WorldWideScience

Sample records for small total rain

  1. RAIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monti, Matteo; Rasmussen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the results and perspectives from a companion article, where we presented and evaluated an alternative architecture for data storage in distributed networks. We name the bio-inspired architecture RAIN, and it offers file storage service that, in contrast with current centralized clou...... will integrate multiple current and future infrastructures ranging from online services and cryptocurrency to parts of government administration....

  2. Differences in seed rain composition in small and large fragments in the northeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knörr, U C; Gottsberger, G

    2012-09-01

    Tropical forests are seriously threatened by fragmentation and habitat loss. The impact of fragment size and forest configuration on the composition of seed rain is insufficiently studied. For the present study, seed rain composition of small and large forest fragments (8-388 ha) was assessed in order to identify variations in seed abundance, species richness, seed size and dispersal mode. Seed rain was documented during a 1-year period in three large and four small Atlantic Forest fragments that are isolated by a sugarcane matrix. Total seed rain included 20,518 seeds of 149 species of trees, shrubs, palms, lianas and herbs. Most species and seeds were animal-dispersed. A significant difference in the proportion of seeds and species within different categories of seed size was found between small and large fragments. Small fragments received significantly more very small-sized seeds (1.5 cm) that were generally very rare, with only one species in small and eight in large fragments. We found a negative correlation between the inflow of small-sized seeds and the percentage of forest cover. Species richness was lower in small than in large fragments, but the difference was not very pronounced. Given our results, we propose changing plant species pools through logging, tree mortality and a high inflow of pioneer species and lianas, especially in small forest fragments and areas with low forest cover. Connecting forest fragments through corridors and reforestation with local large-seeded tree species may facilitate the maintenance of species diversity. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  4. Stochastic modeling of total suspended solids (TSS) in urban areas during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luca; Krejci, Vladimir; Rauch, Wolfgang; Kreikenbaum, Simon; Fankhauser, Rolf; Gujer, Willi

    2005-10-01

    The load of total suspended solids (TSS) is one of the most important parameters for evaluating wet-weather pollution in urban sanitation systems. In fact, pollutants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phosphorous and organic compounds are adsorbed onto these particles so that a high TSS load indicates the potential impact on the receiving waters. In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed to estimate the TSS load and its dynamics during rain events. Information on the various simulated processes was extracted from different studies of TSS in urban areas. The model thus predicts the probability of TSS loads arising from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in combined sewer systems as well as from stormwater in separate sewer systems in addition to the amount of TSS retained in treatment devices in both sewer systems. The results of this TSS model illustrate the potential of the stochastic modeling approach for assessing environmental problems.

  5. Radar–rain-gauge rainfall estimation for hydrological applications in small catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate evaluation of the precipitation's time–spatial structure is a critical step for rainfall–runoff modelling. Particularly for small catchments, the variability of rainfall can lead to mismatched results. Large errors in flow evaluation may occur during convective storms, responsible for most of the flash floods in small catchments in the Mediterranean area. During such events, we may expect large spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, using rain-gauge measurements only can be insufficient in order to adequately depict extreme rainfall events. In this work, a double-level information approach, based on rain gauges and weather radar measurements, is used to improve areal rainfall estimations for hydrological applications. In order to highlight the effect that precipitation fields with different level of spatial details have on hydrological modelling, two kinds of spatial rainfall fields were computed for precipitation data collected during 2015, considering both rain gauges only and their merging with radar information. The differences produced by these two precipitation fields in the computation of the areal mean rainfall accumulation were evaluated considering 999 basins of the region Calabria, southern Italy. Moreover, both of the two precipitation fields were used to carry out rainfall–runoff simulations at catchment scale for main precipitation events that occurred during 2015 and the differences between the scenarios obtained in the two cases were analysed. A representative case study is presented in detail.

  6. Total internal reflection tomography of small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method is applied to determine the locations of a collection of small anisotropic spherical scatterers in the framework of the total internal reflection tomography. Multiple scattering between scatterers is considered and the inverse scattering problem is nonlinear, which, however, is solved by the proposed fast analytical approach where no associated forward problem is iteratively evaluated. The paper also discusses the role of the polarization of incidence waves, the incidence angle, the separation of scatterers from the surface of the substrate, and the level of noise on the resolution of imaging.

  7. Total Productivity Management in Small Industries

    OpenAIRE

    FARAJPOUR-KHANAPOSHTANI, Ghassem; HAYATI, Seyyed Iman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The importance of small businesses and SME's has been well established in the literature of the world economy. Thus, both industrialized and developing countries, development, support of small businesses as part and parcel of their productivity strategies have. Small industries are a major driver of employment, economic growth and productivity. About 80% of all companies in the world are less than 10 cases of human resources, so 95% of industries in the UK, Spain and Finland and 94 ...

  8. Application of Total Innovation Management to Chinese Small and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Application of Total Innovation Management to Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises. Innovation is ... Country(s). China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  9. St. Francis Rain Garden Water Quality Sampling Interim Data Report; Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Sediments or Solids, and E. Coli for the period April to June, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interim data reported is being provided per request to the Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) to provide summary statistics on a limited set of water quality parameters as measured at the St. Francis Rain Garden site in the Lick Run Valley as it pertains to MSD's Project Grou...

  10. To What Extent Do Improved Practices Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Rice Cultivation in A Rain-fed Area? : Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Nakano; Yuki Tanaka; Keijiro Otsuka

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of training provided by a large-scale private farm on the performance of surrounding small-scale rice farmers in a rain-fed area in Tanzania. We found that the training effectively enhances the adoption of improved rice cultivation practices, paddy yield, and profit of rice cultivation by small-holder farmers. In fact, the trainees achieve paddy yield of 5 tons per hectare on average, which is remarkably high for rain-fed rice cultivation. Our results sugges...

  11. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  12. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  13. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  14. Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, Based on Statistics of Retrieved Rain Rates and Simple Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-based systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error based on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some modeling work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM based on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.

  15. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan K.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark A.; McCarthy, David; Murphy, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May–July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs.

  16. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark; McCarthy, David T; Murphy, Heather M

    2018-07-15

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May-July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 48 CFR 19.502-2 - Total small business set-asides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... small business set-asides shall not be made unless such a reasonable expectation exists (but see 19.502... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total small business set... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502-2 Total small business set...

  18. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  19. 48 CFR 52.219-6 - Notice of Total Small Business Set-Aside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.219-6 Notice of Total Small Business Set-Aside. As prescribed in 19.508(c), insert the following clause: Notice of Total Small Business Set-Aside (JUN 2003) (a) Definition. Small business concern... qualified as a small business under the size standards in this solicitation. (b) General. (1) Offers are...

  20. Rain intensity over specific rain thresholds in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandras, C. M.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.; Repapis, C. C.

    2009-09-01

    It is well documented that climatic change has caused significant impacts in the water cycle and great spatial and temporal variability of the rain events. The rain scarcity in many cases is associated with extreme convective weather resulted in flash floods, which threatens the human life and the existed infrastructure. In this study, the annual mean rain intensity (mm/h) along with the annual number of rain days for rain events over specific rain thresholds, such as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm, in two Greek cities Athens and Thessaloniki, during the period 1930-2007, are examined. The meteorological data, which concern daily rain totals (mm) and duration (h), were acquired from the National Observatory of Athens and from the meteorological station of the University of Thessaloniki. Our findings show that, in Athens, an increase in the number of annual rain days and the mean rain intensity over the aforementioned rain thresholds appears at the end of 1980’s and continues until nowadays. On the contrary, concerning Thessaloniki, a decrease in the rain days is apparent from 1980, while the decrease in the mean rain intensity concerns only the rain thresholds of 10 and 20 mm. This analysis reveals that extreme rain events are more frequent in Athens, which is under a high urbanization rhythm, than in Thessaloniki at the north of Greece. Finally, the patterns of the atmospheric circulation, which are associated with specific extreme cases are analysed, using NCEP reanalysis data.

  1. Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…

  2. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  3. Statistically extracted fundamental watershed variables for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of total nitrogen loads is essential for evaluating conditions in the aquatic environment. Extrapolation of estimates beyond measured streams will greatly expand our understanding of total nitrogen loading to streams. Recursive partitioning and random forest regression were used to assess 85 geospatial, environmental, and watershed variables across 636 small (monitoring may be beneficial.

  4. Small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu; Chiu, Ming-Hung; Chen, Wei-Wu; Kao, Fu-Hsi; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2009-05-01

    A small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry is proposed. In this paper, a small displacement can be obtained only by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states for the total internal reflection effect. In order to improve the sensitivity, we increase the number of total internal reflections by using a parallelogram prism. The theoretical resolution of the method is better than 0.417 nm. The method has some merits, e.g., high resolution, high sensitivity, and real-time measurement. Also, its feasibility is demonstrated.

  5. Small phytoplankton contribution to the standing stocks and the total primary production in the Amundsen Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small phytoplankton are anticipated to be more important in a recently warming and freshening ocean condition. However, little information on the contribution of small phytoplankton to overall phytoplankton production is currently available in the Amundsen Sea. To determine the contributions of small phytoplankton to total biomass and primary production, carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of total and small phytoplankton were obtained from 12 productivity stations in the Amundsen Sea. The daily carbon uptake rates of total phytoplankton averaged in this study were 0.42 g C m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.30 g C m−2 d−1 and 0.84 g C m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.18 g C m−2 d−1 for non-polynya and polynya regions, respectively, whereas the daily total nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were 0.12 g N m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.09 g N m−2 d−1 and 0.21 g N m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.11 g N m−2 d−1, respectively, for non-polynya and polynya regions, all of which were within the ranges reported previously. Small phytoplankton contributed 26.9 and 27.7 % to the total carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of phytoplankton in this study, respectively, which were relatively higher than the chlorophyll a contribution (19.4 % of small phytoplankton. For a comparison of different regions, the contributions for chlorophyll a concentration and primary production of small phytoplankton averaged from all the non-polynya stations were 42.4 and 50.8 %, which were significantly higher than those (7.9 and 14.9 %, respectively in the polynya region. A strong negative correlation (r2 = 0. 790, p<0. 05 was found between the contributions of small phytoplankton and the total daily primary production of phytoplankton in this study. This finding implies that daily primary production decreases as small phytoplankton contribution increases, which is

  6. Rain Gauges Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  7. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  8. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  9. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  10. Development and validation of the small punch test for UHMWPE used in total joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edidin, A.A. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Howmedica Osteonics Corp., Allendale, NJ (United States); Kurtz, S.M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Exponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanical effects of oxidative degradation, improved oxidative stability and crosslinking on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a unique miniature specimen mechanical testing technique, known as the small punch test, was developed for evaluating total joint replacement components. The small punch test involves deforming a disk-shaped specimen having a thickness of 0.5 mm and a diameter of 6.4 mm. In addition to its small specimen size, the small punch test differs from conventional testing in that deformation of the UHMWPE specimen occurs under multiaxial loading conditions. Using the small punch test, we have traced the evolution of mechanical behavior in UHMWPE after natural (shelf-storage) and accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we have determined relationships between the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE and the biologically relevant wear debris volume generated in total hip replacements. The small punch test has also been used to investigate the effects of radiation crosslinking which has been shown to improve the wear performance in an in vitro hip simulator. However, the crosslinking and subsequent thermal processes used to improve the wear behavior may compromise the native mechanical behavior by changing the ductility and toughness of the UHMWPE bearing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate which tradeoffs exist related to the mechanical behavior associated with various clinically available types of highly crosslinked and thermally treated UHMWPE. We also review the development and validation of the small punch disk bend test and highlight its application to problems of clinical relevance in both hip and knee arthroplasty. (orig.)

  11. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  12. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  13. Large-scale modeling of rain fields from a rain cell deterministic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    FéRal, Laurent; Sauvageot, Henri; Castanet, Laurent; Lemorton, JoëL.; Cornet, FréDéRic; Leconte, Katia

    2006-04-01

    A methodology to simulate two-dimensional rain rate fields at large scale (1000 × 1000 km2, the scale of a satellite telecommunication beam or a terrestrial fixed broadband wireless access network) is proposed. It relies on a rain rate field cellular decomposition. At small scale (˜20 × 20 km2), the rain field is split up into its macroscopic components, the rain cells, described by the Hybrid Cell (HYCELL) cellular model. At midscale (˜150 × 150 km2), the rain field results from the conglomeration of rain cells modeled by HYCELL. To account for the rain cell spatial distribution at midscale, the latter is modeled by a doubly aggregative isotropic random walk, the optimal parameterization of which is derived from radar observations at midscale. The extension of the simulation area from the midscale to the large scale (1000 × 1000 km2) requires the modeling of the weather frontal area. The latter is first modeled by a Gaussian field with anisotropic covariance function. The Gaussian field is then turned into a binary field, giving the large-scale locations over which it is raining. This transformation requires the definition of the rain occupation rate over large-scale areas. Its probability distribution is determined from observations by the French operational radar network ARAMIS. The coupling with the rain field modeling at midscale is immediate whenever the large-scale field is split up into midscale subareas. The rain field thus generated accounts for the local CDF at each point, defining a structure spatially correlated at small scale, midscale, and large scale. It is then suggested that this approach be used by system designers to evaluate diversity gain, terrestrial path attenuation, or slant path attenuation for different azimuth and elevation angle directions.

  14. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  15. Heavy rain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of the effect of heavy rain on airplane performance. Although the effects of heavy rain on airplane systems and engines are generally known, only recently has the potential aerodynamic effect of heavy rain been recognized. In 1977 the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) conducted a study of 25 aircraft accidents and incidents which occurred between 1964 and 1976 in which low-altitude wind shear could have been a contributing factor. Of the 25 cases (23 approach or landing and 2 take-off) in the study, ten cases had occurred in a rain environment, and in five cases these were classified as intense or heavy rain encounters. These results led to the reconsideration of high-intensity, short-duration rainfall as a potential weather-related aircraft safety hazard, particularly in the take-off and/or approach phases of flight.

  16. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  17. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is estimation of regularities and tendencies, characteristic for modern sectoral structure of small and mediumsized business in Russia. The subject of the research is a set of processes of structural changes on the types of economic activities of such enterprises, as well as the differentiation of the number of employees in enterprises. The research methodology included consideration of aggregates of subjects of small and medium-sized business, formed according to sectoral and territorial features. As the initial data used the official statistical information, which was obtain in the course of total observation of the activities of small and medium-sized businesses in 2010 and 2015. The study was conducted on indicators characterizing the full range of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the country. The materiality of structural changes was carried out on the basis of the Ryabtsev index. Modeling the differentiation of the values of the number of employees per enterprise was based on the development of density normal distribution functions. According to the hypothesis it is assumed that the differentiation of the number of employees working in enterprises depend on six main types of economic activity and on the subjects of Russia. Based on the results of the study was proved that there are no significant structural changes for the period from 2010 to 2015, both in terms of the number of enterprises and the number of their employees. Based on the results of the simulation, the average values of the number of employees for the six main types of activity were established, as well as the intervals for changing these indicators for the aggregates of small and medium-sized enterprises located in the majority of the country's subjects. The results of research can be used in the performance of scientific works related to the justification of the expected number and number of employees of enterprises, the formation of

  19. Total and methyl mercury concentrations and fluxes from small boreal forest catchments in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvari, Petri; Verta, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands have higher methyl mercury output than uplands. - Total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were studied in runoff from eight small (0.02-1.3 km 2 ) boreal forest catchments (mineral soil and peatland) during 1990-1995. Runoff waters were extremely humic (TOC 7-70 mg l -1 ). TotHg concentrations varied between 0.84 and 24 ng l -1 and MeHg between 0.03 and 3.8 ng l -1 . TotHg fluxes from catchments ranged from 0.92 to 1.8 g km -2 a -1 , and MeHg fluxes from 0.03 to 0.33 g km -2 a -1 . TotHg concentrations and output fluxes measured in runoff water from small forest catchments in Finland were comparable with those measured in other boreal regions. By contrast, MeHg concentrations were generally higher. Estimates for MeHg output fluxes in this study were comparable at sites with forests and wetlands in Sweden and North America, but clearly higher than those measured at upland or agricultural sites in other studies. Peatland catchments released more MeHg than pure mineral soil or mineral soil catchments with minor area of peatland

  20. Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy B; Qadan, Motaz; Dua, Monica M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-08-01

    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival. A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival. LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Alisa, Mast M.; Campbell, D.H.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Hunt, R.J.; Walker, J.F.; Schuster, P.F.; Chalmers, A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Peters, N.E.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Clow, D.W.; Shafer, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The small watershed approach is well-suited but underutilized in mercury research. We applied the small watershed approach to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in streamwater at the five diverse forested headwater catchments of the US Geological Survey Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. At all sites, baseflow THg was generally less than 1 ng L-1 and MeHg was less than 0.2 ng L-1. THg and MeHg concentrations increased with streamflow, so export was primarily episodic. At three sites, THg and MeHg concentration and export were dominated by the particulate fraction in association with POC at high flows, with maximum THg (MeHg) concentrations of 94 (2.56) ng L-1 at Sleepers River, Vermont; 112 (0.75) ng L-1 at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico; and 55 (0.80) ng L-1 at Panola Mt., Georgia. Filtered (Colorado, THg export was also episodic but was dominated by filtered THg, as POC concentrations were low. MeHg typically tracked THg so that each site had a fairly constant MeHg/THg ratio, which ranged from near zero at Andrews to 15% at the low-relief, groundwater-dominated Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. Allequash was the only site with filtered MeHg consistently above detection, and the filtered fraction dominated both THg and MeHg. Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. Icacos had a net export of THg, possibly due to historic gold mining or frequent disturbance from landslides. Quantification and interpretation of Hg dynamics was facilitated by the small watershed approach with emphasis on event sampling. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, James B. [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: jshanley@usgs.gov; Alisa Mast, M. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: mamast@usgs.gov; Campbell, Donald H. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dhcampbe@usgs.gov; Aiken, George R. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: graiken@usgs.gov; Krabbenhoft, David P. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: dpkrabbe@usgs.gov; Hunt, Randall J. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: rjhunt@usgs.gov; Walker, John F. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: jfwalker@usgs.gov; Schuster, Paul F. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: pschuste@usgs.gov; Chalmers, Ann [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: chalmers@usgs.gov; Aulenbach, Brent T. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: btaulenb@usgs.gov; Peters, Norman E. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: nepeters@usgs.gov; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., MS 480, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)], E-mail: mmarvin@usgs.gov; Clow, David W. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dwclow@usgs.gov; Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: mmshafer@wisc.edu

    2008-07-15

    The small watershed approach is well-suited but underutilized in mercury research. We applied the small watershed approach to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in streamwater at the five diverse forested headwater catchments of the US Geological Survey Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. At all sites, baseflow THg was generally less than 1 ng L{sup -1} and MeHg was less than 0.2 ng L{sup -1}. THg and MeHg concentrations increased with streamflow, so export was primarily episodic. At three sites, THg and MeHg concentration and export were dominated by the particulate fraction in association with POC at high flows, with maximum THg (MeHg) concentrations of 94 (2.56) ng L{sup -1} at Sleepers River, Vermont; 112 (0.75) ng L{sup -1} at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico; and 55 (0.80) ng L{sup -1} at Panola Mt., Georgia. Filtered (<0.7 {mu}m) THg increased more modestly with flow in association with the hydrophobic acid fraction (HPOA) of DOC, with maximum filtered THg concentrations near 5 ng L{sup -1} at both Sleepers and Icacos. At Andrews Creek, Colorado, THg export was also episodic but was dominated by filtered THg, as POC concentrations were low. MeHg typically tracked THg so that each site had a fairly constant MeHg/THg ratio, which ranged from near zero at Andrews to 15% at the low-relief, groundwater-dominated Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. Allequash was the only site with filtered MeHg consistently above detection, and the filtered fraction dominated both THg and MeHg. Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. Icacos had a net export of THg, possibly due to historic gold mining or frequent disturbance from landslides. Quantification and interpretation of Hg dynamics was facilitated by the small watershed approach with emphasis on event sampling. - High-flow sampling reveals strong contrasts in total

  3. Thinking in the Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1989-01-01

    Four questions related to rain concerning aerodynamic drag force, pressure from the impact of raindrops, impact of wind on the pressure, and stopping force extended on the car by the water are proposed. (YP)

  4. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (TQMS IN SMALL WINERY AND BAKERY IN CYPRUS. A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIS A. ZORPAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality of products and production affects the welfare, efficiency and competitiveness of the business entity. Total Quality Management System (TQMS represent the organizational structure of enterprise, application of methods, tools and processes used for the implantation, maintenance and improvement of activities and their outcomes as well as the organization takes all the necessary actions for its environmental performance and safety.The aim of the implementing TQMS in company is to create a good relation of employees to quality and safety as a fundamental category of the market economy and make them produce this quality and on the other and to provide good relationbetween SMEs and governmental authorities. QMS determine the prior characteristics of products, through which the company meets the identified needs of the market. The paper presents a case study of the implementation of aTQMS in small winery and bakery industry from Cyprus. The TQMS include the implementation of ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 22000:2005.

  5. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence with Small Bowel Evisceration 14 Months after Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Jareemit, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginal cuff dehiscence is a rare complication following hysterectomy. The condition coexisting with intraabdominal organ evisceration occurs even rarer. Nevertheless this should not be neglected owing to high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation: The reported case is a 48-year-old widow presenting with vaginal cuff dehiscence and small bowel evisceration after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH in the past 14 months due to myoma uteri. She denied having a history of sexual intercourse after the operation. The exposed bowel, 60 cm in length, appeared viable and no peritoneal sign was observed. There was a vaginal cuff defect approximately 3 cm in length. An exploratory laparotomy was then carried out. Eviscerated bowel was reduced back in the abdominal cavity and the vaginal cuff defect was repaired. No complications such as recurrent dehiscence were observed during one year follow-up. Conclusion: To minimize the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy, surgical techniques should be of concern. Patient instructions, including delaying sexual intercourse and avoiding all possible causes of increased intra-abdominal pressure should be provided postoperatively.

  6. Seasonal rhythms of seed rain and seedling emergence in two tropical rain forests in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M C M; Oliveira, P E A M

    2008-09-01

    Seasonal tropical forests show rhythms in reproductive activities due to water stress during dry seasons. If both seed dispersal and seed germination occur in the best environmental conditions, mortality will be minimised and forest regeneration will occur. To evaluate whether non-seasonal forests also show rhythms, for 2 years we studied the seed rain and seedling emergence in two sandy coastal forests (flooded and unflooded) in southern Brazil. In each forest, one 100 x 30-m grid was marked and inside it 30 stations comprising two seed traps (0.5 x 0.5 m each) and one plot (2 x 2 m) were established for monthly monitoring of seed rain and a seedling emergence study, respectively. Despite differences in soil moisture and incident light on the understorey, flooded and unflooded forests had similar dispersal and germination patterns. Seed rain was seasonal and bimodal (peaks at the end of the wetter season and in the less wet season) and seedling emergence was seasonal and unimodal (peaking in the wetter season). Approximately 57% of the total species number had seedling emergence 4 or more months after dispersal. Therefore, both seed dormancy and the timing of seed dispersal drive the rhythm of seedling emergence in these forests. The peak in germination occurs in the wetter season, when soil fertility is higher and other phenological events also occur. The strong seasonality in these plant communities, even in this weakly seasonal climate, suggests that factors such as daylength, plant sensitivity to small changes in the environment (e.g. water and nutrient availability) or phylogenetic constraints cause seasonal rhythms in the plants.

  7. Retrieving latent heating vertical structure from cloud and precipitation profiles—Part II: Deep convective and stratiform rain processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Min, Qilong; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory study on physical based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm is conducted by parameterizing the physical linkages between observed cloud and precipitation profiles to the major processes of phase change of atmospheric water. Specifically, rain is segregated into three rain types: warm, convective, and stratiform rain, based on their dynamical and thermodynamical characteristics. As the second of series, both convective and stratiform rain LH algorithms are presented and evaluated here. For convective and stratiform rain, the major LH-related microphysical processes including condensation, deposition, evaporation, sublimation, and freezing–melting are parameterized with the aid of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations. The condensation and deposition processes are parameterized in terms of rain formation processes through the precipitation formation theory. LH associated with the freezing–melting process is relatively small and is assumed to be a fraction of total condensation and deposition LH. The evaporation and sublimation processes are parameterized for three unsaturated scenarios: rain out of the cloud body, clouds at cloud boundary and clouds and rain in downdraft region. The evaluation or self-consistency test indicates the retrievals capture the major features of LH profiles and reproduce the double peaks at right altitudes. The LH products are applicable at various stages of cloud system life cycle for high-resolution models, as well as for large-scale climate models. -- Highlights: ► An exploratory study on physics-based cold rain latent heat retrieval algorithm. ► Utilize the full information of the vertical structures of cloud and rainfall. ► Include all major LH-related microphysical processes (in ice and liquid phase). ► Directly link water mass measurements to latent heat at instantaneous pixel level. ► Applicable at various stages of cloud system life cycle

  8. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  9. Presence of small parathyroid glands in renal transplant patients supports less-than-total parathyroidectomy to treat hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Mark D; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Jackobs, Steffan; Kespohl, Holger; Hett, Julian; Musatkin, Denis; Tränkenschuh, Wolfgang; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Scheumann, Georg F W

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid glands (PG) are rarely analyzed in renal transplant (RTX) patients. This study analyzes comparatively PG of RTX and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The clinical part of the study evaluates if total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation (TPT+AT) treats appropriately hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in RTX patients. TPT+AT was performed in 15 of 23 RTX and 21 of 27 ESRD patients. Remaining patients underwent less-than-total PT. Volume and stage of hyperplasia were determined from 86 PG of RTX and 109 PG of ESRD patients. Patients were categorized according to the presence of small PG (volume hyperparathyroidism were evaluated 2 years after PT in RTX patients. PG of RTX patients were significantly smaller, but similar hyperplastic in comparison to PG of ESRD patients. Small PG were more frequent in RTX than in ESRD patients (19% vs 6%) and mainly graded normal or diffuse hyperplastic (94%). Forty-seven percent of RTX, but only 14% of ESRD, patients receiving a total PT possessed ≥1 small PG (P hyperparathyroidism. However, TPT+AT caused permanent hypocalcemia in 50% of RTX patients without small PG and even in 83% of RTX patients with small PG. All RTX patients receiving less-than-total PT were normocalcemic at 2-year follow-up. Logistic regression revealed a 10.7 times greater risk of permanent hypocalcemia in RTX patients with small PG receiving TPT+AT compared with RTX patients without small PG receiving TPT+AT or RTX patients undergoing less-than-total PT. Surgeons performing PT should be aware of the high frequency of small and less diseased PG in RTX patients. In this context, TPT+AT might overtreat hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in RTX patients, especially when small PG are present. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A small-displacement sensor using total internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology for heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu

    2009-01-01

    A small-displacement sensor based on total-internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology is proposed for use in heterodyne interferometry. A small displacement can be obtained simply by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states with the small-displacement sensor. The theoretical displacement resolution of the small-displacement sensor can reach 0.45 nm. The sensor has some additional advantages, e.g., a simple optical setup, high resolution, high sensitivity and rapid measurement. Its feasibility is also demonstrated.

  11. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  12. Quality control of rain data used for urban runoff systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H. K.; Rosenørn, S.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    for collection and quality control of rain data from a network of tipping bucket rain gauges in Denmark carried out by the Danish Meteorological Institute. During rain, the RIMCO gauge counts the number of tips teach of 0.2 mm of precipitation) every minute, The quality control of the rain data includes...... an automatic and a manual bit marking, where the automatic control basically is pointing out minutes with extreme intensities. In the manual control, the maximum intensities as well as the daily totals of precipitation are inspected, using weather charts, intensity plots and precipitation sums of nearby...

  13. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  14. Rain drop size densities over land and over sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumke, Karl

    2010-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of rain drop size densities is an essential presumption with respect to remote sensing of precipitation. Since maritime and continental aerosol is significantly different yielding to differences in cloud drop size densities, maritime and continental rain drop size densities may be different, too. In fact only a little is known about differences in rain drop size densities between land and sea due to a lack of suitable data over the sea. To fill in this gap measurements were performed during the recent 10 years at different locations in Germany and on board of research vessels over the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. Measurements were done by using an optical disdrometer (ODM 470, Großklaus et al., 1998), which is designed especially to perform precipitation measurements on moving ships and under high wind speeds. Temporal resolution of measurements is generally 1 minute, total number of time series is about 220000. To investigate differences in drop size densities over land and over sea measurements have been divided into four classes on the basis of prevailing continental or maritime influence: land measurements, coastal measurements, measurements in areas of semi-enclosed seas, and open sea measurements. In general differences in drop size densities are small between different areas. A Kolmogoroff Smirnoff test does not give any significant difference between drop size densities over land, coastal areas, semi-enclosed, and open seas at an error rate of 5%. Thus, it can be concluded that there are no systematic differences between maritime and continental drop size densities. The best fit of drop size densities is an exponential decay curve, N(D ) = 6510m -3mm -1mm0.14h- 0.14×R-0.14×exp(- 4.4mm0.25h-0.25×R- 0.25×D mm -1), it is estimated by using the method of least squares. N(D) is the drop size density normalized by the resolution of the optical disdrometer, D the diameter of rain drops in mm, and R the

  15. When It Rains, It Pours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  16. Acidity and salinity of rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E

    1955-01-01

    Analyses of pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and PO/sub 4/ are recorded for forty-two rain samples collected in the English Lake District between 14 May and 23 October, 1954. NaCl was often an important constituent, and the main source of Na, Mg, and Cl appeared to be sea-spray. SO/sub 4/ was clearly correlated with soot, and free H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ frequently accounted for an appreciable proportion of total ions. Ca, K, and SO/sub 4/ were correlated to some extent. HCO/sub 3/ was absent from more than half the samples. NO/sub 3/ and PO/sub 4/ were usually low in concentration. Sea-spray influence appeared greatest in autumn, while industrial pollution reached its highest concentration in spring. The ecological significance of the ions in rain is pointed out.

  17. Haloacetates in fog and rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, A; Klemm, O; Fricke, W; Frank, H

    2001-04-01

    Atmospheric haloacetates can arise from photochemical degradation of halogenated hydrocarbons and from direct anthropogenic emissions. Furthermore, there is also evidence of natural sources although these are quantitatively uncertain. As haloacetates are highly soluble in water, hydrometeors are most significant for their deposition. Fogwater (96 samples) and rainwater samples (over 100 samples) were collected from July 1998 to March 1999 at an ecological research site in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. They were analyzed for monofluoroacetate (MFA), difluoroacetate (DFA), trifluoroacetate (TFA), monochloroacetate (MCA), dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroacetate (TCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), and dibromoacetate (DBA). The major inorganic ions were also determined. High concentrations of up to 11 microg/L MCA, 5 microg/L DCA, 2 microg/L TCA, and 2 microg/L TFA were found in fogwater associated with westerly winds. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses. MBA and DBA have highest concentrations in fogwater advected with air originating from the Atlantic, suggesting the marine origin of these two compounds. All analyzed substances show higher average concentrations in fog than in rain. Estimates of the deposition of haloacetates suggest that the contribution of fog may be more important than rain for the total burden of a forest ecosystem.

  18. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  19. Evaluation of Turf-Grass and Prairie-Vegetated Rain Gardens in a Clay and Sand Soil, Madison, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Balster, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with a consortium of 19 cities, towns, and villages in Dane County, Wis., undertook a study to compare the capability of rain gardens with different vegetative species and soil types to infiltrate stormwater runoff from the roof of an adjacent structure. Two rain gardens, one planted with turf grass and the other with native prairie species, were constructed side-by-side in 2003 at two locations with different dominant soil types, either sand or clay. Each rain garden was sized to a ratio of approximately 5:1 contributing area to receiving area and to a depth of 0.5 foot. Each rain garden, regardless of vegetation or soil type, was capable of storing and infiltrating most of the runoff over the 5-year study period. Both rain gardens in sand, as well as the prairie rain garden in clay, retained and infiltrated 100 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during water years 2004-07. The turf rain garden in clay occasionally had runoff exceed its confining boundaries, but was still able to retain 96 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during the same time period. Precipitation intensity and number of antecedent dry days were important variables that influenced when the storage capacity of underlying soils would become saturated, which resulted in pooled water in the rain gardens. Because the rooftop area that drained runoff to each rain garden was approximately five times larger than the area of the rain garden itself, evapotranspiration was a small percentage of the annual water budget. For example, during water year 2005, the maximum evapotranspiration of total influent volume ranged from 21 percent for the turf rain garden in clay to 25 percent for the turf rain garden in sand, and the minimum ranged from 12 percent for the prairie rain garden in clay to 19 percent for the prairie rain garden in sand. Little to no runoff left each rain garden as effluent and a small percentage of runoff returned to the

  20. Absolute quantitative total-body small-animal SPECT with focusing pinholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Have, Frans van der; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Beekman, Freek J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Paans, Anne M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT, attenuation of the photon flux on trajectories between source and pinholes affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Previously we introduced iterative methods that compensate for image degrading effects of detector and pinhole blurring, pinhole sensitivity and scatter for multi-pinhole SPECT. The aim of this paper is (1) to investigate the accuracy of the Chang algorithm in rodents and (2) to present a practical Chang-based method using body outline contours obtained with optical cameras. Here we develop and experimentally validate a practical method for attenuation correction based on a Chang first-order method. This approach has the advantage that it is employed after, and therefore independently from, iterative reconstruction. Therefore, no new system matrix has to be calculated for each specific animal. Experiments with phantoms and animals were performed with a high-resolution focusing multi-pinhole SPECT system (U-SPECT-II, MILabs, The Netherlands). This SPECT system provides three additional optical camera images of the animal for each SPECT scan from which the animal contour can be estimated. Phantom experiments demonstrated that an average quantification error of -18.7% was reduced to -1.7% when both window-based scatter correction and Chang correction based on the body outline from optical images were applied. Without scatter and attenuation correction, quantification errors in a sacrificed rat containing sources with known activity ranged from -23.6 to -9.3%. These errors were reduced to values between -6.3 and +4.3% (with an average magnitude of 2.1%) after applying scatter and Chang attenuation correction. We conclude that the modified Chang correction based on body contour combined with window-based scatter correction is a practical method for obtaining small-animal SPECT images with high quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  2. Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deploys several types of rain gauges (MET, RAIN, and optical rain gauge [ORG] datastreams) as well as disdrometers (DISD and VDIS datastreams) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site. This handbook deals specifically with the independent analog ORG (i.e., the ORG datastream).

  3. More rain compensation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, D. D.; Vojak, R.

    1992-01-01

    To reduce the impact of rain-induced attenuation in the 20/30 GHz band, the attenuation at a specified signal frequency must be estimated and extrapolated forward in time on the basis of a noisy beacon measurement. Several studies have used model based procedures for solving this problem in statistical inference. Perhaps the most widely used model-based paradigm leads to the Kalman filter and its lineal variants. In this formulation, the dynamic features of the attenuation are represented by a state process (x(sub t)). The observation process (y(sub t)) is derived from beacon measurements. Some ideas relating to the signal processing problems related to uplink power control are presented. It is shown that some easily implemented algorithms hold promise for use in estimating rain induced fades. The algorithms were applied to actual data generated at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI) test facility. Because only one such event was studied, it is not clear that the algorithms will have the same effectiveness when a wide range of events are studied.

  4. Music after the rain

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The group Home Cooking (left to right: Jean-Marie Planche, Tony Arnold, Serge Waeffler, Django Manglunki) entertains the crowd with a humoristic blues/rock performance. The earth moved in Prévessin on 29 July. This was not an earthquake but an 'international' music event, the seventeenth CERN Hardronic Festival, which saw musicians from many different countries, including Russia, Britain, Spain, France, Belgium and the USA, take to the stage. The audience rocked to music from eight different groups until the early hours. About a thousand people flocked to CERN to hear what the best of its musical talents had to offer. The evening was very nearly a wash-out, though. After a week of scorching hot temperatures, the heavens suddenly opened and the rain didn't stop until a few minutes before the first act came on stage. Thanks to this narrow escape, the organisers can boast a 17-year run of rain-free Hardronic festivals. All the different musical styles were given a warm reception, from traditional Russian folk...

