For the beam visualisation an X-ray sensitive CCD camera and a spectral detector are used, as well as a scintillator screen combined with the microscope. A method of precise one by one irradiation of previously chosen cells is presented, as well as a fast method of uniform irradiation of a chosen sample area. Mathematical models of beam and cell with calculations of kerma and dose are presented. The experiments on dose-effect relationship, kinetics of DNA double strand breaks repair, as well as micronuclei observation were performed on PC-3 (Prostate Cancer) cultured cells. The cells were seeded and irradiated on Mylar foil, which covered a hole drilled in the Petri dish. DNA lesions were visualised with γ-H2AX marker combined with Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent dye.

  19. Two-faces stationary irradiation method and dosimetric considerations for radiation processing at the multipurpose gamma irradiation facility / IPEN-CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN located inside the Sao Paulo University campus has been providing services on radiation processing, especially for sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well as support to research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Placed at the same campus operates an extremely important radiopharmaceutical production facility when almost all disposable supplies used to produce medical products as the technetium-99m are continuously sterilized by gamma radiation. Many university biomedical research laboratories specially those working with equipment for cell cultures and vaccine production also make use of the gamma sterilization. Animal feed and shavings used by certified bioteries are routinely disinfected. Alternative underwater irradiation methods were developed to meet the demand of gemstone color enhancement. Human tissues including bone, skin, amniotic membranes, tendons, and cartilage belonging to National Banks are usually irradiated too. Different kind of polymers, hydrogels, foods as well native fruits, have been irradiated in this facility. Cultural heritage objects as books, paintings and furniture are disinfected routinely by gamma radiation. The success of the implementation of radiation processing in this facility is due to research and development of irradiation and dosimetry methods suitable for each condition. In this work are presented some considerations about the distribution dose and the two-faces stationary irradiation method developed and validated for this facility. (author)

  20. Two-faces stationary irradiation method and dosimetric considerations for radiation processing at the multipurpose gamma irradiation facility / IPEN-CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Over the last ten years, the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN located inside the Sao Paulo University campus has been providing services on radiation processing, especially for sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well as support to research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Placed at the same campus operates an extremely important radiopharmaceutical production facility when almost all disposable supplies used to produce medical products as the technetium-99m are continuously sterilized by gamma radiation. Many university biomedical research laboratories specially those working with equipment for cell cultures and vaccine production also make use of the gamma sterilization. Animal feed and shavings used by certified bioteries are routinely disinfected. Alternative underwater irradiation methods were developed to meet the demand of gemstone color enhancement. Human tissues including bone, skin, amniotic membranes, tendons, and cartilage belonging to National Banks are usually irradiated too. Different kind of polymers, hydrogels, foods as well native fruits, have been irradiated in this facility. Cultural heritage objects as books, paintings and furniture are disinfected routinely by gamma radiation. The success of the implementation of radiation processing in this facility is due to research and development of irradiation and dosimetry methods suitable for each condition. In this work are presented some considerations about the distribution dose and the two-faces stationary irradiation method developed and validated for this facility. (author)

  1. MCNP Variance Reduction technique application for the Development Of the Citrusdal Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgae, R.

    2008-01-01

    A private company, Citrus Research International (CIR) is intending to construct an insect irradiation facility for the irradiation of insect for pest management in south western region of South Africa. The facility will employ a Co-60 cylindrical source in the chamber. An adequate thickness for the concrete shielding walls and the ability of the labyrinth leading to the irradiation chamber, to attenuate radiation to dose rates that are acceptably low, were determined. Two methods of MCNP variance reduction techniques were applied to accommodate the two pathways of deep penetration to evaluate the radiological impact outside the 150 cm concrete walls and steaming of gamma photons through the labyrinth. The point-kernel based MicroShield software was used in the deep penetration calculations for the walls around the source room to test its accuracy and the results obtained are in good agreement with about 15-20% difference. The dose rate mapping due to radiation Streaming along the labyrinth to the facility entrance is also to be validated with the Attila code, which is a deterministic code that solves the Discrete Ordinates approximation. This file provides a template for writing papers for the conference. (authors)

  2. MCNP Variance Reduction technique application for the Development Of the Citrusdal Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgae, R. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), P.O. Box 9396, Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    A private company, Citrus Research International (CIR) is intending to construct an insect irradiation facility for the irradiation of insect for pest management in south western region of South Africa. The facility will employ a Co-60 cylindrical source in the chamber. An adequate thickness for the concrete shielding walls and the ability of the labyrinth leading to the irradiation chamber, to attenuate radiation to dose rates that are acceptably low, were determined. Two methods of MCNP variance reduction techniques were applied to accommodate the two pathways of deep penetration to evaluate the radiological impact outside the 150 cm concrete walls and steaming of gamma photons through the labyrinth. The point-kernel based MicroShield software was used in the deep penetration calculations for the walls around the source room to test its accuracy and the results obtained are in good agreement with about 15-20% difference. The dose rate mapping due to radiation Streaming along the labyrinth to the facility entrance is also to be validated with the Attila code, which is a deterministic code that solves the Discrete Ordinates approximation. This file provides a template for writing papers for the conference. (authors)

  3. Radiation studies on resistive bulk-micromegas chambers at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Camerlingo, Maria Teresa; Farina, Edoardo; Iengo, Paolo; Longo, Luigi; Samarati, Jerome; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Wotschack, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    With the growing diffusion of resistive Micromegas detectors in HEP experiments the study of long-term aging behaviour is becoming more and more relevant. Two resistive bulk-Micromegas detectors were installed in May 2015 at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility and exposed to an intense gamma irradiation with the aim to study the detector behavior under high irradiation and the long-term aging. The detectors have an active area of 10 × 10 cm 2 , readout strip pitch of 400 μ m , amplification gap of 128 μ m and drift gap of 5 mm. The desired accumulated charge of more than 0.2 C/cm 2 has been reached for both chambers, equivalent to 10 years of HL-LHC operation. The efficiency, amplification, and resolution of the Micromegas after this long-term irradiation period is compared with the performance of a non irradiated detector. In addition, the latest results of the measured particle rate as a function of the amplification voltage is presented and compared with those obtained in 2015.

  4. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  5. Irradiated radiation dose measurements of multilayer mirrors and permanent magnets used at FELI facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, K.; Tongu, H.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E.; Wakita, K.; Takii, T.; Tomimasu, Takio

    1997-01-01

    Recently the operation time of the free electron laser (FEL) user's facilities is close on three thousand hours per year. Cavity mirrors of their optical resonators and permanent magnets of their undulators are used under high intensity radiation field along their high current electron beam lines. Among these mirrors and permanent magnets, multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are not so strong against radiation damage compared with Au-coated copper mirrors and Sm-Co permanent magnets. A radiation damage on Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 mirrors was found for the first time after about fifty hours visible FEL operation at the FELI. The damage is due to irradiated bremsstrahlung and intracavity FEL. However, radiation damages on Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were already reported compared with Sm-Co ones using high energy neutrons, protons, deuterons and 60 Coγ-rays. Mixed irradiation effects of 85-MeV electrons, bremsstrahlung and 60 Coγ-rays and of 17-MeV electrons and 60 Coγ-rays were also studied. The latest results show that the magnetic flux loss of Nd-Fe-B is 2% at an absorbed dose of 10 MGy. The present work was carried out to study the irradiated dose distributions near the multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). The irradiated dose to the cavity mirrors used in Linac-based FEL experiment is estimated to be 0.3 MGray for fifty hours irradiation. The irradiated dose to the Nd-Fe-B magnets is estimated to be 16 MGray for 2 thousand hours operation. The decrease of their magnetic flux due to 16 MGray is estimated to be about 3%. These dose monitorings are useful to reduce irradiated dosages to the mirrors and the permanent magnets as low as possible and to estimate their safety lifetimes. (author)

  6. Use of EBR-II as a principal fast breeder reactor irradiation test facility in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staker, R.G.; Seim, O.S.; Beck, W.N.; Golden, G.H.; Walters, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The EBR-II as originally designed and operated by the Argonne National Laboratory was successful in demonstrating the operation of a sodium-cooled fast breeder power plant with a closed fuel reprocessing cycle. Subsequent operation has been as an experimental facility where thousands of irradiation tests have been performed. Conversion to this application entailed the design and fabrication of special irradiation subassemblies for in-core irradiations, additions to existing facilities for out-of-core irradiations, and additions to existing facilities for out-of-core experiments. Experimental subassemblies now constitute about one third of the core, and changes in the core configuration occur about monthly, requiring neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses and monitoring of the reactor dynamic behavior. The surveillance programs provided a wealth of information on irradiation induced swelling and creep, in-reactor fracture behavior, and the compatibility of materials with liquid sodium. (U.S.)

  7. MCNPCX calculations of dose rates and spectra in experimental channels of the CTEx irradiating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Renato G.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Junior, Luis M.; Vital, Helio C.; Rusin, Tiago; Silva, Ademir X.

    2013-01-01

    MCNPX simulations have been performed in order to calculate dose rates as well as spectra along the four experimental channels of the gamma irradiating facility at the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx). Safety, operational and research requirements have led to the need to determine both the magnitude and spectra of the leaking gamma fluxes. The CTEx experimental facility is cavity type with a moveable set of 28 horizontally positioned rods, filled with Cesium-137 chloride and doubly encased in stainless steel that yields an approximately plane 42 kCi-source that provides a maximum dose rate of about 1.5 kG/h into two irradiating chambers. The channels are intended for irradiation tests outside facility. They would allow larger samples to be exposed to lower gamma dose rates under controlled conditions. Dose rates have been calculated for several positions inside the channels as well as at their exits. In addition, for purposes related to the safety of operators and personnel, the angles submitted by the exiting beams have also been evaluated as they spread when leaving the channels. All calculations have been performed by using a computational model of the CTEx facility that allows its characteristics and operation to be accurately simulated by using the Monte Carlo Method. Virtual dosimeters filled with Fricke (ferrous sulfate) were modeled and positioned throughout 2 vertical channels (top and bottom) and 2 horizontal ones (front and back) in order to map dose rates and gamma spectrum distributions. The calculations revealed exiting collimated beams in the order of tenths of Grays per minute as compared to the maximum 25 Gy / min dose rate in the irradiator chamber. In addition, the beams leaving the two vertical channels were found to exhibit a widespread cone-shaped distribution with aperture angle ranging around 85 deg. The data calculated in this work are intended for use in the design of optimized experiments (better positioning of samples and

  8. High-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DEFIN) for spherical irradiation of thermonuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Danilov, A.E.; Krokhin, O.N.; Kruglov, B.V.; Mikhailov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Fedorov, A.N.

