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Sample records for small swiss river

  1. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  2. Sediment source detection by stable isotope analysis, carbon and nitrogen content and CSSI in a small river of the Swiss Plateau

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    SchindlerWildhaber, Yael; Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Suspended sediment (SS) and organic matter in rivers can harm the fauna by affecting health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. We determined compound specific stable carbon isotopes (CSSI) in fatty acids of possible sediment source areas to the stream in addition and compared them to SS from selected high flow and low flow events. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase in sediment delivery from pasture and arable land downstream of the river. While the major sources of SS are pasture and arable land during base flow conditions, SS from forest soils increased during heavy rain events and warmer winter periods most likely due to snow melt which triggered erosion. Preliminary results of CSSI analysis of sediment source areas and comparison to SS of selected events indicate that differences in d13C values of individual fatty acids are too small to differentiate unambiguously between sediment sources.

  3. The abiotic environment of the interstitial of a small Swiss river in the foothills of the Alps and its influence on gravel spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Yael; Michel, Christian; Holm, Patricia; Alewell, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The hyporheic zone can be characterized by multiple abiotic parameters (e.g. bulk density, texture, temperature, oxygen, ammonium, nitrate) which are all influenced directly or indirectly by the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater. These processes can vary both in time and space and are mainly driven by river discharge, ground water level and flow patterns. The input of fine sediment particles can change water-riverbed interactions through river bed clogging potentially affecting the embryonal development and survival of gravel spawning fish, such as brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). With our investigations we aim to understand these complex interactions spatially and temporally on a relevant small scale, i.e. within individual artificial brown trout redds. We designed an experimental field setup to directly investigate i) the influence of the abiotic river and redd environment on brown trout embryo development and ii) the hydrological dynamics affecting the abiotic environment in artificial brown trout. Additionally, our setup allows investigating the temporal dynamics of i) fine-sediment infiltration into the artificial redds and ii) embryo survival to two distinct developmental stages (i.e. eyed stage and hatch) The experiment was conducted in three sites of a typical Swiss river (Enziwigger, Canton of Luzern) with a strongly modified morphology. Individual sites represented a high, medium and low fine-sediment load. In each site, six artificial redds (18 in total) were built and data were collected during the entire incubation phase. Redds were located in places where natural spawning of brown trout is present. We adapted multiple established methods to the smaller scale of our river to study the dynamics of the most relevant abiotic parameters potentially affecting embryo development: Oxygen content and temperature was monitored continuously in different depths, fine sediment (bedload, suspended sediment load and its input in the river bed

  4. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Paul C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: patricia.holm@unibas.ch; Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2007-03-15

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers.

  5. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Paul C.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

  6. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  7. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  8. The Swiss heating reactor (SHR) for district heating of small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgsmueller, P.; Jacobi, A.Jr.; Jaeger, J.F.; Klaentschi, M.J.; Seifritz, W.; Vuillemier, F.; Wegmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    With fossil fuel running out in a foreseeable future, it is essential to develop substitution strategies. Some 40-50 % of the heat demand in industrial countries is below 120 degrees C, for space heating and warm water production, causing a corresponding fraction of air pollution by SO 2 and to a lesser extent NO x if fossil fuels are used. Yet, contemporary LWR technology makes it feasible to supply a district heating network without basically new reactor development. Units in the power range 10-50 MW are most suitable for Switzerland, both in respect of network size and of the democratic decision making structure. A small BWR for heating purpose is being developed by parts of the Swiss Industry and the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR). The economic target of 100-120 SFr/MWh heat at the consumer's seems achievable. (author)

  9. Finding big shots: small-area mapping and spatial modelling of obesity among Swiss male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Held, Leonhard; Moser, André; Jones, Philip A; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, as in other developed countries, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Most of the analyses so far have been based on sporadic surveys or self-reported data and did not offer potential for small-area analyses. The goal of this study was to investigate spatial variation and determinants of obesity among young Swiss men using recent conscription data. A complete, anonymized dataset of conscription records for the 2010-2012 period were provided by Swiss Armed Forces. We used a series of Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate the spatial pattern of obesity across 3,187 postcodes, varying them by type of random effects (spatially unstructured and structured), level of adjustment by individual (age and professional status) and area-based [urbanicity and index of socio-economic position (SEP)] characteristics. The analysed dataset consisted of 100,919 conscripts, out of which 5,892 (5.8 %) were obese. Crude obesity prevalence increased with age among conscripts of lower individual and area-based SEP and varied greatly over postcodes. Best model's estimates of adjusted odds ratios of obesity on postcode level ranged from 0.61 to 1.93 and showed a strong spatial pattern of obesity risk across the country. Odds ratios above 1 concentrated in central and north Switzerland. Smaller pockets of elevated obesity risk also emerged around cities of Geneva, Fribourg and Lausanne. Lower estimates were observed in North-East and East as well as south of the Alps. Importantly, small regional outliers were observed and patterning did not follow administrative boundaries. Similarly as with crude obesity prevalence, the best fitting model confirmed increasing risk of obesity with age and among conscripts of lower professional status. The risk decreased with higher area-based SEP and, to a lesser degree - in rural areas. In Switzerland, there is a substantial spatial variation in obesity risk

  10. Sensitivity of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps to future climate change

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    Matthias eHuss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Very small glaciers (<0.5 km2 account for more than 80% of the total number of glaciers in mid- to low-latitude mountain ranges. Although their total area and volume is small compared to larger glaciers, they are a relevant component of the cryosphere, contributing to landscape formation, local hydrology and sea-level rise. Worldwide glacier monitoring mostly focuses on medium-sized to large glaciers leaving us with a limited understanding of the response of dwarf glaciers to climate change. In this study, we present a comprehensive modeling framework to assess past and future changes of very small glaciers at the mountain-range scale. Among other processes our model accounts for snow redistribution, changes in glacier geometry and the time-varying effect of supraglacial debris. It computes the mass balance distribution, the englacial temperature regime and proglacial runoff. The evolution of 1,133 individual glaciers in the Swiss Alps is modeled in detail until 2060 based on new distributed data sets. Our results indicate that 52% of all very small glaciers in Switzerland will completely disappear within the next 25 years. However, a few avalanche-fed glaciers at low elevation might be able to survive even substantial atmospheric warming. We find highly variable sensitivities of very small glaciers to air temperature change, with gently-sloping, low-elevation, and debris-covered glaciers being most sensitive.

  11. The small hydropower plant in the old river Aare in Niedergoesgen, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-07-01

    This preliminary project for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a project which proposes the construction of a new small hydro plant in Niedergoesgen/Gretzenbach, Switzerland, that is to make use of the waters of the old river Aare. The project proposes the construction of a new, 350 kW plant at the site of an existing sill across the old river that originally formed part of a water-power installation given up in 1917. The existing parts of the old installation are described and the legal situation concerning water rights and land ownership are examined. Three variants for a new installation are described. Technical figures and energy-production estimates for a new installation are discussed. Ecological aspects are examined, as are the recreational aspects of the river at this location. Cost estimates and economic viability are discussed.

  12. The Swiss Society of Microbiology: Small Bugs, Big Questions and Cool Answers.

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    Greub, Gilbert; Holliger, Christof; Sanglard, Dominique; Schrenzel, Jacques; Thiel, Volker; Viollier, Patrick

    2016-12-21

    The Swiss Society for Microbiology (SSM) represents around 700 scientists working in the fields of medical (human and veterinary), microbial biotechnology as well as fundamental, environmental, and food microbiology. Five sections: Clinical Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Mycology, Prokaryotic Biology, and Virology reflects the main interests of the membership.

  13. Calculation of bedload transport in Swiss mountain rivers using the model sedFlow: proof of concept

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    F. U. M. Heimann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fully validated numerical models specifically designed for simulating bedload transport dynamics in mountain streams are rare. In this study, the recently developed modelling tool sedFlow has been applied to simulate bedload transport in the Swiss mountain rivers Kleine Emme and Brenno. It is shown that sedFlow can be used to successfully reproduce observations from historic bedload transport events with plausible parameter set-ups, meaning that calibration parameters are only varied within ranges of uncertainty that have been pre-determined either by previous research or by field observations in the simulated study reaches. In the Brenno river, the spatial distribution of total transport volumes has been reproduced with a Nash–Sutcliffe goodness of fit of 0.733; this relatively low value is partially due to anthropogenic extraction of sediment that was not considered. In the Kleine Emme river, the spatial distribution of total transport volumes has been reproduced with a goodness of fit of 0.949. The simulation results shed light on the difficulties that arise with traditional flow-resistance estimation methods when macro-roughness is present. In addition, our results demonstrate that greatly simplified hydraulic routing schemes, such as kinematic wave or uniform discharge approaches, are probably sufficient for a good representation of bedload transport processes in reach-scale simulations of steep mountain streams. The influence of different parameters on simulation results is semi-quantitatively evaluated in a simple sensitivity study. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the usefulness of sedFlow for a range of practical applications in alpine mountain streams.

  14. The small hydropower plant in the old river Aare in Niedergoesgen, Switzerland; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Ballyschwelle, alte Aare, Niedergoesgen. Vorprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-07-15

    This preliminary project for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a project which proposes the construction of a new small hydro plant in Niedergoesgen/Gretzenbach, Switzerland, that is to make use of the waters of the old river Aare. The project proposes the construction of a new, 350 kW plant at the site of an existing sill across the old river that originally formed part of a water-power installation given up in 1917. The existing parts of the old installation are described and the legal situation concerning water rights and land ownership are examined. Three variants for a new installation are described. Technical figures and energy-production estimates for a new installation are discussed. Ecological aspects are examined, as are the recreational aspects of the river at this location. Cost estimates and economic viability are discussed.

  15. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of mass fluxes of micropollutants in Swiss rivers of catchments with different land use

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    Stamm, Christian; van der Voet, Jürgen; Singer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    It is known from many studies that a large number of micropollutants like pesticides, household products or pharmaceuticals can be found in water bodies. However, there is a general lack of systematic monitoring data that allow for distinguishing between possible sources, detecting temporal trends, or evaluating effects of possible mitigation measures. Including micropollutants in existing monitoring programs is not a trivial task for several reasons (e.g., sorption to sampling equipment, hydrolysis, detection limits etc.). Here, we present systematic concentration and load data for 12 substances (7 pesticides and/or biocides, 3 pharmaceuticals, and 2 anti-corrosives) obtained from a one-year sampling campaign within the "National Long-term Surveillance of Swiss Rivers" (NADUF) programme. Six (partially) nested sampling stations were selected to monitor these compounds in weekly or bi-weekly, flow-proportional samples over one year. Due to the high sensitivity of the LC-MSMS method all compounds could be quantified in almost all samples. Only at the reference site without any effluent from waste water treatment plants and hardly any arable farming, the concentrations were always below the limits of detection of a few ng/L. At all other sites, concentrations generally ranged between 10 and 200 ng/L. Only, the anticorrosive agent benzotriazole often exceeded 1000 ng/L. According to the use of the compounds, different temporal load patterns can be expected. In general, the data confirmed these patterns with almost constant loads of pharmaceuticals at most sites, increased herbicides loads during the periods of agricultural use and positive correlations with discharge year round for biocides used in material protection. However, at some sites the expectations were not met for all compounds. The pain-killer diclofenac for example showed strongly declining loads during the summer months at sites influenced by lake water. This compound is not stable in the epilimnion of

  17. Molybdenum, vanadium, and uranium weathering in small mountainous rivers and rivers draining high-standing islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.; Lyons, W. Berry; Goldsmith, Steven T.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Trierweiler, Annette M.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers draining high standing islands (HSIs) and small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are known to have extremely high sediment fluxes, and can also have high chemical weathering yields, which makes them potentially important contributors to the global riverine elemental flux to the ocean. This work reports on the riverine concentrations, ocean flux, and weathering yields of Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), and Uranium (U) in a large number of small but geochemically important rivers using 338 river samples from ten lithologically-diverse regions. These redox-sensitive elements are used extensively to infer paleo-redox conditions in the ocean, and Mo and V are also important rock-derived micronutrients used by microorganisms in nitrogen fixation. Unlike in large river systems, in which dissolved Mo has been attributed predominately to pyrite dissolution, Mo concentrations in these rivers did not correlate with sulfate concentrations. V was found to correlate strongly with Si in terrains dominated by silicate rocks, but this trend was not observed in primarily sedimentary regions. Many rivers exhibited much higher V/Si ratios than larger rivers, and rivers draining young Quaternary volcanic rocks in Nicaragua had much higher dissolved V concentrations (mean = 1306 nM) than previously-studied rivers. U concentrations were generally well below the global average with the exception of rivers draining primarily sedimentary lithologies containing carbonates and shales. Fluxes of U and Mo from igneous terrains of intermediate composition are lower than the global average, while fluxes of V from these regions are higher, and up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Nicaragua rivers. Weathering yields of Mo and V in most regions are above the global mean, despite lower than average concentrations measured in some of those systems, indicating that the chemical weathering of these elements are higher in these SMR watersheds than larger drainages. In regions of active boundaries

  18. 78 FR 21839 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0041] RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA... drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridges across Green River, mile 79.6, Small- house, KY and Black...

  19. THE IMPACT OF TBILISI USED WATER ON ECOCHEMICAL STATE OF SMALL RIVERS OF THE CITY

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    MARIAM TABATADZE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centralized sewerage systems and wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in Tbilisi in the middle of the previous century. Nowadays only mechanical treatment stage operates in wastewater treatment facilities of Tbilisi. Moreover, collected wastewater from the sewerage systems often drains without any treatment directly into the small rivers located in Tbilisi area. These rivers feed the main water artery of our capital – river Mtkvari and play an important role in its salt balance. As a result of study of hydro-chemical parameters of Tbilisi small rivers were identified Water Pollution Index (WPI and assessment of small rivers pollution by sewage waters was carried out. It was established that small rivers of Tbilisi belong to the IV and V classes, i.e. less polluted and polluted rivers, while according to the content of fecal matter in the river water they are ranged in the class of polluted and most polluted.

  20. Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proia, Lorenzo; Schiller, Daniel von; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Sabater, Sergi; Borrego, Carles M.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and their subsequent release into the environment may have direct consequences for autochthonous bacterial communities, especially in freshwater ecosystems. In small streams and rivers, local inputs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may become important sources of organic matter, nutrients and emerging pollutants, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the effect of WWTP effluents as a source of ARGs in river biofilms. The prevalence of genes conferring resistance to main antibiotic families, such as beta-lactams (bla_C_T_X_-_M), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), sulfonamides (sul I), and macrolides (ermB), was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in biofilm samples collected upstream and downstream WWTPs discharge points in four low-order streams. Our results showed that the WWTP effluents strongly modified the hydrology, physico-chemistry and biological characteristics of the receiving streams and favoured the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance in microbial benthic communities. It was also shown that the magnitude of effects depended on the relative contribution of each WWTP to the receiving system. Specifically, low concentrations of ARGs were detected at sites located upstream of the WWTPs, while a significant increase of their concentrations was observed in biofilms collected downstream of the WWTP discharge points (particularly ermB and sul I genes). These findings suggest that WWTP discharges may favour the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance among streambed biofilms. The present study also showed that the presence of ARGs in biofilms was noticeable far downstream of the WWTP discharge (up to 1 km). It is therefore reasonable to assume that biofilms may represent an ideal setting for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants and thus be considered suitable biological indicators of anthropogenic pollution by active

  1. Multiscale Approach to Small River Plumes off California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Largier, J. L.; Nidzieko, N.

    2012-12-01

    While larger scale plumes have received significant attention, the dynamics of plumes associated with small rivers typical of California are little studied. Since small streams are not dominated by a momentum flux, their plumes are more susceptible to conditions in the coastal ocean such as wind and waves. In order to correctly model water transport at smaller scales, there is a need to capture larger scale processes. To do this, one-way nested grids with varying grid resolution (1 km and 10 m for the parent and the child grid respectively) were constructed. CENCOOS (Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System) model results were used as boundary conditions to the parent grid. Semi-idealized model results for Santa Rosa Creek, California are presented from an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.0), a three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical model. In these preliminary results, the interaction between tides, winds, and buoyancy forcing in plume dynamics is explored for scenarios including different strengths of freshwater flow with different modes (steady and pulsed). Seasonal changes in transport dynamics and dispersion patterns are analyzed.