  5. On the scavenging of SO2 by large and small rain drops. 5. A wind tunnel and theoretical study of the desorption of SO2 from water drops containing S(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.K.; Hannemann, A.U.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the fate of desorption of SO 2 from water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. The experiments were carried out in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel in which water drops of various sizes containing S(IV) in various concentrations were freely suspended in the vertical airstream of the tunnel. The results were compared with the predictions of theoretical models, and with the experiments of Walcek et al. This comparison shows that the predictions of the diffusion model of Kronig and Brink in the formulation given by Walcek and Pruppacher agree well with the experimental results. In contrast, the predictions of the diffusion model which assumes complete internal mixing inside a drop agrees with the experimental results only if the concentration of S(IV) inside the drop is less than that equivalent of an equilibrium SO 2 concentration of 15 ppbv. At larger concentrations, the theoretical predictions of the model for complete internal mixing progressively deviate from the experimental results. It is further shown that Barrie's double film model can be used to interpret the resistance to diffusion inside a drop in terms of a diffusion boundary layer inside the drop which increases in thickness with decreasing concentration of S(IV). Applying our results to the desorption of SO 2 from small and large rain drops falling below an assumed cloud base, shows that for typical contents of S(IV) inside the drops substantial amounts of SO 2 will desorb from these drops unless H 2 O 2 is present in the surrounding air

  6. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  7. A High Precision $3.50 Open Source 3D Printed Rain Gauge Calibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Alcala, J. M.; Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently available rain gauge calibrators tend to be designed for specific rain gauges, are expensive, employ low-precision water reservoirs, and do not offer the flexibility needed to test the ever more popular small-aperture rain gauges. The objective of this project was to develop and validate a freely downloadable, open-source, 3D printed rain gauge calibrator that can be adjusted for a wide range of gauges. The proposed calibrator provides for applying low, medium, and high intensity flow, and allows the user to modify the design to conform to unique system specifications based on parametric design, which may be modified and printed using CAD software. To overcome the fact that different 3D printers yield different print qualities, we devised a simple post-printing step that controlled critical dimensions to assure robust performance. Specifically, the three orifices of the calibrator are drilled to reach the three target flow rates. Laboratory tests showed that flow rates were consistent between prints, and between trials of each part, while the total applied water was precisely controlled by the use of a volumetric flask as the reservoir.

  8. On the nature of rainfall in dry climate: Space-time patterns of convective rain cells over the Dead Sea region and their relations with synoptic state and flash flood generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachsen, Idit; Marra, Francesco; Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2017-04-01

    Space-time patterns of rainfall are important climatic characteristics that influence runoff generation and flash flood magnitude. Their derivation requires high-resolution measurements to adequately represent the rainfall distribution, and is best provided by remote sensing tools. This need is further emphasized in dry climate regions, where rainfall is scarce and, often, local and highly variable. Our research is focused on understanding the nature of rainfall events in the dry Dead Sea region (Eastern Mediterranean) by identifying and characterizing the spatial structure and the dynamics of convective storm cores (known as rain cells). To do so, we take advantage of 25 years of corrected and gauge-adjusted weather radar data. A statistical analysis of convective rain-cells spatial and temporal characteristics was performed with respect to synoptic pattern, geographical location, and flash flood generation. Rain cells were extracted from radar data using a cell segmentation method and a tracking algorithm and were divided into rain events. A total of 10,500 rain cells, 2650 cell tracks and 424 rain events were elicited. Rain cell properties, such as mean areal and maximal rain intensity, area, life span, direction and speed, were derived. Rain events were clustered, according to several ERA-Interim atmospheric parameters, and associated with three main synoptic patterns: Cyprus Low, Low to the East of the study region and Active Red Sea Trough. The first two originate from the Mediterranean Sea, while the third is an extension of the African monsoon. On average, the convective rain cells in the region are 90 km2 in size, moving from West to East in 13 ms-1 and living 18 minutes. Several significant differences between rain cells of the various synoptic types were observed. In particular, Active Red Sea Trough rain cells are characterized by higher rain intensities and lower speeds, suggesting a higher flooding potential for small catchments. The north

  9. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  10. Methane rain on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Courtin, Regis; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is characterized by means of model computations based on Voyager IRIS IR spectra and published data from laboratory determinations of absorption coefficients and cloud refractive indices. The results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is pointed out that the presence of Ar is not required in the model. Particular attention is given to the role of CH4, which is found to form patchy clouds (with particle radii of 50 microns or greater and visible/IR optical depths of 2-5) at altitudes up to about 30 km. The mechanisms by which such rain-sized particles could form are discussed, and it is suggested that the observed 500-600/cm spectrum is affected much less by the CH4 clouds than by H2 or variations in the temperature of the high-altitude haze.

  11. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  12. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  13. Evaluation of the RAIN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuanes, A.; Dickson, W.; Jenkins, A.; Rasmussen, L.; Stordal, F.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a scientific assessment of the RAIN project. It describes the main hypotheses tested and the applied methods. The major results of the research are highlighted and discussed, and they are placed in the perspective of national and international acid rain research. An important part of the RAIN project has been to provide information to the public about the acid rain problem, and in this way it has performed an important background role in influencing political decisions and legislation. The RAIN project is regarded as a cost effective research effort, and the novel approach and capital investment will enable further manipulation studies at these sites in the future. It is recommended that the project is continued in the immediate future, with some modification to answer specific questions resulting from the collected data. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Measurement of the total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons at small Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Deuter, A.; Genzel, H.; Lackas, W.; Pielorz, J.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Cartwright, S.L.; Dainton, J.B.; King, B.T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thomson, J.C.; Achterberg, O.; Blobel, V.; Burkart, D.; Diehlmann, K.; Feindt, M.; Kapitza, H.; Koppitz, B.; Krueger, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Staa, R. van; Almeida, F.; Baecker, A.; Barreiro, F.; Brandt, S.; Derikum, K.; Grupen, C.; Meyer, H.J.; Mueller, H.; Neumann, B.; Rost, M.; Stupperich, K.; Zech, G.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Junge, H.; Kraski, K.; Maxeiner, C.; Maxeiner, H.; Meyer, H.; Schmidt, D.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Ferrarotto, F.; Franke, G.; Gaspero, M.; Gerke, C.; Knies, G.; Lewendel, B.; Meyer, J.; Michelsen, U.; Pape, K.H.; Stella, B.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zachara, M.; Zimmermann, W.

    1984-09-01

    The total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons, sigmasub(γγ)(W,Q 2 ), has been measured in the single tag condition for 0.1 2 2 and 1.5 2 dependence of sigmasub(γγ) averaged over W can be described by GVDM. The dependence of sigmasub(γγ) on the mass W of the hadronic final state has been extracted at Q 2 =0.44 GeV 2 by unfolding the effects of experimental resolution and acceptance. The cross section is found to rise at small W. The result is compared with VDM and the parton model. (orig.)

  15. Influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on annual bluegill growth in small impoundments of central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Sundmark, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between environmental variables and the growth rates of fishes are important and rapidly expanding topics in fisheries ecology. We used an informationtheoretic approach to evaluate the influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on the age-specific growth rates of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) in 6 small impoundments in central Georgia. We used model averaging to create composite models and determine the relative importance of the variables within each model. Results indicated that surface area was the most important factor in the models predicting growth of Bluegills aged 1–4 years; total phosphorus was also an important predictor for the same age-classes. These results suggest that managers can use water quality and lake morphometry variables to create predictive models specific to their waterbody or region to help develop lake-specific management plans that select for and optimize local-level habitat factors for enhancing Bluegill growth.

  16. A scattering model for rain depolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Stutzman, W. L.; Bostian, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the amount of depolarization caused by precipitation for a propagation path. In the model the effects of each scatterer and their interactions are accounted for by using a series of simplifying steps. It is necessary only to know the forward scattering properties of a single scatterer. For the case of rain the results of this model for attenuation, differential phase shift, and cross polarization agree very well with the results of the only other model available, that of differential attenuation and differential phase shift. Calculations presented here show that horizontal polarization is more sensitive to depolarization than is vertical polarization for small rain drop canting angle changes. This effect increases with increasing path length.

  17. Particle transport patterns of short-distance soil erosion by wind-driven rain, rain and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; de Lima, João L. M. P.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Short distance erosion of soil surface material is one of the big question marks in soil erosion studies. The exact measurement of short-distance transported soil particles, prior to the occurrence of overland flow, is a challenge to soil erosion science due to the particular requirements of the experimental setup and test procedure. To approach a quantification of amount and distance of each type of transport, we applied an especially developed multiple-gutter system installed inside the Trier Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS). We measured the amount and travel distance of soil particles detached and transported by raindrops (splash), wind-driven rain (splash-saltation and splash-drift) and wind (saltation). The test setup included three different erosion agents (rain/ wind-driven rain/ wind), two substrates (sandy/ loamy), three surface structures (grain roughness/ rills lengthwise/ rills transversal) and three slope angles (0°/+7°/-7°). The results present detailed transport patterns of the three erosion agents under the varying soil and surface conditions up to a distance of 1.6 m. Under the applied rain intensity and wind velocity, wind-driven rain splash generates the highest erosion. The erodibility and travel distance of the two substrates depend on the erosion agent. The total erosion is slightly higher for the slope angle -7° (downslope), but for wind-driven rain splash, the inclination is not a relevant factor. The effect of surface structures (rills) changes with traveling distance. The wind driven rain splash generates a much higher amount of erosion and a further travel distance of the particles due to the combined action of wind and rain. The wind-driven rain factor appears to be much more significant than the other factors. The study highlights the effects of different erosion agents and surface parameters on short-distance particle transport and the powerful impact of wind-driven rain on soil erosion.

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  19. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  20. quantification of rain quantification of rain induced artifacts on digital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    DSTV) ... satellite television, rain attenuation, digital artifacts, pixelation, rainfall rate. 1. ... screen and blocking are commonly observed in .... The precipitation data was collected using a self- ..... Networks: Comparison at Equatorial and Subtropical.

  1. The measurement of antiproton-proton total cross sections and small-angle elastic scattering at low momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linssen, L.H.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis two low-momentum antiproton-proton (anti pp) experiments are described. The first one is a set of 24 high statistics anti pp total cross section measurements as a function of the incoming antiproton momentum between p=388 MeV/c and p=599 MeV/c. These measurements simultaneously yield the charge exchange cross section (anti pp → anti nn). The second one comprises two high statistics anti pp small-angle elastic scattering measurements at p=233 MeV/c and p=272 MeV/c. The measurements were carried out using the high quality antiproton beam extracted from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The physics motivation for these experiments is a search for anti pp resonances or bound states on one hand, and a detailed study of the anti pp interaction on the other hand. (orig.)

  2. Technical Note: Precise quantitative measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon from small amounts of seawater using a gas chromatographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT is one of the most frequently measured parameters used to calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater. Its determination has become increasingly important because of the rising interest in the biological effects of ocean acidification. Coulometric and infrared detection methods are currently favored in order to precisely quantify CT. These methods however are not sufficiently validated for CT measurements of biological experiments manipulating seawater carbonate chemistry with an extended CT measurement range (~1250–2400 μmol kg–1 compared to natural open ocean seawater (~1950–2200 μmol kg−1. The requirement of total sample amounts between 0.1–1 L seawater in the coulometric- and infrared detection methods potentially exclude their use for experiments working with much smaller volumes. Additionally, precise CT analytics become difficult with high amounts of biomass (e.g., phytoplankton cultures or even impossible in the presence of planktonic calcifiers without sample pre-filtration. Filtration however, can alter CT concentration through gas exchange induced by high pressure. Addressing these problems, we present precise quantification of CT using a small, basic and inexpensive gas chromatograph as a CT analyzer. Our technique is able to provide a repeatability of ±3.1 μmol kg−1, given by the pooled standard deviation over a CT range typically applied in acidification experiments. 200 μL of sample is required to perform the actual CT measurement. The total sample amount needed is 12 mL. Moreover, we show that sample filtration is applicable with only minor alteration of the CT. The method is simple, reliable and with low cumulative material costs. Hence, it is potentially attractive for all researchers experimentally manipulating the seawater carbonate system.

  3. [Relationship between atmospheric particles and rain water chemistry character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Qun; Sun, Qian; Xie, Peng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Li, Ji-Long; Lu, Si-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Rain and atmospheric particle samples were collected in the rural area of Taian and Shenzhen in 2007, respectively. Rain sampling was carried out during the precipitation process and several samples were got from the beginning of one precipitation to the end. The chemical character changes during precipitation and the changes of concentration of particles before and after rain were studied in this research to understand the contribution of particles on the rain chemical character and the rain-out effect for particles. The volume-weighted mean pH of rainwater in Taian was 5.97 and the total concentration of ions was 1 187.96 microeq x L(-1). The mass concentration of PM10 in Taian was 131.76 microg/m3 and that of PM2.5 was 103.84 microg/m3. The volume-weighted mean pH of rainwater in Shenzhen was 4.72 and the total concentration of ions was 175.89 microeq x L(-1). The mass concentration of PM10 in Shenzhen was 56.66 microg/m3 and that of PM2.5 was 41.52 microg/m3. During precipitation process pH and ion concentration of rain decrease and it is shown the neutralizing effect happens. The difference between rainwater of Taian and Shenzhen is due to cloud water acidity, atmospheric particles character and atmospheric acid-basic gases concentration. The clean-up effect of Na+ and Ca2+ by rain is high and which of NH4+ and NO3- is low. The clean-up effect for mass concentration, ions concentration and element concentration of particles by rain are significant.

  4. analysis of rain analysis of rain rate and rain attenuation for earth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    rate measurements were carried out using the Moupfouma and Chebil models ate measurements were ... The rain in Nigeria is characterized by high intensity rainfall, high frequency of ..... Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-. Terrestrial Physics ...

  5. Explosive Radiation of Malpighiales Supports a Mid-Cretaceous Origin of Modern Tropical Rain Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Davis, Charles; Webb, Campbell O.; Donoghue, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil data have been interpreted as indicating that Late Cretaceous tropical forests were open and dry adapted and that modern closed-canopy rain forest did not originate until after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. However, some mid-Cretaceous leaf floras have been interpreted as rain forest. Molecular divergence-time estimates within the clade Malpighiales, which constitute a large percentage of species in the shaded, shrub, and small tree layer in tropical rain forests worldwide, p...

  6. Detecting Sulfuric and Nitric Acid Rain Stresses on Quercus glauca through Hyperspectral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Xiuying; Ma, Yuandan; Li, Xinhui; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei

    2018-03-09

    Acid rain, which has become one of the most severe global environmental issues, is detrimental to plant growth. However, effective methods for monitoring plant responses to acid rain stress are currently lacking. The hyperspectral technique provides a cost-effective and nondestructive way to diagnose acid rain stresses. Taking a widely distributed species ( Quercus glauca ) in Southern China as an example, this study aims to monitor the hyperspectral responses of Q. glauca to simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). A total of 15 periods of leaf hyperspectral data under four pH levels of SAR and NAR were obtained during the experiment. The results showed that hyperspectral information could be used to distinguish plant responses under acid rain stress. An index (green peak area index, GPAI) was proposed to indicate acid rain stresses, based on the significantly variations in the region of 500-660 nm. Light acid rain (pH 4.5 SAR and NAR) promoted Q. glauca growth relative to the control groups (pH 5.6 SAR and NAR); moderate acid rain (pH 3.0 SAR) firstly promoted and then inhibited plant growth, while pH 3.0 NAR showed mild inhibitory effects during the experiment; and heavy acid rain (pH 2.0) significantly inhibited plant growth. Compared with NAR, SAR induced more serious damages to Q. glauca . These results could help monitor acid rain stress on plants on a regional scale using remote sensing techniques.

  7. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  8. Prognostic significance of total lesion glycolysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kurata, Seiji [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Sasada, Tetsuro [Department of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Yohei [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kaida, Hayato [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawahara, Akihiko [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kinoshita, Takashi [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has been employed as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant tumors. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET is calculated by multiplying the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) by the tumor volume. Unlike the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which represents the point of greatest metabolic activity within tumors, TLG has been suggested to reflect global metabolic activity in whole tumors. Methods: We retrospectively examined whether or not FDG-PET measurements, including SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG, could predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Results: This study involved 81 consecutive patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent FDG-PET examination before treatment. SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG on FDG-PET were significantly associated with gender, smoking status, and tumor histology. With adjustment for several other variables, Cox regression analysis showed that TLG was significantly prognostic for both PFS [hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–4.64; P = 0.015] and OS (hazard ratio = 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–6.96; P = 0.003), whereas SUVmean and SUVmax had no significant association with PFS (P = 0.693 and P = 0.322, respectively) or OS (P = 0.587 and P = 0.214, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TLG may be more useful than SUVmean and SUVmax for predicting PFS and OS in NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. The TLG measurement on FDG-PET imaging could be routinely recommended to advanced NSCLC patients.

  9. Retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition for the treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouhan, Jay; Gupta, Rohan; Ensor, Joe; Raghav, Kanwal; Fogelman, David; Wolff, Robert A.; Fisch, Michael; Overman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO) that does not resolve with conservative measures frequently leaves few treatment options other than palliative care. This single-institution retrospective study assesses the outcomes of a more aggressive approach—concurrent systemic chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition (TPN)—in the treatment of MSBO. The MD Anderson pharmacy database was queried to identify patients who received concurrent systemic chemotherapy and TPN between 2005 and 2013. Only patients with MSBO secondary to peritoneal carcinomatosis requiring TPN for ≥8 days were included. Survival and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. The study included 82 patients. MSBO resolution was observed in 10 patients. Radiographic assessments showed a response to chemotherapy in 19 patients; 6 of these patients experienced MSBO resolution. Patients spent an average of 38% of their remaining lives hospitalized, and 28% of patients required admission to the intensive care unit. In multivariate modeling, radiographic response to chemotherapy correlated with MSBO resolution (odds ratio [OR] 6.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–27.85, P = 0.007). Median overall survival (OS) was 3.1 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 12.6%. Radiographic response to chemotherapy (HR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.16–0.56, P < 0.001), and initiation of new chemotherapy during TPN (HR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.94, P = 0.026) independently predicted for longer OS. Concurrent treatment with systemic chemotherapy and TPN for persistent MSBO results in low efficacy and a high morbidity and mortality, and thus should not represent a standard approach

  10. The Rain-Powered Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    University of America Press, Washington, DC 20064, USA E-mail: mungan@usna.edu and lipscombe@cua.edu Received 10 May 2016, revised 22 June 2016 Accepted for...renewable energy (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) A familiar problem treats how wet a person walking in rain becomes as they

  11. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  12. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 2.0 μg kg -1 , respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.40 to 24.9 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 56.3 μg kg -1 , respectively, in the paddy field soil. In the vertical variation of the T-Hg of forest soil, the highest values were observed at the soil surface, and these values were found to decrease with increasing depth. A similar variation was observed for MeHg and total organic carbon content (TOC), and a linear relationship was observed between them. Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L -1 . River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg 0 and Hg 2+ in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg 0 concentration of 3.2 μg L -1 can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg 0 in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T

  13. Rain, Snow, and Spring Runoff Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the theory behind the correlation between warm rain, rapid snowmelt, and the subsequent runoff using the concepts of enthalpy, thermal transfer, and energy transfer. Concludes that rapid runoff is not a consequence of rain per se but of the high humidities associated with the rain. (JRH)

  14. analysis of rain rate and rain attenuation for earth-space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rain rate and rain attenuation predictions are vital when designing microwave satellite and terrestrial communication links, such as in the Ku and Ka bands. This paper presents the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the predicted rain rate and rain attenuation for Uyo, Akwa Ibom State (AKS) (Latitude: 4.88°N, ...

  15. Measurement of radioactivity in rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eivindson, T.

    1985-01-01

    The report gives a description of an ion-exchange surveillance- sampler for routine measurements of radioactivity in rain, and how the measurements are performed. Using the nuclides 85 Sr, 131 I and 137 Cs as tracers, experiments have been performed to determine the distribution of radioactivity in the ion-exchange column and the effectiveness of the column as a function of elutriation rate and temperature

  16. Acid rain attack on outdoor sculpture in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Richard A.

    2016-12-01

    A major concern motivating research in acid rain materials effects has been the potential for damage to cultural heritage, particularly outdoor marble and bronze sculpture. However, a combination of field and laboratory studies has failed to show a correlation between rain pH and loss of materials. In order to understand this counterintuitive lack of acid rain effect, an aqueous geochemical modeling approach was used to analyze rain runoff chemistry for the relative importance of acid rain neutralization, dry deposition, and in the case of marble, natural carbonate dissolution. This approach involved the development of pH - SO42- phase diagrams for marble (calcium carbonate) and bronze (copper) under ambient environmental conditions. This then enabled reaction path modeling of the acid neutralization process using the pH range typically found in wet deposition (3.5-6). The results were for marble that the theoretical maximum amount of Ca2+ ion that could be lost due acid rain neutralization would be 0.158 mmol/l compared to 10.5 mmol/l by dry deposition, and for bronze, the Cu2+ ion losses would be 0.21 mmol/l and 47.3 mmol/l respectively. Consequently dry deposition effects on these materials have the potential to dominate over wet deposition effects. To test these predictions the geochemical models were applied to examples of data sets from mass balance (runoff vs rainfall) studies on a marble statue in New York City and some bronze memorial plaques at Gettysburg PA. Although these data sets were collected in the early 1980s they remain valid for demonstrating the mass balance method. For the marble statue, the mean Ca2+ losses by dry deposition was about 69% of the total compared 0.3% for acid rain neutralization, which was less than the natural carbonate dissolution losses of 0.8%. For the bronze, the mean Cu2+ losses were 70.6% by SO42- dry deposition and 23% by NO3- dry deposition compared to 6.4% by acid rain neutralization. Thus for both cases the wet

  17. The contribution of free water transport and small pore transport to the total fluid removal in peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parikova, Alena; Smit, Watske; Struijk, Dirk G.; Zweers, Machteld M.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water transport in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is across the small pores and water channels, the latter allowing free water transport. The objective of the study was to investigate the contribution of each transport route on transcapillary ultrafiltration (TCUF). METHODS: Standard

  18. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert

  19. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  20. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  1. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  2. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Vandervoort, E.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, (Sc,p)fclindet, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied...

  3. Prevention of strong stench for stocked radioisotope sewerage using total water treatment agent for small-sized cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Katsumi; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Furuse, Yuko; Shinozuka, Akiko

    1996-01-01

    In general, the sewerage at radioisotope laboratories has very strong stench. We treated the sewerage with a total water treatment agent (Tachileslegi, Nippon Nouyaku Co., Ltd. ) that is widely used for prevention of slime, scale, corrosion in cooling towers. As the result, the stench was decreased to about two thirds to that of control estimated by odor-test. (author)

  4. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  5. Rain scavenging of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment is made of the rainout of airborne radioactive particles from a nuclear detonation with emphasis on the microphysical removal processes. For submicron particles the scavenging processes examined are Brownian and turbulent diffusion to cloud droplets. For particles larger than 1 μm radius, nucleation scavenging is examined. For various particle size and radioactivity distributions, it is found that from 27 to 99 percent of the radioactivity is attached to cloud droplets and subject to rapid removal by rain. (U.S.)

  6. Spread of acid rain over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. Prakasa; Safai, P. D.; Singh, G.; Kapoor, R. K.

    Rain water and aerosol samples were collected at a few locations representative of urban and non-urban regions in India. Also, rain water samples were collected in and around a coal-fired power plant. All the rain water and aerosol samples were analyzed for major chemical components along with pH. The rain water at all the places of measurement, except near the industrial sources, has been found to be alkaline and was characterized by the presence of excess cations, particularly by Ca 2+. The acid rain near the industrial sources was associated with excess anions, especially SO 42-. The atmospheric aerosols at all the places of measurement were found rich with basic components, suggesting that the alkaline soil dust and fly ash are responsible at present for preventing the spread of acid rain in India.

  7. Acid rain information book. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of widespread acid rain demand that the phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty and summarizes current and projected research. The report is organized by a logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures and regulatory options. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations

  8. Constructed Rain Garden Systems for Stormwater Quality Control under Tropical Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Elyza Muha, Norshafa; Noor, Nur Asmaliza Md; Basri, Hidayah

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has taken an integrated approach to manage storm water that is increasingly becoming a problem in big cities. Rain gardens are recommended as green technology for a new storm water management in Malaysia. The approach is applied in urban planning and design that integrates the total water cycle management into the development process areas. Rain gardens have been effective in reducing peak discharge and consistently reduce the number of storm water pollutants. This paper will examine some of guidelines, laboratory studies and field monitoring that shows great potential and benefit of rain garden. The preliminary results for rain garden performance were reported in this paper. The findings from this research will open avenues for researchers to advance the knowledge in rain garden systems to achieve the sustainable development in Malaysia.

  9. Constructed Rain Garden Systems for Stormwater Quality Control under Tropical Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Noor, Nur Asmaliza Md; Basri, Hidayah; Muha, Norshafa Elyza

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has taken an integrated approach to manage storm water that is increasingly becoming a problem in big cities. Rain gardens are recommended as green technology for a new storm water management in Malaysia. The approach is applied in urban planning and design that integrates the total water cycle management into the development process areas. Rain gardens have been effective in reducing peak discharge and consistently reduce the number of storm water pollutants. This paper will examine some of guidelines, laboratory studies and field monitoring that shows great potential and benefit of rain garden. The preliminary results for rain garden performance were reported in this paper. The findings from this research will open avenues for researchers to advance the knowledge in rain garden systems to achieve the sustainable development in Malaysia.

  10. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  11. Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Keckhut, P.; Damé, L.; Bekki, S.; Sarkissian, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the past decade, satellites constellations have become possible and practical. One of the interest to use a satellites constellation is to measure the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, which is a crucial quantity for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. This measurement presents a high interest because the 2001-2010 decade has not shown the accelerating pace of global warming that most models predict, despite the fact that the greenhouse-gas radiative forcing continues to rise. All estimates (ocean heat content and top of atmosphere) show that over the past decade the Earth radiation imbalance ranges between 0.5 to 1W-2. Up to now, the Earth radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar radiations (total solar irradiance) and the outgoing terrestrial radiations (top of atmosphere outgoing longwave radiations and shortwave radiations) onboard the same satellite, and ideally, with the same instrument. The incoming solar radiations and the outgoing terrestrial radiations are of nearly equal magnitude of the order of 340.5W-2. The objective is to measure these quantities over time by using differential Sun-Earth measurements (to counter calibration errors) with an accuracy better than 0.05Wm-2 at 1σ. It is also necessary to have redundant instruments to track aging in space in order to measure during a decade and to measure the global diurnal cycle with a dozen satellites. Solar irradiance and Earth Radiation Budget (SERB) is a potential first in orbit demonstration satellite. The SERB nano-satellite aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget and the total solar irradiance. Instrumental payloads (solar radiometer and Earth radiometers) can acquire the technical maturity for the future large missions (constellation that insure global measurement cover) by flying in a

  12. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Janczyk, Pawel; Zeyner, Annette; Smidt, Hauke; Guiard, Volker; Souffrant, Wolfgang Bernhard

    2008-10-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology of bacterial groups and within genus Lactobacillus in the SI of weaning piglets and the impact of dietary changes. The SI contents of 20 piglets, 4 killed at weaning (only sow milk and no creep feed) and 4 killed at 1, 2, 5, and 11 days post weaning (pw; cereal-based diet) were examined for bacterial cell count and bacterial metabolites by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Lactobacilli were the predominant group in the SI except at 1 day pw because of a marked reduction in their number. On day 11 pw, bifidobacteria and E. coli were not detected, and Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale cluster were only found occasionally. L. sobrius/L. amylovorus became dominant species whereas the abundance of L. salivarius and L. gasseri/johnsonii declined. Concentration of lactic acid increased pw whereas pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia decreased. Carbohydrate utilization of 76 Lactobacillus spp. isolates was studied revealing a shift from lactose and galactose to starch, cellobiose, and xylose, suggesting that the bacteria colonizing the SI of piglets adapt to the newly introduced nutrients during the early weaning period. Identification of isolates based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data and comparison with fermentation data furthermore suggested adaptation processes below the species level. The results of our study will help to understand intestinal bacterial ecophysiology and to develop nutritional regimes to prevent or counteract complications during the weaning transition.

  13. Adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and total volumetric bone density in postmenopausal South Asian women with small bone size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Andrea L; Hakim, Ohood A; Horton, Khim; Gibbs, Michelle A; Cui, Liang; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2013-07-01

    There is some evidence that South Asian women may have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women, although whether South Asians are at increased risk of fracture is not clear. It is unknown whether older South Asian women differ from Caucasian women in bone geometry. This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to use peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) to measure radial and tibial bone geometry in postmenopausal South Asian women. In comparison to Caucasian women, Asian women had smaller bone size at the 4% (-18% pAsians had increased cortical thickness (-17% p=0.04) at the 38% tibia, (in proportion to bone size (-30% p=0.003)). Furthermore, at the 4% and 14% tibia there were increased total densities (+12% to +29% pAsians. These differences at the 14% and 38% (but not 4%) remained statistically significant after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI). These adaptations are similar to those seen previously in Chinese women. Asian women had reduced strength at the radius and tibia, evidenced by the 20-40% reduction in both polar Strength Strain Index (SSIp) and fracture load (under bending). Overall, the smaller bone size in South Asians is likely to be detrimental to bone strength, despite some adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and tibial and radial density which may partially compensate for this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  15. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  16. Rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Chu, Guowei; Han, Xi; Zhang, Quanfa

    2017-07-17

    Rain-induced soil CO 2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO 2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO 2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO 2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO 2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains. Direct releases of CO 2 from litter layer only accounted for ~19% increases in soil CO 2 flux, suggesting that the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from litter layer to the topsoil is the major cause of rain-induced soil CO 2 pulse. In addition, rain-induced changes in soil CO 2 flux and microbial PLFA biomass decreased with increasing rain sizes, but they were positively correlated with litter-leached DOC concentration rather than total DOC flux. Our findings reveal an important role of litter-leached DOC input in regulating rain-induced soil CO 2 pulses and microbial community composition, and may have significant implications for CO 2 losses from tropical forest soils under future rainfall changes.

  17. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  18. Rain garden guidelines for southwest Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...

  19. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Prior Knowledge on Rain Gardens and Supports for Adopting Rain Gardens Using a Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prior knowledge and visual evaluation on supports for rain garden installations. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted to obtain prior knowledge of rain gardens, rain garden implementation support ratings, and visual evaluation of rain gardens in 100 visitors of three rain garden sites. Results of the analysis revealed that users’ visual evaluation of rain gardens played a role as a moderator in the relationship between prior knowledge and support for rain garden installations. In other words, education and publicity of rain gardens alone cannot increase support for rain gardens. However, if rain gardens are visually evaluated positively, the effects of education and publicity of rain gardens can be expected. Therefore, to successfully apply a rain garden policy in the future, basic consideration should be given to aesthetics in order to meet visitors’ visual expectations prior to education and publicity of rain gardens.

  1. Radar subpixel-scale rainfall variability and uncertainty: lessons learned from observations of a dense rain-gauge network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peleg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Runoff and flash flood generation are very sensitive to rainfall's spatial and temporal variability. The increasing use of radar and satellite data in hydrological applications, due to the sparse distribution of rain gauges over most catchments worldwide, requires furthering our knowledge of the uncertainties of these data. In 2011, a new super-dense network of rain gauges containing 14 stations, each with two side-by-side gauges, was installed within a 4 km2 study area near Kibbutz Galed in northern Israel. This network was established for a detailed exploration of the uncertainties and errors regarding rainfall variability within a common pixel size of data obtained from remote sensing systems for timescales of 1 min to daily. In this paper, we present the analysis of the first year's record collected from this network and from the Shacham weather radar, located 63 km from the study area. The gauge–rainfall spatial correlation and uncertainty were examined along with the estimated radar error. The nugget parameter of the inter-gauge rainfall correlations was high (0.92 on the 1 min scale and increased as the timescale increased. The variance reduction factor (VRF, representing the uncertainty from averaging a number of rain stations per pixel, ranged from 1.6% for the 1 min timescale to 0.07% for the daily scale. It was also found that at least three rain stations are needed to adequately represent the rainfall (VRF < 5% on a typical radar pixel scale. The difference between radar and rain gauge rainfall was mainly attributed to radar estimation errors, while the gauge sampling error contributed up to 20% to the total difference. The ratio of radar rainfall to gauge-areal-averaged rainfall, expressed by the error distribution scatter parameter, decreased from 5.27 dB for 3 min timescale to 3.21 dB for the daily scale. The analysis of the radar errors and uncertainties suggest that a temporal scale of at least 10 min should be used for

  2. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  3. Pretreatment red blood cell total folate is associated with response to pemetrexed in stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J.; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L.; Alley, Evan W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Langer, Corey J.; Blair, Ian A.; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Prior studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic marker of cellular folate status, was associated with response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. Pretreatment RBC total folate was quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We then compared objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations above and below an optimal cut-off value determined from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab. Results The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). ROC analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and non-responders. Patients with RBC total folate below 364.5 nM had an ORR of 27%, compared to 71% in patients with RBC total folate above this value (p=0.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.57, p=0.01). Conclusions Low pretreatment RBC total folate is associated with inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV non-squamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. PMID:27863923

  4. Comparing Satellite Rainfall Estimates with Rain-Gauge Data: Optimal Strategies Suggested by a Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Validation of satellite remote-sensing methods for estimating rainfall against rain-gauge data is attractive because of the direct nature of the rain-gauge measurements. Comparisons of satellite estimates to rain-gauge data are difficult, however, because of the extreme variability of rain and the fact that satellites view large areas over a short time while rain gauges monitor small areas continuously. In this paper, a statistical model of rainfall variability developed for studies of sampling error in averages of satellite data is used to examine the impact of spatial and temporal averaging of satellite and gauge data on intercomparison results. The model parameters were derived from radar observations of rain, but the model appears to capture many of the characteristics of rain-gauge data as well. The model predicts that many months of data from areas containing a few gauges are required to validate satellite estimates over the areas, and that the areas should be of the order of several hundred km in diameter. Over gauge arrays of sufficiently high density, the optimal areas and averaging times are reduced. The possibility of using time-weighted averages of gauge data is explored.

  5. A small punch test technique for characterizing the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA bone cement used in total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V L; Kurtz, S M; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A

    2001-07-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is used in total joint replacements to anchor implants to the underlying bone. Establishing and maintaining the integrity of bone cement is thus of critical importance to the long-term outcome of joint replacement surgery. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a novel testing technique, the small punch or miniaturized disk bend test, to characterize the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA. We investigated the hypothesis that the crack initiation behavior of PMMA during the small punch test was sensitive to the test temperature. Miniature disk-shaped specimens, 0.5 mm thick and 6.4 mm in diameter, were prepared from PMMA and Simplex-P bone cement according to manufacturers' instructions. Testing was conducted at ambient and body temperatures, and the effect of test temperature on the elastic modulus and fracture behavior was statistically evaluated using analysis of variance. For both PMMA materials, the test temperature had a significant effect on elastic modulus and crack initiation behavior. At body temperature, the specimens exhibited "ductile" crack initiation, whereas at room temperature "brittle" crack initiation was observed. The small punch test was found to be a sensitive and repeatable test method for evaluating the mechanical behavior of PMMA. In light of the results of this study, future small punch testing should be conducted at body temperature.

  6. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acid rain compliance planning using decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Sweet, T.; Borison, A.

    1991-01-01

    Illinois Power Company (IP) is an investor-owned electric and natural gas utility serving portions of downstate Illinois. In addition to one nuclear unit and several small gas and/or oil-fired units, IP has ten coal-fired units. It is easy to understand the impact the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) could have on IP. Prior to passage of the CAAA, IP formed several teams to evaluate the specific compliance options at each of the high sulfur coal units. Following that effort, numerous economic analyses of compliance strategies were conducted. The CAAA have introduced a new dimension to planning under uncertainty. Not only are many of the familiar variables uncertain, but the specific form of regulation, and indeed, the compliance goal itself is hard to define. For IP, this led them to use techniques not widely used within their corporation. This paper summarizes the analytical methods used in these analyses and the preliminary results as of July, 1991. The analysis used three approaches to examine the acid rain compliance decision. These approaches were: (1) the 'most-likely,' or single-path scenario approach; (2) a multi-path strategy analysis using the strategies defined in the single-scenario analysis; and (3) a less constrained multi-path option analysis which selects the least cost compliance option for each unit

  8. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  9. Retrieving latent heating vertical structure from cloud and precipitation Profiles—Part I: Warm rain processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Qilong; Li, Rui; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory study on physical based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm is conducted by parameterizing the physical linkages of hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water. Specifically, rain events are segregated into three rain types: warm, convective, and stratiform, based on their dynamical and thermodynamical characteristics. As the first of the series, only the warm rain LH algorithm is presented and evaluated here. The major microphysical processes of condensation and evaporation for warm rain are parameterized through traditional rain growth theory, with the aid of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations. The evaluation or the self-consistency tests indicate that the physical based retrievals capture the fundamental LH processes associated with the warm rain life cycle. There is no significant systematic bias in terms of convection strength, illustrated by the month-long CRM simulation as the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) experience from initial, mature, to decay stages. The overall monthly-mean LH comparison showed that the total LH, as well as condensation heating and evaporation cooling components, agree with the CRM simulation. -- Highlights: ► An exploratory study on physics-based warm rain latent heat retrieval algorithm. ► Utilize the full information of the vertical structures of cloud and rainfall. ► Directly link water mass measurements to latent heat at instantaneous pixel level. ► Applicable at various stages of cloud system life cycle

  10. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation at middle to low levels causes a reduction of high cloud cover due to the depletion of water available for ice-phase rain production. As a result, more isolated, but more intense penetrative convection develops. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale tends, implying a faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbance on daily to weekly time scales. The causes of the sensitivity of the dynamical regimes to the microphysics parameterization in the GCM will be discussed.