    This paper describes a high-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DELFIN) intended for high-temperature heating of thermonuclear targets with spherical symmetry. The facility includes a neodymium-glass laser with the ultimate radiation energy of 10 kJ, a pulse length of approximately 10 -10 to 10 -9 s, beam divergence of 5 x 10 -4 radians, a vacuum chamber in which laser radiation interacts with the plasma, and a system of diagnostic instrumentation for the observation of laser beam and plasma parameters. Described are the optical scheme and construction details of the laser facility. Presented is an analysis of focusing schemes for target irradiation and described is the focusing scheme of the DELFIN facility, which is capable of attaining a high degree of spherical symmetry in irradiating targets with maximum beam intensity at the target surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2 . This paper examines the most important problems connected with the physical investigations of thermonuclear laser plasma and the basic diagnostic problems involved in their solution

  9. Spent fuels conditioning and irradiated nuclear fuel elements examination: the STAR facility and its abilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, F.; Huillery, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Combustibles; Averseng, J.L.; Serpantie, J.P. [Novatome Industries, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a presentation of the STAR facility, a high activity laboratory located in Cadarache Nuclear Research Center (France). The purpose of the STAR facility and of the associated processes, is the treatment, cleaning and conditioning of spent fuels from Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) and in particular of about 2300 spent GCR fuel cartridges irradiated more than 20 years ago in Electricite de France (EDF) or CEA Uranium Graphite GCR. The processes are: to separate the nuclear fuel from the clad remains, to chemically stabilize the nuclear material and to condition it in sealed canisters. An additional objective of STAR consists in non-destructive or destructive examinations and tests on PWR rods or FBR pins in the frame of fuel development programs. The paper describes the STAR facility conceptual design (safety design rules, hot cells..) and the different options corresponding to the GCR reconditioning process and to further research and development works on various fuel types. (J.S.). 3 figs.

  10. A description of the Canadian irradiation-research facility proposed to replace the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A G; Lidstone, R F; Bishop, W E; Talbot, E F; McIlwain, H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities, and support facilities. At a nominal reactor power of 40 MW{sub t}, the IRF will generate powers up to 1 MW in natural-uranium CANDU bundles, fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4 x 10{sup 18} n{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} in Zr-alloy specimens, and thermal-neutron fluxes matching those available to the NRU beam tubes. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. MYRRHA, A Flexible Fast Spectrum Irradiation Facility. Current Status of Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert; Leysen, Paul; Aït Abderrahim, Hamid; Castelliti, Diego

    2011-01-01

    R and D program in support of MYRRHA: • Several R&D required for MYRRHA components: - LBE corrosion; - O 2 control in LBE; - Irradiated material properties. • Experimental facilities foreseen in the near future in support of MYRRHA at SCK•CEN premacies: - E-SCAPE: Thermal-hydraulic pool facility with 1:6 scale ratio with MYRRHA; - Liliputter: Pump test loop; - COMPLOT: Isothermal hydraulic loop representing one fuel channel/IPS at full high; - PHX mock-up testing concept, fouling, flow-induced vibrations, (SGTR)…; • Experimental facilities foreseen in the near future in support of MYRRHA at SCK•CEN premacies (continued): - Safety/control rod; - Fuel bundle; - Target window; - Component test pool; - Fuel loader; - Robotic arm; • All experiments planned to be finished before 2016

  12. Spent fuels conditioning and irradiated nuclear fuel elements examination: the STAR facility and its abilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, F.; Huillery, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of the STAR facility, a high activity laboratory located in Cadarache Nuclear Research Center (France). The purpose of the STAR facility and of the associated processes, is the treatment, cleaning and conditioning of spent fuels from Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) and in particular of about 2300 spent GCR fuel cartridges irradiated more than 20 years ago in Electricite de France (EDF) or CEA Uranium Graphite GCR. The processes are: to separate the nuclear fuel from the clad remains, to chemically stabilize the nuclear material and to condition it in sealed canisters. An additional objective of STAR consists in non-destructive or destructive examinations and tests on PWR rods or FBR pins in the frame of fuel development programs. The paper describes the STAR facility conceptual design (safety design rules, hot cells..) and the different options corresponding to the GCR reconditioning process and to further research and development works on various fuel types. (J.S.). 3 figs

  13. External irradiation facilities open for biological studies - progress in july 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Authier, N.; Verrey, B.; Bailly, I.; Bordy, J.M.; Coffigny, H.; Cortela, L.; Duval, D.; Leplat, J.J.; Poncy, J.L.; Testard, I.; Thuret, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available for radiobiological studies especially at CEA. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  14. Whole-Pin Furnace system: An experimental facility for studying irradiated fuel pin behavior under potential reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.C.; Donahue, D.A.; Pushis, D.O.; Savoie, F.E.; Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; August, C.; Bailey, J.L.; Patterson, D.R.

    1990-05-01

    The whole-pin furnace system is a new in-cell experimental facility constructed to investigate how irradiated fuel pins may fail under potential reactor accident conditions. Extensive checkouts have demonstrated excellent performance in remote operation, temperature control, pin breach detection, and fission gas handling. The system is currently being used in testing of EBIR-II-irradiated Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel pins; future testing will include EBR-II-irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins. 7 refs., 4 figs

  15. Establishment study of the in vivo imaging analysis with small animal imaging modalities for bio-durg development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Beomsu; Park, Sanghyeon; Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Jeonghoon; Jung, Uhee; Lee, Yun Jong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we established the image modalities (micro-PET, SPECT/CT) using the experimental animal (mouse) for the development of imaging assessment method for the bio-durg and extramural collaboration proposal. We examined the micro-SPECT/CT, PET imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and micro-PET with 99m Tc tricarbonyl bifunctional chelators and 18 F-clotrimazole derivative. SPECT imaging studies were performed with 99m Tc tricarbonyl BFCs. PET imaging study was performed with 18 F-clotrimazole derivatives. We performed the PET image study of 18 F-clotrimazole derivatives using U87MG tumor bearing mice. Also we tested the intramural and extramural collaboration using small animal imaging modalities and prepared the draft of extramural R and D operation manual for small animal imaging modalities and the experimental animal imaging facility. These research results can be utilized as a basic image study protocols and data for the image assessment of drugs including biological drug

  16. Control and safety systems for TRIGA irradiation facilities C5 and C9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu Cornel Talpalariu Jeni Crucean Mircea Matei Corina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute for Nuclear Research conducted research for designing and manufacturing of microprocessor equipment for some irradiation facilities operating by the TRIGA reactor. This equipment has accumulated a wide operating time allowing the conclusions referring to reliability, ergonomics, and design of the operating facilities. Based upon these studies a new program was initiated for the design and manufacturing of a modern equipment with improved reliability and flexibility performances. The system provides the user with a multitude of options, numerical and analog interfaces, keyboard and high reliability local display. The main functional components of the system are: - 8 PID full options regulating loops; - 8 safety analog channels having 4 preset trips; - watch dog restart and fault tolerant facilities; - 8 high precision analog with an input of 0 - 15 mV from thermocouple; - 8 computer controlled power supplies of 220 V, 1 kWA; - alphanumeric display and keyboard; - fault tolerant analog scanner. A real improvement of the system is the future remote control computer, a PC AT Pentium working like a system controller, real time data acquisition, and operator's adviser. This new facility allows the operator to set the trips or to control remotely all the power supply and step-by-step positioner of irradiation device. Software design for acquisition and data processing provides modern techniques for operator interfacing, representation recording and protection of test results. Software implementation keeps a special organization supported by a real time executive that is the best method to achieve the performance required. Following this objective, the software structure consists of: 1. Tasks as follows: - testing parameters setup; - data processing routines; - engineering and electrical conversion; - numerical / graphical data representation; - test results recording routines and data base management. 2. Drivers as follows: - A/I and D

  17. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J.S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  18. Microdosimetric measurements in the thermal neutron irradiation facility of LENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colautti, P.; Moro, D.; Chiriotti, S.; Conte, V.; Evangelista, L.; Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Postuma, I.

    2014-01-01

    A twin TEPC with electric-field guard tubes has been constructed to be used to characterize the BNCT field of the irradiation facility of LENA reactor. One of the two mini TEPC was doped with 50 ppm of 10 B in order to simulate the BNC events occurring in BNCT. By properly processing the two microdosimetric spectra, the gamma, neutron and BNC spectral components can be derived with good precision (∼6%). However, direct measurements of 10 B in some doped plastic samples, which were used for constructing the cathode walls, point out the scarce accuracy of the nominal 10 B concentration value. The influence of the Boral ® door, which closes the irradiation channel, has been measured. The gamma dose increases significantly (+51%) when the Boral ® door is closed. The crypt-cell-regeneration weighting function has been used to measure the quality, namely the RBE µ value, of the radiation field in different conditions. The measured RBE µ values are only partially consistent with the RBE values of other BNCT facilities. - Highlights: • A counter with two mini TEPCs, both equipped with electrical-field guard tubes, has been constructed. • The microdosimetric spectrum of the LENA-reactor irradiation vane has been studied. • The radiation-field quality (RBE) assessment confirms that the D n /D tot ratio is not an accurate parameter to characterize the BNCT radiation field

  19. Development of the IFJ single ion hit facility for cells irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, O.; Polak, W.; Ugenskiene, R.; Hajduk, R.; Lebed, K.; Lekki, J.; Horwacik, T.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Maranda, S.; Pieprzyca, T.; Sarnecki, C.; Stachura, Z.; Szklarz, Z.; Styczen, J.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years a single ion hit facility (SIHF) has been constructed at the IFJ ion microprobe. The setup is used for the precise irradiations of living cells by a controlled number of ions. The facility allows investigations in various aspects of biomedical research, such as adaptive response, bystander effect, inverse dose-rate effect, low-dose hypersensitivity, etc. Those investigations have two very important requirements: (i) cells must be examined in their natural state and environment, i.e. without previously being killed, and preferentially, neither fixed nor stained, and (ii) a possibility of automatic irradiation of large number of cells with a computer recognition of their positions must be provided. This work presents some of the crucial features of the off-line and on-line optical systems, including self-developed software responsible for the automatic cell recognition. We also show several tests carried out to determine the efficiency of the whole setup and some segments. In conclusion, the results of our first irradiation measurements performed with living cells are demonstrated. (author)

  20. Existing and projected neutron sources and low-temperature irradiation facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a contribution given at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute to the temporal meeting on the design of the facilities for high flux, low temperature irradiation is summarized. The following five subjects were discussed. The project of modernizing the swimming pool type research reactor FRM with 4 MW power at Munich is to achieve relatively high thermal neutron flux, and an extremely compact core is designed. The existing low temperature irradiation facility (LTIF) of the FRM is the most powerful in the world, and has been successfully operated more than 20 years. The fast and thermal neutron fluxes are 2.9 x 10 13 and 3.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 sec, respectively. The experimental techniques in the LTIF of the FRM, such as a measuring cryostat, the mounting of irradiated samples and so on, are described. The installation of new LTIFs in connection with the projects of advanced neutron sources in Germany is likely to be made in the modernized FRM at Garching, in the spallation neutron source SNQ at KFA Juelich and so on. The interesting problems in fundamental and applied researches with LTIFs, and the unusual application of LTIFs are shown. (Kako, I.)