  2. Estimating the Economic Impacts of a Small-Scale Sport Tourism Event: The Case of the Italo-Swiss Mountain Trail CollonTrek

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    Stefano Duglio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies shows that small-scale sport events may have more positive repercussions for the host community than major ones in terms of both economic and social impacts. This study estimates the economic impacts on a small community derived from athletes’ expenditure at a specific small-scale sport tourism event, the Italo-Swiss mountain endurance trail CollonTrek. Even if this kind of event is considered a minor sport event, generating very limited economic activity, this study supports the hypothesis that the funds invested by the public administration are compensated for by revenue generated during the trail. In fact, according to the three analyzed scenarios (Conservative, Average and Liberal, for each euro invested by the public administration, an economic return between €17.62 and €18.92 has been estimated, and between €5.64 and €6.9 (32%–36.47% represent the direct economic return for the local community. Furthermore, in addition to the direct economic benefits, in accordance with the feedback from a sample of participants at the event (n = 180, this kind of event has positive implications in terms of future tourism for the host valley, pointing out how this kind of tourist activities has positive repercussions in terms of economic and social sustainability.

  3. HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF INTRODUCING SMALL WATER STRUCTURES IN RIVER RESTORATION – THE EXAMPLE OF PBHS IMPLEMENTATION

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    Tomasz Kałuża

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The work attempts to determine the impact of small hydrotechnical structures on channel hydromorphology as a measure of river restoration. The experiment was set up in Flinta River in Polish lowland where extensive hydromorphological survey was competed. At the first stage of restoration project containers filled with plant clumps working as sediment traps (plant basket hydraulic structures – PBHS were introduced. Those structures were relatively small but at the same time, large enough to change the river flow efficiently – working like low crested weirs. Two year monitoring program provided information about the impact of introducing such structures on river morphology and explained the PBHS impact on flow pattern of the river.

  4. Small rural communities in the inland Northwest: an assessment of small communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Harris; William McLaughlin; Greg Brown; Dennis R. Becker

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of small rural communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basin was conducted for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in this region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research also assessed the resilience of the region’s...

  5. Cooling ponds and small rivers in north central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to review those Commonwealth Edison (Ceco) programs related directly or indirectly to compensation and stock manipulation in fish populations. The direct stocking of sport fish fingerlings for mitigation is one method of stock manipulation. There are, however, two other, less common manipulative approaches to enhancing local fish stocks. First is the use of cooling ponds as off-stream nursery areas for forage and sport species. Second is the use of waste heat to modify habitat temperatures and permit or improve overwintering survival of select species such as gizzard or threadfin shad in north-temperate waters that are naturally too cold to sustain strong populations. This, in turn, will increase the abundance of these species as forage in subsequent years. There are four different Ceco projects which are discussed. These are: Fish releases in Pool 14 of the Mississippi River; Studies of endemic and stock fishes at the Collins and Dresden Cooling Ponds; Fish and water quality monitoring of the Des Plaines and Upper Illinois Rivers; and Proposed walleye, muskellunge and striped bass x white bass hybrid stocking in the Rock River. 7 references

  6. Developing a Model to Assess the Potential Impact of TUM Hydropower Turbines on Small River Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower is a renewable energy technology that is used for electricity generation worldwide, but still has potential for further development. However, during the installation of small hydropower, the ecological impacts of the power plants need to be thoroughly investigated. In addressing the challenges of energy production and minimizing the environmental impacts of small hydropower installation and operation, this study has applied an ecohydraulic model to investigate river hydrodynamics, hydromorphology, habitat, and the population impacts of small hydropower, and presented the Mum River as a case study. Two scenarios were implemented in this research to simulate the hydrodynamic, sedimentation, habitat, and population status in order to assess the potential effects caused by the TUM plant. At the Mum River, two scenarios were proposed: the TUM plant was not considered in scenario S1, but was considered in scenario S2. The model results for scenario S2 indicated that the habitat was suitable for fish species living in the Mum River, with fish population numbers between 4.6 × 103 and 6.6 × 103. The S2 results indicated that the impacts of the TUM plant were negligible when compared with S1. Although the impact of the TUM plant on the Mum River is relatively large when the discharge is high (19 m3/s, calculations based on stable flow shows that the TUM plant could function well on the river ecosystem when the discharge is low or at normal rates. Therefore, this study shows that the TUM plant would be a good option to meet the needs of energy generation whilst having a minimal impact on river habitats and changes in fish species population in similar small rivers and streams.

  7. comparative measurement o river for small hydro tive measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Keywords: small hydropower, electric power, volum ... gathering systems. .... or revolving cups connected to the end. ..... Also, the float velocity may have been affected by wind ... completely dedicated as off-grid supply can meet the.

  8. Assessing Methane Fluxes in a Small Run-of-River Reservoir: The Importance of Adjacent Marshland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, D. F.; Flury, S.; Fietzek, P.; Bilsley, N. A.; Bodmer, P.; Premke, K.; Maeck, A.; Lorke, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate methane (CH4) emissions from a small run-of-river impoundment, the Schwentine River in Kiel, Germany. Small dammed rivers, while important regions for carbon transformation, are presently not considered in the terrestrial carbon budget and are under-represented in CH4 emission studies. Using state-of-the-art monitoring techniques, we determine that 1) the CH4 emissions well-exceed those reported for temperate reservoirs and 2) the hydrodynamic linkage to bordering marshland (consisting of reed belts, sidebays and creeks) is an important CH4 source for Schwentine River CH4. During our study, the Schwentine River discharged into the Kieler Fjord at 3 - 12 m3/s. CH4 measurements included 1) a moored sensor near the dam discharge, 2) discrete water sampling, and 3) real time surface flux measurements with floating chambers. We observed that the CH4 concentration increased nearly linearly from 2.5 km upstream towards the dam. The CH4 concentration near the dam discharge was logged and reported every 30 minutes nearly continuously from 11 July - 28 Sept 2011, and varied from 500 μmol/L to 2,200 μmol/L. Surprisingly, the CH4 mass discharge from the dam - ranging from 4 to 20 kg/day - increased with both temperature and flowrate, suggesting a flow-dependent CH4 source. We found that the bordering and numerous inundated reed belts, sidebays and small creeks, had significantly elevated CH4 concentrations. These marshland regions are relatively productive and quiescent compared to the main river, and trap organic and particulate matter, leading to enhanced CH4 production. As the river flowrate increases, the lateral exchange with these adjacent areas also increases. Using the CH4 concentration time series, measured surface diffusive and ebullition fluxes, and sediment CH4 porewater profiles, we estimate the relative contributions of CH4 in the main branch due to 1) sediment diffusion, 2) dissolution from sediment CH4 bubble release, and 3) lateral fluxes from

  9. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN A SMALL RIVER FLOWING WITHIN A BAR PLAIN OF THE DNIPRO RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abramiuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using as an example of a small river, which flows through a bar plain of the Dnipro, to study species composition of the littoral ichthyoplankton, dynamics of its structure during the season and its diversity in different parts of the river. Methodology. The littoral ichthyoplankton was investigated during four seasons of 2011-2014 on the Vita river, a right tributary of the Dnipro affected by the operation of Kaniv HPP. The research covered the main channel, a permanent backwater connected with the channel, as well as temporarily flooded areas of the floodplain and separated from the channel oxbow lakes. Samples were collected with standard sweep nets and Bagenal buoyant nets. Identification of young fish was carried out under binocular microscope MBS-9. Early life stages of larvae were determined according to the system of V. Vasnetsov. Species diversity of ichthyoplankton was assessed by the Shannon index. Findings. The littoral ichthyoplankton during May-July mostly consisted of limnophilic fish larvae belonging to a family Cyprinidae. In the river channel and the backwater at the beginning of the period the larvae of roach (Rutilus rutilus prevailed, later they were substituted by larvae of more thermophilic species, among which the rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus was the most abundant. In the oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded areas in spring the coastal ichthyoplankton was mainly structured by larvae of Carassius sp. and the rudd, in summer the larvae assemblages of oxbow lakes were quantitatively dominated by the sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus. In areas covered with vegetation the larvae of invasive Chinese sleeper (Perccottus glenii were firstly found. Rheophilic species among young fish were absent, which indicates unfavorable conditions for their spawning at present hydrologic regime of the river. Originality. For the first time the coastal communities of early young fish in a small tributary of the Dnipro were

  10. Quantifying suspended solids in small rivers using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Celso M; McIntyre, Neil; Lechner, Alex M; Callow, Ian

    2018-09-01

    The management of suspended solids and associated contaminants in rivers requires knowledge of sediment sources. In-situ sampling can only describe the integrated impact of the upstream sources. Empirical models that use surface reflectance from satellite images to estimate total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations can be used to supplement measurements and provide spatially continuous maps. However, there are few examples, especially in narrow, shallow and hydrologically dynamic rivers found in mountainous areas. A case study of the Didipio catchment in Philippines was used to address these issues. Four 5-m resolution RapidEye images, from between the years 2014 and 2016, and near-simultaneous ground measurements of TSS concentrations were used to develop a power law model that approximates the relationship between TSS and reflectance for each of four spectral bands. A second dataset using two 2-m resolution Pleiades-1A and a third using a 6-m resolution SPOT-6 image along with ground-based measurements, were consistent with the model when using the red band data. Using that model, encompassing data from all three datasets, gave an R 2 value of 65% and a root mean square error of 519mgL -1 . A linear relationship between reflectance and TSS exists from 1mgL -1 to approximately 500mgL -1 . In contrast, for TSS measurements between 500mgL -1 and 3580mgL -1 reflectance increases at a generally lower and more variable rate. The results were not sensitive to changing the pixel location within the vicinity of the ground sampling location. The model was used to generate a continuous map of TSS concentration within the catchment. Further ground-based measurements including TSS concentrations that are higher than 3580mgL -1 would allow the model to be developed and applied more confidently over the full relevant range of TSS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Small farm dams: impact on river flows and sustainability in a context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Philippe, E.; Martin, E.; David, C. H.; Leseur, F.

    2014-10-01

    The repetition of droughts in France has led to a growing demand for irrigation water and consequently to an increase in requests for the construction of small farm dams. Although such dams are small, their accumulation in a basin affects river flows, because the water collected in these small farm dams is used for irrigation and thus does not contribute to river flow. In order to gain more insight into their impact on the annual and monthly discharges, especially during dry years, a small farm dam model was built and connected to a hydrometeorological model. Several scenarios with different volume capacities, filling catchment sizes and filling periods were tested for such dams. The results were analysed in a small basin in western France, where the pressure for building such dams is high, and then extended to the entire country. It was found that, due to the hydrometeorological conditions (mainly low precipitation compared to other regions in France), the development of small farm dams in north-western France would result in greater decreases in river flows and less efficient filling of small farm dams than in other regions. Therefore, such dams might not be as efficient as expected in supplying water to farmers when needed. Moreover, the ability to fill small farm dams is projected to decrease in a context of climate change, despite the uncertainty on the evolution of precipitation, thus worsening the situation.

  12. ACQUISION OF GEOMETRICAL DATA OF SMALL RIVERS WITH AN UNMANNED WATER VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sardemann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rivers with small- and medium-scaled catchments have been increasingly affected by extreme events, i.e. flash floods, in the last years. New methods to describe and predict these events are developed in the interdisciplinary research project EXTRUSO. Flash flood events happen on small temporal and spatial scales, stressing the necessity of high-resolution input data for hydrological and hydrodynamic modelling. Among others, the benefit of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs will be evaluated in the project. This article introduces a boat-based approach for the acquisition of geometrical and morphological data of small rivers and their banks. An unmanned water vehicle (UWV is used as a multi-sensor platform to collect 3D-point clouds of the riverbanks, as well as bathymetric measurements of water depth and river morphology. The UWV is equipped with a mobile Lidar, a panorama camera, an echo sounder and a positioning unit. Whole (sub- catchments of small rivers can be digitalized and provided for hydrological modelling when UWV-based and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle based point clouds are fused.

  13. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the diversity and sustainability attributes of crops grown by small – scale farmers in Calabar Urban of Cross River State. It has as its objectives, the identification of the structure of agricultural system in Calabar- Urban, the determination of the types and diversity of crops grown by the farmers, the extent ...

  14. Water quality assessment of a small peri-urban river using low and high frequency monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovsky, A; Criquet, J; Dumoulin, D; Alary, C; Prygiel, J; Duponchel, L; Billon, G

    2016-05-18

    The biogeochemical behaviors of small rivers that pass through suburban areas are difficult to understand because of the multi-origin inputs that can modify their behavior. In this context, a monitoring strategy has been designed for the Marque River, located in Lille Metropolitan area of northern France, that includes both low-frequency monitoring over a one-year period (monthly sampling) and high frequency monitoring (measurements every 10 minutes) in spring and summer. Several environmental and chemical parameters are evaluated including rainfall events, river flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, nutritive salts and dissolved organic matter. Our results from the Marque River show that (i) it is impacted by both urban and agricultural inputs, and as a consequence, the concentrations of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen have degraded the water quality; (ii) the classic photosynthesis/respiration processes are disrupted by the inputs of organic matter and nutritive salts; (iii) during dry periods, the urban sewage inputs (treated or not) are more important during the day, as indicated by higher river flows and maximal concentrations of ammonium; (iv) phosphate concentrations depend on oxygen contents in the river; (v) high nutrient concentrations result in eutrophication of the Marque River with lower pH and oxygen concentrations in summer. During rainfalls, additional inputs of ammonium, biodegradable organic matter as well as sediment resuspension result in anoxic events; and finally (vi) concentrations of nitrate are approximately constant over the year, except in winter when higher inputs can be recorded. Having better identified the processes responsible for the observed water quality, a more informed remediation effort can be put forward to move this suburban river to a good status of water quality.

  15. Informed Decision Making Process for Managing Environmental Flows in Small River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padikkal, S.; Rema, K. P.

    2013-03-01

    Numerous examples exist worldwide of partial or complete alteration to the natural flow regime of river systems as a consequence of large scale water abstraction from upstream reaches. The effects may not be conspicuous in the case of very large rivers, but the ecosystems of smaller rivers or streams may be completely destroyed over a period of time. While restoration of the natural flow regime may not be possible, at present there is increased effort to implement restoration by regulating environmental flow. This study investigates the development of an environmental flow management model at an icon site in the small river basin of Bharathapuzha, west India. To determine optimal environmental flow regimes, a historic flow model based on data assimilated since 1978 indicated a satisfactory minimum flow depth for river ecosystem sustenance is 0.907 m (28.8 m3/s), a value also obtained from the hydraulic model; however, as three of the reservoirs were already operational at this time a flow depth of 0.922 m is considered a more viable estimate. Analysis of daily stream flow in 1997-2006, indicated adequate flow regimes during the monsoons in June-November, but that sections of the river dried out in December-May with alarming water quality conditions near the river mouth. Furthermore, the preferred minimum `dream' flow regime expressed by stakeholders of the region is a water depth of 1.548 m, which exceeds 50 % of the flood discharge in July. Water could potentially be conserved for environmental flow purposes by (1) the de-siltation of existing reservoirs or (2) reducing water spillage in the transfer between river basins. Ultimately environmental flow management of the region requires the establishment of a co-ordinated management body and the regular assimilation of water flow information from which science based decisions are made, to ensure both economic and environmental concerns are adequately addressed.

  16. FLOODPLAIN-CHANNEL COMPLEX OF SMALL RIVER: ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT STATE, OPTIMIZATION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes main methodological principles of geoecological assessment of riverbed-floodplain complex condition of one of the small rivers in Ukrainian Carpathians. According to our long-term field, cartographic, laboratory and remote sensing research, division of riverbed into homogeneous geoecological segments was made, as well as their standardization in accordance to the trends of unfavorable processes. Main reasons for deterioration of quality characteristics of channel-floodplain river complex were outlined; the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in deterioration of geoecological condition of the river and its floodplain complex was analyzed. Based on the assessment results it is possible to state that the condition of study segments of the Berezhnytsya river flood-plain and stream-way complex was marked as “excellent”, “good” and “satisfactory”. “Unsatisfactory” and “catastrophic” river and flood-plain condition has not been detected yet, although within Dashava urban settlement the river area condition is close to the “satisfactory” grade. The best situation is at the river head as human impact is minimized here and natural vegetation is preserved. Downstream we trace the tendency of condition worsening as anthropogenic load on the basin system and flood-plain and stream-way complex increases. Its negative impact is balanced by large forests, thus in segments limited by Banya Lysovytska village and Lotatnyky village the river and flood-plain condition is rated as “good”. So, downstream from the named village the value of such an important natural barrier as forest is reducing and anthropogenic load on the river significantly increases. The latter manifests in an intensive agricultural reclamation and housing development of flood-plains. Since degradation processes are rapidly developing over a considerable part of the Berezhnytsya river, negative changes are visible and only the study area

  17. Mapping the social impacts of small dams: The case of Thailand's Ing River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Zali; Pomun, Teerapong; Charles, Katrina J; Kirchherr, Julian

    2018-05-24

    The social impacts of large dams have been studied extensively. However, small dams' social impacts have been largely neglected by the academic community. Our paper addresses this gap. We examine the social impacts of multiple small dams in one upstream and one downstream village in Thailand's Ing River basin. Our research is based on semi-structured interviews with beneficiaries, government and NGOs. We argue that small dams' social impacts are multi-faceted and unequal. The dams were perceived to reduce fish abundance and provide flood mitigation benefits. Furthermore, the dams enabled increased access to irrigation water for upstream farmers, who re-appropriated water via the dams at the expense of those downstream. The small dams thus engendered water allocation conflicts. Many scholars, practitioners and environmentalists argue that small dams are a benign alternative to large dams. However, the results of our research mandate caution regarding this claim.