  11. Analysis of warm convective rain events in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, D.; Figuerola, F.; Aran, M.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Between the end of September and November, events with high amounts of rainfall are quite common in Catalonia. The high sea surface temperature of the Mediterranean Sea near to the Catalan Coast is one of the most important factors that help to the development of this type of storms. Some of these events have particular characteristics: elevated rain rate during short time periods, not very deep convection and low lightning activity. Consequently, the use of remote sensing tools for the surveillance is quite useless or limited. With reference to the high rain efficiency, this is caused by internal mechanisms of the clouds, and also by the air mass where the precipitation structure is developed. As aforementioned, the contribution of the sea to the air mass is very relevant, not only by the increase of the big condensation nuclei, but also by high temperature of the low layers of the atmosphere, where are allowed clouds with 5 or 6 km of particles in liquid phase. In fact, the freezing level into these clouds can be detected by -15ºC. Due to these characteristics, this type of rainy structures can produce high quantities of rainfall in a relatively brief period of time, and, in the case to be quasi-stationary, precipitation values at surface could be very important. From the point of view of remote sensing tools, the cloud nature implies that the different tools and methodologies commonly used for the analysis of heavy rain events are not useful. This is caused by the following features: lightning are rarely observed, the top temperatures of clouds are not cold enough to be enhanced in the satellite imagery, and, finally, reflectivity radar values are lower than other heavy rain cases. The third point to take into account is the vulnerability of the affected areas. An elevated percentage of the Catalan population lives in the coastal region. In the central coast of Catalonia, the urban areas are surrounded by a not very high mountain range with small basins and

  12. Scaling properties of Polish rain series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.

    2009-04-01

    Scaling properties as well as multifractal nature of precipitation time series have not been studied for local Polish conditions until recently due to lack of long series of high-resolution data. The first Polish study of precipitation time series scaling phenomena was made on the base of pluviograph data from the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences meteorological station located at the south-western part of the country. The 38 annual rainfall records from years 1962-2004 were converted into digital format and transformed into a standard format of 5-minute time series. The scaling properties and multifractal character of this material were studied by means of several different techniques: power spectral density analysis, functional box-counting, probability distribution/multiple scaling and trace moment methods. The result proved the general scaling character of time series at the range of time scales ranging form 5 minutes up to at least 24 hours. At the same time some characteristic breaks at scaling behavior were recognized. It is believed that the breaks were artificial and arising from the pluviograph rain gauge measuring precision limitations. Especially strong limitations at the precision of low-intensity precipitations recording by pluviograph rain gauge were found to be the main reason for artificial break at energy spectra, as was reported by other authors before. The analysis of co-dimension and moments scaling functions showed the signs of the first-order multifractal phase transition. Such behavior is typical for dressed multifractal processes that are observed by spatial or temporal averaging on scales larger than the inner-scale of those processes. The fractal dimension of rainfall process support derived from codimension and moments scaling functions geometry analysis was found to be 0.45. The same fractal dimension estimated by means of the functional box-counting method was equal to 0.58. At the final part of the study

  13. Soak Up the Rain Customizable Outreach Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get customizable Soak Up the Rain business card, posters, & a banner that can be downloaded & copied for use by citizens, municipalities, watershed & planning organizations & others in their stormwater/green infrastructure education & outreach efforts.

  14. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  15. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  16. Rain Erosion/Measurement Impact Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FARM Rain Erosion/Impact Measurement Lab develops solutions for deficiencies in the ability of materials, coatings and designs to withstand a severe operational...

  17. 7746 CONCENTRATIONS OF FORMALDEHYDE IN RAIN WATERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... The chromotropic acid method described by the. National Institute for ... concentration range of the formaldehyde in the rain waters varied from month to month throughout the six ... vicinity of vegetation [3]. Formaldehyde is the ...

  18. Phenomena associated with rain deposition of radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Since Rn daughter nuclides generated from Rn gas in the air are generally absorbed on aerosol, its radioactivities are apt to deposit onto the ground with raindrop. Here, the effects of raining on the radiation level were investigated. The amount of precipitation was determined using a highly sensitive rain gauge (the nominal sensitivity of 0.0043 mm) and air radioactive level was measured using a scintillation monitor of 2``{phi}x2``NaI(Tl) which was set at 1.5 m height above the ground. The rising of {gamma}-radiation level associated with rainfall was expressed as percentage of the base line activity. The radiation level increased depending on the intervals between the successive rainfalls and the increase of radioactivity from base line was greater when the rainfall interval was less than 12 hours. Therefore, the amount of radiation deposit was suggested to be small when the rainfall interval is short. Ordinarily, the increase of air radiation level caused by rain deposition was thought to be within a range of 20-50%. (M.N.)

  19. Acid rain may cause senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F

    1985-04-25

    Aluminium, released from the soil by acid rain, may be a cause of several forms of senile dementia including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Many upland reservoirs, fed by acid rain, supply homes with water laced with significant amounts of aluminium. Studies in the Pacific have shown that communities living on soils that are extremely rich in bauxite, the rock containing aluminium, have a very high incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Acid Rain and Snow in Kashiwazaki City.

    OpenAIRE

    小野寺, 正幸; 富永, 禎秀; 竹園, 恵; 大金, 一二; Onodera, Masayuki; Tominaga, Yoshihide; Takesono, Satoshi; Oogane, Katsuji

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the actual condition of acid rain and snow and their influence of a winter monsoon in Kashiwazaki city. For 7 months from September in 2001 to March in 2002, the pH value was measured in rain or snow. The minimum of pH value observed was 3.9 for the 7 months. The day which observed pH

  1. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie [CHU de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, Laboratoire de Genetique Medicale, Strasbourg (France); Astruc, Dominique [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Neonatologie, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-03-15

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  2. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie; Astruc, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  3. The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree alpha-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, I.; Malhi, Y.; Senterre, B.; Whittaker, R.J.; Alonso, A.; Balinga, M.P.B.; Bakayoko, A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Chatelain, C.; Comiskey, J.; Cortay, R.; Djuikouo Kamdem, M.N.; Doucet, J.L.; Gauier, L.; Hawthorne, W.D.; Issembe, Y.A.; Kouamé, F.N.; Kouka, L.; Leal, M.E.; Lejoly, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Newbery, D.; Nusbaumer, L.; Parren, M.P.E.; Peh, K.S.H.; Phillips, O.L.; Sheil, D.; Sonké, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Sunderland, T.; Stropp, J.; Steege, ter H.; Swaine, M.; Tchouto, P.; Gemerden, van B.S.; Valkenburg, van J.; Wöll, H.

    2007-01-01

    1. Comparative analyses of diversity variation among and between regions allow testing of alternative explanatory models and ideas. Here, we explore the relationships between the tree alpha-diversity of small rain forest plots in Africa and in Amazonia and climatic variables, to test the explanatory

  4. Effect of Rain Acidity Upon Mobility of Cs-134 and Co-60 in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangchuay, S.; Harvey, N.W.; Sriyotha, P.

    1998-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effects of groundwater and acid rain upon the mobility of radionuclides (Cs-134 and Co-60) in contaminated top soil. Clay soil was homogeneously packed in columns with dimension φ.12.5 cm. * 50 cm.. At the top 5 cm. of the columns, soil contaminated with radionuclides was added with the same consistency. Column were kept standing for 4 months in an artificial water table kept at 3 cm. from the bottom. During this period artificial acid rain with pH3, 4.5 and 6 was applied weekly at the top. Soil samples were taken every 30 days for examination of total and extracable radioactivity. It was shown that with the aide of the rain radionuclide movement down the profile was greater, with Co-60 > Cs-134. However acidity of the rain shown no effect on their movement

  5. Neutral rains at Athens, Greece: a natural safeguard against acidification of rains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Itsuro; Sato, Takayuki; Kase, Yoshinori; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    Samples of all rains in a period from October, 1998 to January, 1999 at Athens, Greece, were collected. The pH values of almost all of these rains clustered in a high range of 7.0-7.5, with no relation between pH and their SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - contents. In addition, a few rains with low contents of chemical components similar to pure water also were observed, giving a pH (approx. 5.5) of rain caused by dissolution of only atmospheric CO 2 in it. These results indicate that the level of air pollution of Athens by human activity has become lower during the last decade, restoring the neutral condition of rain in this area. Furthermore, the Ca contents and Ca/Mg ratios in these rains, as well as their chemical and isotopic behavior, suggest that particles of calcium carbonate taken in as dust act as a neutralizer of rains. The dust must be derived not only from the urban area of Athens but also from its environs or areas distant from it. Such a mechanism causing universally neutral rains throughout the rainy season at Athens must have worked as a natural safeguard against rains acidified naturally and artificially from ancient times up to recent years, keeping the remains of ancient Greece in a good state of preservation during such a long period

  6. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    significantly in test plant with decreasing pH of acid rain solution. Acid rain application ... indicates the sunflower plant turns to be an acid rain sensitive system and demands for breeding with acid rain ..... Changes in growth, pigmentation and ...

  7. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Nitrate Levels in Pensacola Area Rain Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J.; Caffrey, J. M.; Maestre, A.; Landing, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate is an important constituent of acid rain and often correlated with atmospheric NOx levels. This link between air and water quality was tested over a course of summer 2017 and compared to data from 2005-2012. Rain water samples collected from late May through early July of 2017 were tested for pH and nitrate concentrations. These months were among the stormiest on record for the Northwest Florida region with a total rainfall of 648 mm. The data analyzed from these rain events was compared to previous data to show the trends of nitrate and pH levels in the rainwater. Median pH for this study was 5.2, higher than the medians between 2015-2012 which ranged from 4.2 to 5.0, while nitrate concentrations for this study were 15.2 µM. This contrasts with a significant drop in nitrate concentrations from 41 µM in 2005 and 2006 to around 12 µM between 2007 and 2012. The drop between 2006-7 was suspected to be a result of implementation of NOx controls at Plant Crist coal fired power plant and other Clean Air Act requirements. These inputs of nitrate and H+ ions from rainwater can have a significant influence water quality throughout the region.

  9. Deep Joint Rain Detection and Removal from a Single Image

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenhan; Tan, Robby T.; Feng, Jiashi; Liu, Jiaying; Guo, Zongming; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address a rain removal problem from a single image, even in the presence of heavy rain and rain streak accumulation. Our core ideas lie in the new rain image models and a novel deep learning architecture. We first modify an existing model comprising a rain streak layer and a background layer, by adding a binary map that locates rain streak regions. Second, we create a new model consisting of a component representing rain streak accumulation (where individual streaks cannot b...

  10. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fog-rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Pengfei; Yan, Lili; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Shifen

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mainly originate from incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of materials containing carbon and hydrogen. They exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). Current studies in atmospheric PAHs are predominantly focused on fog and rainwater samples. Some sampling difficulties are associated with fog samples. This study presented the first observation of the characteristics of PAHs in fog samples using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Eighteen fog samples were collected during ten fog events from March to December 2009 in the Shanghai area. PAHs were extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As the compounds were partially soluble in water, with solubility decreasing with increasing molecular weight, low molecular weight (LMW) PAH compounds were universally found in the fog water samples. Naphthalene (NaP), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant) and fluoranthene (Flo) were dominant compounds in fog water. The total PAH concentration in fog water ranged from 0.03 to 6.67 μg L(-1) (mean of 1.06 μg L(-1)), and was much higher in winter than in summer. The concentration of PAHs in fog or rain water decreased after undergoing a pre-rain or pre-fog wash. The average concentration of PAHs was higher in fog than in rain. Diagnostic ratio analysis suggested that petroleum and combustion were the dominant contributors to PAHs in urban Shanghai. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses, showing that air masses were mostly from the northeast territory.

  11. Total renewal of a small hydro project on the Engstligenalp - Licence and construction project; Bergbahnen Engstligenalp AG - Gesamterneuerung Kleinwasserkraftwerk. Konzessions- und Bauprojekt - Technischer Bericht mit Beilagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M.

    2009-05-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the total renewal of a small hydro scheme operated by the Engstligenalp aerial cableway in Switzerland. The cableway operator considers itself as part of the national effort to support sustainability. The refurbished hydropower installation will produce power for around 500 homes. The hydrology of the catchment area involved, quantities of water available and residual water conditions as well as the existing installations are described and discussed. Stipulations concerning landscape conservation are noted. The renewal project is discussed and details are given on the dam, water intake, pressure pipe and regulation. The new underground facilities for the horizontal-axis turbine, generator and electrical equipment are described. Finally environmental aspects, energy production and economic viability are discussed.

  12. Data driven analysis of rain events: feature extraction, clustering, microphysical /macro physical relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djallel Dilmi, Mohamed; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent; Chazottes, Aymeric

    2017-04-01

    The study of rain time series records is mainly carried out using rainfall rate or rain accumulation parameters estimated on a fixed integration time (typically 1 min, 1 hour or 1 day). In this study we used the concept of rain event. In fact, the discrete and intermittent natures of rain processes make the definition of some features inadequate when defined on a fixed duration. Long integration times (hour, day) lead to mix rainy and clear air periods in the same sample. Small integration time (seconds, minutes) will lead to noisy data with a great sensibility to detector characteristics. The analysis on the whole rain event instead of individual short duration samples of a fixed duration allows to clarify relationships between features, in particular between macro physical and microphysical ones. This approach allows suppressing the intra-event variability partly due to measurement uncertainties and allows focusing on physical processes. An algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organising Maps (SOM) is developed to obtain a parsimonious characterisation of rain events using a minimal set of variables. The use of self-organizing map (SOM) is justified by the fact that it allows to map a high dimensional data space in a two-dimensional space while preserving as much as possible the initial space topology in an unsupervised way. The obtained SOM allows providing the dependencies between variables and consequently removing redundant variables leading to a minimal subset of only five features (the event duration, the rain rate peak, the rain event depth, the event rain rate standard deviation and the absolute rain rate variation of order 0.5). To confirm relevance of the five selected features the corresponding SOM is analyzed. This analysis shows clearly the existence of relationships between features. It also shows the independence of the inter-event time (IETp) feature or the weak dependence of the Dry percentage in event (Dd%e) feature. This confirms

  13. Modeling the impact of wintertime rain events on the thermal regime of permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present field measurements and numerical process modeling from western Svalbard showing that the ground surface temperature below the snow is impacted by strong wintertime rain events. During such events, rain water percolates to the bottom of the snow pack, where it freezes and releases latent heat. In the winter season 2005/2006, on the order of 20 to 50% of the wintertime precipitation fell as rain, thus confining the surface temperature to close to 0 °C for several weeks. The measured average ground surface temperature during the snow-covered period is −0.6 °C, despite of a snow surface temperature of on average −8.5 °C. For the considered period, the temperature threshold below which permafrost is sustainable on long timescales is exceeded. We present a simplified model of rain water infiltration in the snow coupled to a transient permafrost model. While small amounts of rain have only minor impact on the ground surface temperature, strong rain events have a long-lasting impact. We show that consecutively applying the conditions encountered in the winter season 2005/2006 results in the formation of an unfrozen zone in the soil after three to five years, depending on the prescribed soil properties. If water infiltration in the snow is disabled in the model, more time is required for the permafrost to reach a similar state of degradation.

  14. Urban dew and rain in Paris, France: Occurrence and physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beysens, D.; Mongruel, A.; Acker, K.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes one year (April 2011 to March 2012) measurements on planar condensing surfaces of dew and rain events and related physico-chemical characteristics in the urban environment of Paris (city center). Yearly collected water was 3.48 mm for dew (63 events) and 593 mm for rain (146 events). The latter value compares well with rain data (547 mm and 107 events) collected within 12 km at Paris-Orly airport. An estimation of dew yield based on meteo data gives 2.35 mm and 74 events, to be compared with 17.11 mm and 196 events at Paris-Orly. These differences highlight the large reduction in dew events and dew yields in an urban area as compared to a close rural-like area. This reduction is not due to a sky view reduction but to heat island that increases air temperature and decreases relative humidity. Analysis of dew (34) and rain (77) samples were done concerning pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations as well as selected trace metals and other minor ions. Mean pH values are found similar for both, dew (6.5) and rain (6.1), rain being slightly more acidic than dew. The mean dew total ionic content (TIC 1.8 meq/l) and EC value (124 μS/cm) are about four times that of rain (0.45 meq/l; 35 μS/cm), meaning that total dissolved solids in dew is nearly four times that in rain. Sulfate and nitrate are the most acidifying components, calcium the most neutralizing constituent with ratio of mean total acidity/total alkalinity comparable for dew and rain ( 0.9). Sulfate and nitrate have mainly anthropogenic sources, whereas chloride and magnesium are mostly connected with marine air masses. Dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition of pollutants; dew and rain ion concentrations, however, meet the WHO requirements for drinking water.

  15. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  16. Electromagnetic Drop Scale Scattering Modelling for Dynamic Statistical Rain Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This work simulates the scattering of electromagnetic waves by a rain field. The calculations are performed for the individual drops and accumulate to a time signal dependent on the dynamic properties of the rain field. The simulations are based on the analytical Mie scattering model for spherical rain drops and the simulation software considers the rain characteristics drop size (including their distribution in rain), motion, and frequency and temperature dependent permittivity. The performe...

  17. Single-objective vs. multi-objective autocalibration in modelling total suspended solids and phosphorus in a small agricultural watershed with SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomanana, Santatriniaina Denise; Lessard, Paul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To obtain greater precision in modelling small agricultural watersheds, a shorter simulation time step is beneficial. A daily time step better represents the dynamics of pollutants in the river and provides more realistic simulation results. However, with a daily evaluation performance, good fits are rarely obtained. With the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) method embedded in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), two calibration approaches are available, single-objective or multi-objective optimization. The goal of the present study is to evaluate which approach can improve the daily performance with SWAT, in modelling flow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP). The influence of weights assigned to the different variables included in the objective function has also been tested. The results showed that: (i) the model performance depends not only on the choice of calibration approach, but essentially on the influential parameters; (ii) the multi-objective calibration estimating at once all parameters related to all measured variables is the best approach to model Q, TSS and TP; (iii) changing weights does not improve model performance; and (iv) with a single-objective optimization, an excellent water quality modelling performance may hide a loss of performance of predicting flows and unbalanced internal model components.

  18. Rain attenuation studies from radiometric and rain DSD measurements at two tropical locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tuhina; Adhikari, Arpita; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-05-01

    Efficient use of satellite communication in tropical regions demands proper characterization of rain attenuation, particularly, in view of the available popular propagation models which are mostly based on temperate climatic data. Thus rain attenuations at frequencies 22.234, 23.834 and 31.4/30 GHz over two tropical locations Kolkata (22.57°N, 88.36°E, India) and Belem (1.45°S, 48.49° W, Brazil), have been estimated for the year 2010 and 2011, respectively. The estimation has been done utilizing ground-based disdrometer observations and radiometric measurements over Earth-space path. The results show that rain attenuation estimations from radiometric data are reliable only at low rain rates (measurements show good agreement with the ITU-R model, even at high rain rates (upto100 mm/h). Despite having significant variability in terms of drop size distribution (DSD), the attenuation values calculated from DSD data (disdrometer measurements) at Kolkata and Belem differ a little for the rain rates below 30 mm/h. However, the attenuation values, obtained from radiometric measurements at the two places, show significant deviations ranging from 0.54 dB to 3.2 dB up to a rain rate of 30 mm/h, on account of different rain heights, mean atmospheric temperatures and climatology of the two locations.

  19. Implications of Warm Rain in Shallow Cumulus and Congestus Clouds for Large-Scale Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijens, Louise; Emanuel, Kerry; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan

    2017-11-01

    Space-borne observations reveal that 20-40% of marine convective clouds below the freezing level produce rain. In this paper we speculate what the prevalence of warm rain might imply for convection and large-scale circulations over tropical oceans. We present results using a two-column radiative-convective model of hydrostatic, nonlinear flow on a non-rotating sphere, with parameterized convection and radiation, and review ongoing efforts in high-resolution modeling and observations of warm rain. The model experiments investigate the response of convection and circulation to sea surface temperature (SST) gradients between the columns and to changes in a parameter that controls the conversion of cloud condensate to rain. Convection over the cold ocean collapses to a shallow mode with tops near 850 hPa, but a congestus mode with tops near 600 hPa can develop at small SST differences when warm rain formation is more efficient. Here, interactive radiation and the response of the circulation are crucial: along with congestus a deeper moist layer develops, which leads to less low-level radiative cooling, a smaller buoyancy gradient between the columns, and therefore a weaker circulation and less subsidence over the cold ocean. The congestus mode is accompanied with more surface precipitation in the subsiding column and less surface precipitation in the deep convecting column. For the shallow mode over colder oceans, circulations also weaken with more efficient warm rain formation, but only marginally. Here, more warm rain reduces convective tops and the boundary layer depth—similar to Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) studies—which reduces the integrated buoyancy gradient. Elucidating the impact of warm rain can benefit from large-domain high-resolution simulations and observations. Parameterizations of warm rain may be constrained through collocated cloud and rain profiling from ground, and concurrent changes in convection and rain in subsiding and convecting branches of

  20. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-10

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  1. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  2. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  3. Measurement of rain intensity by means of active-passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkova, Anna; Khlopov, Grygoriy

    2014-05-01

    measurement errors. That is why the complex using of double frequency radar (active sensing) and radiometer (passive sensing) for measurement of rain parameters is proposed in the paper. The sufficiency of this approach is based on the different physical nature of the scattering and radiation of electromagnetic waves by rain drops, that improves informativity of the remote sensing data by increasing the number of statistically independent parameters. At that small cost of radiometer and its simple construction permit it to be easy embedded in practical usage as add-on to radar. Model of uniform rain (drop size distribution parameters do not depend on the distance in the rain) are considered in the paper. In this case the inverse problem of active-passive remote sensing is described by system of three integral equations solution of which was done by calculus of approximations. The numerical simulation of active-passive sensing of rain was performed for rain intensity from 0 till 30 mm/h and such values of wavelengths: 8.2 mm and 3.2 cm for radar, 3.2 cm for radiometer. Because of measurement ambiguity in solution of inverse task it is necessary to use additional criteria ( proximity criterion) to choose one solution. It was shown that proposed approach allows to measure rain intensity with accuracy not more than 10%.

  4. Rain-season trends in precipitation and their effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanling; Achberger, Christine; Linderholm, Hans W

    2011-01-01

    Using high-quality precipitation data from 524 stations, the trends of a set of precipitation variables during the main rain season (May-September) from 1961 to 2008 for different climate regions in China were analysed. However, different characteristics were displayed in different regions of China. In most temperate monsoon regions (north-eastern China), total rain-season precipitation and precipitation days showed decreasing trends; positive tendencies in precipitation intensity were, however, noted for most stations in this region. It is suggested that the decrease in rain-season precipitation is mainly related to there being fewer rain days and a change towards drier conditions in north-eastern China, and as a result, the available water resources have been negatively affected in the temperate monsoon regions. In most subtropical and tropical monsoon climate regions (south-eastern China), the rain-season precipitation and precipitation days (11-50, with > 50 mm) showed slightly positive trends. However, precipitation days with ≤ 10 mm decreased in these regions. Changes towards wetter conditions in this area, together with more frequent heavy rainfall events causing floods, have a severe impact on peoples' lives and socio-economic development. In general, the rain-season precipitation, precipitation days and rain-season precipitation intensity had all increased in the temperate continental and plateau/mountain regions of western China. This increase in rain-season precipitation has been favourable to pasture growth.

  5. Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.

  6. Total approach is a must for small and medium enterprises to attain sustainable working conditions and environment, with special reference to Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, Adnyana

    2006-01-01

    Attention and assistance to enhance the role of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) by the government is more emphasized due to the success of SMEs in earning significant amount of foreign currency when Indonesia had to face economical crisis in 1997. This policy has been highly recognized again since the bombing tragedy in 2002; with the excellent evidence to show how important SMEs is in helping and maintaining the economic development of Bali. But in the implementation the assistance needs to be remanaged again in a more proper and appropriate way to attain the ultimate goals. The three economic potentials, agriculture in broad sense, tourism and SMEs (cottage industry included), must be developed in harmony, interdependence, support and complementary each other, if possible as synergist to obtain sustainable development of Bali. While assistance to SMEs must be done in a more coordinated way among the government technical offices, universities, NGOs, banking, and other social community institutions. By doing so, there would be no duplication or gap, nor creation of new disadvantageous problems. It could be in form of ergonomics, occupational health and safety impacts and problems in particular, and in adverse working conditions and environment in general. Therefore it is a must at this moment to carry out total approach in helping SMEs, by integrating the effort to improve their working conditions and environment, built-in within the effort to enhance SMEs'quality of life through economic assistance. In this process a total approach through SHIP approach and Appropriate Technology intervention must be done wisely and timely. By so doing, SMEs'sustainable working conditions and environment shall be attained.

  7. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  8. Effects of experimental snowmelt and rain on dispersal of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Water flows affect dispersal of propagules of many plant species, and rivers and streams are therefore very important dispersal vectors. However, small water flows such as trough rain and snowmelt are much more common, but their effects on dispersal are barely studied. The importance of this form of

  9. Performance analysis of spring wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions in warm humid environment of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raj Puri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 25% of total wheat area in Terai of Nepal falls under rain-fed and partially irrigated condition. A Coordinated varietal trial (CVT was conducted during two consecutive crop cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13 under timely sown rain-fed conditions of Terai. The trial was conducted in Alpha Lattice design with two replications at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj. Observations were recorded for yield and yield traits and analyzed using statistical software Cropstat 7.2.The combined analysis of coordinated varietal trial showed that BL 3978 possessed the highest yield (2469.2 Kg ha-1 followed by NL 1097 (2373.2 Kg ha-1 and NL 1094 (2334.06 Kg ha-1. Genotype x Environment interaction for grain yield was significant (p<0.05 over locations and years. BL 3978 with early maturity (111 days escaped the heat stress environment. Among the top three genotypes, BL 3978 was consistently higher in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. Earliness was one of the major traits for heat tolerant genotypes. The three identified genotypes will be further evaluated in participatory varietal selection or coordinated farmers field trial followed by small plot seed multiplication (seed increase and release in the future for timely sown rain-fed conditions. These lines also appear suitable for inclusion in crossing program targeted for water stress tolerance variety development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12649 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 289-295

  10. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    To support the development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model usable in Riskinformed Applications (RIA) for Korea Standard Nuclear power Plants (KSNP), we have performed a thermal hydraulic analysis of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a 2-inch Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI). The present study focuses on the estimation of the success criteria of ASC, and the enhanced understanding of the detailed thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The results have shown that the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure can be reduced to the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) operation conditions without core damage. It was also shown that more relaxed success criteria compared to those in the previous PSA models of KSNP could be used in the new PSA model. However, it was found that the results could be affected by various parameters related with ASC operation, i.e., reference temperature for the calculation of the cooldown rate and its control method

  11. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  12. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in small break loss of coolant accident with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Yang, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). To use RIA, the present study focuses on the detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success criteria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The accident scenario was 2 inch coldleg break LOCA without HPSI, with 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI), and performing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C /hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip, which successively reaches the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that operator should maintain the adequate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate uncertainties arisen from the related parameters of the ASC operation

  13. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  16. Rain from South and snow from North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y

    1954-12-01

    Detection of nuclear explosions by various methods including observations of fission product activity in the atmosphere is discussed. Deposition of 750 cpm on a vase-line coated paper (30 x 30 cm) on May 13 to 16, 1954 was recorded. Eighty-six thousand cpm/1 was observed in rain at Kyoto on May 14, apparently from the May 5 test at Bikini.

  17. Chemical characteristics of rain-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio; Ogiwara, Hiroshi; Park, Jeong-Ho; Takahashi, Kanji

    1994-01-01

    Rain drops were collected every 0.1mm precipitation. Rain water was passed through a Nuclepore filter with 0.2μm pore-size. Chemical species in the filtrate and the residue are defined as a soluble and an insoluble component, respectively. Dry PIXE samples from filtrate were prepared bydropping and evaporating successively ten 20μ l drops with a micropipet onto a non-hole thin film. The drops were dried in a spot-like of 4mmφ such that all of the samples were bombarded by 6mmφ ion beam. Elemental concentrations were determined with 2.0 MeV H + beam from a Tandem accelerator. X-rays with 0.5-14.8keV energy were detected by a Si(Li) detector after passing through a 39.3μm thick Maylar absorber. The concentrations of all analyzed 15 elements in both insoluble and soluble components decreased rapidly from the beginning of rain to the amount of 0.3mm rain fall as well asban electrical conductivity. Most of Si and Fe were insoluble, on the other hand, most of S and Cl were soluble. (author)

  18. Agro-climatic Methodology of rain distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasso Espinosa, Luis D.

    2003-01-01

    Rain distribution is almost, the most important impute on agricultural activities in any place in Colombia. The method to define when rain is well or bad distributed follows the next criteria: one effective rainy day or day with sufficient amount of water for crop development is one, in which, the amount of precipitation is between 0.5 ETP and 3 ETP. On the other hand, one dray day has rain less than 0.5 ETP and one humid day one with more than 3 ETP. Which that in main, it's possible to considered a very well distributed month for agricultural practices, one who has more effective rainy days than dray or humid days or intermittent effective, humid and dray days. In this exercise was used the daily precipitation data for 1969 -1997 period of Tangua meteorological station, located at 01 degrade 05 minutes 50 seconds N latitude and 77 degrade 23 minutes 53 seconds W longitude, and 2400 meters over the sea level. The results show October and November as the only months of the year, with one humid month, each one, during the whole period, that means 3 % of the cases and July, august and September as the driest epoch. On the other hand, months with suitable rain for agricultural activities are, January with 21 % of the cases, February 45%, march 38 %, April 55 %, may 28 %, June 7 %, October 28 %, November 48 % and December with 34 % of the cases

  19. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  20. Preliminary information on studies of radioactive rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, A A; Beltran, V; Brody, T A; Lezama, H; Moreno, A; Tejera, M A; Vazquer, B

    1956-01-01

    Data on radioactive rain, which were obtained by the gummed leaf method and by collection in a free surface of water are presented. The experimental methods are described. Some conclusions are obtained on the relative efficiency of the two methods and their relations to atmospheric precipitation.

  1. Promoting nitrate removal in rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions, often located at low points in landscapes, designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. The gardens’ sandy soils allow stormwater to drain quickly to the native soils below and eventually to groundwate...

  2. Relativistically speaking: Let's walk or run through the rain?

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Armando V. D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse under a simple approach the problem one must decide the best strategy to minimize the contact with rain when moving between two points through the rain. The available strategies: walk (low speed boost $

  3. Rain-rate data base development and rain-rate climate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    The single-year rain-rate distribution data available within the archives of Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) Study Group 5 were compiled into a data base for use in rain-rate climate modeling and for the preparation of predictions of attenuation statistics. The four year set of tip-time sequences provided by J. Goldhirsh for locations near Wallops Island were processed to compile monthly and annual distributions of rain rate and of event durations for intervals above and below preset thresholds. A four-year data set of tropical rain-rate tip-time sequences were acquired from the NASA TRMM program for 30 gauges near Darwin, Australia. They were also processed for inclusion in the CCIR data base and the expanded data base for monthly observations at the University of Oklahoma. The empirical rain-rate distributions (edfs) accepted for inclusion in the CCIR data base were used to estimate parameters for several rain-rate distribution models: the lognormal model, the Crane two-component model, and the three parameter model proposed by Moupfuma. The intent of this segment of the study is to obtain a limited set of parameters that can be mapped globally for use in rain attenuation predictions. If the form of the distribution can be established, then perhaps available climatological data can be used to estimate the parameters rather than requiring years of rain-rate observations to set the parameters. The two-component model provided the best fit to the Wallops Island data but the Moupfuma model provided the best fit to the Darwin data.

  4. Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, K.; Meng, C.

    1987-01-01

    On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>10 7 electrons/cm 2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  5. A recursive method for calculating the total number of spanning trees and its applications in self-similar small-world scale-free network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Su, Jing; Yao, Bing

    2018-05-01

    The problem of determining and calculating the number of spanning trees of any finite graph (model) is a great challenge, and has been studied in various fields, such as discrete applied mathematics, theoretical computer science, physics, chemistry and the like. In this paper, firstly, thank to lots of real-life systems and artificial networks built by all kinds of functions and combinations among some simpler and smaller elements (components), we discuss some helpful network-operation, including link-operation and merge-operation, to design more realistic and complicated network models. Secondly, we present a method for computing the total number of spanning trees. As an accessible example, we apply this method to space of trees and cycles respectively, and our results suggest that it is indeed a better one for such models. In order to reflect more widely practical applications and potentially theoretical significance, we study the enumerating method in some existing scale-free network models. On the other hand, we set up a class of new models displaying scale-free feature, that is to say, following P(k) k-γ, where γ is the degree exponent. Based on detailed calculation, the degree exponent γ of our deterministic scale-free models satisfies γ > 3. In the rest of our discussions, we not only calculate analytically the solutions of average path length, which indicates our models have small-world property being prevailing in amounts of complex systems, but also derive the number of spanning trees by means of the recursive method described in this paper, which clarifies our method is convenient to research these models.

  6. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Explosive radiation of Malpighiales supports a mid-cretaceous origin of modern tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Webb, Campbell O; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Donoghue, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Fossil data have been interpreted as indicating that Late Cretaceous tropical forests were open and dry adapted and that modern closed-canopy rain forest did not originate until after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. However, some mid-Cretaceous leaf floras have been interpreted as rain forest. Molecular divergence-time estimates within the clade Malpighiales, which constitute a large percentage of species in the shaded, shrub, and small tree layer in tropical rain forests worldwide, provide new tests of these hypotheses. We estimate that all 28 major lineages (i.e., traditionally recognized families) within this clade originated in tropical rain forest well before the Tertiary, mostly during the Albian and Cenomanian (112-94 Ma). Their rapid rise in the mid-Cretaceous may have resulted from the origin of adaptations to survive and reproduce under a closed forest canopy. This pattern may also be paralleled by other similarly diverse lineages and supports fossil indications that closed-canopy tropical rain forests existed well before the K/T boundary. This case illustrates that dated phylogenies can provide an important new source of evidence bearing on the timing of major environmental changes, which may be especially useful when fossil evidence is limited or controversial.

  8. Flying in the rain: hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds under varied precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-10-07

    Flight in rain represents a greater challenge for smaller animals because the relative effects of water loading and drop impact are greater at reduced scales given the increased ratios of surface area to mass. Nevertheless, it is well known that small volant taxa such as hummingbirds can continue foraging even in extreme precipitation. Here, we evaluated the effect of four rain intensities (i.e. zero, light, moderate and heavy) on the hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) under laboratory conditions. Light-to-moderate rain had only a marginal effect on flight kinematics; wingbeat frequency of individuals in moderate rain was reduced by 7 per cent relative to control conditions. By contrast, birds hovering in heavy rain adopted more horizontal body and tail positions, and also increased wingbeat frequency substantially, while reducing stroke amplitude when compared with control conditions. The ratio between peak forces produced by single drops on a wing and on a solid surface suggests that feathers can absorb associated impact forces by up to approximately 50 per cent. Remarkably, hummingbirds hovered well even under heavy precipitation (i.e. 270 mm h(-1)) with no apparent loss of control, although mechanical power output assuming perfect and zero storage of elastic energy was estimated to be about 9 and 57 per cent higher, respectively, compared with normal hovering.

  9. Satellite passive microwave rain rate measurement over croplands during spring, summer and fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Rain rate algorithms for spring, summer and fall that have been developed from comparisons between the brightness temperatures measured by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and rain rates derived from operational WSR-57 radars over land are described. Data were utilized from a total of 25 SMMR passes and 234 radars, resulting in ∼12 000 observations of ∼1600 km 2 areas. Multiple correlation coefficients of 0.63, 0.80 and 0.75 are achieved for the spring, summer and fall algorithms, respectively. Most of this information is in the form of multifrequency contrast in brightness temperature, which is interpreted as a measurement of the degree to which the land-emitted radiation is attenuated by the rain systems. The SMMR 37 GHz channel has more information on rain rate than any other channel. By combining the lower frequency channels with the 37 GHz observations, variations in land and precipitation thermometric temperatures can be removed, leaving rain attenuation as the major effect on brightness temperature. Polarization screening at 37 GHz is found to be sufficient to screen out cases of wet ground, which is only important when the ground is relatively vegetation free. Heavy rain cases are found to be a significant part of the algorithms' success, because of the strong microwave signatures (low brightness temperatures) that result from the presence of precipitation-sized ice in the upper portions of heavily precipitating storms. If IR data are combined with the summer microwave data, an improved (0.85) correlation with radar rain rates is achieved

  10. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  11. Temporal variations of isotopes in arid rain storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, E.M.; Dodi, A.; Geyh, M.A.; Yair, A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of isotopes in rainfall has long been used to elaborate on hydrological systems. Both isotopic composition of stable isotopes (oxygen-18 and deuterium) and tritium content are used to illuminate on sources of groundwater recharge and as tracers upon which groundwater fluxes are assessed. As runoff is concerned, stable isotopes have been used to identify flow paths and the precise location of the rain storm which produced the floods. Analyses of stable isotopes in arid storms in the Negev desert revealed clear discrepancy between the spatial isotopic composition in floods versus the spatial and temporal isotopic composition in rainfall. In addition, simple water balance revealed that the entire flood volume is equivalent to a very small portion of the rain storm, suggesting that a specific flood is produced by a very short and intensive portion of the rainfall. Therefore, knowledge of the weighted isotopic average of a rainfall can not serve as an adequate input function for modeling of desert floods. Since in arid environment, floods are considered as major source of groundwater recharge it also can not be used as input function for modeling of groundwater systems. This paper summarizes detailed isotopic study of short segments (∼2 mm each) of desert rainstorms as sampled in the Negev desert, Israel

  12. Effect of simulated acid rain on fluorine mobility and the bacterial community of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Tang, Ya; Anderson, Christopher W N; Jeyakumar, Paramsothy; Yang, Jinyan

    2018-03-21

    Contamination of soil and water with fluorine (F) leached from phosphogypsum (PG) stacks is a global environmental issue. Millions of tons of PG is produced each year as a by-product of fertilizer manufacture, and in China, weathering is exacerbated by acid rain. In this work, column leaching experiments using simulated acid rain were run to evaluate the mobility of F and the impact of weathering on native bacterial community composition in PG. After a simulated summer rainfall, 2.42-3.05 wt% of the total F content of PG was leached and the F concentration in leachate was above the quality standard for surface water and groundwater in China. Acid rain had no significant effect on the movement of F in PG. A higher concentration of F was observed at the bottom than the top section of PG columns suggesting mobility and reprecipitation of F. Throughout the simulation, the PG was environmentally safe according the TCLP testing. The dominant bacteria in PG were from the Enterococcus and Bacillus genus. Bacterial community composition in PG leached by simulated acid rain (pH 3.03) was more abundant than at pH 6.88. Information on F mobility and bacterial community in PG under conditions of simulated rain is relevant to management of environmental risk in stockpiled PG waste.