  1. Assessment of gold flux monitor at irradiation facilities of MINT TRIGA MK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Md Suhaimi Elias; Nazaratul Ashifa Abd Salim

    2005-01-01

    Neutron source of MINTs TRIGA MK II reactor has been used for activation analysis for many years and neutron flux plays important role in activation of samples at various positions. Currently, two irradiation facilities namely the pneumatic transfer system and rotary rack are available to cater for short and long lived irradiation. Neutron flux variation for both irradiation facilities have been determined using gold wire and gold solution as flux monitor. However, the use of gold wire as flux monitor is costlier if compared to gold solution. The results from analysis of certified reference materials showed that gold solution as flux monitors yield satisfactory results and proved to safe cost on the purchasing of gold wire. Further experiment on self-shielding effects of gold solution at various concentrations has been carried out. This study is crucial in providing vital information on the suitable concentration for gold solution as flux monitor. In the near future, gold solution flux monitor will be applied for routine analysis and hence to improve the capability of the laboratory on neutron activation analysis. (Author)

  2. Dose mapping simulation using the MCNP code for the Syrian gamma irradiation facility and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Boush, M.; Alkassiri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The MCNP4C was used to calculate the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution in for the SGIF. • Measurement of the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution using the Chlorobenzene dosimeter was conducted as well. • Good agreements were noticed between the calculated and measured results. • The maximum relative differences were less than 7%, 4% and 4% in the x, y and z directions respectively. - Abstract: A three dimensional model for the Syrian gamma irradiation facility (SGIF) is developed in this paper to calculate the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution in the irradiation room at the 60 Co source board using the MCNP-4C code. Measurement of the gamma ray dose rate spatial distribution using the Chlorobenzene dosimeter is conducted as well to compare the calculated and measured results. Good agreements are noticed between the calculated and measured results with maximum relative differences less than 7%, 4% and 4% in the x, y and z directions respectively. This agreement indicates that the established model is an accurate representation of the SGIF and can be used in the future to make the calculation design for a new irradiation facility

  3. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.

    2017-01-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ~6.1×10"2"0 p/cm"2 and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ~10"2"0 cm"-"2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  4. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zhong, Z.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.; Misek, J.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Kotsina, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140-180 MeV, to peak fluence of ˜6.1 ×1020 p /cm2 and irradiation temperatures between 120 - 200 °C . The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young's modulus. The proton fluence level of ˜1020 cm-2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  5. PIREX II, a new irradiation facility for testing fusion first wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmy, P.; Daum, M.; Gavillet, D.; Green, S.; Green, W.V.; Hegedues, F.; Pronnecke, S.; Rohrer, U.; Stiefel, U.; Victoria, M.

    1988-12-01

    A new irradiation facility, PIREX II, became operational in March 1987. It is located on a dedicated beam line split from the main beam of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Irradiation with protons of this energy introduces simultaneously displacement damage, helium and other impurities. Because of the penetration range of 590 MeV protons, both damage and impurities are homogeneously distributed in the target. The installation has its own beam line optics that can support a proton current of up to 50 μA. At a typical beam density of 4 μA/mm 2 , the damage rate in steels is 0.7 x 10 -5 dpa/sec (dpa: displacements per atom) and the helium production rate is 170 appm He/dpa. Both flat tensile specimens of up to 0.4 mm thickness and tubular fatigue samples of 3 mm diameter can be irradiated. Cooling of the temperatures can be controlled between 100 o and 800 o C. Installation of an in situ low cycle fatigue device is foreseen. Beams of up to 20 μA have been obtained, the beam having approximately a gaussian distribution of elliptical cross section with 4 σ between 0.8 and 3 mm by 10 mm. Irradiations for a dosimetry program have been completed on samples of Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Au, W, and the 1.4914 ferritic steel. The evaluation of results allows the correct choice of reactions to be used for determining total dose, from the standpoint of half life and gamma energy. A program of irradiations on candidate materials for the Next European Torus (NET) design (Cu and Cu alloys, the 1.4914 ferritic martensitic steel, W and W-Re alloys and Mo alloys), where the above mentioned characteristics of this type of irradiation can be used advantageously, is now under way. (author) 11 figs., 4 tabs., 20 refs

  6. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  7. Application of an experimental irradiation facility type K-120 for the radiation treatment of agricultural products in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.; Foeldiak, G.; Horvath, I.; Hargittai, P.; Bartfai, Cs.

    1979-01-01

    During experimental and pilot irradiation carried out by the 60 Co irradiation facility type K-120 of the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences an irradiation technology for the treatment of agricultural and food products of considerable density has been developed. Applying transport containers of commercial size the intermittent radiation treatment of great quantity products was made possible with homogeneous dose distribution. The radiation technical characteristics, the utilization coefficient and the capacity of the facility for every agricultural product were calculated. (author)

  8. Thermal hydraulic modelling of the Mo and Iridium irradiation facilities of the RA10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, M.; García, J.; Marcel, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    The RA-10 reactor is a multipurpose, open pool research reactor. The core consists of a rectangular array of MTR type fuel. The produced thermal power is 30 MW which is extracted by the refrigeration system via an ascendant flow through the core. The core reflector is D 2 O contained in a watertight tank. The design of the reactor includes a number of out-core facilities which are meant to be used for industrial, medical and research purposes. Among all the facilities, the most important ones are the Molybdenum and Iridium ones which we modeled in this work. During the normal operation of the reactor, the manipulation and the on-line extraction of the irradiation facilities is foreseen. Therefore the study of the head loss during the normal operation as well as during the extraction maneuvers plays a relevant role in the design and safety analysis. In this work a CFD commercial code is use dto perform the calculations needed to guarantee the design requirements.In addition, a full detailed geometric model for both, the Molybdenum and Iridium facilities,is used to perform the required simulations. The obtained results allow to evaluating the thermal-hydraulic performance of the proposed facilities designs. (author)

  9. Theoretical considerations on maximum running speeds for large and small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mauricio A

    2016-02-07

    Mechanical equations for fast running speeds are presented and analyzed. One of the equations and its associated model predict that animals tend to experience larger mechanical stresses in their limbs (muscles, tendons and bones) as a result of larger stride lengths, suggesting a structural restriction entailing the existence of an absolute maximum possible stride length. The consequence for big animals is that an increasingly larger body mass implies decreasing maximal speeds, given that the stride frequency generally decreases for increasingly larger animals. Another restriction, acting on small animals, is discussed only in preliminary terms, but it seems safe to assume from previous studies that for a given range of body masses of small animals, those which are bigger are faster. The difference between speed scaling trends for large and small animals implies the existence of a range of intermediate body masses corresponding to the fastest animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State of the art in both in vitro and in vivo aspects of small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Lebars, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In vivo imaging for small animals is dramatically expanding due to the coincidence of mainly three technical factors: 1. the explosion in computer power 2. the enhancement in image processing 3. the accessibility and affordability of digital autoradiography systems and small-animal scanners. Among these imaging techniques let us mention the anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, X-rays and IRM and the functional imaging radioisotopic techniques SPECT and TEP. The main advantage of the first group of imaging techniques is essentially linked to the high resolution of the anatomical images (with the drawback of the necessity of putting the animal at rest using anaesthesia). The main advantages of SPECT and PET are their high sensitivity and the vast number of functions or metabolism they allow to image. The applications for isotopic functional imaging in small animals are increasing rapidly. Factors contributing to this dramatic expansion include the three previous technical factors plus, at least, three methodological factors: 1. the drug discovery process based on receptor / mechanism of action 2. the increasing number of rodent models of human diseases (SCID mice implanted with human tumors, gene knock-out mice, transgene mice) 3. the advances in isotope and validated tracer availability performances Small animal radioisotopic functional imaging for drug development. In vivo quantification of biological processes to measure the mechanism of action of a potential drug and its concentration at the site of action has become mandatory for developing a drug. Rational and efficient means of confirming mechanisms of action are required. For this purpose, PET and/or SPECT functional - biochemical - molecular imaging in small animals are tools of choice for economical reasons (in the domain of drug development, industry is suffering huge opportunity costs by failing to weed out non-performing new active substances until late phases II and III) and

  11. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R., E-mail: m_vettorato@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  12. Comparison SPECT-CT with PET-CT in several applications of small-animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yifan; Song Shaoli; Huang Gang

    2009-01-01

    With the development of medical science, monitoring dynamic biologic processes in small-animal models of diseases has become one of the most important approaches in medical studies. Important physiologic parameters that traditionally have been characterized by nuclear medicine imaging include blood flow, biochemical metabolism, and cellular receptors. Recently, nuclear medicine has been greatly facilitated by the newer development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems (SPECT-CT and PET-CT), which provide functional and anatomical images in the same scanning session, with the acquired images co-registered by means of the hardware. The purpose of this review is to compare SPECT-CT with PET-CT in several applications of small-animal models. Conclusicn: PET-CT for small animal modes in nledical research in the applications has great advantages, but SPECT-CT is still a very important role, and research low cost. (authors)

  13. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  14. Evaluation of skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility. As the first step, the results of measurements and calculations were compared of the skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from the cobalt-60 source of 1.45 PBq set in the No.4 irradiation room of our laboratory. Distances of measuring points from the cobalt source were in the range from 17 m to about 100 m in the site of our office. Calculation was carried out with simplified single scattering method. The calculated values of the skyshine dose were higher than the measured values. For more precise evaluation of the skyshine dose, the following factors are to be considered; the dose rate distribution on the roof above the source and the attenuation of gamma-rays by air. (author)

  15. Dose measurements for characterization of a semi-industrial cobalt-60 gamma-irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, K.; Jerbi, T.; Kuntz, F.; Kovacs, A.

    2006-01-01

    Cobalt-60 irradiation facility has been put into operation at the National Centre of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Sidi-thabet, Tunisia. Its technical specifications were controlled by dosimetry commissioning experiments and compared to the data specified by the plant manufacturer. Installation qualification has been carried out to measure absorbed dose distribution in the irradiation cell and products. Two dosimeter systems were used for measurements: Red and Amber Perspex and Cellulose Triacetate (CTA). The regions of minimum and maximum absorbed dose within a homogeneous dummy product (sawdust) with a bulk density of 114kg/m 3 and the dose uniformity ratio were determined. The isodose curves and the three-dimensional views were built using an automatic geostatistical gridding method, the kriging method

  16. The use of automation with the new pneumatic irradiation facility of the ORNL HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.; Emery, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has two pneumatic irradiation systems: PT-1 installed in 1970 and PT-2 installed in 1987, which are used for neutron activation analysis. Both systems have been described in the literature. By means of a Gould programmable controller, considerable progress has been made in a cost-effective manner to operate and automate the features of the new facility. A neutron counter is an integral part of the new pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated delayed neutron counting. Some automation of the old system has also been accomplished by the use of a Zymark general purpose programmable robot. This paper describes the automated features of both systems. The reactor has been shut down for safety evaluation since November 1986, so that no irradiations have been made in the new pneumatic tube

  17. Improvement of plant parameters of the ROBO gamma irradiation facility due to design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Chu, R.