  18. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  19. Fish catch composition of selected small scale fishing gears used in the Bonny River, Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish catch composition of some selected small scale fishing gears (gill net, cast net, beach seine and long line were investigated in Bonny River, Rivers State, Nigeria from August 2014 to January 2015. A total number of 25 fish species from 18 families were recorded during the study. The Mugilidae with only one species constituted the dominant family while Cichlidae, Lutjanidae, Clupeidae, had three species and Scianidae had two species of fish caught and the remaining families had one species each. Mugil cephalus constituted 28.48% of the total catches followed by C. nigrodigitatus (22.48%. In the dry season M. cephalus forms the major component landings (32.65%, followed by C. nigrodigitatus (26.53% and S. galilaeus (12.24% while in the wet season M. cephalus (31.06%, C. nigrodigitatus (18.63% and T. zillii (11.80% were the dominant fish species. Cast net was the most efficient fishing gear while gill net was the least efficient. The comparison analysis between the wet and dry seasons using t-test showed no significant difference between dry and wet seasons (t = 0.092, P > 0.05.

  20. ESTIMATING HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL OF SMALL RIVERS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CASTRAVEŢ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimating hydropower potential of small rivers of Republic of Moldova using GIS, The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies (Larentis et al., 2010. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for hydropower potential sites assessment. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing data and streamflow and rainfall data and was automated within GIS environment.

  1. Heavy metals in the small rivers of Ternopil region under different types of anthropogenic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of content and peculiarities of migration of heavy metals in small rivers of Ternopil region were analyzed (Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb. It was determined that cobalt does not exceed maximum permissible levels, whereas the content of other metals exceed these levels at rates from 2 to 42 times the emission limit set by the fishing industry. The waters of Ternopil region are the richest in the compounds of iron and manganese by virtue of the lithological content of the researched water basins. The excess in Mn and Fe concentration in river water is caused by occurrence of these elements in abiotic components of river valleys, particularly in areas with iron and manganese, alluvial deposits, clay soils with ferrous metal compounds and leaching of elements from rock, soil and forest litter. As our research showed, increased metal content in water basins is caused by natural factors (river running through areas with ore and where leaching of ore occurs it, reaction of interstitial water, metals appearing in ground water run-off, anthropogenic (waste waters of industrial plants, agricultural outwash, fuel combustion and hydrochemical factors of the hydroecosystem itself (consumption and releasing of metals by hydrobionts, aquatic habitat pH, metals coming in from ground sediments, metals released from complexes with organic compounds, methylation of non-organic metal compounds. A comparative analysis of the pollution levels of Ternopil region water basins by heavy metals was completed. It was determined that the river most heavily contaminated by the content of nutrients and non-biogenic HM is the Zolota Lypa and the cleanest is the River Strypa, which allows us to recommend the use of water composition as a reference indicator in assessing the ecological state of the region’s surface waters.

  2. Impacts of small scale flow regulation on sediment dynamics in an ecologically important upland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, E; Gibbins, C N; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D

    2015-03-01

    Flow regulation is widely recognized as affecting fluvial processes and river ecosystems. Most impact assessments have focused on large dams and major water transfer schemes, so relatively little is known about the impacts of smaller dams, weirs and water diversions. This paper assesses sediment dynamics in an upland river (the Ehen, NW England) whose flows are regulated by a small weir and tributary diversion. The river is important ecologically due to the presence of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, a species known to be sensitive to sedimentary conditions. Fine sediment yield for the 300-m long study reach was estimated to be 0.057 t km(-2) year(-1), a very low value relative to other upland UK rivers. Mean in-channel storage of fine sediment was also low, estimated at an average of around 40 g m(-2). Although the study period was characterized by frequent high flow events, little movement of coarser bed material was observed. Data therefore indicate an extremely stable fluvial system within the study reach. The implication of this stability for pearl mussels is discussed.

  3. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  4. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  5. Dynamics of pollutant indicators during flood events in a small river under strong anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.

    2017-04-01

    In densely populated regions, human activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. In order to assess water and pollutants dynamics and their mass-balance in strongly modified river system, it is important to take into account high flow events as a significant fraction of water and pollutants loads may occur during these short events which are generally underrepresented in classical mass balance studies. A good example of strongly modified river systems is the Zenne river in and around the city of Brussels (Belgium).The Zenne River (Belgium) is a rather small but dynamic rain fed river (about 10 m3/s in average) that is under the influence of strong contrasting anthropogenic pressures along its stretch. While the upstream part of its basin is rather characterized by agricultural land-use, urban and industrial areas dominate the downstream part. In particular, the city of Brussels (1.1M inhabitants) discharges in the Zenne River amounts of wastewater that are large compared to the natural riverine flow. In order to assess water and pollutants dynamics and their mass-balance in the Zenne hydrographic network, we followed water flows and concentrations of several water quality tracers during several flood episodes with an hourly frequency and at different locations along the stretch of the River. These parameters were chosen as indicators of a whole range of pollutions and anthropogenic activities. Knowledge of the high-frequency pollutants dynamics during floods is required for establishing accurate mass-balances of these elements. We thus report here the dynamics of selected parameters during entire flood events, from the baseline to the decreasing phase and at hourly frequency. Dynamics at contrasting locations, in agricultural or urban environments are compared. In particular, the

  6. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments superficial slope failures on coarse grained, vegetation-free slopes are common processes and entail a certain risk for humans and socio-economic structures. Eco-engineering measures can be applied to mitigate slope instabilities. In this regard, limited plant survival and growth can be supported by mycorrhizal inoculation, which was successfully tested in laboratory studies. However, related studies on a field scale are lacking. Furthermore, mycorrhizae are known to enhance soil aggregation, which is linked to soil physics such as shear strength, and hence it is a useful indicator for near-surface soil/slope stability. The overall objective of our contribution was to test whether mycorrhizal inoculation can be used to promote eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments based on a five-year field experiment. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation (i) enhances soil aggregation, (ii) stimulate plant survival and fine root development, (iii) effects plant performance, (iv) the stimulated root development in turn influences aggregate stability, and (v) that climatic variations play a major role in fine-root development. We established mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal treated eco-engineered research plots (hedge layers mainly consisting of Alnus spp. and Salix spp.) on a field experimental scale. The experimental site is in the eastern Swiss Alps at an erosion-prone slope where many environmental conditions can be seen as homogeneous. Soil aggregation, fine root development and plant survival was quantified at the end of four growing seasons (2010, '11, '12, '14). Additionally, growth properties of Alnus spp. and Salix spp. were measured and their biomass estimated. Meteorological conditions, soil temperature and soil water content were recorded. (i) The introduced eco-engineering measures enhanced aggregate stability significantly. In contrast to published greenhouse and laboratory studies, mycorrhizal inoculation delayed soil

  7. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  8. Deposition and Burial Efficiency of Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exported from Small Mountainous Rivers to the Continental Margin, Southwest of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F.; Lin, S.; Wang, C.; Huh, C.

    2007-12-01

    Terrestrial organic carbon exported from small mountainous river to the continental margin may play an important role in global carbon cycle and it?|s biogeochemical process. A huge amount of suspended materials from small rivers in southwestern Taiwan (104 million tons per year) could serve as major carbon source to the adjacent ocean. However, little is know concerning fate of this terrigenous organic carbon. The purpose of this study is to calculate flux of terrigenous organic carbon deposited in the continental margin, offshore southwestern Taiwan through investigating spatial variation of organic carbon content, organic carbon isotopic compositions, organic carbon deposition rate and burial efficiency. Results show that organic carbon compositions in sediment are strongly influenced by terrestrial material exported from small rivers in the region, Kaoping River, Tseng-wen River and Er-jan Rver. In addition, a major part of the terrestrial materials exported from the Kaoping River may bypass shelf region and transport directly into the deep sea (South China Sea) through the Kaoping Canyon. Organic carbon isotopic compositions with lighter carbon isotopic values are found near the Kaoping River and Tseng-wen River mouth and rapidly change from heavier to lighter values through shelf to slope. Patches of lighter organic carbon isotopic compositions with high organic carbon content are also found in areas west of Kaoping River mouth, near the Kaoshiung city. Furthermore, terrigenous organic carbons with lighter isotopic values are found in the Kaoping canyon. A total of 0.028 Mt/yr of terrestrial organic carbon was found in the study area, which represented only about 10 percent of all terrestrial organic carbon deposited in the study area. Majority (~90 percent) of the organic carbon exported from the Kaoping River maybe directly transported into the deep sea (South China Sea) and become a major source of organic carbon in the deep sea.

  9. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  10. Rainfall-runoff model for prediction of waterborne viral contamination in a small river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, E.; Dommar, C.; Lowe, R.; Polcher, J.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present a lumped rainfall-runoff model aimed at providing useful information for the prediction of waterborne viral contamination in small rivers. Viral contamination of water bodies may occur because of the discharge of sewage effluents and of surface runoff over areas affected by animal waste loads. Surface runoff is caused by precipitation that cannot infiltrate due to its intensity and to antecedent soil water content. It may transport animal feces to adjacent water bodies and cause viral contamination. We model streamflow by separating it into two components: subsurface flow, which is produced by infiltrated precipitation; and surface runoff. The model estimates infiltrated and non-infiltrated precipitation and uses impulse-response functions to compute the corresponding fractions of streamflow. The developed methodologies are applied to the Glafkos river, whose catchment extends for 102 km2 and includes the city of Patra. Streamflow and precipitation observations are available at a daily time resolution. Waterborne virus concentration measurements were performed approximately every second week from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2012. Samples were taken at several locations: in river water upstream of Patras and in the urban area; in sea water at the river outlet and approximately 2 km south-west of Patras; in sewage effluents before and after treatment. The rainfall-runoff model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and precipitation data. The model contribution to waterborne viral contamination prediction was benchmarked by analyzing the virus concentration measurements together with the estimated surface runoff values. The presented methodology may be a first step towards the development of waterborne viral contamination alert systems. Predicting viral contamination of water bodies would benefit sectors such as water supply and tourism.

  11. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  12. Flow Regime Changes: From Impounding a Temperate Lowland River to Small Hydropower Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Punys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the environmental issues facing small hydropower plants (SHPs operating in temperate lowland rivers of Lithuania. The research subjects are two medium head reservoir type hydro schemes considered within a context of the global fleet of SHPs in the country. This research considers general abiotic indicators (flow, level, water retention time in the reservoirs of the stream that may affect the aquatic systems. The main idea was to test whether the hydrologic regime has been altered by small hydropower dams. The analysis of changes in abiotic indicators is a complex process, including both pre- and post-reservoir construction and post commissioning of the SHPs under operation. Downstream hydrograph (flow and stage ramping is also an issue for operating SHPs that can result in temporary rapid changes in flow and consequently negatively impact aquatic resources. This ramping has been quantitatively evaluated. To avoid the risk of excessive flow ramping, the types of turbines available were evaluated and the most suitable types for the natural river flow regime were identified. The results of this study are to allow for new hydro schemes or upgrades to use water resources in a more sustainable way.

  13. Identifying hydrological regime and eco-flow threshold of small and medium flood of the Xiaoqing River in Jinan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Sheng-Le

    2017-06-01

    It was known that hydrological regime was the main influencing factor of river ecosystem, but the regime of different flow rates of urban rivers was poorly understood. We collected daily inflows at the Huangtai station of the Xiaoqing River from 1960 to 2014 and divided the data into three periods. Then we calculated hydrological parameters by the method of EFCs (Environmental Flow Components) and analyzed the tendency and change rates of each component respectively in the three periods. Combined with the ecological significance of environmental flow components, we identified the small and medium flood had the greatest impact on the river regime and ecosystem. And then we used the hydraulic parameters in the good ecosystem period as control conditions, to calculate the ecological threshold of the flow component under the current situation. This study could provide technical support for restoring and improving hydrological regime and ecological environment of the Xiaoqing River in Jinan city.

  14. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  16. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  17. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  18. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  19. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  20. Response of small glaciers to climate change: runoff from glaciers of the Wind River range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, A. K.; Stamper, B.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff from glaciers affects downstream ecosystems by influencing the quantity, seasonality, and chemistry of the water. We describe the present state of glaciers in the Wind River range, Wyoming and consider how these glaciers will change in the future. Wind River glaciers have been losing mass in recent decades, as seen with geodetic techniques and by examining glacier morphology. Interestingly, the 2016/7 winter featured one of the largest snowfalls on record. Our primary focus is the Dinwoody Glacier ( 3 km^2, 3300-4000 m above sea level). We present data collected in mid-August 2017 including glacier ablation rates, snow line elevations, and streamflow. We compare measured glacier mass loss to streamflow at the glacier terminus and at a USGS stream gauge farther downstream. Using a hydrological model, we explore the fate of glacial runoff as it moves into downstream ecosystems and through ranchlands important to local people. The techniques used here can be applied to similar small-glacier systems in other parts of the world.

  1. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF QUALITY STUDY OF WATER FROM SMALL MICHALICE RESERVOIR ON WIDAWA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wiatkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water quality of the small Michalice reservoir. A preliminary assessment of the reservoir water quality and its usability was made. The quality of water in the reservoir is particularly important as the main functions of the reservoir are agricultural irrigation, recreation and flood protection . The following physico-chemical parameters of the Widawa River were analyzed: NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, COD, water temperature, pH and electrolytic conductivity. Main descriptive statistical data were presented for the analyzed water quality indicators. The research results indicate that the reservoir contributed to the reduced concentrations of the following water quality indicators: nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, electrolytic conductivity and COD (in the outflowing water – St.3 in comparison to the water flowing into the reservoir – St.1. In the water flowing out of the Psurów reservoir higher values of the remaining indicators were observed if compared with the inflowing water. It was stated, as well, that analised waters are not vulnerable to nitrogen compounds pollution coming from the agricultural sources and are eutrophic. For purpose obtaining of the précised information about condition of Michalice reservoir water purity as well as river Widawa it becomes to continue the hydrological monitoring and water quality studies.

  2. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  4. EFFECTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF IRRIGATION RESERVOIRS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTANTS IN ESTUARINE ZONES OF SMALL MEDITERRANEAN RIVERS. THE CASE OF SPERCHIOS RIVER, GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manos Dassenakis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sperchios is a small river in central Greece and although its estuary has been characterised as an Important Bird Area and is included in the European network “NATURA 2000”, it is very poorly managed from an environmental point of view. The Sperchios basin is one of the most important agricultural regions in Greece but it is influenced also by industrial and urban pollution. An earthen dyke is erected b every summer about 2km upstream from the river mouth in order to collect the river water for irrigation purposes. The change in the site of the intermixing zone due to this fact affects the salinity of the water and the amount of suspended matter as well as the chemical behaviour and partitioning of both heavy metals and nutrients. The suspended matter was found to be the major carrier for most metals e.g. lead, zinc, copper whereas phosphorus was the limiting factor for the phytoplankton growth.

  5. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system.

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  7. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  11. Small river plumes near the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea under climatic mean and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    The study is focused on the impact of discharge from small rivers on propagation and final location of fluvial waters and suspended matter at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers inflow into the sea at the studied region and most of them, except the several largest of them, have small annual runoff and limitedly affect adjacent coastal waters under climatic mean conditions. However, discharges of these small rivers are characterized by quick response to precipitation events and can dramatically increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the area under consideration. Propagation and final location of fluvial waters and terrigenous sediments at the studied region under climatic mean and rain-induced flooding conditions were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery and numerical modelling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers during climatic mean conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. Intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments form a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a north-western direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of narrow shelf at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea as compared to climatic mean discharge conditions.

  12. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  13. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumo, Dario, E-mail: dario.pumo@unipa.it; Caracciolo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.caracciolo@unipa.it; Viola, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.viola77@unipa.it; Noto, Leonardo V., E-mail: leonardo.noto@unipa.it

    2016-01-15

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  14. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumo, Dario; Caracciolo, Domenico; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  15. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  16. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Small river plumes off the northeastern coast of the Black Sea under average climatic and flooding discharge conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osadchiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of discharges of small rivers on the delivery and fate of fluvial water and suspended matter at the northeastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers flow into the sea at the study region, and most of them, except for several of the largest, have little annual runoff and affect adjacent coastal waters to a limited extent under average climatic conditions. However, the discharges of these small rivers are characterized by a quick response to precipitation events and can significantly increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the considered area. The delivery and fate of fluvial water and terrigenous sediments at the study region, under average climatic and rain-induced flooding conditions, were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers under average climatic conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. The intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments forms a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces the intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a northwestern direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of the narrow shelf at the northeastern part of the Black Sea compared to average climatic discharge conditions.