  13. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-03-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  15. The urban perspectives of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents discussions held during a workshop an Urban Perspective of Acid Rain. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Director, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP anticipates giving increased emphasis to the benefits in urban areas of emissions reductions. The goal of this informal, exploratory workshop was to serve as a first step towards identifying pollutant monitoring, and research and assessment needs to help answer, from an urban perspective, the two key questions posed to NAPAP by Congress: (1) what are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid rain control program, and (2) what reductions in deposition, rates are needed in order to prevent adverse effects? The workshop addressed research activities needed to respond to these questions. The discussions focused. sequentially, on data needs, data and model availability, and data and modeling gaps. The discussions concentrated on four areas of effects: human health, materials, urban forests, and visibility

  16. Radiation-dose consequences of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Sheppard, M.I.; Mitchell, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially Ra and Cs, are among these materials. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will cause increases in mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Several simulation models were tested with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modelled a typical, acid rain sensitive soil using meterological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. Based on the literature available, a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor or 2 or more. This will lead to increases in plant uptake and ultimate dose to man of about the same extent

  17. Contamination of foods by radioactive rains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Nakae, Y; Higasayama, S

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivities of various vegetable foods contaminated by radioactive rains in May, 1954, in the Kagoshima Area were detected. Tea showed especially high radioactivities which could be extracted with hot water. Radioactive Nb, Zr, Hf, Ce, Y, Pr, and La were detected in the hot water extractions of tea by ion-exchange chromatography. The partial contribution of /sup 40/K in these radioactive vegetables was critically examined.

  18. From acid rain to toxic snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging acid rain problems and problems related to various airborne toxins and effects in soils are discussed by David Schindler, the Volvo Environment Prize winner, a member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Alberta, Canada. A chain of events involving depletion of basic cations in soils and global warming can result ultimately in a significant threat to indigenous peoples living at high latitudes

  19. Rain VM: Portable Concurrency through Managing Code

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    A long-running recent trend in computer programming is the growth in popularity of virtual machines. However, few have included good support for concurrency - a natural mechanism in the Rain programming language. This paper details the design and implementation of a secure virtual machine with support for concurrency, which enables portability of concurrent programs. Possible implementation ideas of many-to-many threading models for the virtual machine kernel are discussed, and initial benchm...

  20. State regulatory issues in acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Brick, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a US EPA workshop for state regulators and commission staff on acid rain compliance concerns. The topics of the article include the results of market-based emissions control, how emissions trading is expected to reduce emissions, public utility commissions approval of compliance plans, the purposes of the workshop, market information, accounting issues, regulatory process and utility planning, multi-state compliance planning, and relationship to other compliance issues

  1. Erosion by rain in the western Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploey, J. de

    1967-01-01

    Vast expanses of the western part of central and southern Africa are covered with uniform, sandy formations of the Kalahari type. The topography of these areas and their present morphological characteristics are mainly the result of erosion by rain. Information on the hydrology of the surface waters in these areas is fairly limited and is insufficient to permit any conclusions regarding the way in which erosion by rain takes place. To obtain a better understanding of these phenomena, the author devised a series of experiments based on the use of 46 Sc-labelled radioactive sand. These experiments began at the beginning of the 1964/65 rainy season and are continuing. The experimental plot corresponds to convex and rectilinear portions of a hillside with a slope varying between 0 and 12 degrees. The vegetation consists of grassy savannah of substeppe appearance and secondary forests. Series of labelled samples were placed successively on the surface of the experimental plot and the erosive effect of rain was determined by measuring the residual concentrations after rainfall. Some samples were placed below a shield so as to eliminate the effects of splash and reveal the part played by runoff. Radiographic films were used to study the dispersion of labelled particles in the surrounding area. This radiographic method made it possible to determine the scale of erosion by splash for different rainfall conditions. The erosion diagrams obtained from these experiments show the correlations that exist between the intensity and duration of the rainfall and the erosion of the soil. Examination of the erosion diagrams and the shielded samples and analysis of the radiographs showed that erosion by rain on Kalahari ground covered with substeppe savannah is caused mainly by splash erosion and by dispersed, intermittent runoff. Sheet wash plays no part if the slope is less than 12 degrees. (author) [fr

  2. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  3. Low-Latitude Ethane Rain on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Clark, R. N.; Lawrence, K. J.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cassini ISS observed multiple widespread changes in surface brightness in Titan's equatorial regions over the past three years. These brightness variations are attributed to rainfall from cloud systems that appear to form seasonally. Determining the composition of this rainfall is an important step in understanding the "methanological" cycle on Titan. I use data from Cassini VIMS to complete a spectroscopic investigation of multiple rain-wetted areas. I compute "before-and-after" spectral ratios of any areas that show either deposition or evaporation of rain. By comparing these spectral ratios to a model of liquid ethane, I find that the rain is most likely composed of liquid ethane. The spectrum of liquid ethane contains multiple absorption features that fall within the 2-micron and 5-micron spectral windows in Titan's atmosphere. I show that these features are visible in the spectra taken of Titan's surface and that they are characteristically different than those in the spectrum of liquid methane. Furthermore, just as ISS saw the surface brightness reverting to its original state after a period of time, I show that VIMS observations of later flybys show the surface composition in different stages of returning to its initial form.

  4. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  5. Analysis and Prototyping of the United States Marine Corps Total Force Administration System (TFAS), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for the Small Unit Leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ...), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for The Small Unit Leader. The analysis consisted of researching the characteristics of the current manpower system, MCTFS, and the conceptual tenets of the TFAS program...

  6. High resolution radar-rain gauge data merging for urban hydrology: current practice and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Rodriguez, Susana; Wang, Li-Pen; Bailey, Andy; Willems, Patrick; Onof, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this work a thorough test is conducted of radar-rain gauge merging techniques at urban scales, under different climatological conditions and rain gauge density scenarios. The aim is to provide guidance regarding the suitability and application of merging methods at urban scales, which is lacking at present. The test is conducted based upon two pilot locations, i.e. the cities of Edinburgh (254 km^2) and Birmingham (431 km^2), for which a total of 96 and 84 tipping bucket rain gauges were respectively available, alongside radar QPEs, dense runoff records and urban drainage models. Three merging techniques, namely Mean Field Bias (MFB) adjustment, kriging with external (KED) and Bayesian (BAY) combination, were selected for testing on grounds of performance and common use. They were initially tested as they were originally formulated and as they are reportedly commonly applied using typically available radar and rain gauge data. Afterwards, they were tested in combination with two special treatments which were identified as having the potential to improve merging applicability for urban hydrology: (1) reduction of temporal sampling errors in radar QPEs through temporal interpolation and (2) singularity-based decomposition of radar QPEs prior to merging. These treatments ultimately aim at improving the consistency between radar and rain gauge records, which has been identified as the chief factor affecting merging performance and is particularly challenging at the fine spatial-temporal resolutions required for urban applications. The main findings of this study are the following: - All merging methods were found to improve the applicability of radar QPEs for urban hydrological applications, but the degree of improvement they provide and the added value of radar information vary for each merging method and are also a function of climatological conditions and rain gauge density scenarios. - Overall, KED displayed the best performance, with BAY being a close second

  7. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    OpenAIRE

    Hannouche , A.; Chebbo , G.; Joannis , C.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both...

  8. Small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for endometrial clear cell carcinoma in a woman with a past history of total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Georgiana S M; Heng, Robert; Neesham, Deborah E; Petersen, Rodney W

    2002-12-01

    Small intestinal volvulus is a rare complication following Roux-en-Y anastomosis. A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed with small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Her past medical history included a total gastrectomy and antecolic Roux-en-Y anastomosis for Duke's B gastric carcinoma. Operative findings were of transmesenteric herniation of the ileum through the Roux-en-Y small intestinal mesenteric window, with metastatic deposits fixing the hernia at its base to create a volvulus. The proximal transverse colon was very dilated and thin due to partial obstruction by the volvulus. Her treatment involved adhesiolysis and unraveling of the small intestinal volvulus. This is the first case report of a small intestinal volvulus following a Roux-en-Y anastomosis involving a metastatic gynacological malignancy.

  9. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control

  10. Technological options for acid rain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements

  11. Prediction Method for Rain Rate and Rain Propagation Attenuation for K-Band Satellite Communications Links in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baso Maruddani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction method using hidden Markov model (HMM for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation for K-band satellite communication link at tropical area. As is well known, the K-band frequency is susceptible of being affected by atmospheric condition, especially in rainy condition. The wavelength of K-band frequency which approaches to the size of rain droplet causes the signal strength is easily attenuated and absorbed by the rain droplet. In order to keep the quality of system performance for K-band satellite communication link, therefore a special attention has to be paid for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation. Thus, a prediction method for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation based on HMM is developed to process the measurement data. The measured and predicted data are then compared with the ITU-R recommendation. From the result, it is shown that the measured and predicted data show similarity with the model of ITU-R P.837-5 recommendation for rain rate and the model of ITU-R P.618-10 recommendation for rain propagation attenuation. Meanwhile, statistical data for measured and predicted data such as fade duration and interfade duration have insignificant discrepancy with the model of ITU-R P.1623-1 recommendation.

  12. Intraoperative and postoperative feasibility and safety of total tubeless, tubeless, small-bore tube, and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Jeh, Seong Uk; Kim, Man Deuk; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Cho, Kang Su

    2017-06-27

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is performed to treat relatively large renal stones. Recent publications indicate that tubeless and total tubeless (stentless) PCNL is safe in selected patients. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility and safety of different PCNL procedures, including total tubeless, tubeless with stent, small-bore tube, and large-bore tube PCNLs. PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE™ databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials published before December 30, 2013. One researcher examined all titles and abstracts found by the searches. Two investigators independently evaluated the full-text articles to determine whether those met the inclusion criteria. Qualities of included studies were rated with Cochrane's risk-of-bias assessment tool. Sixteen studies were included in the final syntheses including pairwise and network meta-analyses. Operation time, pain scores, and transfusion rates were not significantly different between PCNL procedures. Network meta-analyses demonstrated that for hemoglobin changes, total tubeless PCNL may be superior to standard PCNL (mean difference [MD] 0.65, 95% CI 0.14-1.13) and tubeless PCNLs with stent (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.65--0.62), and small-bore PCNL may be superior to tubeless PCNL with stent (MD 1.30, 95% CI 0.27-2.26). Network meta-analyses also showed that for length of hospital stay, total tubeless (MD 1.33, 95% CI 0.23-2.43) and tubeless PCNLs with stent (MD 0.99, 95% CI 0.19-1.79) may be superior to standard PCNL. In rank probability tests, small-bore tube and total tubeless PCNLs were superior for operation time, pain scores, and hemoglobin changes. For hemoglobin changes, total tubeless and small-bore PCNLs may be superior to other methods. For hospital stay, total tubeless and tubeless PCNLs with stent may be superior to other procedures.

  13. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  14. Comparative effects of simulated acid rain of different ratios of SO42- to NO3- on fine root in subtropical plantation of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Wenrui; Meng, Miaojing; Fu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Linhao; Zha, Yan; Yue, Jianmin; Zhang, Shuifeng; Zhang, Jinchi

    2018-03-15

    The influence of acid rain on forest trees includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in fine-root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO 3 - in acid rain increases with the rapidly growing of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO 4 2- /NO 3 - (S/N) ratios, which were 5:1 (S), 1:1 (SN) and 1:5 (N), on fine-root growth from March 2015 to February 2016. Results showed that fine roots were more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than soils in the short-term. Both soil pH and fine root biomass (FRB) significantly decreased as acid rain pH decreased, and also decreased with the percentage of NO 3 - increased in acid rain. Acid rain pH significantly influenced soil total carbon and available potassium in summer. Higher acidity level (pH=2.5), especially of the N treatments, had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity after summer. The structural equation modelling results showed that acid rain S/N ratio and pH had stronger direct effects on FRB than indirect effects via changed soil and fine root properties. Fine-root element contents and antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly affected by acid rain S/N ratio and pH during most seasons. Fine-root Al ion content, Ca/Al, Mg/Al ratios and catalase activity were used as better indicators than soil parameters for evaluating the effects of different acid rain S/N ratios and pH on forests. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect fine-root growth in subtropical forests of China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L −1 (mean of 45 ng · L −1 ), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L −1 for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L −1 for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains of the Iberian

  16. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  17. Monitoring of rain water storage in forests with satellite radar

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of radar backscatter to the amount of intercepted rain in temperate deciduous forests is analyzed to determine the feasibility of retrieval of this parameter from satellite radar data. A backscatter model is validated with X-band radar measurements of a single tree exposed to rain. A good agreement between simulation and measurements is observed and this demonstrates the ability of radar to measure the amount of intercepted rain. The backscatter model is next applied to simula...

  18. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GOES GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  19. Warm Rain Processes over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GEOS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  20. Strategies for controlling acid rain: economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, B.A.; Crocker, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    There are two competing approaches to reducing pollution such as the acid rain precursors SOsub(2) and NOsub(x). In the command and control approach, pollution control legislation may dictate the technological method by which specified pollution reductions are to be achieved. A key feature of command-and-control regulations is their inflexibility. The alternative approach relies on market mechanisms and incentives to induce firms to reduce pollution voluntarily. Economists generally prefer this approach because it permits flexibility for firms in selecting abatement methods to minimize costs. This chapter deals with qualitative issues in determining and achieving an ''optimal'' pollution level using various taxes, subsidies or quantitative restrictions. Alternative permit schemes for achieving regional pollution control are considered. Statistical studies are discussed which compare the command-and-control approach with the economic incentives approach and show that there are substantial cost differences between them in most cases. Finally, some institutional factors, that may lead to more costly acid rain control schemes being selected, are examined. A list of 61 references is appended. (UK)

  1. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, D B; Rowe, C M; Joeckel, R M

    2001-07-05

    Pangaea, the largest landmass in the Earth's history, was nearly bisected by the Equator during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic eras. Modelling experiments and stratigraphic studies have suggested that the supercontinent generated a monsoonal atmospheric circulation that led to extreme seasonality, but direct evidence for annual rainfall periodicity has been lacking. In the Mesozoic era, about 190 million years ago, thick deposits of wind-blown sand accumulated in dunes of a vast, low-latitude desert at Pangaea's western margin. These deposits are now situated in the southwestern USA. Here we analyse slump masses in the annual depositional cycles within these deposits, which have been described for some outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone. Twenty-four slumps, which were generated by heavy rainfall, appear within one interval representing 36 years of dune migration. We interpret the positions of 20 of these masses to indicate slumping during summer monsoon rains, with the other four having been the result of winter storms. The slumped lee faces of these Jurassic dunes therefore represent a prehistoric record of yearly rain events.

  2. Study of Acid Rain in Tikrit City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled H. Latef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the degree of acidity  for the precipitation in four different sites in Tikrit city was done  for the period from 1-February to 1-April/2007 which is the period of rains in this year.      Chemical tests included (pH as the direct indicator of the degree of acidity ,and the concentration of sulphates (SO4-2 and nitrates ( NO3- as indirect indicator.      The (pH range was (5.56-6.4 which indicates the presence of acid rain in the area under study . (SO4-2 concentrations range was (88-223mg/l while  ( NO3- concentrations range was (80-170mg/l.      The wind velocity ,temperature, and humidity during the sample collection period ranged (2.25-4m/s, (1-260C, (22%-90% respectively

  3. Acid rain compliance: Options, facts, and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, K.S.; Metzroth, L.F.; Radjef-Jenatton, M.

    1991-01-01

    On January 1, 1995, those utilities affected during the Phase 1 implementation of the amended Clean Air Act will be required to comply with new clean air standards. During the next three years leading up to that date, in order to achieve compliance, those companies need to not only decide on a strategy but also implement a plan. To date very few clear-cut compliance decisions have been made. The reasons for the uncertainty center on future fuel prices and the prospects for more efficient and lower cost FGD systems. Many utility planners look at today's coal market and find it hard to believe that prices for some specialty coals, particularly ultra-low sulfur coals, will be higher than the tremendous costs associated with the development of an FGD system. With that in mind, it comes as no surprise that coal switching has been regarded as the least cost choice among even the largest sulfur emitting companies in the country. However, if companies continue to make least cost decisions based on today's coal market, the US coal and utility industries could be in for some disruptive times ahead. While no paper can completely address the enormous complexity surrounding acid rain compliance, this paper addresses some of the broad issues which result from compliance activity and summarizes the findings outlined in RDI's four volume report, the Acid Rain Handbook

  4. Acid rain still plaguing lakes and loons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain monitoring began more than two decades ago by Environment Canada and recent numbers indicate that acid levels in the inland waters barely respond to the reductions in sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Under the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement, both countries have committed to reduce SO 2 emissions by 50 per cent over 1980 levels and to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. Although Canada's goal for SO 2 reductions was achieved in 1994, the nitrogen oxide emissions remained relatively constant. A study of 152 lakes in southeastern Canada indicated that the lakes are only 41 per cent less acidic than they were 20 years ago. The area studied is more vulnerable since it received more acid rain than any other part of the country and the granite bedrock of the Canadian Shield shows a weakness in neutralizing ability. The acidification has caused declines in the populations of fish and invertebrate which loons rely on to survive. A volunteer-based program called Canadian Lakes Loon Survey supported by Environment Canada and other partners began annual monitoring of the breeding success of loons on about 800 lakes. The results showed a decline in the proportion of successful breeding between 1981 and 1997. The decline was more pronounced where the acid level was greatest. Near Sudbury, Ontario, where the emissions of SO 2 declined dramatically, invertebrates started reappearing and fish populations were successfully re-established

  5. Effects of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Because of differential species' susceptibility, detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain was simulated by spraying the plants with a hand-held atomizer. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 in one half pH unit increments were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll 'a' to chlorophyll 'b' also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that, while respiration rate increased only slightly at low pH values, photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values, with starch content reduced much more than sugar content. Root biomass was also reduced at low pH values. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. 114 references, 23 figures, 12 tables.

  6. Study of the Effect of Simulated Rain on the Offset Parabolic Antenna at Ku-Band with Different Elevation Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of rain on the receiver antenna is a major factor to degrade the system performance in a frequency above 10 GHz. This paper deals with the wet antenna attenuation at Ku-band with three different frequencies at different rain rates. During the Ku-band propagation experiment, it was discovered that rain water on the antenna caused a significant attenuation. It is necessary to estimate the losses caused by water on the antenna in order to separate these losses from the atmospheric propagation losses. The experiment was done at USM Engineering Campus to study the attenuation for these physical parameters. A Ku-band RF signal was generated by a signal generator and transmitted via horn antenna. The signal was received using a smooth offset antenna of 60 cm by 54 cm (Astro dish and measured using spectrum analyzer. In order to simulate a rain, pipes with bores of a same distance were implemented. Three cases were considered: in the first case one pipe was used to simulate low rain rate, the second case two pipes were used to simulate medium rain rate, and the third case three pipes were used to simulate heavy rain rate. In addition, the tap was used to control the flow of water in order to get more values of rain rate. The total attenuation of RF signals due to water layer on the feed and on the reflector feed was found to be 3.1 dB at worst case. On the other hand, the attenuation of RF signal due to the feed only was 2.83 dB, so the major attenuation occur was due to feed.

  7. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  8. Chemical characterization of rain water in a seasonally dry tropical region (Varanasi), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra; Singh, Ashima

    2012-05-01

    Rain water samples, covering 44 rain events of 2008 and 52 rain events of 2009, were collected at urban and suburban locations of Varanasi and analyzed for pH, conductivity and for metal and nutrient ions. The pH of rainwater varied between 6.3 and 7.9, with over 70% of samples having alkaline range. Volume weighed mean concentration of ions indicated Ca2+ (11.62- 41.60 microeq l(-1)) to be the most dominant species followed by SO4(2-) (4.7-25.2 microeq I(-1)), Na+ (1.60-10.25 microeq l(-1)), Mg2+ (0.22-7.21 microeq I(-1)), (NO3(-) (0.73-4.02 microeq l(-1)), K+(0.50-3.70 microeq l(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0.02-0.97 microeq l(-1)) respectively. Among the heavy metals, Cr (12.60 to 44.60 microg l(-1)), Zn (4.25 to 34.55 microg l(-1)) and Mn (10.62 to 28.40 microg l(-1)) were found to be the dominant component of rain water. The varimax rotation of PCA results extracted four major factors namely urban-industrial emission, crustal aerosols, wind transport and biomass burning accounting for 80% of the total variance. The study has relevance in establishing cause-effect relationships for terrestrial as well as for aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth and foliar injury of several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J J; Neely, G E; Perrigan, S C; Grothaus, L C

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for 28 crops. Of these, marketable yield production was inhibited for 5 crops (radish, beet, carrot, mustard greens, broccoli), stimulated for 6 crops (tomato, green pepper, strawberry, alfalfa, orchardgrass, timothy), and ambiguously affected for 1 crop (potato). In addition, stem and leaf production of sweet corn was stimulated. Visible injury of tomatoes might have decreased their marketabiity. No statistically significant effects on yield were observed for the other 15 crops. The results suggest that the likelihood of yield being affected by acid depends on the part of the plant utilized, as well as on species. Effects on the aboveground portion of crops and on roots are also presented. Plants were regularly examined for foliar injury associated with acid rain. Of the 35 cultivars examined, the foliage of 31 was injured at pH 3.0, 28 at pH 3.5, and 5 at pH 4.0. Foliar injury was not generally related to effects on yield. However, foliar injury of Swiss chard, mustard greens and spinach was severe enough to adversely affect marketability.

  10. Wind scatterometry with improved ambiguity selection and rain modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David Willis

    Although generally accurate, the quality of SeaWinds on QuikSCAT scatterometer ocean vector winds is compromised by certain natural phenomena and retrieval algorithm limitations. This dissertation addresses three main contributors to scatterometer estimate error: poor ambiguity selection, estimate uncertainty at low wind speeds, and rain corruption. A quality assurance (QA) analysis performed on SeaWinds data suggests that about 5% of SeaWinds data contain ambiguity selection errors and that scatterometer estimation error is correlated with low wind speeds and rain events. Ambiguity selection errors are partly due to the "nudging" step (initialization from outside data). A sophisticated new non-nudging ambiguity selection approach produces generally more consistent wind than the nudging method in moderate wind conditions. The non-nudging method selects 93% of the same ambiguities as the nudged data, validating both techniques, and indicating that ambiguity selection can be accomplished without nudging. Variability at low wind speeds is analyzed using tower-mounted scatterometer data. According to theory, below a threshold wind speed, the wind fails to generate the surface roughness necessary for wind measurement. A simple analysis suggests the existence of the threshold in much of the tower-mounted scatterometer data. However, the backscatter does not "go to zero" beneath the threshold in an uncontrolled environment as theory suggests, but rather has a mean drop and higher variability below the threshold. Rain is the largest weather-related contributor to scatterometer error, affecting approximately 4% to 10% of SeaWinds data. A simple model formed via comparison of co-located TRMM PR and SeaWinds measurements characterizes the average effect of rain on SeaWinds backscatter. The model is generally accurate to within 3 dB over the tropics. The rain/wind backscatter model is used to simultaneously retrieve wind and rain from SeaWinds measurements. The simultaneous

  11. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  12. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  13. Understanding the formation and evolution of rain-formed fresh lenses at the ocean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drushka, Kyla; Asher, William E.; Ward, Brian; Walesby, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    Rain falling on the ocean produces a layer of buoyant fresher surface water, or "fresh lens." Fresh lenses can have significant impacts on satellite-in situ salinity comparisons and on exchanges between the surface and the bulk mixed layer. However, because these are small, transient features, relatively few observations of fresh lenses have been made. Here the Generalized Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is used to explore the response of the upper few meters of the ocean to rain events. Comparisons with observations from several platforms demonstrate that GOTM can reproduce the main characteristics of rain-formed fresh lenses. Idealized sensitivity tests show that the near-surface vertical salinity gradient within fresh lenses has a linear dependence on rain rate and an inverse dependence on wind speed. Yearlong simulations forced with satellite rainfall and reanalysis atmospheric parameters demonstrate that the mean salinity difference between 0.01 and 5 m, equivalent to the measurement depths of satellite radiometers and Argo floats, is -0.04 psu when averaged over the 20°S-20°N tropical band. However, when averaged regionally, the mean vertical salinity difference exceeds -0.15 psu in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, in the Pacific and Atlantic intertropical convergence zone, and in the South Pacific convergence zone. In most of these regions, salinities measured by the Aquarius satellite instrument have a fresh bias relative to Argo measurements at 5 m depth. These results demonstrate that the fresh bias in Aquarius salinities in rainy, low-wind regions may be caused by the presence of rain-produced fresh lenses.

  14. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period....

  15. Spatial variability and trends of the rain intensity over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Larissi, I. K.; Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the mean annual rain intensity in Greece are examined during a 41-year period (1962-2002). The meteorological datasets concern monthly rain amounts (mm) and the respective monthly durations (h) recorded at thirty two meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed on Greek territory, in order to calculate the mean monthly rain intensity. All the rain time series used in the analysis were tested by the application of the short-cut Bartlett test of homogeneity. The spatial distribution of the mean annual rain intensity is studied using the Kriging interpolation method, while the temporal variability, concerning the mean annual rain intensity trends along with their significance (Mann-Kendall test), is analysed. The findings of the analysis show that statistically significant negative trends (95% confidence level) appear mainly in the west sub-regions of Greece, while statistically significant positive trends (95% confidence level) appear in the wider area of Athens and the complex of Cyclades Islands. Further analysis concerning the seasonal rain intensity is needed, because there are different seasonal patterns, taking into account that, convective rain in Greece occurs mainly within the summer season.

  16. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  17. Rain Forests: Do They Hold Up the Sky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donna Gail; Dybdahl, Claudia S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses the topic of rain forests to demonstrate how a meaningful and relevant Science, Technology, and Society program can be designed for intermediate-level students. Students create and immerse themselves in a tropical rain forest, explore the forest ecosystem and peoples, and consider solutions to the problem of deforestation. (JDD)

  18. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  19. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the...

  20. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  1. The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Hydrologic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to accept stormwater runoff. Manuals and guidance documents recommend sizing rain garden cells from 3% to 43% of the associated drainage area, based on factors including soil type, slope, amount of impervious cover in the drainage ...

  2. A Rain Garden for Our School: Becoming Environmental Stewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…

  3. Flow Dynamics and Nutrient Reduction in Rain Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  4. Estimating the exceedance probability of rain rate by logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Long S.; Kedem, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the fraction of an area with rain intensity above a fixed threshold is highly correlated with the area-averaged rain rate. To estimate the fractional rainy area, a logistic regression model, which estimates the conditional probability that rain rate over an area exceeds a fixed threshold given the values of related covariates, is developed. The problem of dependency in the data in the estimation procedure is bypassed by the method of partial likelihood. Analyses of simulated scanning multichannel microwave radiometer and observed electrically scanning microwave radiometer data during the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment period show that the use of logistic regression in pixel classification is superior to multiple regression in predicting whether rain rate at each pixel exceeds a given threshold, even in the presence of noisy data. The potential of the logistic regression technique in satellite rain rate estimation is discussed.

  5. Use of the RAINS model in acid rain negotiations in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordijk, L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of models in international negotiations on environmental problems for which no compulsory action can be imposed is a recent trend. In the past, international agreements have been reached without any model being used. For example, the first step in reducing acid rain in Europe and North America was made in 1985 without using an integrated model. Neither was a model used to establish the Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer (1986). Analyzing the reasons for using mathematical models in environmental negotiations is not the subject of this paper. Suffice it to say there are several recent examples of models being used in preparing international policy actions, for instance the Law of the Sea and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The acceptance of models as tools in negotiations depends on many factors. The differences in the attitudes toward use of models in the case of assessment of acid rain in Europe and North America have been analyzed. In this paper, the author reviews the current use of the RAINS model and points out some lessons for the development of models that could be used in international environmental negotiations

  6. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  7. Real-Time Rain Rate Evaluation via Satellite Downlink Signal Attenuation Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Filippo; Reggiannini, Ruggero; Moretti, Marco; Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Facheris, Luca; Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Bacci, Giacomo; Petrolino, Antonio; Vaccaro, Attilio

    2017-08-12

    We present the NEFOCAST project (named by the contraction of "Nefele", which is the Italian spelling for the mythological cloud nymph Nephele, and "forecast"), funded by the Tuscany Region, about the feasibility of a system for the detection and monitoring of precipitation fields over the regional territory based on the use of a widespread network of new-generation Eutelsat "SmartLNB" (smart low-noise block converter) domestic terminals. Though primarily intended for interactive satellite services, these devices can also be used as weather sensors, as they have the capability of measuring the rain-induced attenuation incurred by the downlink signal and relaying it on an auxiliary return channel. We illustrate the NEFOCAST system architecture, consisting of the network of ground sensor terminals, the space segment, and the service center, which has the task of processing the information relayed by the terminals for generating rain field maps. We discuss a few methods that allow the conversion of a rain attenuation measurement into an instantaneous rainfall rate. Specifically, we discuss an exponential model relating the specific rain attenuation to the rainfall rate, whose coefficients were obtained from extensive experimental data. The above model permits the inferring of the rainfall rate from the total signal attenuation provided by the SmartLNB and from the link geometry knowledge. Some preliminary results obtained from a SmartLNB installed in Pisa are presented and compared with the output of a conventional tipping bucket rain gauge. It is shown that the NEFOCAST sensor is able to track the fast-varying rainfall rate accurately with no delay, as opposed to a conventional gauge.

  8. InSAR coherence study of unusual rain events in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. E.; Scott, C. P.; Lohman, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Atacama Desert (AD) occupies much of Chile at latitudes 18-27°S. The surficial materials vary, dependent on proximity to the ocean, slope, position within a surface water drainage system, mean annual rainfall, human land disturbance, and the local history of climate changes. Three major divisions of soil composition include: near coastal zone of silicate mineral soils, mostly devoid of plants; central hyperarid zone dominated by gypsum, devoid of plants; eastern zone of silicate-based soils, very sparse plants. The AD in March 2015 experienced the largest rain event of modern history, and again in June 2017 almost as much rain fell within the study area (24.2-25.7°S, coast to Andes Mountains). Those natural experiments set the stage for InSAR remote sensing of surface changes in a 24,000 square kilometer area. We used interferometric coherence of radar to measure the similarity in the reflective ground properties at the time of two SAR acquisitions, and a time series of European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A data sets acquired between January 2015 and August 2017. Date pairs lacking an intervening rain event reveal extensive regions of high coherence, and in those areas we focus on the temporal evolution of coherence across dates of, and following dates of, the major rains. Permanent change of the surface is most extensive in the eastern and western sectors, yet the degree of permanent change was small except in valley bottoms. In the sector with gypsum soil small degrees of permanent change occurred over 30% of the surface including in narrow (1-3 km) elongate (10-60 km) stripes that cross-cut topography, likely revealing rain bands. The spatial pattern of transient change in coherence differs. Over half the gypsum-dominated zone displays a transient change signal, whose spatial pattern corresponds to geomorphological forms; older landforms display greater transient coherence changes. In the silicate-dominated eastern region the transient signals are smaller

  9. Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesack, Lance F. W.

    1993-03-01

    The relative roles of base flow runoff versus storm flow runoff versus subsurface outflow in controlling total export of solutes from a 23.4-ha catchment of undisturbed rain forest in the central Amazon Basin were evaluated from water and solute flux measurements performed over a 1 year period. Solutes exported via 173 storms during the study were estimated from stream water samples collected during base flow conditions and during eight storms, and by utilizing a hydrograph separation technique in combination with a mixing model to partition storm flow from base flow fluxes. Solutes exported by subsurface outflow were estimated from groundwater samples from three nests of piezometers installed into the streambed, and concurrent measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head gradients. Base flow discharge represented 92% of water outflow from the basin and was the dominant pathway of solute export. Although storm flow discharge represented only 5% of total water outflow, storm flow solute fluxes represented up to 25% of the total annual export flux, though for many solutes the portion was less. Subsurface outflow represented only 2.5% of total water outflow, and subsurface solute fluxes never represented more than 5% of the total annual export flux. Measurement errors were relatively high for storm flow and subsurface outflow fluxes, but cumulative measurement errors associated with the total solute fluxes exported from the catchment, in most cases, ranged from only ±7% to 14% because base flow fluxes were measured relatively well. The export fluxes of most solutes are substantially less than previously reported for comparable small catchments in the Amazon basin, and these differences cannot be reconciled by the fact that storm flow and subsurface outflows were not appropriately measured in previous studies.

  10. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  11. Pyrite oxidation under simulated acid rain weathering conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Heping; Wang, Luying; Wen, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingyou

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5.6 at 25 °C, the prompt efficiency of pyrite weathering reached 104.29% as the acid rain pH decreased to 3.6, and it reached 125.31% as environmental temperature increased to 45 °C. Increasing acidity dramatically decreases the charge transfer resistance, and increasing temperature dramatically decreases the passivation film resistance, when other conditions are held constant. Acid rain always causes lower acidity mine drainage, and stronger acidity or high environmental temperatures cause serious acid drainage. The natural parameters of latitude, elevation, and season have considerable influence on pyrite weathering, because temperature is an important influencing factor. These experimental results are of direct significance for the assessment and management of sulfide mineral acid drainage in regions receiving acid rain.

  12. Efficient utilization of rain water in hill agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.R.; Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    Hill areas generally receive rainfall of around or more than 1150 mm. More than 2500 mm rainfall is received in about 30.2 million ha hilly area of the country. Besides many other factors high rainfall and heavy runoff are mainly responsible for low productivity. Because of sloppy characters and shallow soil depth, major fraction of rainwater is lost as runoff. Invariably evaporation exceeds the moisture stored and thereby depletes soils of their moisture reserve when crops are to be sown. Too much water at one time and too little in another during the same year causes wide instability in the production and productivity (Gupta et al., 2000). In high rainfall/hilly areas small and scattered land holdings exclusively rain dependent subsistence type of agriculture, low irrigated area of eastern Himalaya (northeastern region of India) further aggravate the problem. Harvesting of runoff at micro level for storage and recycling, control of erosion and moisture conservation are necessary and possible measures for better crop production. (author)

  13. Influence of Giant CCN on warm rain processes in the ECHAM5 GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Posselt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN load due to anthropogenic activity might lead to non-precipitating clouds because the cloud drops become smaller (for a constant liquid water content and, therefore, less efficient in rain formation (aerosol indirect effect. Adding giant CCN (GCCN into such a cloud can initiate precipitation (namely, drizzle and, therefore, might counteract the aerosol indirect effect.

    The effect of GCCN on global climate on warm clouds and precipitation within the ECHAM5 General Circulation Model (GCM is investigated. Therefore, the newly introduced prognostic rain scheme (Posselt and Lohmann, 2007 is applied so that GCCN are directly activated into rain drops. The ECHAM5 simulations with incorporated GCCN show that precipitation is affected only locally. On the global scale, the precipitation amount does not change. Cloud properties like total water (liquid + rain water and cloud drop number show a larger sensitivity to GCCN. Depending on the amount of added GCCN, the reduction of total water and cloud drops account for up to 20% compared to the control run without GCCN. Thus, the incorporation of the GCCN accelerate the hydrological cycle so that clouds precipitate faster (but not more and less condensed water is accumulated in the atmosphere.