    1999-01-01

    Two industrial scale, ROBO type Co 60 gamma irradiation facilities have recently been put into operation in Syria and Peru, and the dosimetry commissioning of both plants have been carried out to determine dose distribution with products and to calculate plant parameters such as efficiency, dose uniformity ratio and throughput. There are some design modifications between the two plants in connection with the location of the carriers with respect to the source plaque and also to each other. The effect of these construction modifications on the plant parameters is discussed in the analysis of the dose distribution data measured in the carriers with depth and height among the four irradiation rows on both sides of the source plaque. The plant parameters were also calculated and measured results were compared to each other. (author)

  18. Nuclear data needs for neutron spectrum tailoring at International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a proposal of D-Li intense neutron source to cover all aspects of the fusion materials development in the framework of IEA collaboration. The new activity has been started to qualifying the important technical issues called Key Element technology Phase since 2000. Although the neutron spectrum can be adjusted by changing the incident beam energy, it is favorable to be carried out many irradiation tasks at the same time under the unique beam condition. For designing the tailored neutron spectrum, neutron nuclear data for the moderator-reflector materials up to 50 MeV are required. The data for estimating the induced radioactivity is also required to keep the radiation level low enough at maintenance time. The candidate materials and the required accuracy of nuclear data are summarized. (author)

  19. Nuclear data needs for neutron spectrum tailoring at International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a proposal of D-Li intense neutron source to cover all aspects of the fusion materials development in the framework of IEA collaboration. The new activity has been started to qualifying the important technical issues called Key Element technology Phase since 2000. Although the neutron spectrum can be adjusted by changing the incident beam energy, it is favorable to be carried out many irradiation tasks at the same time under the unique beam condition. For designing the tailored neutron spectrum, neutron nuclear data for the moderator-reflector materials up to 50 MeV are required. The data for estimating the induced radioactivity is also required to keep the radiation level low enough at maintenance time. The candidate materials and the required accuracy of nuclear data are summarized. (author)

  20. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops' as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems

  1. Fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence using a fast reactor Joyo and post-irradiation examination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Tomonori; Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

    2009-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo at Oarai Research and Development Center (ORDC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is Japan's sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR). In 2003, this reactor's upgrade to the 140MWt MK-III core was completed to increase the irradiation testing capability. The MK-III core provides the fast neutron flux of 4.0x10 15 n/cm 2 s as an irradiation test bed for improving the fuels and material of FR in Japan. Three post-irradiation examination (PIE) facilities named FMF, MMF and AGF related to Joyo are in ORDC. Irradiated subassemblies and core components are carried into the FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility) and conducted nondestructive examinations. Each subassembly is disassembled to conduct some destructive examinations and to prepare the fuel and material samples for further detailed examinations. Fuel samples are sent to the AGF (Alpha-Gamma Facility), and material samples are sent to the MMF (Materials Monitoring Facility). These overall and elaborate data provided by PIE contribute to investigate the irradiation effect and behavior of fuels and materials. This facility complex is indispensable to promote the R and D of FR in Japan. And, the function and technology of irradiation test and PIE enable to contribute to the R and D of innovative fission or fusion reactor material which will be required to use under the high neutron exposure. (author)

  2. Gamma exposure rate estimation in irradiation facilities of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    There are experimental situations in the nuclear field, in which dose estimations due to energy-dependent radiation fields are required. Nuclear research reactors provide such fields under normal operation or due to radioactive disintegration of fission products and structural materials activation. In such situations, it is necessary to know the exposure rate of gamma radiation the different materials under experimentation are subject to. Detectors of delayed reading are usually used for this purpose. Direct evaluation methods using portable monitors are not always possible, because in some facilities the entrance with such devices is often impracticable and also unsafe. Besides, these devices only provide information of the place where the measurement was performed, but not of temporal and spatial fluctuations the radiation fields could have. In this work a direct evaluation method was developed for the 'in-situ' gamma exposure rate for the irradiation facilities of the RA-1 reactor. This method is also applicable in any similar installation, and may be complemented by delayed evaluations without problem. On the other hand, it is well known that the residual effect of radiation modifies some properties of the organic materials used in reactors, such as density, colour, viscosity, oxidation level, among others. In such cases, a correct dosimetric evaluation enables in service estimation of material duration with preserved properties. This evaluation is for instance useful when applied to lubricating oils for the primary circuit pumps in nuclear power plants, thus minimizing waste generation. In this work the necessary elements required to estimate in-situ time and space integrated dose are also established for a gamma irradiated sample in an irradiation channel of a nuclear facility with zero neutron flux. (author)

  3. Proceedings of 1991-workshops of the working group on 'Development and application of facilities for low temperature irradiation as well as controlled irradiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi; Okada, Moritami

    1992-09-01

    This is the proceedings of 1991-workshops of the working group on 'Development and Application of Facilities for Low Temperature Irradiation as well as Controlled Irradiation' held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on July 25, 1991 and on February 28, 1992. In the present proceedings, it is emphasized that the study of radiation damages in various materials must be performed under carefully controlled irradiation conditions (irradiation temperature, neutron spectrum and so forth) during reactor irradiations. Especially, it is pointed out that a middle scale reactor such as KUR is suitable for the precise control of neutron spectra. Several remarkable results, which are made through experiments using the Low Temperature Irradiation Facility in KUR (KUR-LTL), are reported. Also, possible advanced research programs are discussed including the worldwide topics on the radiation damages in metals, semi-conductors and also insulators. Further, the present status of KUR-LTL is reported and the advanced plan of the facility is proposed. (author)

  4. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  5. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  6. Indirect (x-ray) irradiation of encapsulated microtargets in the Iskra-5 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abzaev, F.M.; Bel'kov, S.A.; Bessarab, A.V.; Bondarenko, S.V.; Gaidash, V.A.; Garanin, S.G.; Dolgoleva, G.V.; Zhidkov, N.V.; Izgorodin, V.M.; Kirillov, G.A.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Litvin, D.N.; Martynenko, S.P.; Murugov, V.M.; Mkhitar'yan, L.S.; Pinegin, A.V.; Petrov, S.I.; Senik, A.V.; Suslov, N.A.; Bushuev, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the indirect (x-ray) irradiation of high-aspect-ratio capsules (with a diameter-to-thickness ratio ≅900) filled with DT gas are performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility. It is shown that all the characteristics measured (neutron yield, ion temperature, shell implosion time, etc.) are faithfully reproduced in calculations based on the one-dimensional SNDA (spectral nonequilibrium diffusion of absorption) program for nonequilibrium radiation gas dynamics. The calculations provide an explanation for the experimentally detected generation of a smaller number of neutrons in an experiment with a higher measured value for the ion temperature of DT gas

  7. A study of the multigap RPC at the gamma irradiation facility at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akindinov, A.; Alici, A.; Anselmo, F.; Antonioli, P.; Baek, Y.; Basile, M.; Romeo, G.C.G. Cara; Cerron-Zeballos, E.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Caro, A. De; Pasquale, S. De; Bartolomeo, A. Di; Girard, M.F.M. Fusco; Guida, M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Kisselev, S.M.; Laurenti, G.; Luvisetto, M.L.; Margotti, A.; Martemiyanov, A.N.; Morozov, S.; Nania, R.; Pesci, A.; Pierella, F.; Scioli, G.; Sellitto, S.; Smirnitski, A.V.; Valenti, G.; Vicinanza, D.; Williams, M.C.S.; Witoszynskyj, S.; Zagreev, B.V.; Zichichi, A.

    2002-01-01

    The selected device for the ALICE Time-of-Flight array is the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). We have tested this device at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN to evaluate the rate dependence. We find that the rate capability of the MRPC easily exceeds the 50 Hz/cm 2 maximum expected rate at the ALICE experiment. In addition, we have measured the power dissipated for an equivalent flux of 1.6 kHz/cm 2 of through-going muons to be 650 mW/m 2

  8. A study of the multigap RPC at the $\\gamma$ irradiation facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Baek, Y W; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cerron-Zeballos, E; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Caro, A D; Pasquale, S D; Bartolomeo, A D; Fusco-Girard, M; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Morozov, S; Nania, R; Pesci, A; Pierella, F; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Smirnitsky, A V; Valenti, G; Vicinanza, D; Williams, M C S; Witoszynskyj, S; Zagreev, B V; Zichichi, A

    2002-01-01

    The selected device for the ALICE Time-of-Flight array is the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). We have tested this device at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN to evaluate the rate dependence. We find that the rate capability of the MRPC easily exceeds the 50 Hz/cm sup 2 maximum expected rate at the ALICE experiment. In addition, we have measured the power dissipated for an equivalent flux of 1.6 kHz/cm sup 2 of through-going muons to be 650 mW/m sup 2.

  9. Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for radiation processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance quali- fication, and routine processing in facilities that process product with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory absorbed-dose limits is not within the scope of this practice

  10. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  11. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  12. Aging and rate effects of the Multigap RPC studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alici, A; Kim, J; Hatzifotiadou, D; Sun, Y; Valenti, G; Williams, M C S; Yakorev, D; Zichichi, A

    2007-01-01

    The selected device for the ALICE Time-of-Flight array is the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). Previously we have tested this device at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN to evaluate the rate dependence; we have now performed additional tests using the final design of the MRPC and with a gas mixture free of hydrocarbons. We have measured the performance of the MRPC up to an equivalent flux of minimum ionizing muons of 2.5 kHz/cm2. We also present results from an aging test obtained by exposing two MRPC strips to the GIF source for a period of six months.