  18. Small river plumes off the northeastern coast of the Black Sea under average climatic and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the impact of discharges of small rivers on the delivery and fate of fluvial water and suspended matter at the northeastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers flow into the sea at the study region, and most of them, except for several of the largest, have little annual runoff and affect adjacent coastal waters to a limited extent under average climatic conditions. However, the discharges of these small rivers are characterized by a quick response to precipitation events and can significantly increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the considered area. The delivery and fate of fluvial water and terrigenous sediments at the study region, under average climatic and rain-induced flooding conditions, were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers under average climatic conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. The intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments forms a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces the intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a northwestern direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of the narrow shelf at the northeastern part of the Black Sea compared to average climatic discharge conditions.

  19. The Role of Small Impoundments on Flow Alteration Within River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, C. O.; Keys, T.; Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous water quality and quantity models have been established to illustrate the ecologic and hydrologic effects of large reservoirs. Smaller, unregulated ponds are often assumed to have a negligible impact on watershed flow regimes even though they overwhelmingly outnumber larger waterbodies. Individually, these small impoundments impart merely a fraction of the flow alteration larger reservoirs do; however, a network of ponds may act cumulatively to alter the flow regime. Many models have attempted to study smaller impoundments but rely on selectively available rating curves or bathymetry surveys. This study created a generalized process to model impoundments of varying size across a 58 square mile watershed exclusively using satellite imagery and publicly available information as inputs. With information drawn from public Army Corps of Engineers databases and LiDAR surveys, it was found that impoundment surface and drainage area served as useful explanatory variables, capable of predicting both pond bathymetry and outlet structure area across the 37 waterbodies modeled within the study area. Working within a flow routing model with inputs from the Chesapeake Bay HSPF model and verified with USGS gauge data, flow simulations were conducted with increasing number of impoundments to quantify how small ponds affect the overall flow regime. As the total impounded volume increased, simulations showed a notable reduction in both low and peak flows. Medium-sized floods increased as the network of ponds and reservoirs stabilized the catchment's streamflow. The results of this study illustrate the importance of including ponded waters into river corridor models to improve downstream management of both water quantity and quality.

  20. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  1. Prospects of technology adoption in small pump schemes in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. T.; Hashim, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Linear programming was used to simulate the farming systems of small pump schemes in Shendi Area, River Nile State, Sudan, to assess the prospect for technology use in cool-season food legumes and wheat. Different production activities, with respect to target crops, were identified to reflect different technology levels. The model constraints were the pump capacity, the scheme size and family labour. Alternative versions of the model were developed to examine possible production options that exist and to examine the effects of alternative resource levels and policy options, which are likely to affects adoption. The model results revealed that while farmers traditional practices were not economically feasible options, tendency is for adoption of medium rather than the recommended high technology levels. This reflects actual farmers behaviour, particularly for irrigation water, and indicates that water is the main resource constraint. The results also showed that the technology is not well supported by the traditional institutions of production relation, which create conflicting perception between resource owner to wards technology use.(Author)

  2. Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E.

    2007-01-01

    The sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. The examined optimization problem uses data of a specific site and is solved in the single and two-objective modes, considering, together with economic, some additional objectives, as maximization of the produced energy and the best exploitation of the water stream potential. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  7. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. New insights into agricultural pesticide pollution through a complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Simon; Doppler, Tobias; Spycher, Simon; Langer, Miriam; Junghans, Marion; Kunz, Manuel; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in many surface waters draining agricultural areas. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides, it is difficult to obtain a complete overview of the real pollution level. This collaborative project between research, federal and cantonal authorities in Switzerland aimed for a comprehensive assessment of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to tackle this knowledge gap. The five streams are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops including vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August 2015 with automatic sampling devices, yielding 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples from discharge events where measured individually whereas samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 34 - 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry involved a target screening of about 220 pesticides. The measured concentrations were compared to chronic and acute environmental quality standards (EQS values) resulting in risk quotients RQs, which are the ratios between measured concentrations and the respective EQS values. Despite the small size of the catchments, we observed a large pesticide diversity in all of them with 68 to 103 detected compounds per study area. At all sites, chronic EQS values were exceeded. However, the exposure levels varied substantially among catchments. Maximum chronic RQs per site ranged between 1.1 and 48.8 and the duration of EQS exceedance varied between 2 weeks and 5.5 months. Additionally, the data reveal (very) high concentration

  9. Run-off regime of the small rivers in mountain landscapes (on an example of the mountain "Mongun-taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryahina, G.; Zelepukina, E.; Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological characteristics calculations of the small mountain rivers in the basins with glaciers frequently cause complexity in connection with absence of standard hydrological supervision within remote mountain territories. The unique way of the actual information reception on a water mode of such rivers is field work. The rivers of the mountain Mongun-taiga located on a joint of Altai and Sayan mountains became hydrological researches objects of Russian geographical society complex expeditions in 2010-2011. The Mongun-taiga cluster of international biosphere reserve "Ubsunurskaya hollow" causes heightened interest of researchers — geographers for many years. The original landscape map in scale 1:100000 has been made, hydrological supervision on the rivers East Mugur and ugur, belonging inland basin of Internal Asia are lead. Supervision over the river drain East Mugur runoff were spent in profile of glacier tongue (the freezing area - 22 % (3.2 km2) from the reception basin) and in the closing alignment of the river located on distance of 3,4 km below tongue of glacier. During researches following results have been received. During the ablation period diurnal fluctuations with a strongly shown maximum and minimum of water discharges are typically for the small rivers with considerable share of a glacial food. The run-off maximum from the glacier takes place from 2 to 7 p.m., the run-off minimum is observed early in the morning. High speed of thawed snow running-off from glacier tongue and rather small volume of dynamic stocks water on an ice surface lead to growth of water discharge. In the bottom profile the time of maximum and minimum of water discharge is displaced on the average 2 hours, it depends of the water travel time. Maximum glacial run-off discharge (1.12 m3/s) in the upper profile was registered on July 16 (it was not rain). Volumes of daily runoff in the upper and bottom profiles were 60700-67600 m3 that day. The run-off from nonglacial part of

  10. Solid waste management of small island developing states-the case of the Seychelles: a systemic and collaborative study of Swiss and Seychellois students to support policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Lai, Adelene; Hensley, John; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius

    2018-05-15

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for the Seychelles. Waste generation, fueled by economic development and tourism, increases steadily, while landfilling continues to be the main disposal path, thus exacerbating the island nation's specific weaknesses. Due to the small scale of the Seychelles economy, there is little capital available to stimulate innovations in SWM and generate the knowledge for setting priorities and guiding SWM action. Students from ETH Zurich and UniSey conducted a transdisciplinary case study (tdCS) to fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into the obstacles and opportunities related to sustainable SWM. The tdCS approach allowed students to gain comprehensive and in-depth knowledge about the SWM system required to set priorities for action and next steps. The government should streamline the different financial frameworks according to a clear principle (e.g., polluter pays principle). Specific biogenic waste streams represent a potential source of energy and fertilizers. Expanding the scope and densifying the network of collection points could help raise recycling rates of other waste fractions. Diverting biogenic waste and recycling more glass, metals, paper, and plastics would also significantly reduce landfilling rates. Regardless of future amounts of waste ending up on landfills, the latter must be reengineered before the surrounding environment suffers major adverse impacts. All these actions imply a government-driven approach which integrates the views of stakeholders and consumers alike.

  11. Hydro-economic performances of streamflow withdrawal strategies: the case of small run-of-river power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    River flows withdrawals to supply small run-of-river hydropower plants have been increasing significantly in recent years - particularly in the Alpine area - as a consequence of public incentives aimed at enhancing energy production from renewable sources. This growth further raised the anthropic pressure in areas traditionally characterized by an intense exploitation of water resources, thereby triggering social conflicts among local communities, hydropower investors and public authorities. This brought to the attention of scientists and population the urgency for novel and quantitative tools for assessing the hydrologic impact of these type of plants, and trading between economic interests and ecologic concerns. In this contribution we propose an analytical framework that allows for the estimate of the streamflow availability for hydropower production and the selection of the run-of-river plant capacity, as well as the assessment of the related profitability and environmental impacts. The method highlights the key role of the streamflow variability in the design process, by showing the significance control of the coefficient of variation of daily flows on the duration of the optimal capacity of small run-of-river plants. Moreover, the analysis evidences a gap between energy and economic optimizations, which may result in the under-exploitation of the available hydropower potential at large scales. The disturbances to the natural flow regime produced between the intake and the outflow of run-of-river power plants are also estimated within the proposed framework. The altered hydrologic regime, described through the probability distribution and the correlation function of streamflows, is analytically expressed as a function of the natural regime for different management strategies. The deviations from pristine conditions of a set of hydrologic statistics are used, jointly with an economic index, to compare environmental and economic outcomes of alternative plant

  12. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  13. The distribution of mercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki river, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kono, Yuriko; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury in the soil, sediment and river water around the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia, was investigated. The total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in the forest soil ranged from 0.11 to 7.0mgkg(-1), and the highest value was observed at the ASGM village. In the vertical T-Hg profile around the villages, the highest value was observed at the soil surface, and the concentration decreased with depth. This result suggested that the mercury released by mining activity was dispersed through the atmosphere and deposited on the surface. The total organic carbon content (TOC) showed a similar vertical profile as the T-Hg, and a linear relationship was found between T-Hg and TOC. Mercury deposited on the surface can be absorbed by organic matter. The slope of the line was larger near the ASGM village, implying a higher rate of deposition of mercury. The T-Hg in the sediment ranged from 10 to 70mgkg(-1), decreasing gradually toward the lower reaches of the river. Mining waste can be transported with the river flow and deposited along the river. The distribution of the mining waste can be determined using the mineralogical composition measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Flash Flood Study on the Small Montaneous River Catchments in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Maria-Mihaela; Haidu, Ionel; Humbert, Joël

    2013-04-01

    interpolated in order to obtain the hydrograph of the historical flash floods. The two methodologies employed offer the hydrologist the opportunity of computing the historical hydrographs be it on a section of the river at choice, or for every affluent within the small river basins studied, the graphical data being easily accessed both in GIS and HEC-HMS. The peak discharge values of the main rivers as well as those of their tributaries are of great importance in establishing the hydrologic hazard under the form of floodplain maps that are inexistent for the studied watersheds. Key words: flash flood modeling, ungauged catchments, GIS, HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. Aknowledgements This work was possible with the financial support of the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under the project number POSDRU/107/1.5/S/76841 with the title "Modern Doctoral Studies: Internationalization and Interdisciplinarity".

  15. THE PECULIARITIES OF SEASONAL FLOW REGIME ON SMALL RIVERS FROM THE EASTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOROCOVSCHI V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigated region is overlapping the territory drained by tributaries of Someşul Mic and Arieş River and also the creeks collected by Mureş River between the mouth of Arieş and Geoagiu River. The study is based on processing and interpreting data from 24 gauging stations, of which 18 control surfaces basins below 150 km2. To highlight the features of seasonal flow regime we have considered three periods (1950-1967, 1950-2009 and 1970-2009. Thus, all rivers are recording a dominant flow during spring while the lowest annual average volume is related to winter season. Seasonal time variation of river flow was highlighted by analyzing the trends in the three periods using the variation coefficients.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of the main technology for new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Zhou, Beihai; Yuan, Rongfang; Bao, Xiangming; Li, Dongwei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, water contamination problem has been becoming more and more serious due to increasing wastewater discharge. So our country has accelerated the pace of constructing sewage treatment plant in small towns. But in China it has not been issued any corresponding technical specifications about the choice of treatment technology. So the article is based on the basin of Duliujian river, through field research, data collection and analysis of relevant documentations, preliminarily elects seven kinds of technology: Improved A2/O, Integrated oxidation ditch, Orbal oxidation ditch, CASS, A/O+refined diatomite, BIOLAK and UNITANK as alternatives for Tianjin sewage discharge local standard.Then the article use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the seven kinds of alternatives, finally it is concluded that CASS technology is most suitable for the main technology of new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian River basin.

  17. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, M.

    2007-05-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered

  18. The sources of streamwater to small mountainous rivers in Taiwan during typhoon and non-typhoon seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Nien-Ming; Shih, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics and behaviors of streamwater chemistry are rarely documented for subtropical small mountainous rivers. A 1-year detailed time series of streamwater chemistry, using non-typhoon and typhoon samples, was monitored in two watersheds, with and without cultivation, in central Taiwan. Rainwater, soil leachate, and well water were supplemented to explain the streamwater chemistry. The concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulfate, magnesium, potassium, calcium, strontium, silicon, and barium of all the water samples were measured. Principal component analysis and residual analysis were applied to examine the mechanisms of solute transport and investigate possible sources contributing to the streamwater chemistry. In addition to the influence of well water and soil leachate on streamwater chemistry during non-typhoon period, overland flow and surface erosion affect streamwater chemistry during the typhoon period. The latter has not been discussed in previous studies. Surface erosion is likely to be an end member and non-conservatively mixed with other end members, resulting in a previously unobserved blank zone in the mixing space. This has a particularly great impact on small mountainous watersheds, which suffer from rapid erosion. Moreover, fertilizer contaminates agricultural soil, making soil water end members more identifiable. To our knowledge, this study is the first to clearly illustrate the dynamics and sources of streamwater chemistry of small mountainous rivers that are analogous to rivers in Oceania.

  19. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  20. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  1. Transport and fluxes of terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a small mountain river and submarine canyon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing-Sian; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Liu, James T

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the Gaoping River were investigated in the wet and dry seasons. PAH characteristics allowed us to trace the particulate matter transported in a river-sea system containing a small mountain river, continental shelf, and submarine canyon. PAH signatures of the Gaoping River showed that particles were rapidly transported from the high mountain to the Gaoping coastal areas in the wet season, even arriving at the deep ocean via the Gaoping Submarine Canyon. By contrast, in the dry season, the particles were delivered quite slowly and included mostly pyrogenic contaminants. The annual riverine flux estimates for PAHs were 2241 kg in the Gaoping river-sea system. Only 18.0 kg were associated with the dissolved phase; the rest was bound onto particles. The fluxes caused by typhoons and their effects accounted for 20.2% of the dissolved and 68.4% of the particulate PAH fluxes from the river. Normalized partition coefficients for organic carbon suggested that PAHs were rigid on the particles. Distinct source characteristics were evident for PAHs on riverine suspended particles and coastal surface sediments: the particles in the wet season (as background signals) were similar to petrogenic sources, whereas the particles in the dry season had characteristics of coal burning and vehicular emissions. The sediments in the northwestern shelf were similar to pyrogenic sources (including vehicular emissions and coal and biomass burning), whereas the sediments in the canyon and southeastern shelf arose from mixed sources, although some diesel signature was also evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  3. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  7. Importance of Oceanian small mountainous rivers (SMRs) in global land-to-ocean output of lignin and modern biospheric carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongyan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Dai, Minhan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-11-20

    The land-to-ocean export of particulate organic carbon (POC) connects carbon flow from the atmosphere through land to the ocean, of which the contemporary fraction that reaches the deep sea for burial may effectively affect atmospheric CO2. In this regard, small mountainous rivers (SMRs) in Oceania, a global erosion hotspot driven by torrential typhoon rain and active earthquakes are potentially important. Here we measured typhoon lignin discharges for Taiwan SMRs. We found that the particulate lignin export in 96 hours by a single SMR amounting to ~20% of the annual export by Mississippi River. The yearly particulate lignin discharge from Taiwan Island (35,980 km(2)) is governed by the frequency and magnitude of typhoon; thus, the historical lignin export ranged widely from 1.5 to 99.7 Gg yr(-1), which resulted in a 10-100 times higher areal yield relative to non-Oceanian rivers. The lignin-derived modern POC output from Oceania region is 37 ± 21 Tg C yr(-1), account for approximately 20% of the annual modern POC export from global rivers. Coupled with the hyperpycnal pathway, the forested watersheds of SMRs in Oceania may serve as a giant factory to rapidly produce and efficiently convey modern POC into deep sea for sequestration.

  8. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  9. Final inform of the studies carried out by the Geological Institute of Uruguay in the zone of Paso Severino of Santa Lucia small river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This inform is about the geological conditions study carried out in Paso Severino zone of the Santa Lucia small river to make a dam to provide water to Montevideo. The techniques used were photo interpretation and general geological studies.

  10. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  11. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  12. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  13. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  14. Evaluation Of Hydraulic Potentiality For The Generation Of Hydroelectric To Small Scale In The Basin Of The CHICAMOCHA River - Small Hydroelectric Centrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco P, Claudia M.; Parga C, Gloria M.