    An estimate of the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect on the climate is obtained by comparing simulations for present-day and pre-industrial climate. The introduction of the prognostic rain scheme lowered the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect significantly compared to the standard ECHAM5 with the diagnostic rain scheme. The incorporation of the GCCN changes the model state, especially the cloud properties like TWP and Nl. The precipitation changes only locally but globally the precipitation is unaffected because it has to equal the global mean evaporation rate. Changing the cloud properties leads to a local reduction of the aerosol indirect

  14. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  15. Degradation of unglazed rough graphite-aluminium solar absorber surfaces in simulated acid and neutral rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konttinen, P.; Lund, P.D.; Salo, T.

    2005-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms of unglazed solar absorber surfaces based on aluminium substrate were studied. Rough graphite-aluminium surfaces were total-immersion subjected to aerated and de-aerated simulated neutral and acid rain. Test conditions were based on calculated absorber stagnation temperature and global rain acidity measurements. Changes in optical properties, elemental composition and sample mass were examined by spectrometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The absorbers exhibited almost no degradation at pH value of 3.5. At pH 5.5 alumina on the surface hydrated significantly degrading the optical properties of the surfaces severely in most cases. Therefore these absorber surfaces can not be recommended to be used in non-glazed applications if they are exposed to rain with pH exceeding ∼ 3.5-4.5. The total-immersion test needs to be developed further as the test results exhibited poor temperature and time dependency thus preventing accurate service lifetime estimates. Still, these tests were useful in determining favourable and non-favourable operating conditions for the absorber surfaces based on aluminium substrate. (author)

  16. Exploring the nonlinear cloud and rain equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Tziperman, Eli; Feingold, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Marine stratocumulus cloud decks are regarded as the reflectors of the climate system, returning back to space a significant part of the income solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere. Such clouds can exist in two stable modes, open and closed cells, for a wide range of environmental conditions. This emergent behavior of the system, and its sensitivity to aerosol and environmental properties, is captured by a set of nonlinear equations. Here, using linear stability analysis, we express the transition from steady to a limit-cycle state analytically, showing how it depends on the model parameters. We show that the control of the droplet concentration (N), the environmental carrying-capacity (H0), and the cloud recovery parameter (τ) can be linked by a single nondimensional parameter (μ=√{N }/(ατH0) ) , suggesting that for deeper clouds the transition from open (oscillating) to closed (stable fixed point) cells will occur for higher droplet concentration (i.e., higher aerosol loading). The analytical calculations of the possible states, and how they are affected by changes in aerosol and the environmental variables, provide an enhanced understanding of the complex interactions of clouds and rain.

  17. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  18. Utility views of acid rain legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katlic, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The electric utilities consume almost 85% of the coal that is used in the US. The utilities as well as other industries will be seriously affected by revisions currently being considered to the Clean Air Act. We endorse the 10-year scientific National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) which concludes the acid rain is not an environmental crisis but a long-term problem that needs to be addressed. The extreme views expressed by environmentalists and echoed by the media have been rendered unlikely to be correct assording to the NAPAP director. For example, the report found that the majority of North American forests are healthy. In addition, SO 2 emissions are down while coal use has doubled since the 70's. However, Congress, by considering any of the proposed Clean Air bills, is ignoring the NAPAP results. Experts from all areas are touting the need for the development of a National Energy Policy which would decrease our reliance on foreign oil and capitalize on the resources in abundance here in the United States -- like coal. The President has urged lawmakers to enact measures that would do just that. Yet the Joint Committee of Congress is marching on with revisions to a Clean Air Act that is already working. This will increase the cost of energy across all areas of industry and call a halt to the industrial recovery in this country

  19. Comment on “Rain dance”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, Harold D.

    A recent news brief about cloud seeding work being conducted in Cohuila, Mexico, (“Rain Dance,” Eos, July 23, 1996) contained unfounded, off-hand remarks that are a disservice to many scientists and professionals in the cloud physics and weather modification community. The news brief stated that “most previous attempts to catalyze rainfall by cloud seeding have produced inconclusive results, and almost none of the experiments have had a sound scientific basis.” The inconclusive results are primarily statistical; many outstanding scientific results have developed from the 50-year history of research into weather modification.Also, most of the work that I know about has proceeded on the scientific basis that was developed over the years by the scientific and operational communities, and it is improving with time. It is grossly inaccurate to say that almost none of the experiments have had a sound scientific basis. Improvements in technology are strengthening that scientific basis, and current physical and numerical studies being conducted in many places are improving understanding. (See reviews of the status of weather modification from the American Meteorological Society [1992] and the World Meteorological Organization [1992].)

  20. Effect of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll to chlorophyll also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that respiration rate increased slightly and photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values. Root biomass was also reduced. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. Experiments involving aspiration of control tissue in acid solutions suggest that the increase in photosynthetic rate and the decreases in carbohydrate content and root biomass were caused by an uncoupling of photophosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate. Uncoupling was probably caused by hydrogen ion interference with proton pumps associated with the electron transport chain in the light reactions of photosynthesis. 128 references. (MDF)

  1. A Rain Taxonomy for Degraded Visual Environment Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Petersen, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a description of a rainfall taxonomy that defines the detailed characteristics of naturally occurring rainfall. The taxonomy is based on raindrop size measurements collected around the globe and encompasses several different climate types. Included in this TM is a description of these rainfall observations, an explanation of methods used to process those data, and resultant metrics comprising the rain taxonomy database. Each of the categories in the rain taxonomy are characterized by a unique set of raindrop sizes that can be used in simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation through a rain medium.

  2. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  5. ARIS: Acid Rain Information System. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, P.; Musante, L.

    1982-04-20

    ARIS is to provide the technical, government, and business communities with abstracted information from the world's significant technical and business literature. The subject areas covered by this acid rain data base includes (1) the mechanism of the formation of acid rain; (2) its transport phenomena; (3) its effects on materials; (4) its effects on plants; (5) the health effects of acid rain; and (6) monitoring and analysis of acid rain. Data in ARIS comes from several government and commercial data base producers, and these include EDB DOE Energy Database, Environmental Science Index, Air Pollution Abstracts, National Technical Service (NTIS), and articles of regional interests from various newspapers. The types of publication source documents are: technical journals, conference proceedings, selected monographs, government reports, special studies, and newspapers. The file data is proposed to be updated quarterly and will cover selected references from 1970 with major focus on material after 1976.

  6. Moessbauer study of corrosion induced by acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshed, M.; Hussain, N.; Siddiqui, M.; Anwar-ul-Islam, M.; Rehman, S.; Butt, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly speaking acid rain refers to wet precipitation of pollutants S0/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ and NO/sub x/HNO/sub 3/ which have dissolved in cloud and rain droplets to from sulphuric and nitric acids. Acid rain has seriously damaged pine and spruce forests in Canada, USA and Europe. In these areas it has caused damage to buildings, reduced fish population due to acidification of lakes and rivers, and affected health of human beings as a result of poor water quality. The corrosion products formed in a simulated acid rain environment have been identified with transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy using a /sup 57/Co source. They were found to be gamma-FeOOH, alpha-FeOOH, gamma-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and a phase with unfamiliar parameters which seems to be amorphous in nature and can be considered as an intermediate phase. (author)

  7. Development of a high velocity rain erosion test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Teak; Jin, Doo Han [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyung [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The nose of a missile, flying through raining region with a supersonic speed, is subjected to the rain erosion because the nose is made of a brittle ceramic material. A simple yet very effective rain erosion test method is developed. The sabot assembly similar to the hypodermic syringe carries specific amount of water is launched by a low pressure air gun. After the stopper stop the sabot assembly by impact, the steel plunger continues moving toward to squeeze the silicon rubber in front. The pressurized silicon rubber then is squeezed through the orifice in front of the sabot at high velocity, thus, accelerates the water droplet to higher velocity. The droplet velocity up to 800m/s is successfully attained using a low pressure air gun. The ceramic specimen assembly is placed in front of the high speed water droplet and the rain erosion damage on the surface of the specimen is observed.

  8. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Rain Fall, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Rain Fall data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been...

  9. Rain Garden Research at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to capture and infiltrate stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots, and roads. The potential benefits compared to traditional curb and gutter drainage systems include peak flow attenuation in receiving...

  10. Rain Garden Research of EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to capture and infiltrate stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots, and roads. The potential benefits compared to traditional curb and gutter drainage systems include peak flow attenuation in receiving ...

  11. Biomass and carbon dynamics of a tropical mountain rain forest in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, DeXiang; Li, YiDe; Liu, HePing; Xu, Han; Xiao, WenFa; Luo, TuShou; Zhou, Zhang; Lin, MingXian

    2010-07-01

    Biometric inventories for 25 years, from 1983 to 2005, indicated that the Jianfengling tropical mountain rain forest in Hainan, China, was either a source or a modest sink of carbon. Overall, this forest was a small carbon sink with an accumulation rate of (0.56+/-0.22) Mg C ha(-1)yr(-1), integrated from the long-term measurement data of two plots (P9201 and P8302). These findings were similar to those for African and American rain forests ((0.62+/-0.23) Mg C ha(-1)yr(-1)). The carbon density varied between (201.43+/-29.38) Mg C ha(-1) and (229.16+/-39.2) Mg C ha(-1), and averaged (214.17+/-32.42) Mg C ha(-1) for plot P9201. Plot P8302, however, varied between (223.95+/-45.92) Mg C ha(-1) and (254.85+/-48.86) Mg C ha(-1), and averaged (243.35+/-47.64) Mg C ha(-1). Quadratic relationships were found between the strength of carbon sequestration and heavy rainstorms and dry months. Precipitation and evapotranspiration are two major factors controlling carbon sequestration in the tropical mountain rain forest.

  12. Determination of stable and radioactive isotopes in rain water for the equatorial and Sahel zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudet, J.; Lesne, H.

    1975-01-01

    The extension of desert zones to detriment of Sahel zones lead to look for the circuit followed by water vapor between its principal source, i.e. the Guinea Gulf, and the place where it is changed in precipitation. Samples of rainwater have been collected in Abidjan, Ouagadougou, and Niamey when the Intertropical Front was beginning its moving down towards the South, i.e. at the end of the rainy season for the Sahel zone, and at the beginning of the small rainy season for the equatorial zone. The analysis of these tritium, deuterium and oxygen-18 contents show that: the rains collected in Abidjan comes mainly from Ocean; the rains collected in Ouagadougou and Niamey have followed a long journey above the continent, as shown by the tritium content. The water evaporated in the Guinea Gulf is condensed in the convergence zone above Cameroon, and mixed with re-evaporated continental water. The content of one of the Ouagadougou sample shows that the rain issued from a local cumulonimbus has drawn a part of its water from the stratosphere [fr

  13. Turbulence effects on warm-rain formation in precipitating shallow convection revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seifert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different collection kernels which include turbulence effects on the collision rate of liquid droplets are used as a basis to develop a parameterization of the warm-rain processes autoconversion, accretion, and self-collection. The new parameterization is tested and validated with the help of a 1-D bin microphysics model. Large-eddy simulations of the rain formation in shallow cumulus clouds confirm previous results that turbulence effects can significantly enhance the development of rainwater in clouds and the occurrence and amount of surface precipitation. The detailed behavior differs significantly for the two turbulence models, revealing a considerable uncertainty in our understanding of such effects. In addition, the large-eddy simulations show a pronounced sensitivity to grid resolution, which suggests that besides the effect of sub-grid small-scale isotropic turbulence which is parameterized as part of the collection kernel also the larger turbulent eddies play an important role for the formation of rain in shallow clouds.

  14. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  15. Watching Nanoparticles Form: An In Situ (Small-/Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Total Scattering) Study of the Growth of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia in Supercritical Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Pauw, Brian; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding nanoparticle formation reactions requires multitechnique in situ characterisation, since no single characterisation technique provides adequate information. Here, the first combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/total-scattering study of nano...... of nanoparticle formation is presented. We report on the formation and growth of yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) under the extreme conditions of supercritical methanol for particles with Y2O3 equivalent molar fractions of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 25%....

  16. Simulated acid rain effects on soil chemistry and microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigliotti, C.; Falappi, D.; Farini, A.; Sorlini, C.; Milan Univ.; Molise Univ.

    1992-01-01

    A research study was carried out regarding the effects of artificial rains at different pH's (3.1, 4.0, 5.6) on soil samples from Appiano Gentile pinewood. Chemical parameters, biological activities and microbiological groups, particularly sensitive to possible variations in the presence of pH changes, were monitored after 2, 4 and 6 months of treatment of the soil on eluate obtained from treatment with artificial acid rains. The paper reports the results research

  17. Rain Lõhmus toob mängu kupeldaja / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Lõhmus, Haavel & Viisemann (LHV) nõukogu esimees on seotud teleäriga ja püüab käivitada uut telekanalit. Vt. samas: Rain Lõhmus vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad LHVga seotud skandaali mõju panga tegevusele ja käimasolevatele äriasjadele. Lisa: Rain Lõhmus. Vt. samas: Mida Lõhmus teleärist teab?

  18. Time dependence of the pH of rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Kadlecek; Volkar A. Mohnen

    1976-01-01

    Standard procedures for determining the pH of rain samples usually involve substantial delays from the time of rainfall to the time of analysis. This assumes that no change in pH occurs during the storage period. We have found that this is not always true. We have determined that individual rain water samples possess a time dependent pH which can be correlated with the...

  19. Rain, Rain, Go Away, Come Again Another Day. Weather Preferences of Summer Tourists in Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are important factors for travel decision-making and overall tourist satisfaction. As central motivators for destination choice, they directly and indirectly influence demand patterns and can be a resource and limitation for tourism at the same time. In this paper, results of an in-situ survey of mountain summer tourists (n = 733 in the Alps in Southern Germany are presented. Respondents rated ‘rain’ as the most important aspect of weather during their holiday. During a 7-day holiday, 2.1 days of continuous rain are accepted, and 3.1 days of days with thunderstorms. The ideal temperature range is between 21 and 25 °C, thus lying 4–7 degrees lower than for beach tourism. Temperatures below 15 °C and above 30 °C are perceived as unacceptable. Statistically significant differences were found for several tourist types: Older tourists are more sensitive to heat, tourists with sports activities are more tolerant to cool temperatures, first-time visitors are more sensitive to rain and families with children prefer higher temperatures. From the results, some implications for mountain destinations arise: mountain destinations could be promoted as a heat refuge, and attracting sports tourists might be a promising way to reduce weather sensitivity; however, some variety of well-promoted weather independent attractions seems to be mandatory.

  20. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  1. Evaluation and design of a rain gauge network using a statistical optimization method in a severe hydro-geological hazard prone area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoruso, Grazia; Longobardi, Antonia; Pizzuti, Alfredo; Molinara, Mario; Marocco, Claudio; De Vito, Saverio; Tortorella, Francesco; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2017-06-01

    Rainfall data collection gathered in continuous by a distributed rain gauge network is instrumental to more effective hydro-geological risk forecasting and management services though the input estimated rainfall fields suffer from prediction uncertainty. Optimal rain gauge networks can generate accurate estimated rainfall fields. In this research work, a methodology has been investigated for evaluating an optimal rain gauges network aimed at robust hydrogeological hazard investigations. The rain gauges of the Sarno River basin (Southern Italy) has been evaluated by optimizing a two-objective function that maximizes the estimated accuracy and minimizes the total metering cost through the variance reduction algorithm along with the climatological variogram (time-invariant). This problem has been solved by using an enumerative search algorithm, evaluating the exact Pareto-front by an efficient computational time.

  2. Characteristic, origin, prediction of acid rain at Chongqing in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaolei; Ogura, Norio

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the acid rain at Chongqing city, Sichuan Province, China is presented. The chemical analysis of the rainwater in major cities in China, seasonal variation of pH of the rain in last decade, concentration of the SO 2 in atmosphere and in rain at Chongqing city are reviewed. The possible factors affecting the acidity is analyzed. The closed geography is revealed to be one of the cause. Industries exhausting soot and Chongqing coal thermal plant combusting coal of high sulfur and high ash concentration are the main sources of pollutants. SO 2 from coal as domestic fuel may not be ignored. It is estimated that the concentrations of SO 2 in atmosphere, SO 4 2- in rain, H + in rain, and wet precipitation shall be 0.61 mg/m 3 , 402.2μeq/l, 122.2μeq/l and 3.67mg/m 2 ·yr, respectively. Warning is made that unless rapid countermeasure shall be devised, Chongqing may become one of the worst acid rain districts. (Y.A.)

  3. On validation of the rain climatic zone designations for Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiyemi, O. O.; Ibiyemi, T. S.; Ojo, J. S.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, validation of rain climatic zone classifications for Nigeria is presented based on global radio-climatic models by the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Crane. Rain rate estimates deduced from several ground-based measurements and those earlier estimated from the precipitation index on the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) were employed for the validation exercise. Although earlier classifications indicated that Nigeria falls into zones P, Q, N, and K for the ITU-R designations, and zones E and H for Crane's climatic zone designations, the results however confirmed that the rain climatic zones across Nigeria can only be classified into four, namely P, Q, M, and N for the ITU-R designations, while the designations by Crane exhibited only three zones, namely E, G, and H. The ITU-R classification was found to be more suitable for planning microwave and millimeter wave links across Nigeria. The research outcomes are vital in boosting the confidence level of system designers in using the ITU-R designations as presented in the map developed for the rain zone designations for estimating the attenuation induced by rain along satellite and terrestrial microwave links over Nigeria.

  4. Improved Gradation for Rain Garden of Low Impact Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra; Chang, Fu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    With rapid urban and economic development, living standard improves in urban areas but urban ecological environments deteriorate rapidly. Urban waterlogging and flooding have become a serious problem for urban water security. As urbanization continues, sustainability is the key to balance between urban development and healthy environment. Rain garden is recommended to be one of the best ways to reduce urban pollutants. It not only diminishes runoff flooding but also purify water in the urban area. The studies on rain gardens are mainly about how to incorporate rain garden to purify water quality, but lack of researches on runoff control. This project focuses on rain garden under Low Impact Development using indoor laboratory to test and quantify the water holding capacities of two different Taiwan indigenous rain garden plants, Taiwan Cyclosorus and Sour Grass. The results show that the water holding capacity of Sour Grass (10%-37%) is better than that of Taiwan Cyclosorus (6.8%-17.3%). The results could be a helpful reference for Low Impact Development in urban flood prevention and urban planning. Keywords: Low Impact Development; rain garden; indoor laboratory experiments; water holding capacity; porosity

  5. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng·L(-1) (mean of 45 ng·L(-1)), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms and 5-10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5-10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5-10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Discussions on the Design of the Pool Landscape in the Rain Garden Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuzhen; Zhu, Yirong; Wei, Chaojun; Tao, Biaohong

    2018-03-01

    With rapid urbanization, the environmental problems are becoming increasingly prominent and diversified ecological landscape designs consequently appear with the rain garden landscape design as a typical. Based on the introduction to rain garden ecological functions and in combination with domestic and international rain garden landscape design cases, this paper discussed the rain garden pool landscape design.

  7. Comparative effects of sulfuric and nitric acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial community in subtropical plantation of Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Wenrui; Wang, Ling; Xie, Dejin; Huo, Wentong; Wu, Yanwen; Zhang, Jinchi

    2017-12-01

    Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes. Second, soil pH with NAR decreased more rapidly with the amount of acid rain increased in summer than with SAR treatments. Only strongly acid rain (both SAR and NAR) was capable of depressing litter decomposition and its inhibitory effect was stronger on leaf than on fine root litter. Meanwhile, NAR had a higher inhibitory effect on litter decomposition than SAR. Third, in summer, autumn and winter, PLFAs were negatively impacted by the increased acidity level resulting from both SAR and NAR. However, higher acidity level of NAR (pH=2.5) had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity, especially in summer. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) and fungi (18:1ω9) were more sensitive to both SAR and NAR, and actinomycetes was more sensitive to SAR intensity. Finally, soil total carbon, total nitrogen and pH were the most important soil property factors affecting soil microbial activity, and high microbial indices (fungi/bacteria) with high soil pH. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect litter decomposition and soil microbial in subtropical forest of China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Contaminant removal and hydraulic conductivity of laboratory rain garden systems for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J F; O'Sullivan, A D; Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of substrate composition on stormwater treatment and hydraulic effectiveness, mesocosm-scale (180 L, 0.17 m(2)) laboratory rain gardens were established. Saturated (constant head) hydraulic conductivity was determined before and after contaminant (Cu, Zn, Pb and nutrients) removal experiments on three rain garden systems with various proportions of organic topsoil. The system with only topsoil had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity (160-164 mm/h) and poorest metal removal efficiency (Cu ≤ 69.0% and Zn ≤ 71.4%). Systems with sand and a sand-topsoil mix demonstrated good metal removal (Cu up to 83.3%, Zn up to 94.5%, Pb up to 97.3%) with adequate hydraulic conductivity (sand: 800-805 mm/h, sand-topsoil: 290-302 mm/h). Total metal amounts in the effluent were pH was elevated (up to 7.38) provided by the calcareous sand in two of the systems, whereas the topsoil-only system lacked an alkaline source. Organic topsoil, a typical component in rain garden systems, influenced pH, resulting in poorer treatment due to higher dissolved metal fractions.

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutyser, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Dams, R.

    1978-01-01

    An automated precipitation sampler and an instrumental neutron activation analysis (i.n.a.a.) method for the determination of some major and trace elements in dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water are presented. The sampler features a rain detector which makes separate collections of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water possible. The sampler is equipped with u.v. lamps in order to avoid algal growth during extended collection periods. After collection, the samples are separated into water-soluble and insoluble fractions. The soluble fraction is preconcentrated before analysis by freeze-drying. The i.n.a.a. method involves the measurement of both short- and long-lived radioactivities so that a total of 35 elements can be determined. The possibility of losses during freeze-drying and the accuracy of the i.n.a.a. method were investigated for 7 elements by analysis of a soluble fraction with an independent method, viz. inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. (Auth.)

  10. Aerosols' influence on the interplay between condensation, evaporation and rain in warm cumulus cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Altaratz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical cloud model is used to study the influence of aerosol on the microphysics and dynamics of moderate-sized, coastal, convective clouds that develop under the same meteorological conditions. The results show that polluted convective clouds start their precipitation later and precipitate less than clean clouds but produce larger rain drops. The evaporation process is more significant at the margins of the polluted clouds (compared to the clean cloud due to a higher drop surface area to volume ratio and it is mostly from small drops. It was found that the formation of larger raindrops in the polluted cloud is due to a more efficient collection process.

  11. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect.

  12. Farm Size and the Share of Irrigated Land in total Landholding: the case of Water-Harvesting Irrigation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2011-01-01

    Rain-fall shortage constrains production in small-holder agriculture in developing countries and with ongoing climate change these shortages may increase. Rain-water harvesting are interesting technologies that decrease this risk. Therefore, one would expect an increasing use of these technologies

  13. Impacts of a heavy storm of rain upon dissolved and particulate organic C, N and P in the main river of a vegetation-rich basin area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fusheng; Yuasa, Akira; Muraki, Yuzo; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2005-06-01

    The impacts of a heavy storm of rain upon the dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the main river of the vegetation-rich Nagara River basin were investigated using water samples collected along the river line during a critical typhoon-induced heavy rain storm event. Besides, based on a high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system, the variance of dissolved OM (DOM) in its molecular weight (MW) characteristics was also assessed. From the MW standpoint, DOM components merged into the river along the river line resembled those present in its headwater. The MW range changed only slightly from 1010 to 5900 at the upstream (US), to 1130-5900 and 1200-5900 Da at the midstream (MS) and downstream (DS), respectively, while the corresponding weight-averaged MW (M(w)) decreased from 3669 to 3330 and 2962 Da. The heavy storm of rain enhanced the content of DOM; however, apart from a small larger-MW fraction (about 5900-6800 Da), the newly emerged DOM constituents exhibited an MW range similar to those existed before the storm. Due also to the storm of rain, total P and N (TP and TN) changed markedly in the ranges of 6.6-11.9, 8.3-40.6 and 48.4-231.3 microg/l for TP, and 145.4-296.0, 502.2-1168.7 and 1342.7-1927.3 microg/l for TN at the US, MS and DS, respectively. The larger values of TP and TN generally appeared for samples at elevated river water levels. The enhanced presence of P was found largely attributed to its particulate form; while, for N, the contribution from its dissolved form was significant. The newly emerged suspended particles via the storm-water contained lower content of OM, N and P, and a general decreasing trend of the particulate OM, N and P along the river line was also confirmed. The C/N ratio in the dissolved form varied in 0.7-6.7 and decreased downstream, while, that in the particulate form 2.3-17.3. Suspended particles that emerged in the river water during the storm exhibited larger C

  14. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V.; Davies, J. A.; Sheeley, N. R.; Kilpua, E.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  15. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, 9 avenue Colonel Roche, BP 44346-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4A (France); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sheeley, N. R. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7600, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kilpua, E., E-mail: eduardo.sanchez-diaz@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: alexis.rouillard@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: benoit.lavraud@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: rui.pinto@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: illya.plotnikov@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: vincent.genot@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: jackie.davies@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: neil.sheeley@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: emilia.kilpua@helsinki.fi [Space Physics Department, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64 FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-20

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  16. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Shriner

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  17. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  18. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 1: Theoretical development and application to yearly predictions for selected cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A rain attenuation prediction model is described for use in calculating satellite communication link availability for any specific location in the world that is characterized by an extended record of rainfall. Such a formalism is necessary for the accurate assessment of such availability predictions in the case of the small user-terminal concept of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project. The model employs the theory of extreme value statistics to generate the necessary statistical rainrate parameters from rain data in the form compiled by the National Weather Service. These location dependent rain statistics are then applied to a rain attenuation model to obtain a yearly prediction of the occurrence of attenuation on any satellite link at that location. The predictions of this model are compared to those of the Crane Two-Component Rain Model and some empirical data and found to be very good. The model is then used to calculate rain attenuation statistics at 59 locations in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) for the 20 GHz downlinks and 30 GHz uplinks of the proposed ACTS system. The flexibility of this modeling formalism is such that it allows a complete and unified treatment of the temporal aspects of rain attenuation that leads to the design of an optimum stochastic power control algorithm, the purpose of which is to efficiently counter such rain fades on a satellite link.

  19. I like riding my bike. If it doesn't rain of course'. Accounts of embodied practices of rain in the face of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    . Secondly, the paper focuses more thoroughly on conceptualisations of cycling in rain by showing how rain is used in making socially legitimate meanings of everyday transportation practices. It shows the subtle ways in which matters of rain are used as justifications for not biking. It also shows...

  20. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  1. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England

  2. Endangerment of cultural heritage sites by strong rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Thomas; Fischer, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas of the joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a German insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation of the terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types of cultural heritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts of the world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.

  3. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The term 'acid rain' refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42-) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  4. [Relationship between simulated acid rain stress and leaf reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-dong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhou, Guo-mo; Jiang, Zi-shan

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental problem. Serious acid rain pollution in subtropical China has constituted a potential threat to the health of the local forest. In the present paper, the changing properties of the chlorophyll concentration and spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for the six subtropical broad-leaved tree species leaves under simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment with different pH levels were studied. With the increasing strength of the SAR, the chlorophyll concentrations of the experimental species under pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 treatment were higher than that under pH 5.6; the spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 were lower than that for pH 5.6 in general; while there weren't significant differences between pH 2.5 and pH 4.0. After the treatment with different levels of SAR, the differences in spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths mainly focused around the green peak and red edge on the reflectance curve. The subtropical broad-leaved tree species studied were relatively not sensitive to acid rain stresses; some stronger acid rain may accelerate the growth of the tree species used here to some extent.

  5. Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Purnima; Rai, Vibhuti

    2018-05-01

    Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and storage of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts.

  6. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  7. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  8. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-03-01

    1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey.

  9. Characterization and Evaluation of Acid Rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1995 and Evaluation of Some Chromatographic/Spectroscopic Results from Leachate Samples from CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of monitoring the chemical composition of rain in east-central Florida have shown that the rain is moderately acid. The measured acidity of rain is less than that observed in other regions of the U. S., however, it does suggest that the level of acidity is substantial. The annual chemical composition of rain at UCF and at KSC has shown moderate variability. Extreme daily and monthly variations are observed, however these variations are not addressed here. The total ionic composition of rain collected at FL99 is greater than that for rain collected at UCF, however this can be accounted for by site proximity to the ocean with the accompanying marine influence. Difference in acidity data collected from the UCF and FL99 sites which are separated by 50 km may be due in part to the differences that have been observed between laboratory and field pH measurements. Trend assessment for precipitation composition requires evaluation of data that covers some minimum time period. In fact, the subdivision of the multi-year UCF record into individual 10 year records as described above can lead to the conclusion that a significant increase, a significant decrease or no trend exists for acidity depending upon the time period chosen for evaluation. Trend evaluation has also been accomplished by linear and nonlinear regression analysis using monthly volume weighted average concentrations and deposition using the UCF data set and some of the Florida NADP data set.

  10. Energy-use pattern and carbon footprint of rain-fed watermelon production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Mohammadi-Barsari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy-use patterns and carbon footprint is useful in achieving sustainable development in agriculture. Energy-use indices and carbon footprint for rain-fed watermelon production were studied in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Data were collected from 58 farmers using a self-structured questionnaire during the growing season of 2013. The Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the effects of energy input on rain-fed watermelon yield. The findings demonstrated that chemical fertilizers consumed the highest percentage of total energy input (75.2%, followed by diesel fuel (12.9%. The total energy input was 16594.74 MJ ha−1 and total energy output was 36275.24 MJ ha−1. The results showed that the energy-use ratio was 2.19, energy productivity was 1.15 kg MJ−1, energy intensity was 0.87 MJ kg−1, and net energy gain was 19680.60 MJ ha−1. Direct and indirect energy for watermelon production were calculated as 2374.4 MJ ha−1 (14.3% and 14220.3 MJ ha−1 (85.7%, respectively. The share of renewable energy was 1.4%. This highlights the need to reduce the share of non-renewable energy and improve the sustainability of rain-fed watermelon production in Northern Iran. The study of carbon footprint showed that the chemical fertilizer caused the highest percentage of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG followed by machinery with 52.6% and 23.8% of total GHG emissions, respectively. The results of the Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing one MJ of energy input of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, biocides, and seed changed the yield by 1.03, 0.96, 0.19, −0.97, 0.16, and 0.22 kg, respectively, in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Providing some of the nitrogen required for crop growth through biological alternatives, renewing old power tillers, and using conservation tillage machinery may enhance energy efficiency and mitigate

  11. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  12. Water's Journey from Rain to Stream in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, Allan; Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) 1965-1974, sponsored by UNESCO, initiated a research effort for coordinating the fragmented branches of hydrology and for understanding and quantifying the hydrologic cycle on various scales, from continents to small catchments. One important part of the Swedish IHD-program was to quantify the terms of the water budget, including detailed data on soil water and groundwater storage dynamics, of several medium sized to small. As an outcome of these studies and subsequent process oriented studies, a new view of the runoff process in forested till soils was developed in the 1970's, stressing the dominating role of groundwater in delivering water to the streams and the usefulness of subdividing catchments into recharge and discharge areas for groundwater for understanding the flowpaths of water. This view contrasted with the general view among the public, and also among professionals within the field and in text books, according to which overland flow is the main process for runoff. With this latter view it would, for instance, not be possible to understand stream water chemistry, which had become an important question in a time of growing environmental concern. In order to decrease the time lag between research results and practice, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council initiated a text book project for presenting the recent results of hydrologic research on stream flow generation applied to Swedish conditions, and in 1985 our book "Water's Journey from Rain to Stream" was published. Founded on the basic principles for water storage and flow in soils, the book gives a general picture of the water flow through the forested till landscape, with separate chapters for recharge and discharge areas. Chemical processes along the flowpaths of water are treated and the book concludes with a few applications to current issues. The book is written in Swedish and the target audience is those working professionally with water and

  13. Real-Time Tracking of the Extreme Rainfall of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria using UCI CHRS's iRain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, E. J.; Nguyen, P.; Ombadi, M.; Palacios, T.; Huynh, P.; Furman, D.; Tran, H.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; Logan, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 hurricane season, three major hurricanes-Harvey, Irma, and Maria-devastated the Atlantic coast of the US and the Caribbean Islands. Harvey set the record for the rainiest storm in continental US history, Irma was the longest-lived powerful hurricane ever observed, and Maria was the costliest storm in Puerto Rican history. The recorded maximum precipitation totals for these storms were 65, 16, and 20 inches respectively. These events provided the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) an opportunity to test its global real-time satellite precipitation observation system, iRain, for extreme storm events. The iRain system has been under development through a collaboration between CHRS at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). iRain provides near real-time high resolution (0.04°, approx. 4km) global (60°N - 60°S) satellite precipitation data estimated by the PERSIANN-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The user-interactive and web-accessible iRain system allows users to visualize and download real-time global satellite precipitation estimates and track the development and path of the current 50 largest storms globally from data generated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm. iRain continuously proves to be an effective tool for measuring real-time precipitation amounts of extreme storms-especially in locations that do not have extensive rain gauge or radar coverage. Such areas include large portions of the world's oceans and over continents such as Africa and Asia. CHRS also created a mobile app version of the system named "iRain UCI", available for iOS and Android devices. During these storms, real-time rainfall data generated by PERSIANN-CCS was consistently comparable to radar and rain gauge data. This presentation evaluates iRain's efficiency as a tool for extreme precipitation monitoring and provides an evaluation of the

  14. Forecasting The Onset Of The East African Rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, D.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    The timing of the rainy seasons is critical for East Africa, where many livelihoods depend on rain-fed agriculture. The exact onset date of the rains varies from year to year and a delayed start has significant implications for food security. Early warning of anomalous onset can help mitigate risks by informing farmer decisions on crop choice and timing of planting. Onset forecasts may also pre-warn governments and NGOs of upcoming need for financial support and humanitarian intervention. Here we assess the potential to forecast the onset of both the short and long rains over East Africa at subseasonal to seasonal timescales. Based on operational reforecasts from ECMWF, we will demonstrate skilful prediction of onset anomalies. An investigation to determine potential sources of this forecast skill will also be presented. This work has been carried out as part of the project ForPAc: "Towards forecast-based preparedness action".

  15. Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Pan, Tengfei; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2017-05-01

    Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.

  16. Nonlinear response in runoff magnitude to fluctuating rain patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtu, R; Fonley, M

    2015-03-01

    The runoff coefficient of a hillslope is a reliable measure for changes in the streamflow response at the river link outlet. A high runoff coefficient is a good indicator of the possibility of flash floods. Although the relationship between runoff coefficient and streamflow has been the subject of much study, the physical mechanisms affecting runoff coefficient including the dependence on precipitation pattern remain open topics for investigation. In this paper, we analyze a rainfall-runoff model at the hillslope scale as that hillslope is forced with different rain patterns: constant rain and fluctuating rain with different frequencies and amplitudes. When an oscillatory precipitation pattern is applied, although the same amount of water may enter the system, its response (measured by the runoff coefficient) will be maximum for a certain frequency of precipitation. The significant increase in runoff coefficient after a certain pattern of rainfall can be a potential explanation for the conditions preceding flash-floods.

  17. Rain scavenging studies. Progress report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, A.N.

    1975-05-01

    The modeling of convective storm scavenging processes is going forward on two distinct fronts. The first of these relates to the microphysical processes, particularly to the study of their response to micro-dynamical components of the convective circulation. It is found that the droplet size spectra generated are responsive to variations of vertical velocity due to turbulence within the cloud and to humidity variations due to entrainment processes. Both sets of variations give responses that differ for different amplitudes and frequencies, i.e., rapid, small-amplitude eddies appear to enhance small-droplet development, whereas slow, large-amplitude oscillations tend to enhance large-droplet development. An allied study of the assumptions used in the microphysical equations is also being made. The second modeling effort is addressed to the problem of three-dimensional representation of convective dynamics. Equations are presented, and some of the problems under attack are discussed

  18. Amount and composition of rain failing at Rothamsted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E J; Richards, E H

    1919-01-01

    The monthly fluctuations in the ammoniacal concentration varies with rainfall, i.e., highest in spring; lowest in winter. The nitric nitrogen concentration fluctuated year by year and month by month in the same way as the ammoniacal nitrogen and the rainfall until 1910, since when there has been no simple relationship. The close relationship between the amounts of ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen suggests either a common origin or the production of nitric compounds from ammonia. Chlorine fluctuations closely follow the rainfall also. Since 1888, when the experiments began, to 1916, when they terminated, there has been a rise in the amounts of nitric nitrogen and of chlorine in the rain. In the case of chlorine a parallel series of determinations made at Cirencester over the same period shows a similar rise. There is no rise of ammonia but on the contrary a tendency to drop; the sum of ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen shows little change over the period. This seems to suggest that a former source of ammonia is now turning out nitric acid. It is possible that modern gas burners and grates tend to the formation of nitric oxides rather than of ammonia. Rain contains on an average 10 parts of dissolved oxygen per million, the amount being higher in winter than in summer: 66.4 lb per acre per annum was brought down during the two years over which the determinations extended. The marked difference in composition between summer and winter rainfall suggests that these may differ in their origin. The winter rain resembles Atlantic rain in its high chlorine and low ammonia and nitrate content; the summer rain is characterized by low chlorine but high ammonia and nitrate content, suggesting that it arises by evaporation of water from the soil and condensation at higher altitudes than in the case of winter rain.