  13. Use of the National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) for fusion materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    In May 1983 the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy authorized the establishment of a National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) at ORNL's Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR). The NLTNIF, which will be available for qualified experiments at no cost to users, will provide a combination of high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions that have not been previously available in the US. Since the DOE authorization, work has proceeded on the design and construction of the new facility without interruption. This report describes the present status of the development of NLTNIF and, for the information of new candidate users, a recounting of the major specifications and capabilities is also given

  14. Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 Workshop Proceedings Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator facilities in operation, being commissioned, designed or planned has grown significantly. Their parameters, which include the beam energy, currents and intensities, and target composition, can vary widely, giving rise to new radiation shielding issues and challenges. Particle accelerators must be operated in safe ways to protect operators, the public and the environment. As the design and use of these facilities evolve, so must the analytical methods used in the safety analyses. These workshop proceedings review the state of the art in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities and irradiation targets. They also evaluate progress in the development of modelling methods used to assess the effectiveness of such shielding as part of safety analyses. The transport of radiation through shielding materials is a major consideration in the safety design studies of nuclear power plants, and the modelling techniques used may be applied to many other types of scientific and technological facilities. Accelerator and irradiation facilities represent a key capability in R and D, medical and industrial infrastructures, and they can be used in a wide range of scientific, medical and industrial applications. High-energy ion accelerators, for example, are now used not only in fundamental research, such as the search for new super-heavy nuclei, but also for therapy as part of cancer treatment. While the energy of the incident particles on the shielding of these facilities may be much higher than those found in nuclear power plants, much of the physics associated with the behaviour of the secondary particles produced is similar, as are the computer modelling techniques used to quantify key safety design parameters, such as radiation dose and activation levels

  15. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  16. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm 3 and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  17. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  18. Gamma Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed construction and operation of a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to: enhance capabilities to assure technical excellence in nuclear weapon radiation environments testing, component development, and certification; comply with all applicable ES and H safeguards, standards, policies, and regulations; reduce personnel radiological exposure to comply with ALARA limits in accordance with DOE orders and standards; consolidate major gamma ray sources into a central, secured area; and reduce operational risks associated with operation of the GIF and LICA in their present locations. This proposed action provides for the design, construction, and operation of a new GIF located within TA V and the removal of the existing GIF and Low Intensity Cobalt Array (LICA). The proposed action includes potential demolition of the gamma shield walls and removal of equipment in the existing GIF and LICA. The shielding pool used by the existing GIF will remain as part of the ACRR facility. Transportation of the existing 60 Co sources from the existing LICA and GIF to the new facility is also included in the proposed action. Relocation of the gamma sources to the new GIF will be accomplished by similar techniques to those used to install the sources originally

  19. Automated analysis of small animal PET studies through deformable registration to an atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel F.; Zaidi, Habib

    This work aims to develop a methodology for automated atlas-guided analysis of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) data through deformable registration to an anatomical mouse model. A non-rigid registration technique is used to put into correspondence relevant anatomical regions of

  20. Validity of bioluminescence measurements for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumor load in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Clara P. W.; Overmeer, Renée M.; Niers, Tatjana M. H.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Richel, Dick J.; Buckle, Tessa; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    A relatively new strategy to longitudinally monitor tumor load in intact animals and the effects of therapy is noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The validity of BLI for quantitative assessment of tumor load in small animals is critically evaluated in the present review. Cancer cells are

  1. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aide, N.; Visser, E.P.; Lheureux, S.; Heutte, N.; Szanda, I.; Hicks, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has

  2. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48x96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ∼1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ∼4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ∼15.6% for Tc 99m . Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m -DTPA and Tc 99m -MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals

  3. Management of occupational health risks in small-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Eva; Barraclough, Richard; Fishwick, David; Curran, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Small-animal work is a major element of veterinary practice in the UK and may be hazardous, with high levels of work-related injuries and ill-health reported in Australia and USA. There are no studies addressing the management of occupational health risks arising from small-animal work in the UK. To investigate the sources of health and safety information used and how health and safety and 12 specific occupational health risks are managed by practices. A cross-sectional postal survey of all small-animal veterinary practices in Hampshire. A response was mandatory as this was a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspection activity. A total of 118 (100%) practices responded of which 93 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 99 and 86%, respectively, were aware of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) practice standards and had British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) staff members, while only 51% had previous contact with HSE (publications, advice and visit). Ninety per cent had health and safety policies, but only 31% had trained responsible staff in health and safety. Specific health hazards such as occupational allergens and computer use were relatively overlooked both by practices and the RCVS/BSAVA guidance available in 2002. Failings in active health risk management systems could be due to a lack of training to ensure competence in those with responsibilities. Practices rely on guidance produced by their professional bodies. Current RCVS guidance, available since 2005, has remedied some previous omissions, but further improvements are recommended.

  4. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  5. Nigerian Veterinary Journal The record of J 14small animal trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    base for the establishment of protocols for trauma patient care. Trauma cases ranked first and accounted fOT46.3% of all small animal surgical cases presented during the period. Species involvement markedly favoured the canine species. Incidence of trauma was significantly higher (1)<0.05) in males (60.5%) and younger.

  6. The radiation field in the New Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF++ at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea

    2017-09-11

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting now a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a particle background in the gas-based muon detectors that is ten times higher than under conditions at the LHC. The detailed knowledge of the detector performance in the presence of such a high background is crucial for an optimized design and efficient operation after the HL-LHC upgrade. A precise understanding of possible aging effects of detector materials and gases is of extreme importance. To cope with these challenging requirements, a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) was designed and built at the CERN SPS North Area as successor of the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period. It features an intense source of 662 keV photons with adjustable intensity, to simulate continuous background over large areas, and, combined with a high energy muon beam, to measure detector performance in the presence of the background. The new ...

  7. Large-scale Samples Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, A P; Golubyh, S M; Kaskanov, G Ya; Kulagin, E N; Kukhtin, V V; Luschikov, V I; Shabalin, E P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation facility at the beam line no.3 of the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics is described. The facility is aimed at irradiation studies of various objects with area up to 800 cm$^2$ both at cryogenic and ambient temperatures. The energy spectra of neutrons are reconstructed by the method of threshold detector activation. The neutron fluence and $\\gamma$ dose rates are measured by means of alanine and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The boron carbide and lead filters or $(n/\\gamma)$ converter provide beams of different ratio of doses induced by neutrons and photons. For the lead filter, the flux of fast neutrons with energy more than 0.1 MeV is $1.4 \\cdot 10^{10}$ \\fln and the neutron dose is about 96\\% of the total radiation dose. For the $(n/\\gamma)$ converter, the $\\gamma$ dose rate is $\\sim$500 Gy h$^{-1}$ which is about 85\\% of the total dose. The radiation hardness tests of GaAs electronics and materials for the ATLAS detector to be put into operation at the Large Hadron ...

  8. Modification of preheated tungsten surface after irradiation at the GOL-3 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoshin, A.A., E-mail: shoshin@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Arakcheev, A.S.; Arzhannikov, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burdakov, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation); Huber, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Ivanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuklin, K.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Polosatkin, S.V.; Postupaev, V.V.; Sinitsky, S.L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A.A. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Preheated tungsten was irradiated at the GOL-3 facility with plasma loads corresponding to the ITER type I ELMs. • The crack pattern and the quantity of bubbles depend on the initial temperatures of the target. • The orientation of major crack networks correlates with the direction of machining of the samples. • Dust impact craters were found. - Abstract: The study is devoted to tungsten surface modification after irradiation at the GOL-3 facility with plasma loads corresponding to the ITER type I ELMs. In order to emulate heating with a steady plasma flux in the ITER divertor, some of the tungsten samples were preheated up to 500 °C. It was found out that the behavior of the surface modification (the crack pattern and the number of bubbles) depends on the initial temperature of the targets. While the orientation of major crack networks correlates with the direction of machining of the samples. Afterwards we have observed the process of craters’ formation caused by dust particle impacts.

  9. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  10. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  11. A theoretical and experimental dose rate study at a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackey, Tracey A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation dose rate monitoring out at the Radiation Technology Centre (RTC) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) to establish the safety or otherwise of staff at the occupied areas is presented. The facility operates a rectangular source of Co-60 gamma with an having activity of 27.4kCi as at March 2015 and has 14 workers. The aim of the research was determine by means of practical and theoretical evaluations shielding effectiveness of the irradiation chamber. This was to ensure that occupationally exposed workers are not over exposed or their exposures do not exceed the regulatory limits of 7.5μSv/h or 50mSv per annum. The study included dose rate measurements at controlled areas, evaluation of personnel dose history, comparison of experimental and theoretical values and determination of whether the shielding can support a. 18.5PBq (500kCi) Co-60 source. Practical dose rate measurements when the source was in the irradiation position was carried out using a Thermo Scientific Rad-Eye Gamma Survey Meter in the controlled areas of the facility which included the control room, electric room, deionizer room, on top of the roof of irradiation chamber (specifically above the roof plugs) and the two entrances to the irradiation chamber; the personnel door and the goods door. Background reading was found to be 0.08±0.01μSv/h whilst the average dose rates at the two entrances to the irradiation chamber (i e.,- the personnel door and the goods door) were measured to be 0.090μSv/h and 0.109μSv/h respectively. Practical measurements at the roof plugs produced average values of 0.135μSv/h. A particular point on the roof marked as plug-3 produced a relatively higher dose rate of 8.151μSv/h due probably to leakage along the cable to the drive motor. Measurements in the control room, electrical room and deionizer room had average readings of 0.116μSv/h, 0.089μSv/h and 0.614μSv/h respectively. All these average values were below the regulatory limits of 7.5

  12. Neutron-irradiation facilities at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source-I for fusion magnet materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The decommissioning of reactor-based neutron sources in the USA has led to the development of a new generation of neutron sources that employ high-energy accelerators. Among the accelerator-based neutron sources presently in operation, the highest-flux source is the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), a user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Neutrons in this source are produced by the interaction of 400 to 500 MeV protons with either of two 238 U target systems. In the Radiation Effects Facility (REF), the 238 U target is surrounded by Pb for neutron generatjion and reflection. The REF has three separate irradiation thimbles. Two thimbles provide irradiation temperatures between that of liquid He and several hundred degrees centigrade. The third thimble operates at ambient temperature. The large irradiation volume, the neutron spectrum and flux, the ability to transfer samples without warm up, and the dedication of the facilities during the irradiation make this ideally suited for radiation damage studies on components for superconducting fusion magnets. Possible experiments for fusion magnet materials are discussed on cyclic irradiation and annealing of stabilizers in a high magnetic field, mechanical tests on organic insulation irradiated at 4 K, and superconductors measured in high fields after irradiation

  13. Nuclear data for the production of radioisotopes in fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Schenter, R.E.; Mann, F.M.; Ikeda, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion materials irradiation facility (FMIF) is a neutron source generator that will produce a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron field for testing candidate fusion materials under reactor irradiation conditions. The construction of such a facility is one of the very important development stages toward realization of fusion energy as a practical energy source for electricity production. As a result of the high-intensity neutron field, 10 MW/m 2 or more equivalent neutron wall loading, and the relatively high-energy (10- to 20-MeV) neutrons, the FMIF, as future fusion reactors, also bears the potential capability of producing a significant quantity of radioisotopes. A study is being conducted to identify the potential capability of the FMIF to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications. Two types of radioisotopes are involved: one is already available; the second might not be readily available using conventional production methods. For those radioisotopes that are not readily available, the FMIF could develop significant benefits for future generations as a result of the availability of such radioisotopes for medical or industrial applications. The current production of radioisotopes could help finance the operation of the FMIF for irradiating the candidate fusion materials; thus this concept is attractive. In any case, nuclear data are needed for calculating the neutron flux and spectrum in the FMIF and the potential production rates of these isotopes. In this paper, the authors report the result of a preliminary investigation on the production of 99 Mo, the parent radioisotope for 99m Tc

  14. Ion-Neutron Irradiated BOR60 Sample Preparation and Characterization: Nuclear Science User Facility 2017 Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Quinlan B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This document outlines the results obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the University of Michigan-led Consolidated Innovative Nuclear Research project, “Feasibility of combined ion-neutron irradiation for accessing high dose levels.” In this reporting period, neutron irradiated were prepared and shipped to the University of Michigan for subsequent ion irradiation. The specimens were returned to ORNL’s Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis facility, prepared via focused ion beam for examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), and then examined using S/TEM to measure the as-irradiated microstructure. This report briefly summarizes the S/TEM results obtained at ORNL’s Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis facility.