    1995-01-01

    In development of the agreement of technical and scientific cooperation established between the INEA and the Catholic University of Colombia, the program of Evaluation of Hydraulic Potentiality for Small Central was developed, whose purpose is to take the service to smaller population and villages of all the towns of the country. To begin the program the area corresponding to the basin of Chicamocha river was selected, since this region that corresponds to 72 towns of Boyaca and Santander, has good information, thanks to the diagnosis carried out by the Inderena with the purpose of formulating a Plan of Classification and Handling of the Basin. The work consisted on the identification of all the micro basins, the analysis of the demand of energy of the settled population, to evaluate the generating capacity of the flows of water and, according to the results, to propose alternatives for the design of small hydroelectric centrals (PCH) in accordance with the needs

  15. Mapping river bathymetry with a small footprint green LiDAR: Applications and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne bathymetric Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems designed for coastal and marine surveys are increasingly sought after for high-resolution mapping of fluvial systems. To evaluate the potential utility of bathymetric LiDAR for applications of this kind, we compared detailed surveys collected using wading and sonar techniques with measurements from the United States Geological Survey’s hybrid topographic⁄ bathymetric Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). These comparisons, based upon data collected from the Trinity and Klamath Rivers, California, and the Colorado River, Colorado, demonstrated

  16. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  17. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  18. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  19. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods

  20. Temporal trends of select pharmaceutical compounds entering an estuary from a small, urban river

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and effects of pharmaceutical compounds have been widely studied in freshwater systems; however, less is known about their behavior in marine ecosystems. In many coastal watersheds, there are river systems that are receiving waters for domestic wastewater treatment effl...

  1. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  2. [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]substance P, a potent bombesin antagonist in murine Swiss 3T3 cells, inhibits the growth of human small cell lung cancer cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, P J; Rozengurt, E

    1988-01-01

    In the search for a more potent bombesin antagonist, we found [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]substance P to be effective in mouse fibroblasts and to inhibit the growth of small cell lung cancer, a tumor that secretes bombesin-like peptides that may act as autocrine growth factors. In murine Swiss 3T3 cells, [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]substance P proved to be a bombesin antagonist as judged by the following criteria: (i) inhibition of DNA synthesis induced by gastrin-releasing peptide and ot...

  3. Pollution status and mercury sedimentation in small river near amalgamation and cyanidation units of Talawaan-Tatelu gold mining, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Palapa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Information Journal Help User Username Password Remember me Notifications View Subscribe / Unsubscribe Search Keyword : The activities of traditional gold mining in the region of Talawaan-Tatelu, North Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi, have been ongoing since 1998. Processing the gold in the mine consists of three stages i.e., the excavation, milling and amalgamation, and the use of cyanide tanks. Waste from the processing units which contains high mercury, generally flows directly into small rivers nearby. This study aimed to determine the pollution status and mercury sedimentation in a small river near the amalgamation and cyanidation processing units in Talawaan-Tatelu gold mining. Water and sediment samples were taken from seven stations along a small river, as many as four temporal replications (weekly. Mercury determination in water and sediments was done by using Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. Pollution status was determined through the calculation of Hg ratio in water samples and in water quality criterion (4th class, as noted in The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Water Quality and Water Pollution Control, while the mercury sedimentation was calculated from the ratio of mercury in water and sediment. The results showed that there are differences in the status of pollution and mercury sedimentation of seven sampling stations. Amalgamation and cyanidation processing units provide significant impact on the status of pollution (although it is categorized in contamination and mercury sedimentation along small river in the gold mining area of Talawaan-Tatelu. The downstream of this small river, Talawaan River, is the main river of the Talawaan watershed. Things that should be a concern are Talawaan rural communities living near Talawaan River who often use the water for daily needs such as bathing and washing. Risk to public health around the river can arise when the status of pollution and mercury

  4. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  5. Characterization of the Water Quality Status on a Stretch of River Lérez around a Small Hydroelectric Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality should be ensured. This work provides a characterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Lérez, northwest Spain, for four years after its construction. The ecological and chemical status of the water as well as the ecological quality of the riparian habitat, were used as measures of quality. Data were compared with the water quality requirements. The variations in the quality parameters were analyzed over time and over the river sections with respect to the SHP plant elements. Two years after construction, the temperature and dissolved oxygen values achieved conditions for salmonid water and close to the reference condition, while pH values were low. The Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP index showed a positive trend from two years after the construction and stabilized at “unpolluted or not considerably altered water”. Quality parameters did not present significant differences between sampling points. The SHP plant construction momentarily altered the quality characteristics of the water.

  6. The role of effective discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by small, mountainous river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Warrick, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that small, mountainous river systems (SMRS) account for a significant fraction of the global flux of sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean. The enormous number of SMRS precludes intensive studies of the sort conducted on large systems, necessitating development of a conceptual framework that permits cross-system comparison and scaling up. Herein, we introduce the geomorphic concept of effective discharge to the problem of source-to-sink POC transport. This idea recognizes that transport effectiveness is the product of discharge frequency and magnitude, wherein the latter is quantified as a power-law relationship between discharge and load (the 'rating curve'). An analytical solution for effective discharge (Qe) identifies two key variables: the standard deviation of the natural logarithm of discharge (??q), and the rating exponent of constituent i (bi Data from selected SMRS are used to show that for a given river Qe-POC transport in SMRS should exploit the conceptual framework provided herein and seek to identify how constituent-specific effective discharges vary between rivers and respond to perturbations. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  7. Magnified Sediment Export of Small Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan: Chain Reactions from Increased Rainfall Intensity under Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe.

  8. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  9. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  10. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  11. SOUTH-WESTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS SMALL RIVERS SEASONAL HYDROLOGICAL FLOW REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOROCOVSCHI V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The researched area overlaps the territory belonging to Crişul Alb and Crişul Negru river basins. The study is based on processing and interpretation data from 33 hydrometric stations of which 18 stations control hydrographic basins with surfaces of less than 150 km2. To highlight the seasonal hydrological flow regime, we took into account three time periods (1950-1967, 1950-2009 and 1970-2009. For all rivers the highest flow values appear during springtime, while the smallest contribution to the multiannual average volume is realized in autumn. The time variation of seasonal flow was highlighted by analysis and variation of extreme values coefficients and also by analysing seasonal flow trends that appeared in all three time periods.

  12. Groundwater flow, nutrient, and stable isotope dynamics in the parafluvial-hyporheic zone of the regulated Lower Colorado River (Texas, USA) over the course of a small flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, Alyse C.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Shuai, Pin; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-06-01

    Periodic releases from an upstream dam cause rapid stage fluctuations in the Lower Colorado River near Austin, Texas, USA. These daily pulses modulate fluid exchange and residence times in the hyporheic zone where biogeochemical reactions are typically pronounced. The effects of a small flood pulse under low-flow conditions on surface-water/groundwater exchange and biogeochemical processes were studied by monitoring and sampling from two dense transects of wells perpendicular to the river. The first transect recorded water levels and the second transect was used for water sample collection at three depths. Samples were collected from 12 wells every 2 h over a 24-h period which had a 16-cm flood pulse. Analyses included nutrients, carbon, major ions, and stable isotopes of water. The relatively small flood pulse did not cause significant mixing in the parafluvial zone. Under these conditions, the river and groundwater were decoupled, showed potentially minimal mixing at the interface, and did not exhibit any discernible denitrification of river-borne nitrate. The chemical patterns observed in the parafluvial zone can be explained by evaporation of groundwater with little mixing with river water. Thus, large pulses may be necessary in order for substantial hyporheic mixing and exchange to occur. The large regulated river under a low-flow and small flood pulse regime functioned mainly as a gaining river with little hydrologic connectivity beyond a narrow hyporheic zone.

  13. Effects of barge traffic on distribution and survival of ichthyoplankton and small fishes in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term impacts of commercial barge traffic on fish eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year (age-0) fishes, and small adults in the main channel of the upper Mississippi River were examined. Barge passages caused significant changes in the distribution of eggs and larvae in the study area. The mean catch of ichthyoplankton was reduced in both surface and bottom waters for 90 min after passage of vessels downstream. The effects of upstream traffic on catch ranged from nil in surface or bottom samples to short-term increases in surface samples immediately after passage. No consistent effect on the catch of age-0 or small adult fishes in surface or bottom trawls was evident.

  14. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  15. Upstream freshwater and terrestrial sources are differentially reflected in the bacterial community structure along a small Arctic river and its estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviaja Lyberth Hauptmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N. Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns.

  16. Renewal of the small hydro power plant 'La Foulaz' on the river Orbe in Vallorbe, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale hydroelectrique de la Foulaz sur l'Orbe a Vallorbe. Etude d'avant projet - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, R.; Denis, V. [La Foulaz Energies SA, Vallorbe (Switzerland); Chuat, O. [RWB Eau et Environnement SA, Cernier (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    For now nearly four centuries, hydro power is used on the site named 'La Foulaz' on the river Orbe in the Vallorbe municipal territory. The existing small-scale hydro power plant is under neglect since 1970, although it enjoys a permanent water usage concession of 4.2 m{sup 3}/s. Since June 2008 the company 'La Foulaz Energie SA' owns the site and the water concession and is planning the renewal of the hydro power plant. The plan is to replace the existing permanent water flow rate usage concession by a higher water flow rate usage one of reasonable but limited duration. Reliable hydrological data are available from the Swiss Federal Administration as well as from the electricity utility 'Romande Energie SA' that operates the 'La Dernier' hydro power plant located up-stream. According to these data the design flow rate of 10 m{sup 3}/s has been selected for the new 'La Foulaz' plant. The available water head for the turbine is in the range 1.46 to 3-00 m, depending on the flow rate in the river Orbe. The average annual power production is estimated to 708,000 kWh. The peak electrical power would be 164 kW. With a cost recovery time of 25 years the production cost is estimated to 25 Swiss cents/kWh. This just enables to balance the budget. (author)

  17. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  18. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 2.0 μg kg -1 , respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.40 to 24.9 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 56.3 μg kg -1 , respectively, in the paddy field soil. In the vertical variation of the T-Hg of forest soil, the highest values were observed at the soil surface, and these values were found to decrease with increasing depth. A similar variation was observed for MeHg and total organic carbon content (TOC), and a linear relationship was observed between them. Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L -1 . River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg 0 and Hg 2+ in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg 0 concentration of 3.2 μg L -1 can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg 0 in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T

  19. The 'Les iles' small-hydro power plant - Summary analysis; Analyse sommaire. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Sombeval 'Les iles' - Rapport 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2008-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the River Suze in the Swiss Jura Mountains. The installation is to be made at the site of a small dam that previously provided water for a water-wheel-driven sawmill. A fish-pass at the site is also foreseen. The report presents details on the hydrological data for the river and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as are the regulation of water levels and the removal of river sediment. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  20. Temporal changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation in the landscape of a small-scale river valley in Central Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Szum is a right-side tributary of the Tanew River crossing the southern escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland. Downstream of the strict river break in a section between the 10th and 12th km of the river course in the Szum valley, meadow and peatbog complexes have developed, associated with semi-hydrogenic and marshy soils. In an area of approx. 13 ha of the most valuable non-forest habitats, a variety of plant communities have been identified, including habitats of the Natura 2000 network and habitats that are protected under the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2001. These are, for instance, meadow associations Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, Lythro-Filipenduletum, Filipendulo ulmariae-Menthetum longifoliae, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei, and Cirsietum rivularis. The moss–sedge and sphagnum bog communities comprise noteworthy associations Caricetum limosae, Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum lasiocarpae, Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae, Caricetum davallianae, and Sphagnetum magellanici. These communities are composed of ca. 160 vascular plant species and 40 moss and liverwort species. In 1999–2014, the greatest changes occurred within macroforb meadows, i.e. small Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei and Cirsietum rivularis patches have been transformed into Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, while some patches of the latter association have been transformed into a Caricetum acutiformis rush. Several patches of bog-spring associations Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae and Carici canescentis-Agrostietum caninae have been irretrievably destroyed. Sphagnetum magellanici appears to be the least stable community among the preserved peatbogs. The changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation observed for the last 15 years are a consequence of natural processes that take place in the river valley and to a large extent human activity connected with the so-called small-scale water retention as well as the presence of a beaver

  1. On the physicochemical states of heavy metals of very small amounts in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Inoue, Yoriteru; Hashimoto, Noriaki.

    1976-01-01

    The physicochemical existence states of the heavy metals in river water were experimentally studied, with radioactive nuclides as tracers. The experimental samples taken from Kamo-river in the city of Kyoto were filtered through a membrane filter of 0.45 μm pore diameter. The radioactive nuclides of heavy metal tracers were added into the sample water, and pH was adjusted to the given value with hydrochloric solution on the acidic side and with sodium hydroxide solution on the alkaline side. After two days aging, the radioactivity ratios of the sediments on membrane filters to that of total passed samples were measured. The variation in the course of time of the concentrations of ionic tracers dialysed with cellulose tubes (24 angstrom pore diameter) was traced until the equilibrium condition was reached. The radioactivity of the supernatant of 20 ml of sample water added with 0.5 g of anion or cation exchange resin, and the concentrations of tracers in the upper layer of liquid in a centrifuge were measured. The existing conditions of elements such as zinc, cadmium, cobalt, strontium-yttrium were examined. In conclusion, the adsorption of all nuclides on the membrane filters increased with the increase of pH, but the significant difference was not recognized owing to the pore diameter (1.2 μm - 0.05 μm) excepting some experimental results. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  3. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  4. A new perspective on soil erosion: exploring a thermodynamic approach in a small area of the River Inn catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion modeling has always struggled with compensating for the difference in time and spatial scale between model, data and the actual processes involved. This is especially the case with non-event based long-term models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), yet USLE based soil erosion models are among the most common and widely used for they have rather low data requirements and can be applied to large areas. But the majority of mass from soil erosion is eroded within short periods of times during heavy rain events, often within minutes or hours. Advancements of the USLE (eg. the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) allow for a daily time step, but still apply the same empirical methods derived from the USLE. And to improve the actual quantification of sediment input into rivers soil erosion models are often combined with a Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) to get results within the range of measurements. This is still a viable approach for many applications, yet it leaves much to be desired in terms of understanding and reproducing the processes behind soil erosion and sediment input into rivers. That's why, instead of refining and retuning the existing methods, we explore a more comprehensive, physically consistent description on soil erosion. The idea is to describe soil erosion as a dissipative process (Kleidon et al., 2013) and test it in a small sub-basin of the River Inn catchment area in the pre-Alpine foothills. We then compare the results to sediment load measurements from the sub-basin and discuss the advantages and issues with the application of such an approach.

  5. Bioanalytical characterisation of multiple endocrine- and dioxin-like activities in sediments from reference and impacted small rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinani, Said, E-mail: said@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchonnet, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.bouchonnet@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Creusot, Nicolas [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bourcier, Sophie [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balaguer, Patrick [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U896, Montpellier, F-34298 (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Ait-Aissa, Selim, E-mail: selim.ait-aissa@ineris.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive evaluation of organic contamination was performed in sediments sampled in two reference and three impacted small streams where endocrine disruptive (ED) effects in fish have been evidenced. The approach combined quantitative chemical analyses of more than 50 ED chemicals (EDCs) and a battery of in vitro bioassays allowing the quantification of receptor-mediated activities, namely estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), dioxin (AhR) and pregnane X (PXR) receptors. At the most impacted sites, chemical analyses showed the presence of natural estrogens, organochlorine pesticides, parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs), bisphenol A and alkylphenols, while synthetic steroids, myco-estrogens and phyto-estrogens were not detected. Determination of toxic-equivalent amounts showed that 28-96% of estrogenic activities in bioassays (0.2-6.3 ng/g 17beta-estradiol equivalents) were explained by 17beta-estradiol and estrone. PAHs were major contributors (20-60%) to the total dioxin-like activities. Interestingly, high PXR and (anti)AR activities were detected; however, the targeted analysed compounds could not explain the measured biological activities. This study highlighted the presence of multiple organic EDCs in French river sediments subjected to mixed diffuse pollution, and argues for the need to further identify AR and PXR active compounds in the aquatic environment. - Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (ER, AR, AhR and PXR ligands) are detected in French river sediments using a panel of in vitro bioassays and analytical methods.