  19. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  20. RAIN: A Bio-Inspired Communication and Data Storage Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matteo; Rasmussen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the results and perspectives from a companion article, where we presented and evaluated an alternative architecture for data storage in distributed networks. We name the bio-inspired architecture RAIN, and it offers file storage service that, in contrast with current centralized cloud storage, has privacy by design, is open source, is more secure, is scalable, is more sustainable, has community ownership, is inexpensive, and is potentially faster, more efficient, and more reliable. We propose that a RAIN-style architecture could form the backbone of the Internet of Things that likely will integrate multiple current and future infrastructures ranging from online services and cryptocurrency to parts of government administration.

  1. Prediction of slant path rain attenuation statistics at various locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a method for predicting slant path attenuation statistics at arbitrary locations for variable frequencies and path elevation angles. The method involves the use of median reflectivity factor-height profiles measured with radar as well as the use of long-term point rain rate data and assumed or measured drop size distributions. The attenuation coefficient due to cloud liquid water in the presence of rain is also considered. Absolute probability fade distributions are compared for eight cases: Maryland (15 GHz), Texas (30 GHz), Slough, England (19 and 37 GHz), Fayetteville, North Carolina (13 and 18 GHz), and Cambridge, Massachusetts (13 and 18 GHz).

  2. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  3. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  4. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  5. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  6. Integrated gasification combined cycle for acid rain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    The role of integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants in the abatement of emission of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ which lead to acid rain is discussed. The economics of this IGCC approach are assessed for a nominal 500 MW plant size. Phased construction of IGCC plants is recommended as a means of reducing SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions noting that high-sulfur coals could continue to be used. It is also noted that phased construction IGCC is the only acid rain control technology that greatly reduces NO/sub x/. 17 references.

  7. Coastal and rain-induced wind variability depicted by scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portabella, M.; Lin, W.; Stoffelen, A.; Turiel, A.; Verhoef, A.; Verspeek, J.; Ballabrera, J.; Vogelzang, J.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of local wind variability near the shore is very important since it strongly affects the weather and microclimate in coastal regions. Since coastal areas are densely populated and most activity at sea occurs near the shore, sea-surface wind field information is important for a number of applications. In the vicinity of land sea-breeze, wave fetch, katabatic and current effects are more likely than in the open ocean, thus enhancing air-sea interaction. Also very relevant for air-sea interaction are the rain-induced phenomena, such as downbursts and convergence. Relatively cold and dry air is effectively transported to the ocean surface and surface winds are enhanced. In general, both coastal and rain-induced wind variability are poorly resolved by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Satellite real aperture radars (i.e., scatterometers) are known to provide accurate mesoscale (25-50 km resolution) sea surface wind field information used in a wide variety of applications. Nowadays, there are two operating scatterometers in orbit, i.e., the C-band Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard Metop-A and the Ku-band scatterometer (OSCAT) onboard Oceansat-2. The EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF) delivers several ASCAT level 2 wind products with 25 km and 12.5 km Wind Vector Cell (WVC) spacing, including a pre-operational coastal wind product as well as an OSCAT level 2 wind product with 50 km spacing in development status. Rain is known to both attenuate and scatter the microwave signal. In addition, there is a "splashing" effect. The roughness of the sea surface is increased because of splashing due to rain drops. The so-called "rain contamination" is larger for Ku-band scatterometer systems than for C-band systems. Moreover, the associated downdrafts lead to variable wind speeds and directions, further complicating the wind retrieval. The C-band ASCAT high resolution wind processing is validated under rainy

  8. Combating bad weather part I rain removal from video

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the

  9. SMAP Salinity Artifacts Associated With Presence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. M.; Santos-Garcia, A.; Jones, L.

    2016-02-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band radiometer, which measures sea surface salinity (SSS) over a swath of 1000 km @ 40 km resolution. SMAP can extend the Aquarius (AQ) salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. Previous studies [see references] have demonstrated significant differences between satellite and in-situ salinity measurements during rain. In the presence of precipitation, salinity stratification exists near the sea surface, which nullifies the presumption of a well-mixed salinity. In general, these salinity gradients last only a few hours and the upper layer becomes slightly fresher in salinity. This paper describes the Rain Impact Model (RIM) that simulates the effects of rain accumulation on the SSS [Santos-Garcia et al., 2014] applied to SMAP. This model incorporates rainfall information for the previous 24 hours to the measurement sample (in this case SMAP) and uses as initialization the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) data. Given the better resolution of SMAP, the goal of this paper is to continue the analysis previously done with AQ to better understand the effects of the instantaneous and accumulated rain on the salinity measurements. Boutin, J., N. Martin, G. Reverdin, X. Yin, and F. Gaillard (2013), Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: Impact of rain, Ocean Sci., 9(1), 183-192, doi:10.5194/os-9-183-2013. Santos-Garcia, A., M. Jacob, L. Jones, W. Asher, Y. Hejazin, H. Ebrahimi, and M. Rabolli (2014), Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 7605-7624, doi:10.1002/2014JC010137. Tang, W., S.H Yueh, A. Hayashi, A.G. Fore, W.L. Jones, A. Santos-Garcia, and M.M. Jacob, (2015), Rain-Induced Near Surface Salinity Stratification and Rain Roughness Correction for Aquarius SSS Retrieval, in Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of, 8(99), 1-11, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2463768.

  10. Aerosol size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow in the ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Posselt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition processes are highly efficient in the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere, and thus strongly influence global aerosol concentrations, and clouds, and their respective radiative forcings. In this study, physically detailed size-dependent below-cloud scavenging parameterizations for rain and snow are implemented in the ECHAM5-HAM global aerosol-climate model. Previously, below-cloud scavenging by rain in the ECHAM5-HAM was simply a function of the aerosol mode, and then scaled by the rainfall rate. The below-cloud scavenging by snow was a function of the snowfall rate alone. The global mean aerosol optical depth, and sea salt burden are sensitive to the below-cloud scavenging coefficients, with reductions near to 15% when the more vigorous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow is implemented. The inclusion of a prognostic rain scheme significantly reduces the fractional importance of below-cloud scavenging since there is higher evaporation in the lower troposphere, increasing the global mean sea salt burden by almost 15%. Thermophoretic effects are shown to produce increases in the global and annual mean number removal of Aitken size particles of near to 10%, but very small increases (near 1% in the global mean below-cloud mass scavenging of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Changes in the assumptions about the below-cloud scavenging by rain of particles with radius smaller than 10 nm do not cause any significant changes to the global and annual mean aerosol mass or number burdens, despite a change in the below-cloud number removal rate for nucleation mode particles by near to five-fold. Annual and zonal mean nucleation mode number concentrations are enhanced by up to 30% in the lower troposphere with the more vigourous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging. Closer agreement with different observations is found when the more physically detailed below-cloud scavenging parameterization is employed in the ECHAM5

  11. Scaling analysis of cloud and rain water in marine stratocumulus and implications for scale-aware microphysical parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Morrison, H.; Jensen, J. B.; Bansemer, A.; Gettelman, A.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial covariance of cloud and rain water (or in simpler terms, small and large drops, respectively) is an important quantity for accurate prediction of the accretion rate in bulk microphysical parameterizations that account for subgrid variability using assumed probability density functions (pdfs). Past diagnoses of this covariance from remote sensing, in situ measurements and large eddy simulation output have implicitly assumed that the magnitude of the covariance is insensitive to grain size (i.e. horizontal resolution) and averaging length, but this is not the case because both cloud and rain water exhibit scale invariance across a wide range of scales - from tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers in the case of cloud water, a range that we will show is primarily limited by instrumentation and sampling issues. Since the individual variances systematically vary as a function of spatial scale, it should be expected that the covariance follows a similar relationship. In this study, we quantify the scaling properties of cloud and rain water content and their covariability from high frequency in situ aircraft measurements of marine stratocumulus taken over the southeastern Pacific Ocean aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 during the VOCALS-REx field experiment of October-November 2008. First we confirm that cloud and rain water scale in distinct manners, indicating that there is a statistically and potentially physically significant difference in the spatial structure of the two fields. Next, we demonstrate that the covariance is a strong function of spatial scale, which implies important caveats regarding the ability of limited-area models with domains smaller than a few tens of kilometers across to accurately reproduce the spatial organization of precipitation. Finally, we present preliminary work on the development of a scale-aware parameterization of cloud-rain water subgrid covariability based in multifractal analysis intended for application in large-scale model

  12. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  13. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  14. Rainfall analysis for Indian monsoon region using the merged rain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This daily analysis, being based on high dense rain gauge observations was found to be very ... monitoring and prediction of flood events to ini- .... First, station information (especially location) is verified. The precipitation values themselves are checked for coding or typing errors. The density of the spatial data used to ...

  15. Analysis of Historical Rainfall Data and Associated Risks on Rain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distribution over the last six decades and tries to do a number of weather induced risk analysis in relation to different rainfall events that has special importance to the local farmers. Different type of rainfall events over the past six decades was assessed in relation to Ethiopian rain fed” tef” production. Tef is an important ...

  16. Intracranial calcification in Raine syndrome: radiological pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mane, K.; Al-Dayel, F.; McDonald, P.

    1998-01-01

    We report the seventh known patient with Raine syndrome, a recently recognised, lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with severe craniofacial dysmorphism and intracranial calcification in whom the CT findings are correlated with the gross and microscopic abnormalities found in the brain at autopsy. (orig.)

  17. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  18. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  19. Rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der H.T.; Watson, R.J.; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the modeling and prediction of rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz. The bistatic radar equation together withMie theory is applied as the basis for calculating the scattering. Together with the attenuation induced by the medium before and after

  20. Lightning-based propagation of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for continuously monitoring convective rain cells. It exploits lightning data from surface networks to propagate rain fields estimated from multi-frequency brightness temperature measurements taken by the AMSU/MHS microwave radiometers onboard NOAA/EUMETSAT low Earth orbiting operational satellites. Specifically, the method allows inferring the development (movement, morphology and intensity of convective rain cells from the spatial and temporal distribution of lightning strokes following any observation by a satellite-borne microwave radiometer. Obviously, this is particularly attractive for real-time operational purposes, due to the sporadic nature of the low Earth orbiting satellite measurements and the continuous availability of ground-based lightning measurements – as is the case in most of the Mediterranean region. A preliminary assessment of the lightning-based rainfall propagation algorithm has been successfully made by using two pairs of consecutive AMSU observations, in conjunction with lightning measurements from the ZEUS network, for two convective events. Specifically, we show that the evolving rain fields, which are estimated by applying the algorithm to the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the first AMSU overpass, show an overall agreement with the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the second AMSU overpass.

  1. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘acid rain’ refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42−) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  2. Golden rain tree leaf extracts as potential inhibitor of lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) protective effect of extract/fractions of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Golden rain tree) in lipid peroxidation assay and calf thymus DNA protection assay. The leaves of the plant were extracted with different ...

  3. Rain-induced cross-polarization effects on satellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rain-induced cross-polarization effects on satellite telecommunication in some tropical location. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and ...

  4. Mechanics of Interrill Erosion with Wind-Driven Rain (WDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides an evaluation analysis for the performance of the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for Wind-Driven Rain (WDR) events. The interrill delivery rates (Di) were collected in the wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility of the International Cen...

  5. Rain-harvesting behavior in agamid lizards (Trapelus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, M.; Modrý, David

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2002), s. 311-314 ISSN 0022-1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : lizards * ethology * rain-harvesting behavior Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2002

  6. Histochemical Characterization of Rain-Forest Strain of Onchocerca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The histochemical characterization of rain-forest strain of Onchocerca volvulus isolated in Akamkpa of Cross River State, Nigeria was studied. In a preliminary survey of 350 persons from eight villages, 75(21.4%) were found to be positive for the parasite. Males (23.6%) were more infected than the females but there ...

  7. Satellite passive microwave rain measurement techniques for land and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiseasonal rainfall was found to be measurable over land with satellite passive microwave data, based upon comparisons between Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMME) brightness temperatures (T sub B) and operational WSR-57 radar rain rates. All of the SMMR channels (bipolarized 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6. GHz T sub B) were compared to radar reflectivities for 25 SMMR passes and 234 radar scans over the U.S. during the spring, summer, and fall of 1979. It was found that the radar rain rates were closely related to the difference between 37 and 21 GHz T sub B. This result is due to the volume scattering effects of precipitation which cause emissivity decreases with frequency, as opposed to emissive surfaces (e.g., water) whose emissivities increase with frequency. Two frequencies also act to reduce the effects of thermometric temperature variations on T sub B to a miminum. During summer and fall, multiple correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.75 were obtained. These approach the limit of correlation that can be expected to exist between two very different data sources, especially in light of the errors attributable to manual digitization of PPI photographs of variable quality from various operational weather radar not calibrated for research purposes. During the spring, a significantly lower (0.63) correlation was found. This poorer performance was traced to cases of wet, unvegetated soil being sensed at the lower frequencies through light rain, partly negating the rain scattering signal.

  8. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  9. Removal of plant nutrients from tree crowns by rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O

    1951-01-01

    The composition of rain water samples collected beneath trees, as compared with samples from an open field, has been investigated during part of the autumn of 1950. Considerable amounts of calcium, potassium and sodium have been found in water collected beneath trees, together with smaller amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  10. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are

  11. Rain Tolk : "Jan Uuspõld on asendamatu" / Greta Kaupmees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaupmees, Greta

    2006-01-01

    Kanal 2 saate "TOP 10" naljameeste pingereas platseerus näitleja Jan Uuspõld 4. kohale. Teda iseloomustades pole üks komöödiafilmi "Jan Uuspõld läheb Tartusse" autoreid Rain Tolk kiitusega kitsi

  12. Quantification of Rain Induced Artifacts on Digital Satellite Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, digital satellite television (DSTV) and terrestrial television content providers. In this paper, the artifacts present in a typical DSTV signal is examined on a ...

  13. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Karl August Otto

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades El-Niño-induced fires have caused widespread destruction of forests in East Kalimantan. The 1997-98 fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are

  14. Growth and yield model application in tropical rain forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Atta-Boateng; John W., Jr. Moser

    2000-01-01

    Analytical tools are needed to evaluate the impact of management policies on the sustainable use of rain forest. Optimal decisions concerning the level of management inputs require accurate predictions of output at all relevant input levels. Using growth data from 40 l-hectare permanent plots obtained from the semi-deciduous forest of Ghana, a system of 77 differential...

  15. Lessons Learnt on Rain Forest Management for Wood Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out with the aim of analyzing and establishing what lessons have been learnt from positive and negative experiences of various initiatives, projects and programmes aiming at sustainable management, use and conservation of rain forests in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lessons learnt from the case ...

  16. Estimating Effects Of Rain On Ground/Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    LeRC-SLAM provides static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of attenuation by rain on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Program designed for use in specification, design, and assessment of satellite link for any terminal location in continental United States. IBM PC version written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, and Macintosh version written in Microsoft Basic.

  17. Evidence of late Palaeocene-early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V; Farooqui, A; Tripathi, S K M; Garg, R; Thakur, B

    2009-11-01

    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen fl ora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (approximately 55-50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversifi ed equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  18. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Sheppard, M I

    1988-06-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the "background" radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable.

  19. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Sheppard, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the background radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable

  20. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  1. [Microbiological public health aspects in the use of rain water as water reservoirs for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, R; Bullermann, M; Gross, C; Hartung, H; König, K; Lücke, F K; Nolde, E

    1996-05-01

    From a total of 102 rain water cisterns in use for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundering washing about 1,600 water samples were collected and subjected to microbiological analysis. The assays included aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms growing at 20 and 37 degrees C, respectively, as well as the identification of Escherichia coli, coliform organisms, faecal streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, yersiniae, salmonellae, shigellae, legionellae and yeasts. The median of the total number of cells per ml was 1,200 at 20 degrees C and 230 at 37 degrees C, respectively. Approximately 26 E. coli cells and 198 coliform organisms (median values) were found per 100 ml. In the case of cisterns manufactured of plastic the total number of cells was generally found to be lower than in samples collected from concrete or brick-made storage tanks. With the exception of the ubiquitously distributed organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa (found in 11.8% of the samples) and salmonella in only one sample, no other pathogens were detected. More than 95% of all analysed samples met the quality standards for bathing waters as set by the European Community. Provided certain precautions are taken, such as strict separation of mains for drinking water and rain water, as well as correct labelling of pipelines and collection sites, the use of rain water for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and laundry washing presents no unacceptable risk to public health.

  2. Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2013-04-15

    The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Jiao, Jiu J.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    2008-07-01

    Water-level increase after rainfall is usually indicative of rainfall recharge to groundwater. This, however, may not be true if the Lisse effect occurs. This effect represents the water-level increase in a well driven by airflow induced by an advancing wetting front during highly intensive rains. The rainwater, which may behave like a low-permeability lid, seals the ground surface so that the air pressure beneath the wetting front is increased because of air compression due to downward movement of the wetting front. A rapid and substantial rise of the water level in the well screened below water table, which bears no relationship to groundwater recharge, can be induced when various factors such as soil properties and the rain-runoff condition combine favorably. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model was employed to study the air and groundwater flows in the soil under rain conditions. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to evaluate the reliability of the theory of the Lisse effect presented by Weeks to predict its magnitude in modeled situations that mimic the physical complexity of real aquifers, and to conduct parametric studies on the sensitivity of the water-level rise in the well to soil properties and the rain event. The simulation results reveal that the magnitude of the Lisse effect increases with the ponding depth. Soil permeability plays a key role in generating the Lisse effect. The water-level rise in the well is delayed relative to the air-pressure rise in the unsaturated zone when the soil permeability is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain infiltration. The simulation also explores the sensitivity of the Lisse effect to the van Genuchten parameters and the water table depth.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of 7Be by rain events, incentral Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Di Gregorio, D. E.; Huck, H.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.

    2008-08-01

    Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide that enters into the ecosystems through wet and dry depositions and has numerous environmental applications in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric wet deposition of 7Be was measured in central Argentina. Rain traps were installed (1 m above ground) and individual rain events have been collected. Rain samples were filtered and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The gamma counting was undertaken using a 40%-efficient p-type coaxial intrinsic high-purity natural germanium crystal built by Princeton Gamma-Tech. The cryostat was made from electroformed high-purity copper using ultralow-background technology. The detector was surrounded by 50 cm of lead bricks to provide shielding against radioactive background. The detector gamma efficiency was determined using a water solution with known amounts of chemical compounds containing long-lived naturally occurring radioisotopes, 176Lu, 138La and 40K. Due to the geometry of the sample and its position close to the detector, the efficiency points from the 176Lu decay, had to be corrected for summing effects. The measured samples were 400 ml in size and were counted curing one day. The 7Be detection limit for the present measurements was as low as 0.2 Bq l-1. Thirty two rain events were sampled and analyzed (November 2006-May 2007). The measured values show that the events corresponding to low rainfall (<20 mm) are characterized by significantly higher activity concentrations (Bq l-1). The activity concentration of each individual event varied from 0.8 to 3.5 Bq l-1, while precipitations varied between 4 and 70 mm. The integrated activity by event of 7Be was fitted with a model that takes into account the precipitation amount and the elapsed time between two rain events. The integrated activities calculated with this model show a good agreement with experimental values.

  5. Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA Micro Rain Radar (MRR) MC3E dataset was collected by a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), which is a vertically pointing Doppler radar which...

  7. The Role of Ecologists in Designing Rain Gardens: Enhancing Nitrate removal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. Stormwater infiltration through rain gardens’ sandy soils is intended to have both water quantity and quality benefits, through stream peak flow reduction and...

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B rain product includes instantaneous rain rate and rain type over ice-free and snow-free land and ocean between 70 degrees north and south...

  9. The Synergy between Meteorological Parameters and the Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because of its origin from mostly non-urban areas that ... particles in the air are readily removed by falling rain drop ..... Their physics and Physical ... Mass. Concentrations and Metals Speciation of PM2.5. PM10 and total suspended solids in ...

  10. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  11. A simple model for the estimation of rain-induced attenuation along earth-space paths at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Dishman, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A simple attenuation model (SAM) is presented for estimating rain-induced attenuation along an earth-space path. The rain model uses an effective spatial rain distribution which is uniform for low rain rates and which has an exponentially shaped horizontal rain profile for high rain rates. When compared to other models, the SAM performed well in the important region of low percentages of time, and had the lowest percent standard deviation of all percent time values tested.

  12. Improvement of Tidal Analysis Results by a Priori Rain Fall Modelling at the Vienna and Membach stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurers, B.; van Camp, M.; Petermans, T.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate how far tidal analysis results can be improved when a rain fall admittance model is applied on the superconducting gravity (SG) data. For that purpose both Vienna and Membach data have been analysed with and without a priori rain fall correction. In Membach the residual drop for most events (80%) can be explained by the rain water load, while in Vienna only 50% of all events fit the model in detail. In the other cases the Newtonian effect of vertical air mass redistribution (vertical density variation without air pressure change), predominantly connected with high vertical convection activity, e.g. thunderstorms, plays an essential role: short-term atmospheric signals show up steep gravity residual decreases of a few nms-2 within 10 - 60 min, well correlated with outdoor air temperature in most cases. However, even in those cases the water load model is able to explain the dominating part of the residual drop especially during heavy rain fall. In Vienna more than 110 events have been detected over 10 years. 84% of them are associated with heavy rain starting at or up to 10 min later than the residual drop while the rest (16%) shows no or only little rainfall. The magnitude of the gravity drop depends on the total amount of rainfall accumulated during the meteorological event. Step like signals deteriorate the frequency spectrum estimates. This even holds for tidal analysis. As the drops are of physical origin, they should not be eliminated blindly but corrected using water load modeling constrained by high temporal resolution (1 min) rain data. 3D modeling of the water mass load due to a rain event is based on the following assumptions: (1) Rain water intrudes into the uppermost soil layer (close to the topography surface) and remains there at least until rain has stopped. This is justified for a period of some hours after the rainfall as evapotranspiration is not yet effective. (2) No run-off except of sealed areas or building roofs, where water can

  13. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  14. Rain rate measurements over global oceans from IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper rain estimation capability of MSMR is explored. MSMR brightness temperature data of six channels corresponding to three frequencies of 10, 18 and 21 GHz are colocated with the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) derived rain rates to find a new empirical algorithm for rain rate by multiple regression. Multiple ...

  15. A review on wind-driven rain research in building science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Wind-driven rain (WDR) or driving rain is rain that is given a horizontal velocity component by the wind. WDR research is of importance in a number of research areas including earth sciences, meteorology and building science. Research methods and results are exchangeable between these domains but no

  16. Direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content of terrestrial plants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Enzai; Dong, Dan; Zeng, Xuetong; Sun, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Xiaofei; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial

  17. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  18. The effects of droplet characteristics on the surface features in a rain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally in a 1.22-m-by-1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. A rain generator consisting of an open-surface water tank with an array of 22-gauge hypodermic needles (typical needle-to-needle spacing of about L0 = 3 . 5 cm) attached to holes in the tank bottom is mounted 2 m above the water pool. The tank is connected to a 2D translation stage to provide a small-radius (volumetric flow rate (nπd3 / 6) through control of the water depth in the generator tank. The water surface features, including the crown, stalk and ring waves, due to the impacts of the drops are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. The dependence of these features on the rain characteristics are discussed. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences, and the assistance of Mr. Larry Gong are gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain forest sigma deg data. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Bracalente, E. M.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Ocean Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT-1 scatterometer system show the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which is insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence may be adequately modeled as sigma deg (dB) = alpha theta + beta with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 dB deg to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum likelihood estimation algorithms are presented which permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  20. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain sigma(0) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT Scatterometer System (SASS) showed the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which was insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence was adequately modeled as scattering coefficient (dB) = a theta b with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum-likelihood estimation algorithms presented here permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  1. Radioactive fallout in air and rain: results for 1985 and 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Burton, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    Samples of atmospheric particulate and rainwater have been collected from the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Results are presented of analyses of these samples for various fission products and certain other radionuclides. The average concentrations of long-lived fission products in air and rain in the United Kingdom in 1985 were near to or below the limit of detection and lower than at any time since measurements began in 1953. The Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986 produced a sharp increase in the concentrations of caesium-137 in air and rain in the northern hemisphere. Levels of Cs-137 in some parts of the United Kingdom were greater than any previously recorded. Plutonium concentrations in air and rainwater were a very small fraction of the NRPB's Generalised Derived Limit for members of the public. There was negligible contribution from the Chernobyl accident. Strontium-90 deposited in the United Kingdom in 1985 was below the limit of detection. The deposits in 1986 were generally about 2% of that from Cs-137. The estimated cumulative worldwide deposit of Cs-137 at the end of 1986 is about 10% greater than at the end of 1985. This increase is attributable to the Chernobyl accident. The gamma and beta-ray dose rates from fallout at Chilton are estimated from the observed deposition. (author)

  2. Effect of substrate depth and rain-event history on the pollutant abatement of green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Martin; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Saad, Mohamed; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different thickness of green roof substrate with respect to nutrient and heavy metal retention and release. To understand and evaluate the long term behaviour of green roofs, substrate columns with the same structure and composition as the green roofs, were exposed in laboratory to artificial rain. The roofs act as a sink for C, N, P, zinc and copper for small rain events if the previous period was principally dry. Otherwise the roofs may behave as a source of pollutants, principally for carbon and phosphorus. Both field and column studies showed an important retention for Zn and Cu. The column showed, however, lower SS, DOC and metal concentrations in the percolate than could be observed in the field even if corrected for run-off. This is most probably due to the difference in exposition history and weathering processes. Highlights: • Extensive roof greening can lead to increased DOC and nutrients runoff. • Studied green roofs retained over 80% of atmospheric heavy metal loads (Zn, Cu, Pb). • Substrate layer thickness had no significant impact on metal retention. • Column experiments showed no decrease in the long term heavy metal retention. -- The green roofs tested, showed variable retention capacity for the common pollutants, but were especially efficient in heavy metals retention, which long-term evolution was evaluated in simultaneous column experiments

  3. Simulated rain events on an urban roadway to understand the dynamics of mercury mobilization in stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S; Branfireun, Brian

    2009-08-01

    This research focuses on mercury (Hg) mobilization in stormwater runoff from an urban roadway. The objectives were to determine: how the transport of surface-derived Hg changes during an event hydrograph; the influence of antecedent dry days on the runoff Hg load; the relationship between total suspended sediments (TSS) and Hg transport, and; the fate of new Hg input in rain and its relative importance to the runoff Hg load. Simulated rain events were used to control variables to elucidate transport processes and a Hg stable isotope was used to trace the fate of Hg inputs in rain. The results showed that Hg concentrations were highest at the beginning of the hydrograph and were predominantly particulate bound (HgP). On average, almost 50% of the total Hg load was transported during the first minutes of runoff, underscoring the importance of the initial runoff on load calculations. Hg accumulated on the road surface during dry periods resulting in the Hg runoff load increasing with antecedent dry days. The Hg concentrations in runoff were significantly correlated with TSS concentrations (mean r(2)=0.94+/-0.09). The results from the isotope experiments showed that the new Hg inputs quickly become associated with the surface particles and that the majority of Hg in runoff is derived from non-event surface-derived sources.

  4. Export of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied after Typhoon Roke during 21–22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.009–0.098 Bq L−1 in normal flow conditions during July–September 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L−1 in high flow conditions because of heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21–56% of total radiocesium in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred because of the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs attributable to the heavy rain accounts for 30–50% of the annual radiocesium flux from inland to coastal ocean region in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor contributing to the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  5. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  6. Effect of acid rain on soil microbial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrold, D.D.; Nason, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain is real; the pH of precipitation in many areas of the world is below its normal equilibrium value, and concentrations of inorganic N and S are elevated above background. The impact of acid rain on soil microbial processes is less clear. This is largely because of the chemical buffering of the soil ecosystem and the inherent resiliency and redundancy of soil microorganisms. Microorganisms have an amazing capacity to adapt to new situations, which is enhanced by their ability to evolve under selection pressure. Their resilience is a function of both the large number of microorganisms present in a given volume of soil and their high growth rate relative to macroorganisms. This suggests that microorganisms are likely to be able to adapt more quickly to acidification than plants or animals, which may be one reason why symbiotic associations, such as ectomycorrhizae, are more susceptible to acid inputs than their saprophytic counterparts

  7. US energy and the impact of acid rain legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisel, J.H.; Kelly, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Amendment to the US Clean Air Act aims to mitigate damage to the environment caused by acid rain. This study considers whether earlier US government policies to promote increased use of abundant indigenous coal resources will be aborted by the 1990 Amendment. It also examines whether benefits to the environment and public health resulting from the new law outweigh costs to the consumer. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the efficiency of marketable permits in achieving minimum cost to comply with emission standards set by the amendment. The authors restrict the study to the sections of Title IV (Acid Rain) which pertain specifically to SO 2 emissions from electric utilities. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  9. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  10. First records of pollen rain in bromeliad tanks in an area of caatinga in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Mirella de Souza Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Bromeliaceae have leaves in a spiral configuration. Because of the shape of the rosette thus formed and the imbricate configuration of the leaf sheaths, there is usually a tank in which rainwater and other components of the environment, including pollen grains, accumulate, making such tanks effective pollen rain collectors. The objective of this study was to use bromeliads as a tool to increase knowledge about the vegetation of the caatinga (shrublands in the Canudos region of the state of Bahia, located in the semi-arid zone of Brazil, as well as to analyze the dynamics of pollen dispersal and deposition. To that end, we collected samples of the water from the tanks of bromeliads at the Canudos Biological Station. A total of 149 pollen types were detected, 88 of which could be identified botanically. The families that were the most well-represented among the pollen types were Fabaceae (with 25, Asteraceae (with 9, and Euphorbiaceae (with 7. Ten pollen types were presented as potential indicators of caatinga vegetation. We conclude that tank bromeliads are useful for gathering information about pollen rain and pollen dynamics, as well as about the transport and deposition of pollen in the caatinga.

  11. Measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Soedyartomo; Suhartono.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fallout as well as the measurement of the fallout gross beta activity have been studied. In the preliminary study strontium 90 is separated from other cations especially fission products by fuming nitric acid, and radioactivity measurement is carried out in the form of strontium oxalate. Data of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 and the gross beta activity in the fallout are given. (author)

  12. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  13. Technologies options for acid-rain control. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princiotta, F.T.

    1992-01-01

    The report discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed by EPA, selective use of gas to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in coal-fired boilers, and the use of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology

  14. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  15. Politics of environmental regulation: acid rain in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogarth Wood, G P

    1984-01-01

    This study looks at the case of the Ontario government and Inco Limited in order to explain political responses to the acid rain issue and to generalize about the dynamics of environmental regulation. Existing accounts of the acid rain situation neglect a systematic explanation of the political processes that guide the selection of policy. This reflects a tendency in Canadian public policy analysis generally. Most literature in this field is both apolitical and atheoretical. In addition, most models of public policy focus attention on a narrow range of policy determinants, making the models inappropriate as exclusive guides for public policy analysis. This study follows an approach that assumes that no variable can, a priori, be viewed as the primary determinant of a policy choice. Instead, relevant features of the economic, social, and political environment surrounding the policy process have to be examined in addition to that process itself. Accordingly, a number of potential influences on the acid rain policy outcome in Ontario are explored: the economic structure of Ontario, political-geographic factors, the role of science and technology, political power in the province, political values and attitudes, the institutional structure of Ontario politics, and finally, the policy process itself. This exercise points to the overriding influence of the political system environment, particularly the economic structure of the province, in explaining the policy choice. The findings of this study can be extended to explain regulatory responses to the issue in other political jurisdictions.

  16. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  17. Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

  18. Impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Gębka, Karolina; Szubska, Marta; Wochna, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone. This study focused on four small rivers (Reda, Zagórska Struga, Płutnica, Gizdepka), typical of the Southern Baltic region, with no significant mercury sources. Samples were collected for 16months during average flow conditions and during selected meteorological events: floods, downpours, thaws and droughts. Results showed decreased retention of mercury during intense rainfalls, thus demonstrating mercury elution from the catchment. Floods and melting snow also have a tremendous impact on the outflow of mercury from the catchment. Development of urban infrastructure and farmlands increases the outflow of mercury from the catchment too, making such areas a significant source of mercury in the river. On the other hand, areas with natural character, predominated by forests, stimulate retention of mercury that reaches them through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli from a tropical rain forest stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, C.E.; Alvarez, H.J.; Ortiz, N.; Bisbal, M.; Arias, W.; Baerga, C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Biology; Hazen, T.C. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

    1988-12-31

    High densities of fecal coliforms were obtained from a pristine site and sewage contaminated site in a tropical rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Confirmation of fecal coliform isolates as Escherichia coli was significantly lower than for temperate waters. Antibiotic resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance were common for isolates at both sites; however, the site receiving sewage effluent had a greater proportion of multiple antibiotic resistant isolates. R. plasmids were recovered from 4 MAR isolates, 2 from each site. All recovered plasmids were approximately 1 kilobase. The recovered plasmid were also capable of transforming E. coli HB101 in vitro. The high concentrations of enterobacteriaceae, small R-plasmid size, R-plasmid transformability, and long term survival of fecal origin bacteria in tropical freshwater environments give increasing importance to adequate sewage treatment, and better indicator monitoring methods for tropical areas.

  20. Drop Size Distribution - Based Separation of Stratiform and Convective Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    For applications in hydrology and meteorology, it is often desirable to separate regions of stratiform and convective rain from meteorological radar observations, both from ground-based polarimetric radars and from space-based dual frequency radars. In a previous study by Bringi et al. (2009), dual frequency profiler and dual polarization radar (C-POL) observations in Darwin, Australia, had shown that stratiform and convective rain could be separated in the log10(Nw) versus Do domain, where Do is the mean volume diameter and Nw is the scaling parameter which is proportional to the ratio of water content to the mass weighted mean diameter. Note, Nw and Do are two of the main drop size distribution (DSD) parameters. In a later study, Thurai et al (2010) confirmed that both the dual-frequency profiler based stratiform-convective rain separation and the C-POL radar based separation were consistent with each other. In this paper, we test this separation method using DSD measurements from a ground based 2D video disdrometer (2DVD), along with simultaneous observations from a collocated, vertically-pointing, X-band profiling radar (XPR). The measurements were made in Huntsville, Alabama. One-minute DSDs from 2DVD are used as input to an appropriate gamma fitting procedure to determine Nw and Do. The fitted parameters - after averaging over 3-minutes - are plotted against each other and compared with a predefined separation line. An index is used to determine how far the points lie from the separation line (as described in Thurai et al. 2010). Negative index values indicate stratiform rain and positive index indicate convective rain, and, moreover, points which lie somewhat close to the separation line are considered 'mixed' or 'transition' type precipitation. The XPR observations are used to evaluate/test the 2DVD data-based classification. A 'bright-band' detection algorithm was used to classify each vertical reflectivity profile as either stratiform or convective

  1. Analysing the origin of rain- and subsurface water in seasonal wetlands of north-central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kanamori, Hironari; Kambatuku, Jack R.; Kotani, Ayumi; Asai, Kazuyoshi; Mizuochi, Hiroki; Fujioka, Yuichiro; Iijima, Morio

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the origins of rain- and subsurface waters of north-central Namibia’s seasonal wetlands, which are critical to the region’s water and food security. The region includes the southern part of the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) of the Cuvelai Basin, a transboundary river basin covering southern Angola and northern Namibia. We analysed stable water isotopes (SWIs) of hydrogen (HDO) and oxygen (H2 18O) in rainwater, surface water and shallow groundwater. Rainwater samples were collected during every rainfall event of the rainy season from October 2013 to April 2014. The isotopic ratios of HDO (δD) and oxygen H2 18O (δ 18O) were analysed in each rainwater sample and then used to derive the annual mean value of (δD, δ 18O) in precipitation weighted by each rainfall volume. Using delta diagrams (plotting δD vs. δ 18O), we showed that the annual mean value was a good indicator for determining the origins of subsurface waters in the CSSWs. To confirm the origins of rainwater and to explain the variations in isotopic ratios, we conducted atmospheric water budget analysis using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) data and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data. The results showed that around three-fourths of rainwater was derived from recycled water at local-regional scales. Satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and complementary satellite data from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) series implied that the isotopic ratios in rainwater were affected by evaporation of raindrops falling from convective clouds. Consequently, integrated SWI analysis of rain-, surface and subsurface waters, together with the atmospheric water budget analysis, revealed that shallow groundwater of small wetlands in this region was very likely to be recharged from surface waters originating from local rainfall, which was

  2. ANALYSIS OF CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY IRIS , HINODE /SOT, AND SDO /AIA: TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS, KINEMATICS, AND THERMAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohutova, P.; Verwichte, E., E-mail: p.kohutova@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-10

    Coronal rain composed of cool plasma condensations falling from coronal heights along magnetic field lines is a phenomenon occurring mainly in active region coronal loops. Recent high-resolution observations have shown that coronal rain is much more common than previously thought, suggesting its important role in the chromosphere-corona mass cycle. We present the analysis of MHD oscillations and kinematics of the coronal rain observed in chromospheric and transition region lines by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) , the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Two different regimes of transverse oscillations traced by the rain are detected: small-scale persistent oscillations driven by a continuously operating process and localized large-scale oscillations excited by a transient mechanism. The plasma condensations are found to move with speeds ranging from few km s{sup −1} up to 180 km s{sup −1} and with accelerations largely below the free-fall rate, likely explained by pressure effects and the ponderomotive force resulting from the loop oscillations. The observed evolution of the emission in individual SDO /AIA bandpasses is found to exhibit clear signatures of a gradual cooling of the plasma at the loop top. We determine the temperature evolution of the coronal loop plasma using regularized inversion to recover the differential emission measure (DEM) and by forward modeling the emission intensities in the SDO /AIA bandpasses using a two-component synthetic DEM model. The inferred evolution of the temperature and density of the plasma near the apex is consistent with the limit cycle model and suggests the loop is going through a sequence of periodically repeating heating-condensation cycles.