  15. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  16. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ∼6.1×10^{20}  p/cm^{2} and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ∼10^{20}  cm^{−2} where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite

  17. Characteristics of neutron irradiation facility and dose estimation method for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University research reactor institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kanda, K.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron irradiation characteristics of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KIJRRI) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), is described. The present method of dose measurement and its evaluation at the KURRI, is explained. Especially, the special feature and noticeable matters were expounded for the BNCT with craniotomy, which has been applied at present only in Japan. (author)

  18. Calculation of damage function of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in irradiation facilities for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, F., E-mail: fernando.mota@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, C.J., E-mail: christophe.ortiz@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vila, R., E-mail: rafael.vila@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casal, N., E-mail: natalia.casal@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García, A., E-mail: angela.garcia@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A., E-mail: Angel.ibarra@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A rigorous material testing program is essential for the development of the nuclear fusion world program. In particular, it is very important to predict the generation of the displacement damage in materials, because the irradiation intensity expected in fusion conditions is such that the performance of materials and components under these extreme conditions is unknown. To study the damage produced by neutrons in materials of interest for fusion, a specific computational methodology was developed. Neutron fluxes expected in different irradiation facilities (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility [IFMIF] and DEMO-HCLL) and in different irradiation spots were obtained with particles transport codes (McDeLicious, MCNP). The energy differential cross sections of primary knock-on atoms were calculated using the NJOY code. Resulting data were input into the Monte Carlo code MARLOWE to calculate the corresponding displacements (i.e., interstitials (I) and vacancies (V)). However, the number of Frenkel pairs created during irradiation strongly depends on the recombination radius between interstitials and vacancies. This parameter corresponds to the minimum distance below which instantaneous recombination occurs. Mainly, the influence of such parameter on the damage function in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was assessed in this report. The displacements per atom values calculated as a function of the recombination radius considered are compared to experimental data to determine the most appropriate capture radius. In addition, the damage function and damage dose generated at different experimental irradiation facilities are compared with those expected in DEMO. The conclusion is that both IFMIF and TechnoFusión (future triple beam ion accelerator to emulate fusion neutron irradiation effects in materials) facilities are suited to perform relevant irradiation experiments for the design of DEMO.

  19. Design and construction of γ-rays irradiation facility for remote-handling parts and components of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke; Seguchi, Tadao

    1995-03-01

    For the evaluation of radiation resistance of remote-handling system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER), 'high dose-rate and high temperature (upper 350degC) γ-rays irradiation facility' was designed and constructed. In this facility, the parts and components of remote-handling system such as sensing devices, motors, optical glasses, wires and cables, etc., are tested by irradiation with 2x10 6 Roentgen/h Co-60 γ-rays at a temperature up to 350degC under various atmospheres (dry nitrogen gas, argon gas, dry air and vacuum). (author)

  20. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-09-21

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axes. Finally, a flood-corrected flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT.

  1. Current status and future perspectives of in vivo small animal imaging using radiolabeled nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Kagadis, George C.; Psimadas, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Small animal molecular imaging is a rapidly expanding efficient tool to study biological processes non-invasively. The use of radiolabeled tracers provides non-destructive, imaging information, allowing time related phenomena to be repeatedly studied in a single animal. In the last decade there has been an enormous progress in related technologies and a number of dedicated imaging systems overcome the limitations that the size of small animal possesses. On the other hand, nanoparticles (NPs) gain increased interest, due to their unique properties, which make them perfect candidates for biological applications. Over the past 5 years the two fields seem to cross more and more often; radiolabeled NPs have been assessed in numerous pre-clinical studies that range from oncology, till HIV treatment. In this article the current status in the tools, applications and trends of radiolabeled NPs reviewed.

  2. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Moodley, Arshnee; Ghibaudo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is increasingly reported in small animals and cases of human infections have already been described despite its recent emergence in veterinary practice. We investigated the prevalence of MRSP and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus...... aureus (MRSA) among small animal dermatologists attending a national veterinary conference in Italy. Nasal swabs were obtained from 128 veterinarians, seven of which harboured MRSP (n = 5; 3.9%) or MRSA (n = 2; 1.6%). A follow-up study of two carriers revealed that MRSP persisted for at least 1 month...... by spa typing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were further typed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec and multi-locus sequence typing. Two lineages previously associated with pets were identified among the five MRSP isolates; the European epidemic clone ST71-SCCmec II-III and ST106-SCCmec IV...

  3. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility lithium system: a design and development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbury, P.J.; Bazinet, G.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system is outlined. This unique liquid lithium recirculating system, the largest of its kind in the world, is described with emphasis on the liquid lithium target assembly and other important components necessary to provide lithium flow to the target. The operational status and role of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) in the design of the FMIT lithium system are discussed. Safety aspects of operating the FMIT lithium system in a highly radioactive condition are described. Potential spillage of the lithium is controlled by cell liners, by argon flood systems and by remote maintenance features. Lithium chemistry is monitored and controlled by a side-stream loop, where impurities measured by instruments are collected by hot and cold traps

  4. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility lithium system: a design and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbury, P.J.; Bazinet, G.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system is outlined. This unique liquid lithium recirculating system, the largest of its kind in the world, is described with emphasis on the liquid lithium target assembly and other important components necessary to provide lithium flow to the target. The operational status and role of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) in the design of the FMIT lithium system are discussed. Safety aspects of operating the FMIT lithium system in a highly radioactive condition are described. Potential spillage of the lithium is controlled by cell liners, by argon flood systems and by remote maintenance features. Lithium chemistry is monitored and controlled by a side-stream loop, where impurities measured by instruments are collected by hot and cold traps.

  5. CR-39 and Lexan calibrated as low-LET radiation dosimeter, for three Mexican irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Matamoros, H.; Carrasco, H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental calibration of two common nuclear track detectors, CR-39 and Lexan, for gamma and electrons radiation, was performed using various irradiation facilities. The dose response was obtained as a function of two parameters, the bulk etch rate and the UV absorbance for a wide dose range from 10 to 1000 kGy. The bulk etch rate sensitivity, for gamma and electrons, in CR-39 detector is higher than for Lexan detector. Lexan has a well-defined UV absorbance spectrum, but presents saturation for doses higher than 500 kGy, the same saturation characteristic is observed for the corresponding bulk etch rate response. For electron and gamma radiation, CR-39 shows a good response for doses from 10 kGy up to 1000 kGy, where data fit well an exponential curve for electrons and a lineal curve for gamma radiation

  6. Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing in facilities that process food with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355, F 1356, F 1736, and F 1885). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use

  7. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we present detailed simulation results for the trajectory of a muon beam, traversing beam zones PPE-134 and PPE-154, produced by a 150 GeV positive hadron beam incident on collimators 9 & 10 in the H4 beam line when these collimators are placed off-beam axis to stop all hadrons and electrons. Using G4Beamline, a GEANT-4 based Monte-Carlo program, the trajectory of the muon beam has been studied for several field strengths of the GOLIATH magnet, as well as for different polarities. The position of the beam at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), located downstream the PPE-144 area, is also presented. In addition, two configurations of the two XTDV’s present in the line (XTDV.022.520 and XTDV.022.610) have been studied, with the purpose to simulate the pion contamination of the beam both in PPE134 and GIF++.

  8. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  9. Anesthesia condition for 18F-FDG imaging of lung metastasis tumors using small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, June-Youp; Jung, Jae Ho; Kang, Joo Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2008-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-FDG has been increasingly used for tumor imaging in the murine model. The aim of this study was to establish the anesthesia condition for imaging of lung metastasis tumor using small animal 18 F-FDG PET. Methods: To determine the impact of anesthesia on 18 F-FDG distribution in normal mice, five groups were studied under the following conditions: no anesthesia, ketamine and xylazine (Ke/Xy), 0.5% isoflurane (Iso 0.5), 1% isoflurane (Iso 1) and 2% isoflurane (Iso 2). The ex vivo counting, standard uptake value (SUV) image and glucose SUV of 18 F-FDG in various tissues were evaluated. The 18 F-FDG images in the lung metastasis tumor model were obtained under no anesthesia, Ke/Xy and Iso 0.5, and registered with CT image to clarify the tumor region. Results: Blood glucose concentration and muscle uptake of 18 F-FDG in the Ke/Xy group markedly increased more than in the other groups. The Iso 2 group increased 18 F-FDG uptake in heart compared with the other groups. The Iso 0.5 anesthesized group showed the lowest 18 F-FDG uptake in heart and chest wall. The small size of lung metastasis tumor (2 mm) was clearly visualized by 18 F-FDG image with the Iso 0.5 anesthesia. Conclusion: Small animal 18 F-FDG PET imaging with Iso 0.5 anesthesia was appropriate for the detection of lung metastasis tumor. To acquire 18 F-FDG PET images with small animal PET, the type and level of anesthetic should be carefully considered to be suitable for the visualization of target tissue in the experimental model

  10. Experience with a small animal hyperthermia ultrasound system (SAHUS): report on 83 tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, P; Moros, E G; Parry, J J; Rogers, B E; Myerson, R J; Zeug, A; Locke, J E; Rossin, R; Straube, W L; Singh, A K

    2005-01-01

    An external local ultrasound (US) system was developed to induce controlled hyperthermia of subcutaneously implanted tumours in small animals (e.g., mice and rats). It was designed to be compatible with a small animal positron emission tomography scanner (microPET) to facilitate studies of hyperthermia-induced tumour re-oxygenation using a PET radiopharmaceutical, but it is applicable for any small animal study requiring controlled heating. The system consists of an acrylic applicator bed with up to four independent 5 MHz planar disc US transducers of 1 cm in diameter, a four-channel radiofrequency (RF) generator, a multiple thermocouple thermometry unit, and a personal computer with custom monitoring and controlling software. Although the system presented here was developed to target tumours of up to 1 cm in diameter, the applicator design allows for different piezoelectric transducers to be exchanged and operated within the 3.5-6.5 MHz band to target different tumour sizes. Temperature feedback control software was developed on the basis of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) approach when the measured temperatures were within a selectable temperature band about the target temperature. Outside this band, an on/off control action was applied. Perfused tissue-mimicking phantom experiments were performed to determine optimum controller gain constants, which were later employed successfully in animal experiments. The performance of the SAHUS (small animal hyperthermia ultrasound system) was tested using several tumour types grown in thighs of female nude (nu/nu) mice. To date, the system has successfully treated 83 tumours to target temperatures in the range of 41-43 deg. C for periods of 65 min on average

  11. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  12. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  13. Status and possible prospects of an international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzani, F.