  6. Sequential Sedimentation-Biofiltration System for the purification of a small urban river (the Sokolowka, Lodz) supplied by stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarek, S; Wagner, I; Jurczak, T; Zalewski, M

    2018-01-01

    The study analyses the efficiency of a Sequentional Sedimentation-Biofiltration System (SSBS) built on the Sokolowka river in Lodz (Poland). It was constructed to purify a small urban river whose hydrological regime is dominated by stormwater and meltwater. The SSBS was constructed on a limited area as multi-zone constructed wetlands. The SSBS consists of three zones: sedimentation zone with structures added to improve sedimentation, a geochemical barrier made of limestone deposit and biofiltration zone. The purification processes of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TP) and other nutrients: phosphates (PO 4 3- ), ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrates (NO 3 - ) of the SSBS were analyzed. Chloride (Cl - ) reduction was investigated. Monitoring conducted in the first two hydrological years after construction indicated that the SSBS removed 61.4% of TSS, 37.3% of TP, 30.4% of PO 4 3- , 46.1% of TN, 2.8% of NH4+, 44.8% of NO 3 - and 64.0% of Cl - . The sedimentation zone played a key role in removing TSS and nutrients. The geochemical barrier and biofiltration zone each significantly improved overall efficiency by 4-10% for TSS, PO 4 3- , TN, NO 3 - and Cl - . Although the system reduced the concentration of chloride, further studies are needed to determine the circulation of Cl - in constructed wetlands (CWs), and to assess its impact on purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  8. The name of the fourth river: A small puzzle presented by a fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    The terms used to signify these features survive in numerous South African place ... The examples given in Figure 1 are only a small selection of .... 6 The story will appear in the collection of heritage texts included in Kora: A Lost Khoisan ...

  9. Dynamic Critical Rainfall-Based Flash Flood Early Warning and Forecasting for Medium-Small Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yang, D.; Hu, J.

    2012-04-01

    China is extremely frequent food disasters hit countries, annual flood season flash floods triggered by rainfall, mudslides, landslides have caused heavy casualties and property losses, not only serious threaten the lives of the masses, but the majority of seriously restricting the mountain hill areas of economic and social development and the people become rich, of building a moderately prosperous society goals. In the next few years, China will focus on prevention and control area in the flash flood disasters initially built "for the surveillance, communications, forecasting, early warning and other non-engineering measure based, non-engineering measures and the combinations of engineering measures," the mitigation system. The latest progresses on global torrential flood early warning and forecasting techniques are reviewed in this paper, and then an early warning and forecasting approach is proposed on the basis of a distributed hydrological model according to dynamic critical rainfall index. This approach has been applied in Suichuanjiang River basin in Jiangxi province, which is expected to provide valuable reference for building a national flash flood early warning and forecasting system as well as control of such flooding.

  10. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  11. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  12. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  13. Analysis of the potential of small hydro-power installations - Preliminary study on hydro-power schemes on rivers; Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke. Potenzialanalyse Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Vorstudie zu Kraftwerken an Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, M.; Dettli, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weingartner, R.; Viviroli, D.; Imhof, P.; Faessler, M.; Gerhardinger, H. [University of Berne, Geographisches Institut, Gruppe fuer Hydrologie (GIUB), Berne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from an analysis of the potential of small hydro-power installations in Switzerland. The current situation is reviewed and a 'bottom-up' analysis of the potential available is made. Data is presented on the potential of installations with power-ratings above and below 300 kW. Cantonal case-studies are examined. In a further 'top-down' examination, flow-rates and height-differences are looked at. The development of a 'potential-map' for Switzerland is described. The report is completed with the presentation of the conclusions made from the work. Suggestions for further work that could be done on the subject are made.

  14. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  15. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  3. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  4. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  5. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  6. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  7. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in the Pawtuxet River, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head ...

  8. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  9. An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

  10. Mountain Rivers and Climate Change: Analysis of hazardous events in torrents of small alpine watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzmann, Silke; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Torrential processes like flooding, heavy bedload transport or debris flows in steep mountain channels emerge during intense, highly localized rainfall events. They pose a serious risk on the densely populated Alpine region. Hydrogeomorphic hazards are profoundly nonlinear, threshold mediated phenomena frequently causing costly damage to infrastructure and people. Thus, in the context of climate change, there is an ever rising interest in whether sediment cascades of small alpine catchments react to changing precipitation patterns and how the climate signal is propagated through the fluvial system. We intend to answer the following research questions: (i) What are critical meteorological characteristics triggering torrential events in the Eastern Alps of Austria? (ii) The effect of external triggers is strongly mediated by the internal disposition of catchments to respond. Which factors control the internal susceptibility? (iii) Do torrential processes show an increase in magnitude and frequency or a shift in seasonality in the recent past? (iv) Which future changes can be expected under different climate scenarios? Quantifications of bedload transport in small alpine catchments are rare and often associated with high uncertainties. Detailed knowledge though exists for the Schöttlbach catchment, a 71 km2 study area in Styria in the Eastern Alps. The torrent is monitored since a heavy precipitation event resulted in a disastrous flood in July 2011. Sediment mobilisation from slopes as well as within-channel storage and fluxes are regularly measured by photogrammetric methods and sediment impact sensors (SIS). The associated hydro-meteorological conditions are known from a dense station network. Changing states of connectivity can thus be related to precipitation and internal dynamics (sediment availability, cut-and-fill cycles). The site-specific insights are then conceptualized for application to a broader scale. Therefore, a Styria wide database of torrential

  11. Geomorphic change and sediment transport during a small artificial flood in a transformed post-dam delta: The Colorado River delta, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Schmidt, John C.; Topping, David J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Rodríguez-Burgueño, Jesús Eliana; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Grams, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River delta is a dramatically transformed landscape. Major changes to river hydrology and morpho-dynamics began following completion of Hoover Dam in 1936. Today, the Colorado River has an intermittent and/or ephemeral channel in much of its former delta. Initial incision of the river channel in the upstream ∼50 km of the delta occurred in the early 1940s in response to spillway releases from Hoover Dam under conditions of drastically reduced sediment supply. A period of relative quiescence followed, until the filling of upstream reservoirs precipitated a resurgence of flows to the delta in the 1980s and 1990s. Flow releases during extreme upper basin snowmelt in the 1980s, flood flows from the Gila River basin in 1993, and a series of ever-decreasing peak flows in the late 1990s and early 2000s further incised the upstream channel and caused considerable channel migration throughout the river corridor. These variable magnitude post-dam floods shaped the modern river geomorphology. In 2014, an experimental pulse-flow release aimed at rejuvenating the riparian ecosystem and understanding hydrologic dynamics flowed more than 100 km through the length of the delta’s river corridor. This small artificial flood caused localized meter-scale scour and fill of the streambed, but did not cause further incision or significant bank erosion because of its small magnitude. Suspended-sand-transport rates were initially relatively high immediately downstream from the Morelos Dam release point, but decreasing discharge from infiltration losses combined with channel widening downstream caused a rapid downstream reduction in suspended-sand-transport rates. A zone of enhanced transport occurred downstream from the southern U.S.-Mexico border where gradient increased, but effectively no geomorphic change occurred beyond a point 65 km downstream from Morelos Dam. Thus, while the pulse flow connected with the modern estuary, deltaic sedimentary processes were not

  12. The Importance of Hunting and Hunting Areas for Big and Small Game (Food) for the Tourism Development in the Crna River Basin in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koteski, Cane; Josheski, Dushko; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Bardarova, Snezana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2014-01-01

    The Crna River is a river in the Republic of Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. Its source is in the mountains of Western Macedonia, west of Krusevo. It flows through the village of Sopotnica, and southwards through the plains east of Bitola. The name means “black river” in Macedonian, which is translation for its former Thracian name. The purpose of this paper is to show the hunting and hunting areas for big and small Game (food), the structure of the areas of certain hunting, fi...

  13. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  14. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  15. Operational verification of a framework for the probabilistic nowcasting of river discharge in small and medium size basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Silvestro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting river discharge is a very important issue for the prediction and monitoring of ground effects related to severe precipitation events. The meteorological forecast systems are unable to predict precipitation on small spatial (few km and temporal (hourly scales. For these reasons the issuing of reliable flood forecasts is not feasible in those regions where the basin's response to rainfall events is very fast and can generate flash floods. This problem can be tackled by using rainfall nowcasting techniques based on radar observations coupled with hydrological modeling. These procedures allow the forecasting of future streamflow with a few hours' notice. However, to account for the short-term uncertainties in the evolution of fine scale precipitation field, a probabilistic approach to rainfall nowcasting is needed. These uncertainties are then propagated from rainfall to runoff through a distributed hydrological model producing a set of equi-probable discharge scenarios to be used for the flood nowcasting with time horizons of a few hours. Such a hydrological nowcasting system is presented here and applied to some case studies. A first evaluation of its applicability in an operational context is provided and the opportunity of using the results quantitatively is discussed.

  16. Swiss overall energy statistics 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive statistics are produced by the Federal Department of Energy and the Swiss National Committee of the World Energy Conference, and are divided into three sections, (1) Consumption of energy in 1979, (2) Development of the energy balance-sheet from 1974 to 1979, and (3) Comments relative to the energy balance-sheet. Appendices are also included giving tables of energy consumption in the year 1950 and for the period 1960 - 1979, and the energy consumption by industry and other branches in 1979. (A.G.P.)

  17. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  18. Radium contamination of the banks of a small river receiving the liquid effluents of a large phosphate plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J.

    2000-01-01

    A chemical plant in the north of Belgium processes since 1929 large quantities of marine phosphate ore, with a 226 Ra content of 1500 Bq/kg, into products suited for animal feeding, using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dissolution agent instead of the more common sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Until 1991, two thirds of the radium was released with the waste water into two small rivers with a concentration of about 20 Bq/l and a flow rate of 1500 m 3 /h. Adding barium salts has recently reduced the radium concentration of the waste water to 3 Bq/l. The purpose of this study was to map the historical radium contamination of one of the receiving rivers, the Laak, over a distance of 20 km. Enhanced dose rates are found everywhere along the Laak between the discharge points and the merging with the Grote Nete. The contamination is mostly confined to a narrow strip of 5 to 10 m wide on one or on both sides, caused by the periodic dredging of the sediment. The measured dose rates vary between the low natural background of the region, 50 to 80 nSv/h, and 1000 to 2000 nSv/h. The total surface area contaminated above 100 nSv/h amounts to 22 ha. The radiological impact on the surrounding population was estimated. Realistic scenarios for critical groups for the external exposure result in doses of a few hundreds of μSv/year. Pastures and maize for animal feeding are currently the only cultures along the contaminated banks of the Laak. This additional step in the food chain reduces the internal doses to a few tens of μSv/year. The inhalation of radon decay products in open air poses no problem. The construction of dwellings on the contaminated banks would undo this favorable situation as radon gas could accumulate in the dwellings resulting in doses that could exceed the limit for radiation workers. (author)

  19. Erosion characteristics and horizontal variability for small erosion depths in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Manning, Andrew J.; Work, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Erodibility of cohesive sediment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) was investigated with an erosion microcosm. Erosion depths in the Delta and in the microcosm were estimated to be about one floc diameter over a range of shear stresses and times comparable to half of a typical tidal cycle. Using the conventional assumption of horizontally homogeneous bed sediment, data from 27 of 34 microcosm experiments indicate that the erosion rate coefficient increased as eroded mass increased, contrary to theory. We believe that small erosion depths, erosion rate coefficient deviation from theory, and visual observation of horizontally varying biota and texture at the sediment surface indicate that erosion cannot solely be a function of depth but must also vary horizontally. We test this hypothesis by developing a simple numerical model that includes horizontal heterogeneity, use it to develop an artificial time series of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in an erosion microcosm, then analyze that time series assuming horizontal homogeneity. A shear vane was used to estimate that the horizontal standard deviation of critical shear stress was about 30% of the mean value at a site in the Delta. The numerical model of the erosion microcosm included a normal distribution of initial critical shear stress, a linear increase in critical shear stress with eroded mass, an exponential decrease of erosion rate coefficient with eroded mass, and a stepped increase in applied shear stress. The maximum SSC for each step increased gradually, thus confounding identification of a single well-defined critical shear stress as encountered with the empirical data. Analysis of the artificial SSC time series with the assumption of a homogeneous bed reproduced the original profile of critical shear stress, but the erosion rate coefficient increased with eroded mass, similar to the empirical data. Thus, the numerical experiment confirms the small-depth erosion hypothesis. A linear

  20. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, Kevin; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  1. Water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia of riparian springs in a small lowland river valley: what are the key factors for species distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zawal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of disturbance factors—flooding and intermittency—on the distribution of water mites in the riparian springs situated in the valley of a small lowland river, the Krąpiel. The landscape factors and physicochemical parameters of the water were analysed in order to gain an understanding of the pattern of water mite assemblages in the riparian springs. Three limnological types of springs were examined (helocrenes, limnocrenes and rheocrenes along the whole course of the river and a total of 35 water mite species were found. Our study shows that flooding influences spring assemblages, causing a decrease in crenobiontic water mites in flooded springs. The impact of intermittency resulted in a high percentage of species typical of temporary water bodies. Surprisingly, the study revealed the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of the river valley: preventing the riparian springs from flooding enhances the diversity of crenobiontic species in non-flooded springs. In the conclusion, our study revealed that further conservation strategies for the protection of the riparian springs along large rivers would take into account ongoing climatic changes and possible the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of river valleys.

  2. Knickpoint retreat and transient bedrock channel morphology triggered by base-level fall in small bedrock river catchments: The case of the Isle of Jura, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Miguel; Bishop, Paul; Jansen, John D.

    2013-01-01

    A sudden drop in river base-level can trigger a knickpoint that propagates throughout the fluvial network causing a transient state in the landscape. Knickpoint retreat has been confirmed in large fluvial settings (drainage areas > 100 km2) and field data suggest that the same applies to the case of small bedrock river catchments (drainage areas UK), where rivers incise into dipping quartzite. The mapping of raised beach deposits and strath terraces, and the analysis of stream long profiles, were used to identify knickpoints that had been triggered by base-level fall. Our results indicate that the distance of knickpoint retreat scales to the drainage area in a power law function irrespective of structural setting. On the other hand, local channel slope and basin size influence the vertical distribution of knickpoints. As well, at low drainage areas (~ 4 km2) rivers are unable to absorb the full amount of base-level fall and channel reach morphology downstream of the knickpoint tends towards convexity. The results obtained here confirm that knickpoint retreat is mostly controlled by stream discharge, as has been observed for other transient landscapes. Local controls, reflecting basin size and channel slope, have an effect on the vertical distribution of knickpoints; such controls are also related to the ability of rivers to absorb the base-level fall.

  3. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland; Avant-projet. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Boudry 'Pontareuse'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2007-05-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered.

  4. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  5. Sediment Budget Analysis and Hazard Assessment in the Peynin, a Small Alpine Catchment (Upper Guil River, Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Bouccara, Fanny; Sourdot, Grégoire; Tassel, Adrien; Lissak, Candide; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The upper Guil catchment (Southern Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards. Major hazards are related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity as observed in 1957 and 2000. In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by the pre-existing saturated soils, explained the instantaneous response of the fluvial system, such as destabilisation of slopes, high sediment discharge, and subsequent damages to exposed structures and settlements present in the floodplain and at confluence sites. The Peynin junction with the Guil River is one of these sites, where significant land-use change during the last decades in relation to the development of handicraft and tourism economy has increased debris flow threat to population. Here, we adopt a sediment budget analysis aimed at better understanding the functioning of this small subcatchment. This latter offers a combination of factors that favour torrential and gravitational activity. It receives abundant and intense rainfall during "Lombarde" events (moist air mass from Mediterranean Sea). Its elongated shape and small surface area (15 km²) together with asymmetric slopes (counter dip slope on the left bank) accelerate runoff on a short response time. In addition highly tectonised shaly schists supply a large volume of debris (mostly platy clasts and fine, micaceous sediment). The objectives of this study, carried out in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, are threefold: Identify the different sediment storages; Characterise the processes that put sediment into motion; Quantify volumes of sediment storages. We produced a geomorphic map using topographic surveys and aerial photos in order to locate the different sediment storage types and associated processes. This analysis was made with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. In terms of surface area, the dominant landforms in the valley were found to be mass wasting, talus slopes and

  6. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  7. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  8. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  9. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  10. Hydrography, Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams and small bodies of water. It was complied using steriovision from 1998-2000 Orthophotography., Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 2007. Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams and small bodies of water. It was complied using steriovision from 1998-2000...

  11. Changes in water quality of a small urban river triggered by deep drainage of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the monitoring of the selected physicochemical properties of the Jasień River waters (in Łódź, the third biggest city of Poland and their changes under the influence of drainage of a railway station Łódź Fabryczna construction site. Even 25 years ago the Jasień River was a receiver for the sewage from the Łódź textile factories. The drainage of the excavations and disposal of the water into the Jasień River was started on January 2014 and changed stable hydrological, physical and chemical regime of the river once again. In a consequence, average monthly flows exceeded the Jasień River flow in its upper section by six times, and at the beginning by even ten times. Chloride concentration was systematically growing over the study period. This growth and higher water pH were probably associated with increasing level of contaminants in the discharged water and its gradually decreasing uptake. Average annual water temperature increased and a decrease in its amplitude was observed. The annual conductivity and pH patterns became more uniform and the changes in pH followed a clear trend of monthly changes. Water turbidity increased by two times and during summer floods this parameter was often even a few times higher than before the drainage commenced. Chlorides improved water conductance and sodium and potassium increased basicity.