  3. Performance of Using Cascade Forward Back Propagation Neural Networks for Estimating Rain Parameters with Rain Drop Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddi Tengeleng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to estimate the parameters M (water content, R (rain rate and Z (radar reflectivity with raindrop size distribution by using the neural network method. Our investigations have been conducted in five African localities: Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire, Boyele (Congo-Brazzaville, Debuncha (Cameroon, Dakar (Senegal and Niamey (Niger. For the first time, we have predicted the values of the various parameters in each locality after using neural models (LANN which have been developed with locally obtained disdrometer data. We have shown that each LANN can be used under other latitudes to get satisfactory results. Secondly, we have also constructed a model, using as train-data, a combination of data issued from all five localities. With this last model called PANN, we could obtain satisfactory estimates forall localities. Lastly, we have distinguished between stratiform and convective rain while building the neural networks. In fact, using simulation data from stratiform rain situations, we have obtained smaller root mean square errors (RMSE between neural values and disdrometer values than using data issued from convective situations.

  4. The combined effect of wind and rain on interrill erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpul, G.; Gabriels, D.; Norton, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Wind-driven rain is described as raindrops falling through a wind field at an angle from vertical under the effects of both gravitational and drag forces. Wind-driven raindrops gain some degree of horizontal velocity and strike the soil surface with an angle deviated from vertical. Additionally, the distribution and intensity of rainfall on sloping surfaces differs depending on wind direction and velocity. The changes in raindrop trajectory and frequency with wind velocity and direction can have significant effects on rain splash detachment process. The resultant impact velocity, impact angle, and impact frequency of raindrops determine the magnitude of rain splash detachment by wind-driven rain. This differs from the detachment process by windless rain, in which a straight-line trajectory of raindrops and accordingly greatest rainfall intensity for a given rain are implicitly assumed. Wind, as well as slope and overland flow, is another possible factor capable of transporting detached particles by raindrop impact. Once soil particles are entrained in the splash droplets that have risen into the air by raindrop impact, wind velocity gradient will transport these particles. Obviously, in addition to its role in the rain splash detachment process, the wind accompanying rain is an important consideration in the rain splash transport process, which can cause a net transportation in wind direction. In wind-driven rains, wind velocity and direction is expected to affect not only rain splash detachment and transport processes but also shallow flow sediment transport induced by raindrop impacts with an angle on flow and the rain splash trajectories of soil particles within flow. Under wind-driven rain, the interrill transport process is a combined work of both rain splash sediment transport and raindrop-impacted shallow flow sediment transport. The rain splash process acts alone until runoff occurs, and net soil transport is caused by wind. As soon as runoff starts, the

  5. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  6. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  7. Performance of a rain retrieval algorithm using TRMM data in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Katsanos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make a regional characterization of the performance of the rain retrieval algorithm BRAIN. This algorithm estimates the rain rate from brightness temperatures measured by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI onboard the TRMM satellite. In this stage of the study, a comparison between the rain estimated from Precipitation Radar (PR onboard TRMM (2A25 version 5 and the rain retrieved by the BRAIN algorithm is presented, for about 30 satellite overpasses over the Central and Eastern Mediterranean during the period October 2003–March 2004, in order to assess the behavior of the algorithm in the Eastern Mediterranean region. BRAIN was built and tested using PR rain estimates distributed randomly over the whole TRMM sampling region. Characterization of the differences between PR and BRAIN over a specific region is thus interesting because it might show some local trend for one or the other of the instrument. The checking of BRAIN results against the PR rain-estimate appears to be consistent with former results i.e. a somewhat marked discrepancy for the highest rain rates. This difference arises from a known problem that affect rain retrieval based on passive microwave radiometers measurements, but some of the higher radar rain rates could also be questioned. As an independent test, a good correlation between the rain retrieved by BRAIN and lighting data (obtained by the UK Met. Office long range detection system is also emphasized in the paper.

  8. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals and Transformation of Their Speciation in Polluted Soil Receiving Simulated Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

  9. Feeding ecology of the endemic rain frog Pristimantis jubatus (craugastoridae) in Munchique national park, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Juan Carlos; Velasquez, Leonardo Lucas; Cardenas Henao, Heiber; Posso Gomez, Carmen Elisa

    2012-01-01

    We studied the diet of the rain frog Pristimantis jubatus based on stomach and intestinal contents of 29 individuals from three different localities at Munchique National Park, Colombia. The diet was composed exclusively of arthropods, comprising a total of 66 preys which were in 32 taxa. The most frequent dietary items were Diptera and Hymenoptera, 19.7 % and 16.7 % respectively, followed by Araneae (15.1 %) and Coleoptera (12.1 %). Plant consumption was considered incidental because of its low frequency. This species showed no preference for any type of prey, with a high value of niche breadth (0.68) indicating a generalist diet. Adults and juveniles occupy different perch height. Habitat use and the variety of items found show P. jubatus as a species that can consume any kind of arthropod available in the strata of the forest where it is foraging.

  10. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian; Pal, Asim Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In forecasting of rain pH, the changes caused by particulate matter (PM) are generally neglected. In regions of high PM concentration like Dhanbad, the role of PM in deciding the rain pH becomes important. Present work takes into account theoretical prediction of rain pH by two methods. First method considers only acid causing gases (ACG) like CO2, SO2 and NOx in pH estimation, whereas, second method additionally accounts for effect of PM (ACG-PM). In order to predict the rain pH, site specific deposited dust that represents local PM was studied experimentally for its impact on pH of neutral water. After incorporation of PM correction factor, it was found that, rain pH values estimated were more representative of the observed ones. Fractional bias (FB) for the ACG-PM method reduced to values of the order of 10(-2) from those with order of 10(-1) for the ACG method. The study confirms neutralization of rain acidity by PM. On account of this, rain pH was found in the slightly acidic to near neutral range, despite of the high sulfate flux found in rain water. Although, the safer range of rain pH blurs the severity of acid rain from the picture, yet huge flux of acidic and other ions get transferred to water bodies, soil and ultimately to the ground water system. Simple use of rain pH for rain water quality fails to address the issues of its increased ionic composition due to the interfering pollutants and thus undermines severity of pollutants transferred from air to rain water and then to water bodies and soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmughavel, P.; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest in closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied using standard regression analysis and the clear-cut method for shrubs and herbs. The total biomass was 360.9 t/ha and its allocation in different layers was: tree layer 352.5 t/ha, shrub layer 4.7 t/ha, liana 3.1 t/ha and herb layer 0.5 t/ha. Most of the biomass was concentrated in the trees: stem 241.2 t/ha, root 69.6 t/ha, branch 37.2 t/ha and leaves 4.3 t/ha. The DBH class allocation of the tree biomass was concentrated in the middle DBH class. The biomass of six DBH classes from 20 to 80 cm was 255.4 t/ha. There are twenty-six species with biomass over 0.5% of the total biomass of the tree layer, and three species with biomass over 5%, i.e., Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya (5.4%) and Terminalia myriocarpa (5.2%). Data on stem, branch, leaves and root of the individual tree species were used to develop regression models. D{sup 2}H was found to be the best estimator of the biomass in this tropical rain forest. However, higher biomass figures have been reported from tropical forests elsewhere e.g., 415-520 t/ha in the tropical forests of Cambodia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests, and the tropical moist logged moist evergreen-high, medium, and low yield forests of Sri Lanka. In some forests, lower accumulation of biomass was reported, e.g., 10-295 t/ha in the tropical moist forests of Bangladesh, the tropical moist dense forest of Cambodia, the tropical dry forests of India, the tropical moist forests of Peninsular-Malaysia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests of Sarawak-Malaysia, the tropical evergreen forests of

  12. Effects of simulated acid rain on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism of recalcitrant-seeded Trichilia dregeana grown in its natural seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, Chandika; Varghese, Boby; Ramdhani, Syd; Pammenter, Norman W; Bhatt, Arvind; Berjak, Patricia; Sershen

    2015-01-01

    Increased air pollution in a number of developing African countries, together with the reports of vegetation damage typically associated with acid precipitation in commercial forests in South Africa, has raised concerns over the potential impacts of acid rain on natural vegetation in these countries. Recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation sensitive) seeds of many indigenous African species, e.g. must germinate shortly after shedding and hence, may not be able to avoid exposure to acid rain in polluted areas. This study investigated the effects of simulated acid rain (rainwater with pH adjusted to pH 3.0 and 4.5 with 70:30, H2 SO4 :HNO3 ) on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism in a recalcitrant-seeded African tree species Trichilia dregeana Sond., growing in its natural seed bank. The results suggest that acid rain did not compromise T. dregeana seed germination and seedling establishment significantly, relative to the control (non-acidified rainwater). However, pH 3.0 treated seedlings exhibited signs of stress typically associated with acid rain: leaf tip necrosis, abnormal bilobed leaf tips, leaf necrotic spots and chlorosis, reduced leaf chlorophyll concentration, increased stomatal density and indications of oxidative stress. This may explain why total and root biomass of pH 3.0 treated seedlings were significantly lower than the control. Acid rain also induced changes in the species composition and relative abundance of the different life forms emerging from T. dregeana's natural seed bank and in this way could indirectly impact on T. dregeana seedling establishment success. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Utilization of genetic variation created through induced mutations to develop drought tolerant groundnut mutants for the sandy rain-fed areas of western Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E. G. A.

    2000-10-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L.) is grown as a cash crop throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Approximately 80% of the global production comes from developing countries and 67% of the total is produced in the seasonally rain fed areas of the semi-arid tropics (Gibbons, 1980). In Sudan, groundnut is grown under rain fed and irrigated sectors. Rain fed production accounts for 80% of the total production. Yield under the traditional rain fed farming conditions are very low (700kg/ha) compared to the world average (1200kg/ha). Low rainfall (250-450 mm) and short growing seasons (<90 days) are major constraints to groundnut production. Under these situations survival of the subsistence farmers depends entirely on minimizing the probabilities of crop failure. This can to some extent be addressed by adopting short term strategies of incorporating various physiological defense mechanisms into crop varieties to allow a certain level of realized yield in a more reliable manner (Subbarao et al, 1995)

  14. pH Control in Fog and Rain in East Asia: Temporal Advection of Clean Air Masses to Mt. Bamboo, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Klemm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog and rain was collected during an 18-day period in January 2011 at Mt. Bamboo, northern Taiwan. Almost 300 hourly fog samples and 16 daily rain samples were taken. One single fog sample (pH 3.17 was influenced by local volcanic activity, otherwise the pH ranged from 3.23 to 6.41 in fog and from 3.59 to 6.31 in rain. All the respective air masses arrived from the northeast, but exhibited two distinct groups: Group_1 had high concentrations of all ions (median interquartile range of total ion concentrations 3200–6200 µeq.·L−1 and low pHs (median 3.52, the respective air masses had travelled over densely populated and industrialized regions of mainland China. Group_2 was from air masses with long travel times over the ocean and relatively low total ion concentrations (80–570 µeq.·L−1 and higher pHs (median 4.80. The cleanest samples are among the cleanest reported in the literature of worldwide fog and rain. In both groups, the pH was governed by the balance of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and, in some cases, calcium. The variability of these ions was higher than the variability of 10−pH, which shows that the pH is a rather robust parameter in contrast to its drivers such as non-sea-salt sulfate.

  15. Resource Aware Intelligent Network Services (RAINS) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom; Yang, Xi

    2018-01-16

    The Resource Aware Intelligent Network Services (RAINS) project conducted research and developed technologies in the area of cyberinfrastructure resource modeling and computation. The goal of this work was to provide a foundation to enable intelligent, software defined services which spanned the network AND the resources which connect to the network. A Multi-Resource Service Plane (MRSP) was defined, which allows resource owners/managers to locate and place themselves from a topology and service availability perspective within the dynamic networked cyberinfrastructure ecosystem. The MRSP enables the presentation of integrated topology views and computation results which can include resources across the spectrum of compute, storage, and networks. The RAINS project developed MSRP includes the following key components: i) Multi-Resource Service (MRS) Ontology/Multi-Resource Markup Language (MRML), ii) Resource Computation Engine (RCE), iii) Modular Driver Framework (to allow integration of a variety of external resources). The MRS/MRML is a general and extensible modeling framework that allows for resource owners to model, or describe, a wide variety of resource types. All resources are described using three categories of elements: Resources, Services, and Relationships between the elements. This modeling framework defines a common method for the transformation of cyberinfrastructure resources into data in the form of MRML models. In order to realize this infrastructure datification, the RAINS project developed a model based computation system, i.e. “RAINS Computation Engine (RCE)”. The RCE has the ability to ingest, process, integrate, and compute based on automatically generated MRML models. The RCE interacts with the resources thru system drivers which are specific to the type of external network or resource controller. The RAINS project developed a modular and pluggable driver system which facilities a variety of resource controllers to automatically generate

  16. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  17. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural watersheds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Majewski, M.S.; Capel, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall samples were collected during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at four agricultural locales across the USA in Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, and California. The samples were analyzed for 21 insecticides, 18 herbicides, three fungicides, and 40 pesticide degradates. Data from all sites combined show that 7 of the 10 most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides, with atrazine (70%) and metolachlor (83%) detected at every site. Dacthal, acetochlor, simazine, alachlor, and pendimethalin were detected in more than 50% of the samples. Chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon were the only insecticides among the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Of the remaining pesticide parent compounds, 18 were detected in fewer than 30% of the samples, and 13 were not detected. The most frequently detected degradates were deethylatrazine; the oxygen analogs (OAs) of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion; and 1-napthol (degradate of carbaryl). Deethylatrazine was detected in nearly 70% of the samples collected in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska but was detected only once in California. The OAs of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected primarily in California. Degradates of the acetanilide herbicides were rarely detected in rain, indicating that they are not formed in the atmosphere or readily volatilized from soils. Herbicides accounted for 91 to 98% of the total pesticide mass deposited by rain except in California, where insecticides accounted for 61% in 2004. The mass of pesticides deposited by rainfall was estimated to be less than 2% of the total applied in these agricultural areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Chemical Characterization of Organic Matter in Rain at Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Martinez, G.; Andraca-Ayala, G. L.; Hernández-Nagay, D. P.; Mendoza-Trejo, A.; Rivera-Arellano, J.; Rosado-Abon, A.; Roy, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of the aerosol plays a central role in atmospheric processes and has influence on the hydrological cycle. Clouds form through the nucleation of water vapor on certain atmospheric aerosol particles, called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Also, precipitating particles scavenge some other aerosol particles on their way to the surface. Atmospheric particles are a mixture of organic and inorganic materials, both soluble and insoluble in water. Aerosol chemical characterization indicates a larger variety of compounds in urban areas respect to other regions. Thus, chemical composition of rainwater may represent an important aspect for estimating atmospheric air pollution. It has been recognized that organic species present in aerosol particles are important in the formation of cloud droplets. Therefore, the information about the organic compounds in precipitation samples may be helpful to understand their effects on the formation of clouds and rain, as well as their sources. Organic acids are ubiquitous components of aerosols and have been identified in precipitation water. In this work, preliminary results of the content of soluble organic (neutral and acidic) matter in rainwater samples collected in Mexico City during 2015 will be presented. The organic compounds content was performed by using an ionic chromatographic methodology with gradient elution; so the total amount was evaluated as the sum of four fractions: neutral/basic, mono-, bi-, and poly-acid compounds. The outcomes suggest that most of the amount of organic substances soluble in water is contained by the neutral/basic and mono-acid fractions. Regarding the total amount of water soluble organic compounds, the rain samples collected in Mexico City are in agreement with some others reported for large urban areas.

  19. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  20. Small Tactical Unmanned Aerial System (STUAS) Rapid Integration and Fielding Process (RAIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    standard operating mode in each context 4 N/A • Standard maintenance modes of the system 5 NIA • Standard resupply modes of the ~ stem 6 Lack of, or...34~~utroc j 851,3 % ~ .... ~QbliiC(t~OI’Ihl\\ol"’QQ’- :ll ~rANtt (£ Mt6:M 0 ltl~ ::J lt.dQ....,.It ~Oeti~ Cll «t)(.f.xi~ .!_!!:t ~e 4 ~ Sla6slks ~ - «n...ShcMIN~QbtiiC(t~OI’I--hotqr- ~ IrANI’\\ {Z Mt6:M 0 ltt~ .:J ltdQ....,.It ~Oeti~ Cll «t)(.f.xi~ !.J!! ~e t It! Slrisks .!.......!:. - C<nu< 319

  1. Determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A work that aim is to establish radiochemical method for the determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples has been studied, as a step in an environmental monitoring program of radioactive elements. The analysis includes the preconcentration of strontium diluted in a large volume sample by precipitation of strontium as carbonate, separation of strontium from interfering elements (calcium, barium and rare earths), separation of strontium from ytrium, precipitation of purified strontium and ytrium respectively as carbonate and oxalate, and counting of Sr-90 and Y-90 activities in a low background anticoincidence beta counter. (author) [pt

  2. The US Acid Rain Program: design, performance, and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    permit prices. Property rights to permits have been well-defined, strictly enforced, and sources have been allowed to trade freely without administrative approval of each trade. Ignoring source location in this way has kept transaction costs at a minimum. In conclusion, the policy design of the ARP......The US Acid Rain Program (ARP) from 1990 allows 1,000 major electric utilities all over the US to trade SO2 permits. Historical emission rights have been grandfathered and the target level is 50% SO2 reduction. Market performance has been successfull with much trade activity and unexpectedly low...

  3. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong

    . There are four chapters in the thesis. In chapter 1, a literature survey provides background information to the field. Topics discussed are the global wind energy development, possible wind turbine constructions, blade structures and materials, blade coatings, and liquid erosion mechanisms. In chapter 2......During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...

  4. Rain Scattering and Co-ordinate Distance Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of scattered field on the rain objects are based on using of Multiple MultiPole (MMP numerical method. Both bi-static scattering function and bi-static scattering cross section are calculated in the plane parallel to Earth surface. The co-ordination area was determined using the simple model of scattering volume [1]. Calculation for frequency 9.595 GHz and antenna elevation of 25° was done. Obtained results are compared with calculation in accordance to ITU-R recommendation.

  5. Seed rain dynamics following disturbance exclusion in a secondary tropical dry forest in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, Eliane; Hernández, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In most of the legally protected areas in Mexico local inhabitants use natural resources, such as fire wood or cattle grazing. These frequent but low-intensity disturbances have consequences at various levels of the tropical ecosystems and strongly impact forest structure and its regeneration capacity. Despite their importance, the effects of these perturbations in many aspects of tropical forest ecology and in the forest's capacity to recover after disturbance exclusion remain poorly understood. Understanding the impact of these processes on tropical forests is necessary for rehabilitating these forests and enhancing their productivity. In this study, we evaluate the impact of twelve years of exclusion (E) of cattle grazing and fire wood extraction in the composition and dynamics of seed rain, and compare this assessment to a similar analysis in an area where these perturbations continued (without exclusion, WE). We found a strong seasonality in seed rain (96% of seeds fell in the dry season) in both areas. There were no significant differences between E and WE sites in relation to overall seed density, species richness and diversity. However, the distribution along the year of seed species density was significantly different among the E and WE sites. The Jaccard's similarity index between E and WE sites was relatively low (0.57). Barochory was the most common dispersal mode observed among the 23 species in terms of seed species density (48%), followed by anemochory (39%) and zoochory (13%). In relation to seed density, anemochory was the most frequent dispersal mode (88%). Most species in the zone were categorized as small seeds (92%), and there were no significant differences in the distribution of seed size between E and WE. The spatial pattern of dispersal of the four species with the highest relative importance value index, in both areas, was aggregated. Twelve years of disturbance exclusion were not enough to fully restore the seed rain of the area; some

  6. Visualization of soil-moisture change in response to precipitation within two rain gardens in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Darner, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban areas is increasingly being managed by means of a variety of treaments that reduce or delay runoff and promote more natural infiltration. One such treatment is a rain garden, which is built to detain runoff and allow for water infiltration and uptake by plants.Water flow into or out of a rain garden can be readily monitored with a variety of tools; however, observing the movement of water within the rain garden is less straightforward. Soil-moisture probes in combination with an automated interpolation procedure were used to document the infiltration of water into two rain gardens in Ohio. Animations show changes in soil moisture in the rain gardens during two precipitation events. At both sites, the animations demonstrate underutilization of the rain gardens.

  7. Microbial populations in an agronomically managed mollisol treated with simulated acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.W.; Cole, M.A.; Banwart, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    A fertile well-buffered mollisol (Flanagan silt loam, fine montmorillonitic mesic Aquic Arguidoll) under cultivation with corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was subjected to simulated rain of pH 5.6, 4.2, and 3.0, while moisture-activated rain exclusion shelters provided protection from ambient rain. Soil was sampled to a depth of 3 cm on four dates throughout the 1985 growing season. The following microorganisms were enumerated by plate counts or most probable number: general heterotrophic bacteria, general soil fungi, free-living N-fixing bacteria, fluorescent pseudomonads, autotrophic ammonium-oxidizing, nitrite-oxidizing, and thio-sulfate-oxidizing bacteria. The ANOVA was used to determine the combined and individual effects of rain treatments, crop field, and sampling date. Crop field and sampling date affected microbial numbers more than rain treatments. Overall, rain treatment effects were limited to nitrite-oxidizing bacteria; lower numbers occurred in the corn field in subplots treated with rain of pH 4.2 and 3.0, and in the soybean field treated with rain of pH 3.0. The trend was strongest in June and July. In the corn field in subplots treated with rain of pH 3.0, numbers of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria were higher an numbers of general heterotrophic bacteria were lower; however, these trends were comparatively weak. Rain treatments caused essentially no decrease in soil pH, suggesting that acid rain constituents affect certain microbial populations without causing overt changes in pH. Because they appear to be unusually sensitive, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria could be used as experimental indicators of changes in soil microbial communities subjected to acid rain

  8. Combining meteorological radar and network of rain gauges data for space–time model development

    OpenAIRE

    Pastoriza, Vicente; Núñez Fernández, Adolfo; Machado, Fernando; Mariño, Perfecto; Pérez Fontán, Fernando; Fiebig, Uwe-Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Technological developments and the trend to go higher and higher in frequency give rise to the need for true space–time rain field models for testing the dynamics of fade countermeasures. There are many models that capture the spatial correlation of rain fields. Worth mentioning are those models based on cell ensembles. However, the rain rate fields created in this way need the introduction of the time variable to reproduce their dynamics. In this paper, we have concentrated on ad...

  9. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests is to avoid human interference and to use forests only as nature reserves and as buffer zones of environmental protection. Some vulnerable tropical rain forests and those with unique flora and fau...

  10. Direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content of terrestrial plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; Dong, Dan; Zeng, Xuetong; Sun, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Xiaofei; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial plants is lacking. Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of direct foliage damage and strongly related to plant productivity. We synthesized data from published literature on experiments of simulated acid rain, by directly exposing plants to acid solutions with varying pH levels, to assess the direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content across 67 terrestrial plants in China. Our results indicate that acid rain substantially reduces leaf chlorophyll content by 6.71% per pH unit across the recorded plant species. The direct reduction of leaf chlorophyll content due to acid rain exposure showed no significant difference across calcicole, ubiquist or calcifuge species, implying that soil acidity preference does not influence the sensitivity to leaf injury by acid rain. On average, the direct effects of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll on trees, shrubs and herbs were comparable. The effects, however varied across functional groups and economic use types. Specifically, leaf chlorophyll content of deciduous species was more sensitive to acid rain in comparison to evergreen species. Moreover, vegetables and fruit trees were more sensitive to acid rain than other economically used plants. Our findings imply a potential production reduction and economic loss due to the direct foliage damage by acid rain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rainfall timing and runoff: The influence of the criterion for rain event separation

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Sanchis, Isabel; Lázaro, Roberto; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Rain is not uniform in time and space in semiarid areas and its distribution is very important for the runoff process. Hydrological studies usually divide rainfall into events. However, defining rain events is complicated, and rain characteristics vary depending on how the events are delimited. Choosing a minimum inter-event time (MIT) is a commonly used criterion. Our hypothesis is that there will be an optimal MIT that explains the maximum part of the variance of the runoff, with time to ru...

  12. Climate change and heavy rain events in the central U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive weather-related natural hazards, annually responsible for hundreds of millions of dollars of damage in the United States. The 1993 Upper Mississippi River flood was particularly devastating, with losses estimate at $15--20 billion. Climate change caused by anthropogenic releases of trace gases into the atmosphere may potentially affect the frequency and/or intensity of the meteorological conditions that cause floods. Flood control structures often have lifetimes of 50 to 100 years or more. Since design decisions are being made today for flood control structures that will still be in operation in the late 21st century, it is important to study the possibility that changes in flooding may result due to possible climate change. In this paper, the authors describe an analysis of heavy precipitation events. In particular, they identify the principal meteorological conditions that are associated with these events. An approach to assessing the impacts of climate change on flood-producing heavy rain events is outlined. Kunkel et al. (1993) found that floods on small streams in the central US could be closely related to large rain accumulations over 5--10-day periods. Typically, these accumulations are the result of two or more sizable individual events. The first event may set the stage by creating wet topsoils. The following events then result in high runoff. The present study focuses on these multiday events as a primary meteorological cause of floods. Obviously other factors, such as antecedent soil moisture, play a role in determining the exact amount and temporal distribution of runoff for any particular event. This analysis thus represents a first-order look at possible changes in flooding due to climate change

  13. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  14. Breakdown coefficients and scaling properties of rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harris

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of scale similarity and breakdown coefficients is applied here to intermittent rainfall data consisting of time series and spatial rain fields. The probability distributions (pdf of the logarithm of the breakdown coefficients are the principal descriptor used. Rain fields are distinguished as being either multiscaling or multiaffine depending on whether the pdfs of breakdown coefficients are scale similar or scale dependent, respectively. Parameter  estimation techniques are developed which are applicable to both multiscaling and multiaffine fields. The scale parameter (width, σ, of the pdfs of the log-breakdown coefficients is a measure of the intermittency of a field. For multiaffine fields, this scale parameter is found to increase with scale in a power-law fashion consistent with a bounded-cascade picture of rainfall modelling. The resulting power-law exponent, H, is indicative of the smoothness of the field. Some details of breakdown coefficient analysis are addressed and a theoretical link between this analysis and moment scaling analysis is also presented. Breakdown coefficient properties of cascades are also investigated in the context of parameter estimation for modelling purposes.

  15. Acid rain compliance: Coordination of state and federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new statute. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Some utilities are regulated by several states, some by a single state and by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and some by multiple states, by the FERC, and by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for reviewing acid rain compliance strategies if least cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on ratepayers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and addresses possible approaches that utility regulators may take to deal with this problem

  16. Evolution of drop size distribution in natural rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Porcù, Federico; Tokay, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Both numerical modeling and laboratory experiments document the possibility of a raindrop size distribution (DSD) to evolve to an equilibrium stage (EDSD), where all the principal processes occur at steady rates. The aim of this work is to observe the temporal behavior of the DSD and to directly investigate the conditions favorable to the onset of the EDSD in natural rain. We exploited a large disdrometer dataset collected in the framework of the Ground Validation activities related to the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission. More than 200,000 one-minute data of two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) are collected over USA to represent a wide range of precipitation types. The original data are averaged over 2 min and an automatic algorithm is used on a selected subset to identify samples with EDSD. Results show that the EDSD occurs mainly in convective events and lasts for very short time intervals (2 to 4 min). It is more frequent for rain rate between 20 and 40 mm h- 1 and it mostly occurs during sharp increase of precipitation rates.

  17. Rain-shadow: An area harboring "Gray Ocean" clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Harikishan, G.; Morwal, S. B.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    The characteristics of monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India have been investigated using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical observations collected during Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). The parameters considered for characterization are: liquid water content (LWC), cloud vertical motion (updraft, downdraft: w), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and effective radius (Re). The results are based on 15 research flights which were conducted from the base station Hyderabad during summer monsoon season. The clouds studied were developing congestus. The clouds have low CDNC and low updraft values resembling the oceanic convective clouds. The super-saturation in clouds is found to be low (≤0.2%) due to low updrafts. The land surface behaves like ocean surface during monsoon as deduced from Bowen ratio. Microphysically the clouds showed oceanic characteristics. However, these clouds yield low rainfall due to their low efficiency (mean 14%). The cloud parameters showed a large variability; hence their characteristic values are reported in terms of median values. These values will serve the numerical models for rainfall simulations over the region and also will be useful as a scientific basis for cloud seeding operations to increase the rainfall efficiency. The study revealed that monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region are of oceanic type over the gray land, and therefore we christen them as "Gray Ocean" clouds.

  18. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollution is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern U.S. and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. How seasonal changes in lake transparency are related to annual acidic load was examined. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units was also examined. The utility of Thematic Mapper based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes was investigated. The potential for this optical response is related to a number of local ecophysical factors with bedrock geology being, perhaps, the most important. Other factors include sulfate deposition, vegetative cover, and terrain drainage/relief. The area of southern Ontario contains a wide variety of geologies from the most acid rain sensitive granite quartzite types to the least sensitive limestone dolomite sediments. Annual sulfate deposition ranges from 1.0 to 4.0 grams/sq m.

  19. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  20. Study on Change of Pipes Formed in the Upper Part of a Collapse in a Crystalline Schist Area and Response of Pipe Flow to Rain

    OpenAIRE

    平松, 晋也; 前川, 美紀子; 小山内, 信智; Shinya, HIRAMATSU; Mikiko, MAEKAWA; Nobutomo, OSANAI; 高知大学農学部; 高知大学農学部; 国土交通名四国山地砂防工事事務所; Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University; Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University; Shikoku Mountainous Region Sabo Work Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

    2002-01-01

    Pipes formed by a small animal-activity, root decay and underground erosion exist frequently in the upper part of rain-induced collapse sites. These pipes affect significantly on water discharge and occurrences of hillside landslides in a watershed. Many hillside landslides occurred at Nishiiyayama village in Tokushima Prefecture, on June 29 th, 1999, due to heavy rainfall. In the upper part of C torrent of Tobinosu-valley, hillside landslides occurred, and several pipes appeared. Investigati...

  1. Total surface area change of Uranium dioxide fuel in function of burn-up and its impact on fission gas release during neutron irradiation for small, intermediate and high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the early published papers it was observed that the fractional fission gas release from the specimen have a tendency to increase with the total surface area of the specimen - a fairy linear relationship was indicated. Moreover it was observed that the increase of total surface area during irradiation occurs in the result of connection the closed porosity with the open porosity what in turn causes the increase of fission gas release. These observations let us surmise that the process of knock-out release is the most significant process of fission gas release since its quantity is proportional to the total surface area. Review of the experiments related to the increase of total surface area in function of burn-up is presented in the paper. For very high burn-up the process of grain sub-division (polygonization) occurs under condition that the temperature of irradiated fuel lies below the temperature of grain re-crystallization. Simultaneously with the process of polygonization, the increase in local porosity and the decrease in local density in function of burn-up occurs, which leads to the increase of total surface area. It is suggested that the same processes take place in the transformed fuel as in the original fuel, with the difference that the total surface area is so big that the whole fuel can be treated as that affected by the knock-out process. This leads to explanation of the experimental data that for very high burn-up (>120 MWd/kgU) the concentration of xenon is constant. An explanation of the grain subdivision process in function of burn-up in the 'athermal' rim region in terms of total surface area, initial grain size and knock-out release is undertaken. Correlation of the threshold burn-up, the local fission gas concentration, local total surface area, initial and local grain size and burn-up in the rim region is expected. (author)

  2. Application of Statistical Methods of Rain Rate Estimation to Data From The TRMM Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R.; Jones, J. A.; Iguchi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Liao, L.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The TRMM Precipitation Radar is well suited to statistical methods in that the measurements over any given region are sparsely sampled in time. Moreover, the instantaneous rain rate estimates are often of limited accuracy at high rain rates because of attenuation effects and at light rain rates because of receiver sensitivity. For the estimation of the time-averaged rain characteristics over an area both errors are relevant. By enlarging the space-time region over which the data are collected, the sampling error can be reduced. However. the bias and distortion of the estimated rain distribution generally will remain if estimates at the high and low rain rates are not corrected. In this paper we use the TRMM PR data to investigate the behavior of 2 statistical methods the purpose of which is to estimate the rain rate over large space-time domains. Examination of large-scale rain characteristics provides a useful starting point. The high correlation between the mean and standard deviation of rain rate implies that the conditional distribution of this quantity can be approximated by a one-parameter distribution. This property is used to explore the behavior of the area-time-integral (ATI) methods where fractional area above a threshold is related to the mean rain rate. In the usual application of the ATI method a correlation is established between these quantities. However, if a particular form of the rain rate distribution is assumed and if the ratio of the mean to standard deviation is known, then not only the mean but the full distribution can be extracted from a measurement of fractional area above a threshold. The second method is an extension of this idea where the distribution is estimated from data over a range of rain rates chosen in an intermediate range where the effects of attenuation and poor sensitivity can be neglected. The advantage of estimating the distribution itself rather than the mean value is that it yields the fraction of rain contributed by

  3. Rain effect on Aquarius L-band Emissivity and Backscatter Model Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Neumann, G.; Hayashi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) is being performed by Aquarius and SMOS missions, which are using L-band radiometry to sense the microwave emissions from sea surfaces. To enable accurate SSS retrieval, it is essential to correct the impact of sea surface roughness on L-band brightness temperatures. In addition, the impact of rain has to be carefully assessed and accounted for. Although the atmospheric attenuation caused by raindrops are likely negligible at 1.4GHz, other factors must be considered because they may have indirect but important contribution to the surface roughness and consequently L-band brightness temperatures. For example, the wind speed dependent roughness correction will be corrupted when rain striking the water, creating rings, stalks, and crowns from which the signal scatters. It is also unknown how long the freshwater stays at surface while through the oceanic mixing process at various regions over global oceans. We collocated the Aquarius L-band data with various wind products, including SSM/I, NCEP, ASCAT and WindSAT, as well as the SSM/I and WindSAT rain products. During the first four months of Aquarius mission, near 1.9 million pixels are identified under rain conditions by either SSM/I or WindSAT. We derived the L-band emissivity and backscatter geophysical model functions (GMF), parameterized by SSM/I and NCEP winds for rain-free conditions. However, the residual ocean surface emissivity (the Aquarius measured minus the rain-free model predictions) reveals profound resemblance with global precipitation pattern. In region dominated by rain, e.g. ITCZ, northern hemisphere storm track, and Indian Ocean partially under the influence of summer monsoon, the GMF built using rain free data underestimates excess emissivity about 0.5 to 1 K. The dependence of residual of emissivity and backscatter is shown as a function of wind speed and rain rate. A modified GMF is developed including rain rate as one of the parameters. Due to

  4. Dust Rains Deliver Diverse Assemblages of Microorganisms to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Ghida Nouhad; Smith, Colin Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Dust rains may be particularly effective at delivering microorganisms, yet their biodiversities have been seldom examined. During 2011 and 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon, 16 of 21 collected rainfalls appeared dusty. Trajectory modelling of air mass origins was consistent with North African sources and at least one Southwest Asian source. As much as ~4 g particulate matter, ~20 μg DNA, and 50 million colony forming units were found deposited per square meter during rainfalls each lasting less than one day. Sequencing of 93 bacteria and 25 fungi cultured from rain samples revealed diverse bacterial phyla, both Gram positive and negative, and Ascomycota fungi. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA of 13 rains revealed distinct and diverse assemblages of bacteria. Dust rain 16S libraries yielded 131 sequences matching, in decreasing order of abundance, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. Clean rain 16S libraries yielded 33 sequences matching only Betaproteobacteria family Oxalobacteraceae. Microbial composition varied between dust rains, and more diverse and different microbes were found in dust rains than clean rains. These results show that dust rains deliver diverse communities of microorganisms that may be complex products of revived desert soil species and fertilized cloud species.