    1999-01-01

    Structural materials for future DT fusion power reactors will have to operate under intense neutron fields with energies up to 14 MeV and fluences in the order of 2 MW/m 2 per year. As environmental acceptability, safety considerations and economic viability will be ultimately the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power, the development of radiation-resistant and low activation materials would contribute significantly to fusion development. For this purpose, testing of materials under irradiation conditions close to those expected in a fusion power station would require the availability, in an appropriate time framework, of an intense, high-energy neutron source. Recent advances in linear accelerator technology, in small specimens testing technology, and in the comprehension of damage phenomena, lead to the conclusion that an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source, with beam energy variability, would provide the most realistic option for a fusion materials testing facility. Under the auspices of the IEA, an international effort (EU, Japan, US, RF) to carry out the conceptual design activities (CDA) of an international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF), based on the D-Li concept, have been carried out successfully. A final conceptual design report was produced at the end of 1996. A phase of conceptual design evaluation (CDE), presently underway, is extending and further refining some of the conceptual design details of IFMIF. The results indicate that an IFMIF-class installation would be technically feasible and could meet its mission objectives. However, a suitable phase of Engineering Validation, to carry out some complementary R and D and prototyping, would still be needed to resolve a few key technical uncertainties before the possibility to proceed toward detailed design and construction could be explored. (orig.)

  14. The INFN-LNL single-ion horizontal microbeam facility for cell irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, S.; Galeazzi, G.; Cherubini, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Charged particle microbeams provide a unique method to control precisely the dose and its localisation within the cell. Such a kind of tool allows studying a number of important radiobiological processes in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad beam irradiation, which has the inherent experimental limitation imposed by the random Poisson-distributed particle hitting. We have designed and developed an apparatus for the micro-collimation in air of low-energy light ion beams, able to deliver targeted and counted particles to individual cells with an overall spatial resolution of few micrometers. The apparatus has been built up at the 7MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator, delivering protons, deuterons, helium-3 and helium-4 ion beams in an LET range from 7 to 180 keV/μm. The beam section is reduced down to 3-7 μm 2 by means of a tantalum pinhole microcollimator. A semi-automatic cell visualization and an automatic cell positioning and (after irradiation) cell revisiting system, based on an inverted phase contrast optical microscope and on X-Y micro-positioning stages with 0.1μm positioning precision, has been developed. Cell recognition is performed without using fluorescent staining and UV light. Particle detection in air is based on a silicon detector while beam profile and precise hit position measurements are accomplished by a high resolution and high sensibility cooled-CCD camera and Solid State Nuclear Track detectors, respectively. A dedicated software program, CELLView named, has been developed by using the LabView 6.0 package (National Instruments) to control all the irradiation protocol operations of sample holder movement, cell visualization, image acquisition and processing, cell data logging, cell positioning and revisiting. Facility performances and preliminary experimental results will be presented

  15. Rehabilitation of broken-down chamber for the Gammacell-220 Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Ennison, I.

    1997-01-01

    The broken-down chamber of the gammacell-220 irradiation facility used for the calibration of dosimeters at the National Nuclear Research has been repaired. This repair work involved the identification of suitable components for the aluminum welding capable of ensuring double welding of the inside and outside joints of the chamber. Of paramount importance is the ability of the welded joint to physically sustain the safety column which is made of 26.9 kg of reinforce lead. The wielding was also expected to ensure that the shape of the chamber is retained after installation, apart from allowing uninhibited movement of the chamber which carries samples to be taken into the belly of the gamma cell for irradiation. The Ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fricke) solution was used as the dosimetry standard to check the gamma dose after restoration of the equipment. This report presents information on the procedure and justification for undertaking the repairs of this unit. By this successful repairs and putting into operation of the Gammacell-220, the maintenance team at the Center have demonstrated their ability to undertake similar works on the Gammacell-220 in the future even to other countries in the sub-region. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m 2 ) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  17. Coil concepts for rapid and motion-compensated MR-Imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this work radiofrequency-coils for the imaging of small animals in clinical whole-body MRI-systems were developed. Therefore in a first step single-channel solenoids were designed and characterized. The solenoids had two and three windings respectively, which were implemented as double wires to increase the homogeneity of the receive profile. These coils allow the acquisition of whole-body images of mice with high signal-to-noise ratio and homogeneity over a distance of at least 6.3 cm. Since many imaging experiments require rapid image acquisition, in the next step a novel coil concept was developed, which, due to its geometry, enables parallel imaging in arbitrary directions. A prototype was assembled and tested on phantom and small-animal experiments. With an accelerating factor of R=2, the difference of the SNR in all directions from the theoretical maximum, was less than 1%. In order to compensate physiological motion by the self-gating technique, in this work a coil is presented for the first time, which selectively amplifies the self-gating signal, while - due to a optical detuning technique - preserving the homogeneous illumination of the image. In vivo experiments on a small animal show an amplification of the self-gating signal by at least 40%. (orig.)

  18. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen Cedex (France); Caen University, BioTICLA team, EA 4656, IFR 146, Caen (France); Visser, Eric P. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lheureux, Stephanie [Caen University, BioTICLA team, EA 4656, IFR 146, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Clinical Research Unit, Caen (France); Heutte, Natacha [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Clinical Research Unit, Caen (France); Szanda, Istvan [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has increased. This paper describes experimental design requirements to reach statistical significance, based on the expected change in tracer uptake in treated animals as compared to the control group, the number of groups that will be imaged, and the expected intra-animal variability for a given tracer. We also review how high-throughput studies can be performed in dedicated small-animal PET, high-resolution clinical PET systems and planar positron imaging systems by imaging more than one animal simultaneously. Customized beds designed to image more than one animal in large-bore small-animal PET scanners are described. Physics issues related to the presence of several rodents within the field of view (i.e. deterioration of spatial resolution and sensitivity as the radial and the axial offsets increase, respectively, as well as a larger effect of attenuation and the number of scatter events), which can be assessed by using the NEMA NU 4 image quality phantom, are detailed. (orig.)

  19. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  20. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsahin, D. Uzun; Bläckberg, L.; Fakhri, G. El; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  1. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo fluorescence enhanced optical tomography reconstruction of lung cancer of non immersed small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, L.; Koenig, A.; Da Silva, A.; Berger, M.; Boutet, J.; Dinten, J. M.; Peltié, P.; Rizo, P.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence enhanced diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is envisioned to be useful to collect functional information from small animal models. For oncology applications, cancer-targeted fluorescent markers can be used as a surrogate of the cancer activity. We are developing a continuous wave fDOT bench intended to be integrated in systems dedicated to whole body small animal fluorescence analyses. The focus is currently put on the reconstruction of non immersed small animals imaged by a CCD camera. The reconstruction stage already corrects the tissue heterogeneity artifacts through the computation of an optical heterogeneity map. We will show how this formalism coupled with the determination of the animal boundaries performed by a laser scanner, can be used to manage non contact acquisitions. The time of reconstruction for a 10 × 9 laser source positions, 45 × 40 detector elements and 14 × 11 × 14 mesh voxels is typically 10 minutes on a 3GHz PCs corresponding to the acquisition time allowing the two tasks to be performed in parallel. The system is validated on an in vivo experiment performed on three healthy nude mice and a mouse bearing a lung tumor at 10, 12 and 14 days after implantation allowing the follow up of the disease. The 3D fluorescence reconstructions of this mouse are presented and the total fluorescence amounts are compared.

  3. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.H.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, M.H.; Yang, C.C.; Guo, W.Y.; Wang, Z.J.; Chen, C.L.; Lee, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future

  4. Control of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for small animal ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Nunes Marcelo V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for the mechanical ventilation of small animals is frequently obtained with water seals or by using ventilators developed for human use. An alternative mechanism is the use of an on-off expiratory valve closing at the moment when the alveolar pressure is equal to the target PEEP. In this paper, a novel PEEP controller (PEEP-new and the PEEP system of a commercial small-animal ventilator, both based on switching an on-off valve, are evaluated. Methods The proposed PEEP controller is a discrete integrator monitoring the error between the target PEEP and the airways opening pressure prior to the onset of an inspiratory cycle. In vitro as well as in vivo experiments with rats were carried out and the PEEP accuracy, settling time and under/overshoot were considered as a measure of performance. Results The commercial PEEP controller did not pass the tests since it ignores the airways resistive pressure drop, resulting in a PEEP 5 cmH2O greater than the target in most conditions. The PEEP-new presented steady-state errors smaller than 0.5 cmH2O, with settling times below 10 s and under/overshoot smaller than 2 cmH2O. Conclusion The PEEP-new presented acceptable performance, considering accuracy and temporal response. This novel PEEP generator may prove useful in many applications for small animal ventilators.

  5. Ethical dilemmas encountered by small animal veterinarians: characterisation, responses, consequences and beliefs regarding euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipperman, Barry; Morris, Patricia; Rollin, Bernard

    2018-05-12

    Small animal veterinarians' opinions were investigated regarding the frequency and nature of ethical dilemmas encountered, beliefs regarding euthanasia and balancing client and animal interests, prevalence and value of ethics training and proposals to mitigate the stressful effects of ethical dilemmas. The majority (52 per cent) of 484 respondents in the USA indicated via an online survey experiencing an ethical dilemma regarding the interests of clients and those of their patients at least weekly. Scenarios involving client financial concerns were commonly reported causes of ethical conflicts. While only 20 per cent of respondents indicated that other practitioners prioritise patient interests, 50 per cent of respondents characterised their own behaviour as prioritising patients. Most respondents (52 per cent) reported that ethical dilemmas are the leading cause, or are one of many equal causes, of work-related stress. Less experienced practitioners, general practitioners and associate veterinarians were more likely to encounter situations they defined as ethical dilemmas, and female respondents were more likely to find ethical dilemmas stressful. Most small animal veterinarians experience ethical dilemmas regularly, which contribute to moral stress. Results suggested that most small animal practitioners believe that greater awareness of moral stress and providing training in ethical theories and tools for coping with ethical dilemmas can ameliorate moral stress. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. A 3D HIDAC-PET camera with sub-millimeter resolution for imaging small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeavons, A.P.; Chandler, R.A.; Dettmar, C.A.R.