  12. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  13. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  14. River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Sarah E; Feingold, Beth J; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Gallis, John A; Araújo-Flores, Julio M; Berky, Axel; Pan, William K Y; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-02-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact of mercury contamination on downstream communities has not been well characterized, particularly in Peru's Madre de Dios region. In this area, ASGM has increased significantly since 2000 and has led to substantial political and social controversy. This research examined the spatial distribution and transport of mercury through the Madre de Dios River with distance from ASGM activity. This study also characterized risks for dietary mercury exposure to local residents who depend on fish from the river. River sediment, suspended solids from the water column, and fish samples were collected in 2013 at 62 sites near 17 communities over a 560 km stretch of the Madre de Dios River and its major tributaries. In areas downstream of known ASGM activity, mercury concentrations in sediment, suspended solids, and fish within the Madre de Dios River were elevated relative to locations upstream of mining. Fish tissue mercury concentrations were observed at levels representing a public health threat, with greater than one-third of carnivorous fish exceeding the international health standard of 0.5 mg kg(-1). This study demonstrates that communities located hundreds of kilometers downstream of ASGM activity, including children and indigenous populations who may not be involved in mining, are at risk of dietary mercury exposure that exceed acceptable body burdens. This report represents the first systematic study of the region to aid policy decision-making related to ASGM activities in Peru.

  15. The coupling of runoff and dissolved organic matter transport: Insights from in situ fluorescence measurements in small streams and large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aiken, G.; Murdoch, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in streams and rivers can help characterize mercury transport, assess causes of drinking water issues, and lead to improved understanding of watershed source areas and carbon loads to downstream ecosystems. However, traditional sampling approaches that collect discrete concentration data at weekly to monthly intervals often fail to adequately capture hydrological pulses ranging from early snowmelt periods to short-duration rainfall events. Continuous measurements of chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) in rivers and streams now provide an opportunity to more accurately quantify DOM loads and processes in aquatic ecosystems at a range of scales. In this study, we used continuous FDOM data from in situ sensors along with discharge data to assess the coupling of FDOM transport and runoff in small streams and large rivers. Results from headwater catchments in New England and California show that FDOM is tightly coupled with runoff, supporting strong linkages between watershed flow paths and DOM concentrations in streams. Results also show that the magnitude of FDOM response relative to runoff varies seasonally, with highest concentrations during autumn rainfall events (after leaf fall) and lower concentrations during peak snowmelt for equivalent runoff. In large river basins, FDOM dynamics are also coupled with runoff and exhibit the same seasonal variability in the magnitude of FDOM response relative to discharge. However, the peaks in FDOM typically lag runoff by several days, reflecting the influence of a variety of factors such as water residence times, reservoir releases, and connectivity to organic matter-rich riparian floodplains and wetlands. Our results show that in situ FDOM data will be important for understanding the coupling of runoff and DOM across multiple scales and could serve a critical role in monitoring, assessment and decision-making in both small and large watersheds.

  16. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  17. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  18. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  19. The impact of bioturbation by small mammals on heavy metal redistribution in an embanked floodplain of the River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Thonon, I.; Velde, G.D.; Leuven, R.; Zorn, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Smits, T.

    2006-01-01

    Floodplains along large European rivers are diffusely polluted with heavy metals due to emissions in the past. Because of low mobility of heavy metals in floodplain soils and improvements of water quality, these pollutants will remain in place, and can gradually become covered with less contaminated

  20. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  1. [Traffic casualties and injuries: a problem of costs, too. A Swiss survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S; Quadri, B; Casabianca, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on an epidemiological observation in Ticino 1985, following statement is possible: in Switzerland every year 900 people dye in traffic casualties. Many victims of tragic accidents get lifetime disabled. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries are yearly 3 billions of swiss francs. Only a small percentage (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The most part is due to compensation of income, disability with its allocations and lost productivity. Among "avoidable" deaths, traffic victims are an essential portion because the are young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower road mortality because she erodes the swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  2. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  3. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream, a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, R.; Soriguer, M.C.; Villar, N.; Hernando, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought per...

  4. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  5. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  6. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in < 3000 years old river sediments from South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.

    2005-01-01

    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there wa......We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples......, there was an underestimation in the single-aliquot dose estimates as compared to those from the single grain-the difference between average dose estimates determined by the two methods ranged from similar to 1% to 31%. Such a dose underestimation was not detectable in poorly bleached samples. Various possible reasons...... perhaps be one of the reasons; this may occur because the stimulation wavelength affects the proportion of the medium and slow components in the initial signal. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Population structure and genomic inbreeding in nine Swiss dairy cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Burren, Alexander; Neuditschko, Markus; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Gredler, Birgit; Bapst, Beat; Flury, Christine

    2017-11-07

    Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from 27,612 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population structure based on 9214 sires representing nine Swiss dairy cattle populations: Brown Swiss (BS), Braunvieh (BV), Original Braunvieh (OB), Holstein (HO), Red Holstein (RH), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF), Simmental (SI), Eringer (ER) and Evolèner (EV). Genomic inbreeding (F ROH ) and signatures of selection were determined by calculating runs of homozygosity (ROH). The results build the basis for a better understanding of the genetic development of Swiss dairy cattle populations and highlight differences between the original populations (i.e. OB, SI, ER and EV) and those that have become more popular in Switzerland as currently reflected by their larger populations (i.e. BS, BV, HO, RH and SF). The levels of genetic diversity were highest and lowest in the SF and BS breeds, respectively. Based on F ST values, we conclude that, among all pairwise comparisons, BS and HO (0.156) differ more than the other pairs of populations. The original Swiss cattle populations OB, SI, ER, and EV are clearly genetically separated from the Swiss cattle populations that are now more common and represented by larger numbers of cows. Mean levels of F ROH ranged from 0.027 (ER) to 0.091 (BS). Three of the original Swiss cattle populations, ER (F ROH : 0.027), OB (F ROH : 0.029), and SI (F ROH : 0.039), showed low levels of genomic inbreeding, whereas it was much higher in EV (F ROH : 0.074). Private signatures of selection for the original Swiss cattle populations are reported for BTA4, 5, 11 and 26. The low levels of genomic inbreeding observed in the original Swiss cattle populations ER, OB and SI compared to the other breeds are explained by a lesser use of artificial insemination and greater use of natural service. Natural service

  8. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  9. SwissEnergy - new energy for everybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a richly illustrated general document on the Swiss programme 'SwissEnergy' aiming at promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Switzerland, especially as a part of efforts made to reach the target set by the Kyoto Protocol for the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Compared to 1990 figures, CO 2 emissions in Switzerland have to be reduced by 10% until 2010. SwissEnergy is supported by the national and regional governments and by the economy as well. The document lists the main issues addressed by the programme and the proposed actions, all of them related to large dissemination of already known technologies. The document is designed as a motivation tool for ordinary people

  10. New construction of the Wespimuehle small hydro power station in Winterthur, Switzerland; Stadt Winterthur (ZH). Neubau Kleinwasserkraftwerk Wespimuehle - Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a project concerning the renewal of an existing small hydro installation in the historical Wespimuehle on the Toess river in Winterthur, Switzerland. The existing installation is described as is the station's present concession. The proposals for the renewal of this installation are described and discussed, including water intake, electro-mechanical components and the station's tail water channel. The necessary building work and access to the installations are discussed. Investment, operating and maintenance costs are discussed. The expected profits to be gained from the new installation and the risks involved in the project are discussed.

  11. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S.

    2015-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  12. [Evaluation on the eco-economic benefits of small watershed in Beijing mountainous area: a case of Yanqi River watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zi-Gang; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Based on the theory of harmonious development of ecological economy, a total of 13 evaluation indices were selected from the ecological, economic, and social sub-systems of Yanqi River watershed in Huairou District of Beijing. The selected evaluation indices were normalized by using trapezoid functions, and the weights of the evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Then, the eco-economic benefits of the watershed were evaluated with weighted composite index method. From 2004 to 2011, the ecological, economic, and social benefits of Yanqi River watershed all had somewhat increase, among which, ecological benefit increased most, with the value changed from 0.210 in 2004 to 0.255 in 2011 and an increment of 21.5%. The eco-economic benefits of the watershed increased from 0.734 in 2004 to 0.840 in 2011, with an increment of 14.2%. At present, the watershed reached the stage of advanced ecosystem, being in beneficial circulation and harmonious development of ecology, economy, and society.

  13. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream,a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ramón; Soriguer, Mila C.; Villar, Noelia; Hernando, José A.

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought period, the marked seasonal fluctuation in flow was the most important factor regulating the population dynamics. Fish density and biomass varied in proportion to the water volume. During the rainy period, the studied section of the river was found to be an important reproduction and nursery area, with juveniles and individuals of reproduction age dominating. The presence of Micropterus salmoides, an introduced piscivorous species, is another factor affecting the population dynamics in the Palancar stream. The observed absence of age 0+ individuals of the dominant populations is considered a direct effect of predation.

  14. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  18. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  19. Summer co-existence of small-sized cyprinid and percid individuals in natural and impounded stretches of a lowland river: food niche partitioning among fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lik, J; Dukowska, M; Grzybkowska, M; Leszczyńska, J

    2017-04-01

    Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater. Fishes were sampled every 2 weeks from June to August, together with their food resources to assess the partitioning of the diet among small individuals of the three species in both stretches (the natural and affected ones). The aim of the analysis was to answer how animal food associated with water plants was partitioned between the species. In both stretches, G. cernua were primarily benthivorous, but epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and large-sized benthic chironomid larvae replaced lack of many large, benthic insects in the tailwater. Levins' food breath index decreased from 0·36 in the backwater to 0·29 in the tailwater. An opposite trend was observed for P. fluviatilis occurring among macrophytes. Perca fluviatilis were competitors of R. rutilus and took food not only in or on the river bed, but also in the water column. They ate zooplankton and epiphytic fauna and Levins' index increased from 0·32 to 0·44 in the tailwater. Rutilus rutilus fed on adult insects, algae and plant fragments in the natural stretch. In the tailwater, these food types were chiefly complemented by zooplankton. Despite this, the niche breadth of R. rutilus was similar at the two sites. Abundance of food associated with the macrophytes appeared to facilitate cohabitation in the abundant fish populations, but P. fluviatilis appeared to benefit the most in the altered river

  20. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  1. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  2. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus Hapavirus, family Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubala, Aneta; Walsh, Susan; McAllister, Jane; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Melville, Lorna; Mitchell, Ian; Bulach, Dieter; Gauci, Penny; Skvortsov, Alex; Boyle, David

    2017-01-01

    Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs) in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector.

  3. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus Hapavirus, family Rhabdoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubala, Aneta; Walsh, Susan; McAllister, Jane; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Melville, Lorna; Mitchell, Ian; Bulach, Dieter; Gauci, Penny; Skvortsov, Alex; Boyle, David

    2017-01-01

    Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs) in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector. PMID:28747815

  4. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus , family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gubala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector.

  5. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  6. Assessing predation risks for small fish in a large river ecosystem between contrasting habitats and turbidity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.

  7. Bromide Sources and Loads in Swiss Surface Waters and Their Relevance for Bromate Formation during Wastewater Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Fabian; Abegglen, Christian; Götz, Christian; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-09-20

    Bromide measurements and mass balances in the catchments of major Swiss rivers revealed that chemical industry and municipal waste incinerators are the most important bromide sources and account for ∼50% and ∼20%, respectively, of the ∼2000 tons of bromide discharged in the Rhine river in 2014 in Switzerland. About 100 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) will upgrade their treatment for micropollutant abatement in the future to comply with Swiss regulations. An upgrade with ozonation may lead to unintended bromate formation in bromide-containing wastewaters. Measured bromide concentrations were industry). Wastewater ozonation formed little bromate at specific ozone doses of ≤0.4 mg O3/mg DOC, while the bromate yields were almost linearly correlated to the specific ozone dose for higher ozone doses. Molar bromate yields for typical specific ozone doses in wastewater treatment (0.4-0.6 mg O3/mg DOC) are ≤3%. In a modeled extreme scenario (in which all upgraded WWTPs release 10 μg L(-1) of bromate), bromate concentrations increased by major Swiss rivers and by several micrograms per liter in receiving water bodies with a high fraction of municipal wastewater.

  8. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  9. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  10. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  11. Safety in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederqvist, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety-related facilities and equipment are continuously backfitted in Swiss nuclear power plants. In the Beznau-1 and -2 nuclear generating units, the measures taken under the heading of 'Backfitting of Emergency Systems' included provisions to enhance the protection against earthquakes, airplane crash, and fire; in addition, the emergency power system was upgraded. In Muehleberg, the stack exhaust air monitoring system was optimized. The containment pressure suppression system of the plant has been designed to withstand a hypothetical accident exceeding the design basis. The BKM-Crud computer simulation model simulates steps taken to reduce radiation exposure. The power of Swiss nuclear power stations will be raised by 4% to 15% within the 'Energy 2000' action program. (orig.) [de

  12. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  13. The potential of GRACE gravimetry to detect the heavy rainfall-induced impoundment of a small reservoir in the upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuang; Song, Chunqiao; Wang, Qiuyu; Wang, Linsong; Heki, Kosuke; Sun, Wenke

    2017-08-01

    Artificial reservoirs are important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on environments, and their cumulative influences on the local water storage will change the gravity signal. However, because of their small signal size, such gravity changes are seldom studied using satellite gravimetry from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Here we investigate the ability of GRACE to detect water storage changes in the Longyangxia Reservoir (LR), which is situated in the upper main stem of the Yellow River. Three different GRACE solutions from the CSR, GFZ, and JPL with three different processing filters are compared here. We find that heavy precipitation in the summer of 2005 caused the LR water storage to increase by 37.9 m in height, which is equivalent to 13.0 Gt in mass, and that the CSR solutions with a DDK4 filter show the best performance in revealing the synthetic gravity signals. We also obtain 109 pairs of reservoir inundation area measurements from satellite imagery and water level changes from laser altimetry and in situ observations to derive the area-height ratios for the LR. The root mean square of GRACE series in the LR is reduced by 39% after removing synthetic signals caused by mass changes in the LR or by 62% if the GRACE series is further smoothed. We conclude that GRACE data show promising potential in detecting water storage changes in this ˜400 km2 reservoir and that a small signal size is not a restricting factor for detection using GRACE data.

  14. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in <3000 years old river sediments from South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there was an underestimation in the single-aliquot dose estimates as compared to those from the single grain-the difference between average dose estimates determined by the two methods ranged from ∼1% to 31%. Such a dose underestimation was not detectable in poorly bleached samples. Various possible reasons for the discrepancy between single-grain and small-aliquot dose estimates are discussed. Although there is no satisfactory explanation for this discrepancy, we speculate that the difference in the stimulation wavelengths, 470+/-30nm in the case of single-aliquot and 532nm in the case of single grains, could perhaps be one of the reasons; this may occur because the stimulation wavelength affects the proportion of the medium and slow components in the initial signal

  15. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  17. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  19. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  20. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  1. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  2. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  3. The Hetex small-scale hydro plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentert, P.; Boller, F.; Wanner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the 400 kW small hydroelectric power plant (SHP) installed on the Aabach stream in Niederlenz, Switzerland. With a maximum water-flow of 4.5 m 3 /s, the turbine can produce about 1.5 GWh of electricity per year. In spring 2005, bearing damage necessitated substantial renovation to the turbine and the generator. This study examines the state of the rest of the plant noted during maintenance work. It also focuses on the feeding of the electricity produced into the grid, the effects of increased residual water-flow, the option of using the Hallwilersee lake as a buffer, upstream flood evacuation and the possibility of green electricity certification. The calculation of the amount of water available is discussed. Due to inconsistent data, a corrected flow-duration curve was used. For the local river authorities, the through passage for fish from the Aare river up to the Hallwilersee has a high priority. The Hetex SHP weir is one of nine barriers to a direct connection. The planning of a fish-pass to be built in 2006 is discussed

  4. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  5. Public support for river restoration funding in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, and mean income

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchläPfer, Felix; Witzig, Pieter-Jan

    2006-12-01

    In 1997, about 140,000 citizens in 388 voting districts in the Swiss canton of Bern passed a ballot initiative to allocate about 3 million Swiss Francs annually to a canton-wide river restoration program. Using the municipal voting returns and a detailed georeferenced data set on the ecomorphological status of the rivers, we estimate models of voter support in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, mean income, cultural background, and recent flood damage. Support of the initiative increased with increasing population density and tended to increase with increasing mean income, in spite of progressive taxation. Furthermore, we found evidence that public support increased with decreasing "naturalness" of local rivers. The model estimates may be cautiously used to predict the public acceptance of similar restoration programs in comparable regions. Moreover, the voting-based insights into the distribution of river restoration benefits provide a useful starting point for debates about appropriate financing schemes.