  5. Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and

  6. A Stochastic Integer Programming Model for Minimizing Cost in the Use of Rain Water Collectors for Firefighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rivera-Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a stochastic integer programming optimization model to determine the optimal location and number of rain water collectors (RWCs for forest firefighting. The objective is to minimize expected total cost to control forest fires. The model is tested using a real case and several additional realistic scenarios. The impact on the solution of varying the limit on the number of RWCs, the RWC water capacity, the aircraft capacity, the water demands, and the aircraft operating cost is explored. Some observations are that the objective value improves with larger RWCs and with the use of aircraft with greater capacity.

  7. Persistent after-effects of heavy rain on concentrations of ice nuclei and rainfall suggest a biological cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, E. K.; Soubeyrand, S.; Morris, C. E.

    2015-03-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important aspects of climate, but the extent to which atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) influence its formation, quantity, frequency, and location is not clear. Microorganisms and other biological particles are released following rainfall and have been shown to serve as efficient IN, in turn impacting cloud and precipitation formation. Here we investigated potential long-term effects of IN on rainfall frequency and quantity. Differences in IN concentrations and rainfall after and before days of large rainfall accumulation (i.e., key days) were calculated for measurements made over the past century in southeastern and southwestern Australia. Cumulative differences in IN concentrations and daily rainfall quantity and frequency as a function of days from a key day demonstrated statistically significant increasing logarithmic trends (R2 > 0.97). Based on observations that cumulative effects of rainfall persisted for about 20 days, we calculated cumulative differences for the entire sequence of key days at each site to create a historical record of how the differences changed with time. Comparison of pre-1960 and post-1960 sequences most commonly showed smaller rainfall totals in the post-1960 sequences, particularly in regions downwind from coal-fired power stations. This led us to explore the hypothesis that the increased leaf surface populations of IN-active bacteria due to rain led to a sustained but slowly diminishing increase in atmospheric concentrations of IN that could potentially initiate or augment rainfall. This hypothesis is supported by previous research showing that leaf surface populations of the ice-nucleating bacterium Pseudomonas syringae increased by orders of magnitude after heavy rain and that microorganisms become airborne during and after rain in a forest ecosystem. At the sites studied in this work, aerosols that could have initiated rain from sources unrelated to previous rainfall events (such as power stations) would

  8. Ice-nucleation negative fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Hebridean cloud and rain water produce biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, H. E.; Walsh, K. A.; Hill, T. C. J.; Moffett, B. F.

    2006-10-01

    Microorganisms were discovered in clouds over 100 years ago but information on bacterial community structure and function is limited. Clouds may not only be a niche within which bacteria could thrive but they might also influence dynamic processes using ice nucleating and cloud condensing abilities. Cloud and rain samples were collected from two mountains in the Outer Hebrides, NW Scotland, UK. Community composition was determined using a combination of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and sequencing. 256 clones yielded 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of which half were related to bacteria from terrestrial psychrophilic environments. Cloud samples were dominated by a mixture of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., some of which have been reported to be ice nucleators. It was therefore possible that these bacteria were using the ice nucleation (IN) gene to trigger the Bergeron-Findeisen process of raindrop formation as a mechanism for dispersal. In this study the IN gene was not detected in any of the isolates using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Instead 55% of the total isolates from both cloud and rain samples displayed significant biosurfactant activity when analyzed using the drop-collapse technique. All were characterised as fluorescent pseudomonads. Surfactants have been found to be very important in lowering atmospheric critical supersaturations required for the activation of aerosols into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is also known that surfactants influence cloud droplet size and increase cloud lifetime and albedo. Some bacteria are known to act as CCN and so it is conceivable that these fluorescent pseudomonads are using surfactants to facilitate their activation from aerosols into CCN. This would allow water scavenging, countering desiccation, and assist in their widespread dispersal.

  9. Simulation of rain in the watershed Ghezala by KINEROS 2 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghmi, Afef

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is modeling runoff by hydrological, distributed physically based Model, KINEROS2. This model has allowed after calibration to analyze and simulate the hydrological behavior of the watershed Ghezala .The Watershed Ghezala is located in north of Tunisia, in the governorate of Bizerte. It belongs to the bioclimatic mild winter. It covers an area of 4723h, at this watershed; the dominating slop is between 8and 15 pour cent which covers the almost area of the watershed. Dominant type of soil is Calcareous brown guy covering almost 54 pour cent of its total area; Land cover is characterized by the dominance of grain covering 73 pour cent of watershed area. KINEROS2 requires the division of the watershed into plain and channels cascading from upstream to downstream taking into consideration of flow, the geology and land cover of the watershed. During the calibration observed and simulated hydrographs, it must be based on the more sensitive parameters of the model: K (saturated hydraulic conductivity) G (net effective capillary conductivity) and n (parameter Mannig). The calibration's result shows that the error does not exceed, 1pour cent for liquid peak flows of flood hydrographs observed and simulated, 17pour cent for the volume of raw observed and simulated. Thus, the analysis of the hydrological behavior of the watershed studied through the hydrological response to a solicitation (intensity of rain: rain), simulates flood by applying the KINEROS2 model and observing the quantity of water flowing at the outflow of the system (flood hydrograph or rainfall).

  10. Radioactive fallout in air and rain: results to the end of 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Fisher, E.M.R.; Eakins, J.D.; Peirson, D.H.

    1977-04-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust and rainwater have been collected from the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Results are presented an analyses of these samples for various fission products and certain other radionuclides. The average concentration of the long-lived fission product caesium-137 in air in the United Kingdom was, in 1976, about one-third of that in 1975 and about 1% of the maximum which was reached in 1963 to 64. The concentration in rain and the deposition of caesium-137 and strontium-90 averaged over the United Kingdom for 1976 were about half those for 1975. No barium-140 or iodine-131, indicative of recent atmospheric tests, was detected in the United Kingdom after the Chinese explosion on 24 January 1976 but measurable concentrations were detected in air at Hong Kong during February. Fresh activity from the Chinese explosion on 26 September 1976 was detected in the United Kingdom. The peak deposition of iodine-131 that occurred in the second week in Octber was greater than at any time since January 1963 although the total deposition of iodine-131 was less than one-tenth of that in 1962 to 63. Trace amounts of fresh activity attributable to the high-yield Chinese explosion of 17 November were detected in the United Kingdom in December 1976. In the southern hemisphere the mean concentration of caesium-137 in air in 1976 was about half that in 1975. An estimate is made of the worldwide deposit of caesium-137 and strontium-90. The gamma and beta-ray dose rates from fallout at Chilton are estimated from the observed deposition. Measurements of short-lived fission products in air and rain are given in an Appendix. (author)

  11. Rainwater propagation through snowpack during rain-on-snow sprinkling experiments under different snow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Juras

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of rainwater propagation and runoff generation during rain-on-snow (ROS events are still insufficiently known. Understanding storage and transport of liquid water in natural snowpacks is crucial, especially for forecasting of natural hazards such as floods and wet snow avalanches. In this study, propagation of rainwater through snow was investigated by sprinkling experiments with deuterium-enriched water and applying an alternative hydrograph separation technique on samples collected from the snowpack runoff. This allowed us to quantify the contribution of rainwater, snowmelt and initial liquid water released from the snowpack. Four field experiments were carried out during winter 2015 in the vicinity of Davos, Switzerland. Blocks of natural snow were isolated from the surrounding snowpack to inhibit lateral exchange of water and were exposed to artificial rainfall using deuterium-enriched water. The experiments were composed of four 30 min periods of sprinkling, separated by three 30 min breaks. The snowpack runoff was continuously gauged and sampled periodically for the deuterium signature. At the onset of each experiment antecedent liquid water was first pushed out by the sprinkling water. Hydrographs showed four pronounced peaks corresponding to the four sprinkling bursts. The contribution of rainwater to snowpack runoff consistently increased over the course of the experiment but never exceeded 86 %. An experiment conducted on a non-ripe snowpack suggested the development of preferential flow paths that allowed rainwater to efficiently propagate through the snowpack limiting the time for mass exchange processes to take effect. In contrast, experiments conducted on ripe isothermal snowpack showed a slower response behaviour and resulted in a total runoff volume which consisted of less than 50 % of the rain input.

  12. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  13. Differential release of manure-borne bioactive phosphorus forms to runoff and leachate under simulated rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Dao, Thanh H; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R

    2017-05-01

    Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h -1 ) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha -1 of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form. The released P concentrations and flow-weighed mass loads were described by the log-normal probability density function. At a reference condition of 30 mm h -1 and maintaining the surface at a 5% incline, runoff was minimal, and WEP accounted for 20.9% of leached total P (TP) concentrations, with an additional 25-30% as exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P over the 1-h simulation. On a 20% incline, increased intensity accelerated occurrence of concentration max and shifted the skewed P concentration distribution more to the left. Differences in trends of WEP, TBIOP, or net enzyme-labile P (PHP o ) cumulative mass released per unit mass of manure between intensities were attributable to the higher frequency of raindrops striking the manure layer, thus increasing detachment and load of colloidal PHP o of the water phases. Thus, detailed knowledge of manure physical characteristics, bioactive P distribution in relation to rain intensity, and attainment of steady-state of water fluxes were critical factors in improved prediction of partitioning and movement of manure-borne P under rainfall. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Variation of rain intensity and drop size distribution with General Weather Patterns (GWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghada, Wael; Buras, Allan; Lüpke, Marvin; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Short-duration rainfall extremes may cause flash floods in certain catchments (e.g. cities or fast responding watersheds) and pose a great risk to affected communities. In order to predict their occurrence under future climate change scenarios, their link to atmospheric circulation patterns needs to be well understood. We used a comprehensive data set of meteorological data (temperature, rain gauge precipitation) and precipitation spectra measured by a disdrometer (OTT PARSIVEL) between October 2008 and June 2010 at Freising, southern Germany. For the 21 months of the study period, we integrated the disdrometer spectra over intervals of 10 minutes to correspond to the temporal resolution of the weather station data and discarded measurements with air temperatures below 0°C. Daily General Weather Patterns ("Großwetterlagen", GWL) were downloaded from the website of the German Meteorological Service. Out of the 29 GWL, 14 were included in the analysis for which we had at least 12 rain events during our study period. For the definition of a rain event, we tested different lengths of minimum inter-event times and chose 30 min as a good compromise between number and length of resulting events; rain events started when more than 0.001 mm/h (sensitivity of the disdrometer) were recorded. The length of the rain events ranged between 10 min and 28 h (median 130 min) with the maximum rain intensity recorded being 134 mm/h on 24-07-2009. Seasonal differences were identified for rain event average intensities and maximum intensities per event. The influence of GWL on rain properties such as rain intensity and drop size distribution per time step and per event was investigated based on the above mentioned rain event definition. Pairwise Wilcoxon-tests revealed that higher rain intensity and larger drops were associated with the GWL "Low over the British Isles" (TB), whereas low rain intensities and less drops per interval were associated with the GWL "High over Central Europe

  15. Kinematic and dynamic pair collision statistics of sedimenting inertial particles relevant to warm rain initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Bogdan; Parishani, Hossein; Ayala, Orlando; Wang, Lian-Ping; Grabowski, Wojciech W

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach has become a reliable tool for studying turbulent collision-coalescence of cloud droplets relevant to warm rain development. It has been shown that small-scale turbulent motion can enhance the collision rate of droplets by either enhancing the relative velocity and collision efficiency or by inertia-induced droplet clustering. A hybrid DNS approach incorporating DNS of air turbulence, disturbance flows due to droplets, and droplet equation of motion has been developed to quantify these effects of air turbulence. Due to the computational complexity of the approach, a major challenge is to increase the range of scales or size of the computation domain so that all scales affecting droplet pair statistics are simulated. Here we discuss our on-going work in this direction by improving the parallel scalability of the code, and by studying the effect of large-scale forcing on pair statistics relevant to turbulent collision. New results at higher grid resolutions show a saturation of pair and collision statistics with increasing flow Reynolds number, for given Kolmogorov scales and small droplet sizes. Furthermore, we examine the orientation dependence of pair statistics which reflects an interesting coupling of gravity and droplet clustering.

  16. Small scale green infrastructure design to meet different urban hydrological criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z; Tang, S; Luo, W; Li, S; Zhou, M

    2016-04-15

    As small scale green infrastructures, rain gardens have been widely advocated for urban stormwater management in the contemporary low impact development (LID) era. This paper presents a simple method that consists of hydrological models and the matching plots of nomographs to provide an informative and practical tool for rain garden sizing and hydrological evaluation. The proposed method considers design storms, infiltration rates and the runoff contribution area ratio of the rain garden, allowing users to size a rain garden for a specific site with hydrological reference and predict overflow of the rain garden under different storms. The nomographs provide a visual presentation on the sensitivity of different design parameters. Subsequent application of the proposed method to a case study conducted in a sub-humid region in China showed that, the method accurately predicted the design storms for the existing rain garden, the predicted overflows under large storm events were within 13-50% of the measured volumes. The results suggest that the nomographs approach is a practical tool for quick selection or assessment of design options that incorporate key hydrological parameters of rain gardens or other infiltration type green infrastructure. The graphic approach as displayed by the nomographs allow urban planners to demonstrate the hydrological effect of small scale green infrastructure and gain more support for promoting low impact development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Precipitation Regime Shift Enhanced the Rain Pulse Effect on Soil Respiration in a Semi-Arid Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liming; Chen, Shiping; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of resource pulses, such as rainfall events, on soil respiration plays an important role in controlling grassland carbon balance, but how shifts in long-term precipitation regime regulate rain pulse effect on soil respiration is still unclear. We first quantified the influence of rainfall event on soil respiration based on a two-year (2006 and 2009) continuously measured soil respiration data set in a temperate steppe in northern China. In 2006 and 2009, soil carbon release induced by rainfall events contributed about 44.5% (83.3 g C m−2) and 39.6% (61.7 g C m−2) to the growing-season total soil respiration, respectively. The pulse effect of rainfall event on soil respiration can be accurately predicted by a water status index (WSI), which is the product of rainfall event size and the ratio between antecedent soil temperature to moisture at the depth of 10 cm (r 2 = 0.92, Psoil temperature/moisture ratio which is usually associated with longer dry spells. We then analyzed a long-term (1953–2009) precipitation record in the experimental area. We found both the extreme heavy rainfall events (>40 mm per event) and the long dry-spells (>5 days) during the growing seasons increased from 1953–2009. It suggests the shift in precipitation regime has increased the contribution of rain pulse effect to growing-season total soil respiration in this region. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating precipitation regime shift and its impacts on the rain pulse effect into the future predictions of grassland carbon cycle under climate change. PMID:25093573

  18. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Recharge the Rain: Community Resilience Through STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, B.; Shipek, C.

    2017-12-01

    Starting in January 2017, Recharge the Rain moves sixth through twelfth grade teachers, students and the public through a continuum from awareness, to knowledge gain, to conceptual understanding, to action; building community resiliency to hazards associated with increased temperatures, drought and flooding in Arizona. Watershed Management Group with Arizona Project WET are utilizing NOAA assets, experts from the National Weather Service and Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS), and Pima County hazard mitigation plan and planning tools to inform citizens and galvanize their commitment to building a community, resilient to the effects of a warming climate. In the first of four years, the project is 1) developing climate-literacy curriculum with 16 Tucson-area teachers that incorporates systems-thinking and increases understanding of earth systems, weather and climate, 2) training teachers and community docents in water harvesting practices and citizen-science data collection, 3) laying the framework for the development of rainwater harvesting engineering design curriculum, 4) involving Tucson community members in water harvesting principles through project implementation workshops, special events, and tours. In years two through four, the project will build resiliency to the effects of climate threats by 1) installing student-designed rainwater harvesting systems, 2) providing community tours of schoolyard systems to educate the public, 3) expanding the program to incorporate curriculum use in Phoenix-area teachers' classrooms and 4) finalizing a replicable model for other communities facing similar threats. What are the lessons learned after one year of Recharge the Rain? How can these lessons be used to inform this project and other projects in building resilient communities?

  20. The Effect of Rain-Fed and Supplementary Irrigation on the Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rain-fed with rain-fed supplementary irrigation on yield and yield components of Maize (Zea mays L.) was carried out at Mekelle University main campus under Tigray region in Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), and investigated in the early cropping season ...

  1. Factors contributing to the hydrologic effectiveness of a rain garden network (Cincinnati OH USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltrative rain gardens add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet, their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff is dynamic and often unverified by monitoring. Over a 4-year period, we tracked whole system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network, a...

  2. The Study of Rain Specific Attenuation for the Prediction of Satellite Propagation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeep, J. S.; Ng, Y. Y.; Abdullah, H.; Abdullah, M.

    2010-06-01

    Specific attenuation is the fundamental quantity in the calculation of rain attenuation for terrestrial path and slant paths representing as rain attenuation per unit distance (dB/km). Specific attenuation is an important element in developing the predicted rain attenuation model. This paper deals with the empirical determination of the power law coefficients which allow calculating the specific attenuation in dB/km from the knowledge of the rain rate in mm/h. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain the coefficients of k and α of power law relationship between specific attenuation. Three years (from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008) rain gauge and beacon data taken from USM, Nibong Tebal have been used to do the empirical procedure analysis of rain specific attenuation. The data presented are semi-empirical in nature. A year-to-year variation of the coefficients has been indicated and the empirical measured data was compared with ITU-R provided regression coefficient. The result indicated that the USM empirical measured data was significantly vary from ITU-R predicted value. Hence, ITU-R recommendation for regression coefficients of rain specific attenuation is not suitable for predicting rain attenuation at Malaysia.

  3. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  4. Radioactivity in rain water and the air observed in Japan 1954-1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y

    1955-01-01

    Radioactivity was detected in the rain in southern Japan beginning May 14, 1954, reaching a maximum of 1 c/1 on May 16 at Kyoto University. Trajectories indicate air came from Bikini via the Philippines and Formosa. Activity from May to Sep 1954, was always stronger on the Pacific side of Japan than on Japan sea side, maximum concentrated at the beginning of rain.

  5. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests

  6. Rain rate measurements over global oceans from IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This algorithm explained about 82 per cent correlation (r) with rain rate, and 1.61 mm h−1 of error of estimation. ... MSMR derived monthly averaged rain rates are compared with similar estimates from. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), and it .... A second order polynomial fit explains corre- lation for 10 GHz vertically polarized ...

  7. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in

  8. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings.

  9. Ülemiste Citysse kasvab innovatsioonikeskus / Rain Laane ; interv. Einar Ellermaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Rain

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft Eesti tegevjuht Rain Laane e-riigi arengust ja selle toetamisest riiklikul tasandil, e-riigi innovatsioonikeskuse loomisest, e-riigi lahenduse Brüsselisse müümist takistavatest teguritest. Lisa: Rain Laane teesid loodava innovatsioonikeskuse ülesannetest. Vt. samas: Siim-Valmar Kiisler. Riik peab hakkama e-eksporti toetama!

  10. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Rain Shade for a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aderoju Tomiwa

    for a low scale agricultural produce, The rain shade consists of a geared D. C motor, 12V battery, ... rain shade was embarked on in this research work. ... (9) Face width, b. +. 5mm (10). Determination of weight acting on the Extension. Arm: The measured weight of the polyester fabric equals 14.7N, while the combined ...

  11. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  12. Regeneration in natural and logged tropical rain forest : modelling seed dispersal and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulft, Lambertus Henricus van

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration and disturbance are thought to play key roles in the maintenance of the high tree species diversity in tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, the earliest stages in the regeneration of tropical rain forest trees, from seed production to established seedlings, have received little

  13. Effects of sulfuric, nitric, and mixed acid rain on Chinese fir sapling growth in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Lu; Meng, Miaojing; Lin, Jie; Zhuang, Jiayao; Wang, G Geoff; Zhang, Jinchi

    2018-05-23

    The influence of acid rain on plant growth includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO 3 - in acid rain increases along with the rapid growth of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO 4 2- /NO 3 - (S/N) ratios, which were 1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5 and 0:1, on Chinese fir sapling growth from March 2015 to April 2016. Results showed that Chinese fir sapling height growth rate (HGR) and basal diameter growth rate (DGR) decreased as acid rain pH decreased, and also decreased as the percentage of NO 3 - increased in acid rain. Acid rain pH significantly decreased the Chlorophyll a (Chla) and Chlorophyll b (Chlb) content, and Chla and Chlb contents with acid rain S/N 1:5 were significantly lower than those with S/N 1:0 at pH 2.5. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximal efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), with most acid rain treatments were significantly lower than those with CK treatments. Root activities first increased and then decreased as acid rain pH decreased, when acid rain S/N ratios were 1:1, 1:5 and 0:1. Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) showed that the Chinese fir DGR and HGR had positive correlations with Chla, Chlb, Fv/Fm ratio, root activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots under the stress of acid rain with different pH and S/N ratios. The structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that acid rain NO 3 - concentration and pH had stronger direct effects on Chinese fir sapling HGR and DGR, and the direct effects of acid rain NO 3 - concentration and pH on HGR were lower than those on DGR. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect the sustainable development of monoculture Chinese fir plantations in southern China

  14. Effects on watershed hydrology after rain forest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-12-31

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  15. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhuo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  16. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  17. Distribution of rain height over subtropical region: Durban, South Africa for satellite communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurotimi, E. O.; Sokoya, O.; Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rain height is one of the significant parameters for prediction of rain attenuation for Earth-space telecommunication links, especially those operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. This study examines Three-parameter Dagum distribution of the rain height over Durban, South Africa. 5-year data were used to study the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations using the parameters estimated by the maximum likelihood of the distribution. The performance estimation of the distribution was determined using the statistical goodness of fit. Three-parameter Dagum distribution shows an appropriate distribution for the modeling of rain height over Durban with the Root Mean Square Error of 0.26. Also, the shape and scale parameters for the distribution show a wide variation. The probability exceedance of time for 0.01% indicates the high probability of rain attenuation at higher frequencies.

  18. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES FROM A TROPICAL MONTANE RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hua

    2004-01-01

    A pristine montane rain forest was recently discovered from Mengsong of Xishuangbanna in the southern Yunnan.It attracts botanists that many primitive plant taxa across various life forms were co-existed in the montane rain forest.In order to know the biogeography of the montane rain forest,distribution patterns of some species of biogeographical importance from the montane forest were enumerated and their biogeographical implications were discussed with geological explanation.It was concluded that the montane rain forest in the southern Yunnan has strong affinity to montane rain forests in Sumatra or Southeast Asia in broad sense.It was tentatively suggested that Sumatra could be once connected to Myanmar and drifted away due to northward movement of continental Asia by bumping of India plate.

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of a local variety of maize (Suwan-1) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Enahoro, Gloria Ebarunosen

    2015-10-01

    Effects of acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of maize (Suwan-1 variety) were investigated. The maize seedlings were subjected to different pH treatments (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) of simulated acid rain (SAR) with pH 7.0 as the control for a period of 90 days. The common morphological defects due to SAR application were necrosis and chlorosis. It was observed that necrosis increased in severity as the acidity increased whilst chlorosis was dominant as the acidity decreased. SAR encouraged rapid floral and cob growth but with the consequence of poor floral and cob development in pH 1.0 to 3.0 treatments. The result for the dry biomass indicates that pH treatments 2.0 to 7.0 for total plant biomass were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from one another, but were all significantly higher (P pH 1.0. Therefore, it may be deduced that Suwan-1 has the potential to withstand acid rain but with pronounced morphological and phenological defects which, however, have the capacity to reduce drastically the market value of the crop. Therefore, it may be concluded that Suwan-1 tolerated acid rain in terms of the parameters studied at pH 4.0 to 7.0 which makes it a suitable crop in acid rain-stricken climes. This research could also serve as a good reference for further SAR studies on maize or other important cereals.

  20. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 5 Floristics and structure of a Mixed Rain Forest remnant on the Catarinense Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Klauberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the floristics and the structure of tree species in the Parque Municipal Natural of Lages, SC, a remnant of mixed rain forest located in southern Brazil. For this, we allocated four plots (40 x 40m and each plot was divided into 16 sub-plots of 10 x 10m. Trees with dbh ≥ 5cm and height ≥ 1.3m were mapped, tagged and measured. The individuals were identified and voucher material was deposited in the herbarium. A total of 46 species were sampled, distributed in 39 genera and 27 families. The richest families in number of species were Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Salicaceae and Sapindaceae. Seven species represented more than 60% of the total of individuals. The specific diversity was H’ = 3.05 nats.ind-1 (J’ = 0.81. The similarity among plots was 32 at 44%, indicating low similarity among plots. The spatial distribution of most of the species is classified as clumped, according to the Morisita index. This forest remains with a considerable richness and diversity with some endangered tree species such as Araucaria angustifolia and Dicksonia sellowiana. Due to its ecological importance for the local flora and fauna and the fragmentation process in the region, this remnant should be considered as a priority area for conservation.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree's nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at 'Estaci6n de Biologia Los Tuxtlas' on the east coast of Mexico (18 degrees 34' - 18 degrees 36' N, 95 degrees 04' - 95 degrees 09' W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 microg g(-1) n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 1) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption.

  3. Effects of land-use changes on evapotranspiration of tropical rain forest margin area in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia): Modelling study with a regional SVAT model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olchev, A.; Ibrom, Andreas; Priess, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of deforestation and land-use changes on evapotranspiration of mountainous tropical rain forest area in the northern part of the Lore-Lindu National Park (LLNP) in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia) was quantified using a regional process-based SVAT model "SVAT-Regio". Description...... of the areas covered by tropical rain forests, i.e. about 15%, and an increase of agricultural (coffee plantations, corn and rice fields) and urban areas. Moreover, the scenario assumes a small increase of grassland areas as well. The results of modelling experiments show that 15% deforestation of the study......, and lowest in sunny and dry days. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. OPTIMAL WAVELENGTH SELECTION ON HYPERSPECTRAL DATA WITH FUSED LASSO FOR BIOMASS ESTIMATION OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground biomass prediction of tropical rain forest using remote sensing data is of paramount importance to continuous large-area forest monitoring. Hyperspectral data can provide rich spectral information for the biomass prediction; however, the prediction accuracy is affected by a small-sample-size problem, which widely exists as overfitting in using high dimensional data where the number of training samples is smaller than the dimensionality of the samples due to limitation of require time, cost, and human resources for field surveys. A common approach to addressing this problem is reducing the dimensionality of dataset. Also, acquired hyperspectral data usually have low signal-to-noise ratio due to a narrow bandwidth and local or global shifts of peaks due to instrumental instability or small differences in considering practical measurement conditions. In this work, we propose a methodology based on fused lasso regression that select optimal bands for the biomass prediction model with encouraging sparsity and grouping, which solves the small-sample-size problem by the dimensionality reduction from the sparsity and the noise and peak shift problem by the grouping. The prediction model provided higher accuracy with root-mean-square error (RMSE of 66.16 t/ha in the cross-validation than other methods; multiple linear analysis, partial least squares regression, and lasso regression. Furthermore, fusion of spectral and spatial information derived from texture index increased the prediction accuracy with RMSE of 62.62 t/ha. This analysis proves efficiency of fused lasso and image texture in biomass estimation of tropical forests.

  5. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingchao; Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, -29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest.

  6. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, –29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest. PMID:29390007

  7. Differences in rain rate intensities between TRMM observations and community atmosphere model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation related latent heating is important in driving the atmospheric general circulation and in generating intraseasonal to decadal atmospheric variability. Our ability to project future climate change, especially trends in costly precipitation extremes, hinges upon whether coupled GCMs capture processes that affect precipitation characteristics. Our study compares the tropical-subtropical precipitation characteristics of simulations by the NCAR CAM3.1 atmospheric GCM and observations derived from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Despite a fairly good simulation of the annual mean rain rate, CAM rains about 10-50% more often than the real world and fails to capture heavy rainfall associated with deep convective systems over subtropical South America and U.S. Southern Plains. When it rains, there is a likelihood of 0.96-1.0 that it rains lightly in the model, compared to values of 0.84-1.0 in TRMM data. On the other hand, the likelihood of the occurrence of moderate to heavy rainfall is an order of magnitude higher in observations (0.12-0.2) than that in the model (model compensates for the lack of heavy precipitation through raining more frequently within the light rain category, which leads to an annual rainfall amount close to what is observed. CAM captures the qualitative change of rain rate PDF from a "dry" oceanic to a "wet" oceanic region, but it fails to simulate the change of precipitation characteristics from an oceanic region to a land region where thunderstorm rainfall dominates.

  8. The portfolio risk management and diversification benefits from the South African rand currency index (rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Y. Jordaan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explain the source of risk management and diversification benefits that investors may gain from the South African Rand Currency Index (RAIN as it relates to an equity portfolio with stock market exposure (locally or international. These diversification benefits may result from the negative correlation between RAIN and the South African All Share Index (ALSI. To explain and fully exploit the benefits of RAIN, the main variables that represent South Africa’s trading partner equity and bond markets movements, were identified. To account for the interaction of RAIN with the ALSI, the latter was firstly decomposed into its economic groups and secondly into its various sub-sectors. Various analyses were carried out to determine which variables describe the relationship between the ALSI and RAIN. The variables that describe the relationship with a high adjusted R2, were identified. The findings suggest that when the ALSI is decomposed into its ten economic groups and thirty-seven sub-groups, the quadratic as opposed to linear models using response surface regressions, explained the majority of the variation in RAIN over the entire period. The linear models, however, explained more of the variation in RAIN during the recent 2008/2009 financial crisis

  9. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  11. Survival probability of precipitations and rain attenuation in tropical and equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi Nia, Masoud; Din, Jafri; Panagopoulos, Athanasios D.; Lam, Hong Yin

    2015-08-01

    This contribution presents a stochastic model useful for the generation of a long-term tropospheric rain attenuation time series for Earth space or a terrestrial radio link in tropical and equatorial heavy rain regions based on the well-known Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model previously employed in research in the fields of finance and economics. This model assumes typical gamma distribution for rain attenuation in heavy rain climatic regions and utilises the temporal dynamic of precipitation collected in equatorial Johor, Malaysia. Different formations of survival probability are also discussed. Furthermore, the correlation between these probabilities and the Markov process is determined, and information on the variance and autocorrelation function of rain events with respect to the particular characteristics of precipitation in this area is presented. The proposed technique proved to preserve the peculiarities of precipitation for an equatorial region and reproduce fairly good statistics of the rain attenuation correlation function that could help to improve the prediction of dynamic characteristics of rain fade events.

  12. Actual state of plant decline phenomena due to acid rain and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobori, Makoto

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Japanese mass communication earnestly reports on the effect that acid rain exerts to natural environment. Also the researches have been carried out on the present state of rainwater acidification, the mechanism of the effect of acid rain to plants, the experiment using artificial acid rain, and the foreign theories on the cause of the decline of forests. But the example of the damage of trees and plants in fields, of which the true cause is understood to be acid rain, is not found. The author has engaged in the research on forest protection for long years, and according to his experience, in the present Japanese research on acid rain, there are a number of important pitfalls. Acid rain theory is only one of many hypotheses. It must be verified by the proper research, and this point is important. Ibaraki Prefectural Forest Experiment station has carried out the consultation on the diagnosis and restoration of tree conditions, and the decline of trees and its cause are reported according to the examples of investigation. In the consultation in the last nine years, the decline of trees caused by acid rain was not confirmed. (K.I.)

  13. Influence of Leaf Tolerance Mechanisms and Rain on Boron Toxicity in Barley and Wheat1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rob; Fitzpatrick, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is common in many areas of the world. Plant tolerance to high B varies widely and has previously been attributed to reduced uptake of B, most commonly as a result of B efflux from roots. In this study, it is shown that the expression of genes encoding B efflux transporters in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) is associated with an ability of leaf tissues to withstand higher concentrations of B. In tolerant cultivars, necrosis in leaves occurred at B concentrations more than 2-fold higher than in sensitive cultivars. It is hypothesized that this leaf tolerance is achieved via redistribution of B by efflux transporters from sensitive symplastic compartments into the leaf apoplast. Measurements of B concentrations in leaf protoplasts, and of B released following infiltration of leaves, support this hypothesis. It was also shown that under B-toxic conditions, leaching of B from leaves by rain had a strong positive effect on growth of both roots and shoots. Measurements of rates of guttation and the concentration of B in guttation droplets indicated that the impact of guttation on the alleviation of B toxicity would be small. PMID:19625636

  14. Below-cloud scavenging by the rain: a micro physical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol particles are an important component of the atmosphere and are of great concern in the case of an accidental release of radioactive particles. To better understand ground contamination due to a particle release in the vicinity of an accident, it is important to study the particle scavenging associated with rain. To achieve this objective during this thesis, an experiment at the micro physical scale (BERGAME experiment) was developed and the modelling of the washout was improved at mesoscale. The model used was DESCAM: a microphysics model that describes the bin size distributions for aerosol particles and hydro-meteors and calculates their evolution due to micro physical cloud processes. The BERGAME experiment was designed and built to measure the collection efficiencies which disagree with theoretical calculation. Using an optical method, it was shown that those discrepancies were due to rear capture. A new model of collection efficiencies for the 2 mm drops was proposed that takes into account for big raindrops the turbulent circulation occurring downstream increasing significantly the capture of small particles. The corrected collection efficiencies were implemented in the DESCAM model. By this way, significant modifications of the modelling were observed and studied. This is an important step toward an accurate modelling of the ground contamination in atmospheric dispersion models. (author)

  15. Rain events decrease boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Berendse, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Boreal peatlands store large amounts of carbon, reflecting their important role in the global carbon cycle. The short-term exchange and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in these ecosystems are closely associated with the permanently wet surface conditions and are susceptible to drought. Especially, the single most important peat forming plant genus, Sphagnum, depends heavily on surface wetness for its primary production. Changes in rainfall patterns are expected to affect surface wetness, but how this transient rewetting affects net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) remains unknown. This study explores how the timing and characteristics of rain events during photosynthetic active periods, that is daytime, affect peatland NEE and whether rain event associated changes in environmental conditions modify this response (e.g. water table, radiation, vapour pressure deficit, temperature). We analysed an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results show that daytime rain events systematically decreased the sink strength of peatlands for atmospheric CO2 . The decrease was best explained by rain associated reduction in light, rather than by rain characteristics or drought length. An average daytime growing season rain event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m(-2) . On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than rain characteristics and changes in water availability. This suggests that peatland CO2 uptake is highly sensitive to changes in cloud cover formation and to altered rainfall regimes, a process hitherto largely

  16. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO 2 ], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in total rainfall, heavy rain events, and number of dry days in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1955-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Méndez-Lázaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is a threat to water resources on a global scale and in tropical regions in particular. Rainfall events and patterns are associated worldwide with natural disasters like mudslides and landslides, meteorological phenomena like hurricanes, risks/hazards including severe storms and flooding, and health effects like vector-borne and waterborne diseases. Therefore, in the context of global change, research on rainfall patterns and their variations presents a challenge to the scientific community. The main objective of this research was to analyze recent trends in precipitation in the San Juan metropolitan area in Puerto Rico and their relationship with regional and global climate variations. The statistical trend analysis of precipitation was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. All stations showed positive trends of increasing annual rainfall between 1955 and 2009. The winter months of January and February had an increase in monthly rainfall, although winter is normally a dry season on the island. Regarding dry days, we found an annual decreasing trend, also specifically in winter. In terms of numbers of severe rainfall events described as more than 78 mm in 24 hours, 63 episodes have occurred in the San Juan area in the last decade, specifically in the 2000-2009 time frame, with an average of 6 severe events per year. The majority of the episodes occurred in summer, more frequently in August and September. These results can be seen as a clear example of the complexity of spatial and temporal of rainfall distribution over a tropical city.

  18. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  19. Vulnerability, survival and shame in Nina Raine's Tiger Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    Shame in healthcare remains relatively underexplored, yet it is commonplace and its impact is significant. This paper explores shame in healthcare using Nina Raine's 2011 play Tiger Country Three manifestations of shame are explored, namely (1) shame in relation to professional identity and survival in the clinical workplace; (2) shame and illness as experienced by both patients and doctors; and (3) the systemic and organisational influences on shame within healthcare systems. I suggest that the theatre is particularly well-placed to elucidate shame, and that Tiger Country demonstrates the prevalence and impact of shame on clinical work. Shame has a fundamental and overlooked relationship with damaging and well-documented phenomena in healthcare, including moral distress, ethical erosion, compassion fatigue, burnout, stress and ill health. Attention to shame is essential for those interested in medicine and healthcare and must, I propose, include the experiences and perceptions of those who provide care, as well as attending to those who receive care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Report on the International Peer Review of RAINS-ASIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovland, H. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    Many Asian countries have experienced rapid economic growth during recent years and this trend is expected to continue. The economic growth is accompanied by increasing energy demand, with coal as the dominant energy source. For the first time a model has been specifically developed and applied for integrated assessment of future SO{sub 2} emissions in Asia. The report deals with the RAINS-ASIA model developed in Norway offering an opportunity to assess sulphur deposition and ecosystem protection levels resulting from different energy pathways and different emission control strategies. The cost of various control strategies are also provided. During the project an impressive database has been collected for the region (23 countries, 94 subregions and 355 large point sources). This was made possible through dedicated work by the project team, in close collaboration with scientific and technical institutions in several Asian countries. A further development of the model may include strengthening and widening the collaboration with Asian institutions, assistance in establishing appropriate monitoring programmes, and inclusion of other air pollutants than SO{sub 2}