    1999-01-01

    A HIDAC-PET camera consisting essentially of 5 million 0.5 mm gas avalanching detectors has been constructed for small-animal imaging. The particular HIDAC advantage--a high 3D spatial resolution--has been improved to 0.95 mm fwhm and to 0.7 mm fwhm when reconstructing with 3D-OSEM methods incorporating resolution recovery. A depth-of-interaction resolution of 2.5 mm is implicit, due to the laminar construction. Scatter-corrected sensitivity, at 8.9 cps/kBq (i.e. 0.9%) from a central point source, or 7.2 cps/kBq (543 cps/kBq/cm 3 ) from a distributed (40 mm diameter, 60 mm long) source is now much higher than previous, and other, work. A field-of-view of 100 mm (adjustable to 200 mm) diameter by 210 mm axially permits whole-body imaging of small animals, containing typically 4MBqs of activity, at 40 kcps of which 16% are random coincidences, with a typical scatter fraction of 44%. Throughout the field-of-view there are no positional distortions and relative quantitation is uniform to ± 3.5%, but some variation of spatial resolution is found. The performance demonstrates that HIDAC technology is quite appropriate for small-animal PET cameras

  7. Evaluating performance of a pixel array semiconductor SPECT system for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki; Zhao, Songji; Fujiki, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    Small animal imaging has recently been focused on basic nuclear medicine. We have designed and built a small animal SPECT imaging system using a semiconductor camera and a newly designed collimator. We assess the performance of this system for small object imaging. We employed an MGC 1500 (Acrorad Co.) camera including a CdTe semiconductor. The pixel size was 1.4 mm/pixel. We designed and produced a parallel-hole collimator with 20-mm hole length. Our SPECT system consisted of a semiconductor camera with the subject holder set on an electric rotating stage controlled by a computer. We compared this system with a conventional small animal SPECT system comprising a SPECT-2000H scanner with four Anger type cameras and pinhole collimators. The count rate linearity for estimation of the scatter was evaluated for a pie-chart phantom containing different concentrations of 99m Tc. We measured the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the 99m Tc SPECT line source along with scatter. The system volume sensitivity was examined using a flood source phantom which was 35 mm long with a 32-mm inside diameter. Additionally, an in vivo myocardial perfusion SPECT study was performed with a rat. With regards to energy resolution, the semiconductor camera (5.6%) was superior to the conventional Anger type camera (9.8%). In the count rate linearity evaluation, the regression lines of the SPECT values were y=0.019x+0.031 (r 2 =0.999) for our system and y=0.018x+0.060 (r 2 =0.997) for the conventional system. Thus, the scatter count using the semiconductor camera was less than that using the conventional camera. FWHMs of our system and the conventional system were 2.9±0.1 and 2.0±0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, the system volume sensitivity of our system [0.51 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm] was superior to that of the conventional system [0.44 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm]. Our system provided clear images of the rat myocardium, sufficient for practical use in small animal imaging. Our SPECT system, utilizing a

  8. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H. [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Fusion Neutron Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  9. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities

  10. Organizing the promotion of radiation processing at Multipurpose Irradiation Facility IRASM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    IRASM will be the first Romanian industrial irradiation facility. International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna supports the project financing the main equipment and a 100 kCi Co-60 demonstration source. The facility will be commissioned in March 2000. Construction and commissioning of this important nuclear objective are difficult tasks. Promotion of radiation processing in Romanian industry is even more difficult. The Project IRASM is a complex contest for IFIN-HH. The management took into consideration all aspects of the project promotion: technical, legal, R and D. The institute identified the need for an appropriate internal structure. For this reason a Radiation Processing Team (GRIT) was nominated and charged to co-ordinate the internal activity and to co-operate with the external partner. Investment Department and Quality Assurance Department strengthened. The operation team was chosen, instructed and engaged in covering the main directions of the management plans: project correlation, construction supervising, commissioning, promotion of the appropriate legal frame, public acceptance and R and D for the association of the industry to the radiation processing technologies. R and D engaged many researchers from different IFIN-HH departments. This paper presents the management of the project and details the steps already undertaken onto each particular direction. (authors)

  11. Comparison of HEU and LEU neutron spectra in irradiation facilities at the Oregon State TRIGA® Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schickler, R.A.; Marcum, W.R.; Reese, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The Oregon State TRIGA ® Reactor neutron spectra is characterized herein. • Neutron spectra between highly enriched uranium and low enriched uranium cores are compared. • Discussion is given as to differences between HEU and LEU core spectra results and impact on experiments. -- Abstract: In 2008, the Oregon State TRIGA ® Reactor (OSTR) was converted from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel lifetime improvement plan (FLIP) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort was driven and supported by the Department of Energy's (DoE's) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The basis behind the RERTR program's ongoing conversion effort is to reduce the nuclear proliferation risk of civilian research and test reactors. The original intent of the HEU FLIP fuel was to provide fuel to research reactors that could be utilized for many years before a necessary refueling cycle. As a research reactor, the OSTR provides irradiation facilities for a variety of applications, such as activation analysis, fission-track dating, commercial isotope production, neutron radiography, prompt gamma characterization, and many others. In order to accurately perform these research functions, several studies had been conducted on the HEU FLIP fuel core to characterize the neutron spectra in various experimental facilities of the OSTR (Tiyapun, 1997; Ashbaker, 2005). As useful as these analyses were, they are no longer valid due to the change in fuel composition and the resulting alteration of core performance characteristics. Additionally, the core configuration (fuel reconfiguration) was altered between the HEU and LEU cores. This study characterizes the neutron spectra in various experimental facilities within and around the current LEU core. It also compares the spectra to that which was yielded in the HEU core through use of Monte Carlo n-Particle 5 (MCNP5) and experimental adjustment via a least-squares technique. The quantification of

  12. Characterization of the irradiation facilities SINCA and SIRCA of the TRIGA Mark III reactor using the code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Garcia M, T.; Lucatero, M. A.; Cruz G, H. S.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Vargas E, S.

    2011-11-01

    The commitment of changing fuels of high enrichment for fuels of low enrichment in the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico generates the necessity to know the distribution of the spectrum of the neutrons flux in the irradiation facilities like they are: the Pneumatic System of Capsules Irradiation and the Rotational System of Capsules Irradiation. Is very important for the experiments design as well as for the reactor safety to know the profiles of the neutrons flux and the spectrum that these maintain with the mixed core with which operates, to effect of conserving the same characteristics when the reactor core will be operated with fuel of low enrichment totally. Also, knowing the profiles of the neutrons flux, the reactor operators can optimize the irradiation conditions of the processed samples and likewise the users can select the irradiation positions more adaptable to their necessities. This work present the characterization of the neutron flux in the irradiation facilities SINCA and SIFCA, calculated with the code MCNPX. (Author)

  13. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  14. In situ ion irradiation/implantation studies in the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.W.; Funk, L.L.; Ryan, E.A.; Taylor, A.

    1988-09-01

    The HVEM-Tandem User Facility at Argonne National Laboratory interfaces two ion accelerators, a 2 MV tandem accelerator and a 650 kV ion implanter, to a 1.2 MV high voltage electron microscope. This combination allows experiments involving simultaneous ion irradiation/ion implantation, electron irradiation and electron microscopy/electron diffraction to be performed. In addition the availability of a variety of microscope sample holders permits these as well as other types of in situ experiments to be performed at temperatures ranging from 10-1300 K, with the sample in a stressed state or with simultaneous determination of electrical resistivity of the specimen. This paper summarizes the details of the Facility which are relevant to simultaneous ion beam material modification and electron microscopy, presents several current applications and briefly describes the straightforward mechanism for potential users to access this US Department of Energy supported facility. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Geo-PET: A novel generic organ-pet for small animal organs and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Levent

    Reconstructed tomographic image resolution of small animal PET imaging systems is improving with advances in radiation detector development. However the trend towards higher resolution systems has come with an increase in price and system complexity. Recent developments in the area of solid-state photomultiplication devices like silicon photomultiplier arrays (SPMA) are creating opportunities for new high performance tools for PET scanner design. Imaging of excised small animal organs and tissues has been used as part of post-mortem studies in order to gain detailed, high-resolution anatomical information on sacrificed animals. However, this kind of ex-vivo specimen imaging has largely been limited to ultra-high resolution muCT. The inherent limitations to PET resolution have, to date, excluded PET imaging from these ex-vivo imaging studies. In this work, we leverage the diminishing physical size of current generation SPMA designs to create a very small, simple, and high-resolution prototype detector system targeting ex-vivo tomographic imaging of small animal organs and tissues. We investigate sensitivity, spatial resolution, and the reconstructed image quality of a prototype small animal PET scanner designed specifically for imaging of excised murine tissue and organs. We aim to demonstrate that a cost-effective silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array based design with thin crystals (2 mm) to minimize depth of interaction errors might be able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution. We hypothesize that the substantial decrease in sensitivity associated with the thin crystals can be compensated for with increased solid angle detection, longer acquisitions, higher activity and wider acceptance energy windows (due to minimal scatter from excised organs). The constructed system has a functional field of view (FoV) of 40 mm diameter, which is adequate for most small animal specimen studies. We perform both analytical (3D-FBP) and iterative (ML-EM) methods in order to

  16. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.2) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-03-15

    A pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.2) involving a manual system and an automatic system for delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of PTS no.2 was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, automatic operation control by personal computer, delayed neutron counting system, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  17. The Design of Sample Driver System for Gamma Irradiator Facility at Thermal Column of Kartini Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyamto; Tasih Mulyono; Setyo Atmojo

    2007-01-01

    The design and construction of sample driver system for gamma irradiator facility at thermal column of Kartini reactor post operation has been carried out. The design and construction is based on the space of thermal column and the sample speed rotation which has to as low as possible in order the irradiation process can be more homogeneity. The electrical and mechanical calculation was done after fixation the electrical motor and transmission system which will be applied. By the assumption that the maximum sample weight is 50 kg, the electric motor specification is decided due to its rating i.e. single phase induction motor, run capacitor type, 0.5 HP; 220 V; 3.61 A, CCW and CW, rotation speed 1430 rpm. To achieve the low load rotation speed, motor speed was reduced twice using the conical reduction gear with the reduction ratio 3.9 and thread reduction gear with the reduction ratio 60. From the calculation it is found that power of motor is 118.06 watt, speed rotation of load sample is 6.11 rpm due to the no load rotation of motor 1430 rpm. From the test by varying weight of load up to 75 kg it is known that the device can be operated in a good condition, both in the two direction with the average speed of motor 1486 rpm and load 6.3 rpm respectively. So that the slip is 0.268 % and 0.314 % for no load and full load condition. The difference input current to the motor during no load and full load condition is relative small i.e. 0.14 A. The safety factor of motor is 316 % which is correspond to the weight of load 158 kg. (author)

  18. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  19. Position-Sensitive Detector with Depth-of-Interaction Determination for Small Animal PET

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, A; Kholmetsky, A L; Korzhik, M V; Lecoq, P; Lobko, A S; Missevitch, O V; Tkatchev, A

    2002-01-01

    Crystal arrays made of LSO and LuAP crystals 2x2x10 mm pixels were manufactured for evaluation of detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) determination capability intended for small animal positron emission tomograph. Position-sensitive LSO/LuAP phoswich DOI detector based on crystal 8x8 arrays and HAMAMATSU R5900-00-M64 position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube was developed and evaluated. Time resolution was found to be not worse than 1.0 ns FWHM for both layers, and spatial resolution mean value was 1.5 mm FWHM for the center of field-of-view.

  20. New design of a quasi-monolithic detector module with DOI capability for small animal pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Choi, Yong

    2008-01-01

    We report a new design of a detector module with depth of interaction (DOI) based on a quasi-monolithic LSO crystal, a multi-channel sensor, and maximum-likelihood position-estimation (MLPE) algorithm. Light transport and detection were modeled in a quasi-monolithic crystal using DETECT2000 code, with lookup tables (LUTs) built by simulation. Events were well separated by applying the MLPE method within 2.0 mm spatial resolution in both trans-axial and DOI directions. These results demonstrate that the proposed detector provides dependable positioning capability for small animal positron emission tomography (PET)