  6. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  7. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  8. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  9. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  10. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity--Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid-solid partition coefficient (KD) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe river estuary, German Bight and tidal flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerffer, R; Fischer, J; Stoessel, M; Brockmann, C [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.); Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-01-01

    Thematic mapper and ship data has been used to study small scale features in coastal waters of the North Sea. Three independent pieces of informations from all 7 TM channels were found with factor analysis: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering and sea surface temperature. Near surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected within a factor of 2. For the required atmospheric correction the signal-to-noise ratio of the channels 5 and 7 has to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels. Thus TM allows to monitor aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloudfree water surfaces. Sea surface temperature is retrievable with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 K as long as radiosonde data are available for the correction of atmospheric effects, while relative temperature variations of 0.5 K are detectable. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analysed with auto- and crosscorrelation: horizontal lengths, where the suspended matter concentration of single pixels are significantly correlated either with each another or with water depth, are < 800 m. (orig.).

  12. Small hydropower plants in Switzerland: definition of spatial priorities, taking into account the conflicting interests of power production and protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehse, Heiko; Pazhepurackel, Vinitha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the promotion of small hydropower plants in Switzerland, a lot of new projects have been planned. This leads to conflicts of interests, especially between ecology and power production. Where should new power plants be built, and which rivers should be protected from any further impact ? In this paper a methodology is developed in order to find answers to those questions. It confronts the oppositional interests for the use and protection of rivers in a transparent way. By doing so, it is hoped to rationalize conflicts. The methodology should help the authorities to evaluate new projects, and it is a basis for regional strategies of river use and protection. The method was tested in collaboration with the cantonal authority of Bern to classify all the rivers of the canton (12'000 km) [Conseil-executif du canton de Berne 2009]. For each river section, the different interests were identified. It has been adapted for the canton of Fribourg to classify the river reaches where new plants are planned [Wehse 2010]. In 2011 the swiss confederation has published a recommendation for the cantonal and communal authorities, concerning the elaboration of cantonal strategies for the use and protection of the rivers [Wehse 2011], which is based on the same method. (authors)

  13. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity – Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid–solid partition coefficient (K_D) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. - Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations were assessed by using high performance well-type Ge

  14. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  15. Interfaces and interactions in the Swiss waste disposal programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1994-01-01

    Switzerland is a small country (41,293 km 2 ) with a small population (∼7 million) and a small nuclear power park (∼3000 MWe) which gives rise to correspondingly limited volumes of radioactive wastes. The following sections present a summary of the technical and organizational structures involved in the procedures for implementing a back-end strategy in Switzerland and the rationale for their choice. The hierarchical organizational units involved in repository projects, their responsibilities and their interactions are described. This linked chain of responsibilities must be thought through as a whole if interface and communication problems in the line structure are to be minimized -- this we call vertical integration. The programme implementers do not work, however, in a technical or social vacuum. Interfaces to other bodies (regulators, politicians, public) are equally vital to programme success. These communications and exchanges must all be coordinated with one another and with the line organization -- this we call horizontal interaction. The multidimensional organizational system to be considered is described in Sections 2 and 3, in which the roles of each of the entities involved and the relevant interfaces are described. Beforehand, however, we present a short overview of the Swiss waste management strategy and the current programme status in order that individual points made in the following discussion can be related to concrete projects, plans, locations and waste management facilities

  16. Swiss Strategic Communication in the Defense Sector and Its Implications for Swiss Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    rejected because of its projected higher costs compared to buying the fighter jets.392 Through a public -private partnership, the needed Gripens would...necessary military strategies, overall efficiency and coherence can be augmented to the benefit of national security, the public finances, and the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SWISS STRATEGIC

  17. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  18. Characterization of Nanoparticles and Colloids in Aquatic Systems 1. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Aggregates in Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Glinka, Charles J.; Goddard, William A.; Johnson, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) constitute 30-50% of dissolved organic matter in natural aquatic systems. In aqueous solutions, a commonly accepted view is that FA and HA exist as soluble macroligands at low concentration and as supramolecular aggregates at higher concentration. The size, shape and structure of these aggregates are still the subject of ongoing debate in the environmental chemistry literature. In this article, we use small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to assess the effects of solute concentration, solution pH and background electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the structures of Suwannee River FA (SRFA) aggregates in D 2 O. The qualitative features of the SANS curves and data analysis are not consistent with the view point that SRFA forms micelle-like aggregates as its concentration in aqueous solution increases. We find that SRFA forms fractal aggregates in D 2 0 with size greater than 242 nm. The SRFA aggregates undergo a significant degree of restructuring in compactness as solution pH, solute concentration and NaCl concentration increase

  19. Impact of a commercial peat moss operation on water quality and biota in a small tributary of the Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, C; Brun, G L; Mallet, V N

    2002-05-01

    The St-Charles Plain (Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) commercial peat moss operation has been ongoing since 1983. To process the peat, a dry extraction method is used that requires extensive drainage of the peat bog. The water is directed toward sedimentation ponds, where it drains into a small brook, which feeds into a river affected by tidal salt water. Water discharge from the bog contains large amounts of peat particles that deposit in the surrounding watershed. As a result, the pH of the freshwater sites that receive the drainage water from the commercial operation, is fairly acidic (pH 3.9-4.7). Water samples from or near the peat moss operation have a higher concentration of total phosphorous and total organic carbon. The peat particles contain relatively high levels of total mercury, as reflected by analysis of peat sediments. However, the water samples contained low levels of dissolved mercury. Indigenous samples of biota-namely, sand shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) and mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus)-did not contain mercury levels higher in the impacted sites than in the reference sites. Introduced blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) did not accumulate significant amounts of mercury during a 62-day exposure in the study area. Overall, the data suggest that although relatively large amounts of mercury-containing peat particles are discharged into the ecosystem, bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota does not occur.

  20. Redistribution of radioactive mine wastes by slushflows and other processes in small mountain river basin in Russian Subarctics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garankina, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir; Ivanov, Maxim; Romanenko, Fedor; Gurinov, Artem; Tulyakov, Egor; Kuzmenkova, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    The Khibiny Mountains located in central part of the Kola Peninsula (Northern European Russia) are characterized by harsh climatic conditions and frequent occurrence of hazardous or even catastrophic processes. Most widespread of those are snow avalanches taking place every year and slushflows with average recurrence interval of about 10 years. The latter represent specific type of hyperconcentrated gravitational flow of oversaturated mixture of snow and water (20 to 70%) with relatively low sediment concentration (up to 10-15%). Most often slushflows form during spring snowmelt in small mountainous basins (in most cases up to 3-6 km2) with thick snowpacks or snow dams caused by avalanches in stream channels. Typically observed volumes vary in a range of 20000-40000 m3, while rare catastrophic events can reach 200000-500000 m3. Kinetic energy of frontal wave that can be up to several meters high and concentrates most of the largest debris is most likely lower than that of typical debris flow of similar size, mainly because of much lower slushflow density (900-1200 kg m-3). Nevertheless, rare occasional measurements of front wave velocity gave dramatic values of 20-25 m s-1 maximum. Such characteristics combined with unpredictable rapid formation make slushflows definitely hazardous processes that can cause serious damage to industrial and residential infrastructure as well as injuries or causalities to people. For example, the Khibiny Mountains have at least 200 locations where formation of slushflows was detected at least ones over the last 50 years. Widespread constructions and communications associated with intensive exploration of mineral resources as well as growing interest to the area as touristic attraction for skiing and other wintertime activities make the Khibiny Mountains an area of serious geomorphic hazards associated with slushflows. In this particular study, we considered the Hackman basin where heavy debris flows occur at least ones per several

  1. Basic principles of Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that Swiss energy problems, and the measures to be adopted for their solution, are similar to those in other industrial countries. For Switzerland water power is still the most important indigenous energy source. In energy policy it is necessary to make economies. It is important that those responsible for energy policy tackle the problems today, and not leave it to a time when it is too late. The author is convinced that science and engineering will make much more progress in the energy field. (orig.) [de

  2. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  3. Impact of recession on Swiss pension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, F B

    1978-04-01

    Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget.

  4. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  5. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  6. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  7. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  8. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  9. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  10. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  11. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  12. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  13. Differential environmental impacts on small and medium size rivers from center of São Paulo State, Brazil, and regional management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Caroline dos Reis Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate, comparatively, the influence of distinct environmental impacts in the watershed on the rivers Capivara, Lavapés, Araquá and Pardo and the transference of effects downstream. METHODS: The limnological/water quality study was carried out in rainy (March/2007 and dry (September/2007 seasons, considering 17 sampling stations. RESULTS: Variables such as channel width and depth, water velocity and temperature increased towards the river's mouth; water transparency, velocity and dissolved oxygen were higher in the upstream regions. Light penetration was total at most sampling stations and pH was predominantly acid. The sampling stations impacted by pollution sources, Lavapés and Araquá Rivers, exhibited higher values of electric conductivity, suspended solids, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus, BOD, and thermotolerant coliforms. Higher values of electric conductivity, turbidity and suspended solids were observed in the rainy season, whereas higher chlorophyll concentrations occurred in the dry season. The Lavapés River exhibits the worst environmental condition, while Capivara River is under better state of conservation. This study shows that it is urgent the implementation of measures for preservation and restoration of these regional aquatic ecosystems. All studied rivers were influenced by seasonal variation, sewage discharges and by watershed use and occupation. The TSI is a good analysis tool. The studied rivers export organic matter and TN, TP and SS loads to Tietê and Paranapanema rivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study show the importance of river management and that the accelerated degradation of the river systems indicates the little progress of the Brazilian legislation in terms of preservation and good management practices and that the interface between science, law, management and conservation need to be improved.

  14. Use of simulation-based medical training in Swiss pediatric hospitals: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Martin; Laine, Kathryn; Ulmer, Francis

    2017-06-17

    Simulation-based medical training (SBMT) is a powerful tool for continuing medical education. In contrast to the Anglo-Saxon medical education community, up until recently, SBMT was scarce in continental Europe's pediatric health care education: In 2009, only 3 Swiss pediatric health care institutions used SBMT. The Swiss catalogue of objectives in Pediatrics does not acknowledge SBMT. The aim of this survey is to describe and analyze the current state of SBMT in Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments. A survey was carried out with medical education representatives of every institution. SBMT was defined as any kind of training with a mannequin excluding national and/or international standardized courses. The survey reference day was May 31st 2015. Thirty Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments answered our survey (response rate 96.8%) with 66.6% (20 out of 30) offering SBMT. Four of the 20 hospitals offering SMBT had two independently operating training simulation units, resulting in 24 educational units as the basis for our SBMT analysis. More than 90% of the educational units offering SBMT (22 out of 24 units) were conducting in-situ training and 62.5% (15 out of 24) were using high-technology mannequins. Technical skills, communication and leadership ranked among the top training priorities. All institutions catered to inter-professional participants. The vast majority conducted training that was neither embedded within a larger educational curriculum (19 out of 24: 79.2%) nor evaluated (16 out of 24: 66.6%) by its participants. Only 5 institutions (20.8%) extended their training to at least two thirds of their hospital staff. Two thirds of the Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments are offering SBMT. Swiss pediatric SBMT is inter-professional, mainly in-situ based, covering technical as well as non-technical skills, and often employing high-technology mannequins. The absence of a systematic approach and reaching only

  15. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.

  16. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  17. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  18. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  19. Improving the ecohydrological and economic efficiency of Small Hydropower Plants with water diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Tron, Stefania; Niayifar, Amin; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Water exploitation for energy production from Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) is increasing despite human pressure on freshwater already being very intense in several countries. Preserving natural rivers thus requires deeper understanding of the global (i.e., ecological and economic) efficiency of flow-diversion practice. In this work, we show that the global efficiency of SHP river intakes can be improved by non-proportional flow-redistribution policies. This innovative dynamic water allocation defines the fraction of water released to the river as a nonlinear function of river runoff. Three swiss SHP case studies are considered to systematically test the global performance of such policies, under both present and future hydroclimatic regimes. The environmental efficiency is plotted versus the economic efficiency showing that efficient solutions align along a (Pareto) frontier, which is entirely formed by non-proportional policies. On the contrary, other commonly used distribution policies generally lie below the Pareto frontier. This confirms the existence of better policies based on non-proportional redistribution, which should be considered in relation to implementation and operational costs. Our results recommend abandoning static (e.g., constant-minimal-flow) policies in favour of non-proportional dynamic ones towards a more sustainable use of the water resource, also considering changing hydroclimatic scenarios.

  20. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  1. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  2. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  3. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  4. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  5. Implications of climate change scenarios for agriculture in alpine regions--a case study in the Swiss Rhone catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, J; Smith, P; Gobiet, A

    2014-09-15

    Coping with climate change in agriculture requires knowledge of trends in agro-climatic conditions with a focus at the smaller scales where decisions are taken. As part of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, the situation was analyzed for agriculture in the case of the Swiss Rhone catchment (Valais) where cultivation of permanent crops (orchards and vineyards) and livestock production are the most important agro-economic activities. The aim of this study was to use daily data from four downscaled and bias corrected transient climate change scenarios to analyze changes in water and temperature related indices over the period 1951-2050 for three locations (Aigle, Sion, Montana) that are representative of different production zones in the catchment. The results indicate that most relevant implications are caused by projected changes in temperature and not in precipitation. They indicate an extension of the thermal growing season with potentially positive effects on pasture and livestock production, most pronounced at the mountain site (Montana), but a trend towards increasing risks of frost in permanent crops and in heat stress for livestock at the valley bottom (Aigle, Sion). The increase in water requirement for irrigation in 2021-2050 relative to 1981-2009 is moderate (4-16%, depending on location). However, in years with low amounts of snow and rain, in small catchments with a nival regime, reduced water supply by rivers could restrict the surface area of grassland that can be irrigated, particularly during springtime. It is concluded that coping with heat-related risks may be most needed at the lower cropland and pasture sites while water-related issues would become more relevant in more elevated locations where pasture-based livestock production is the dominant type of agricultural land use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  7. The Swiss regulatory framework for paediatric health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Medical research on minors entails both risks and benefits. Under Swiss law, clinical trials on children, including nontherapeutic drug trials, are permissible. However, ethics committees must systematically verify that all clinical studies have a favorable risk-benefit profile. Additional safeguards are designed to ensure that children are not unnecessarily involved in research and that proper consent is always obtained. Federal Swiss law is undergoing revision to extend these protections beyond clinical trials to a broad array of health research. The Swiss drug agency also seeks to improve the incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new paediatric drugs and relevant paediatric drug labels.

  8. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  9. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2010-02-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides an overview of the work carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in 2009. The commission's main work included preparation work for the revised energy research concept for the period 2013 - 2016, a review of all research programmes operated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, the enhancement of cooperation with public and private research and promotion institutions, the coordination and consultation of research institutions and the improvement of international information exchange. The report summarises coordination work with the many CORE programmes and defines strategic main areas of interest for future work

  10. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation du Moulin de Bavois. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' located in Bavois on the Talent river, Switzerland. The existing scheme uses a 12 m water fall and its power amounts to about 10 kW. After retrofitting, based on a future new water-use concession, the maximum electric power produced should be 172 kW, generating 531 MWh/y, 65% of which in the wintertime. New weir and penstock are foreseen as is an axial Kaplan turbine and a reliable water cleaning device. The Talent river flows in the woods. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.214 CHF/kWh.

  11. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; GIGER, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the framework of SCOPES – a Swiss national programme for sup...

  12. The Meielsgrund and Turbach small hydro power stations in Saanen, Switzerland; PCH du Meielsgrund et PCH de Turbach - Rapports finaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, G. [Stucky SA, Renens (Switzerland); Wagner, T. [Sigmaplan, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    These four final illustrated reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deal with various aspects of two small hydro projects on two affluents of the river Saane in Switzerland. The first report presents two variants for the enhancement of the existing Meielsgrund installation as well as a new, parallel installation. The catchment area involved, available head, residual water quantities, installed power and annual production figures are discussed. Investments, operating costs and financial viability are also looked at. The second report describes the project and discusses regional planning aspects, hydrological basics and environmental issues in connection with the renewal project, including details on invertebrates found in the stream and their relevance to fishing and nature protection issues. The third and fourth reports concern the Turbach small hydro installation. The topics discussed in these two reports are basically similar to those considered for the Meielsgrund installation.

  13. A new small-bodied ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from a deep, high-energy Early Cretaceous river of the Australian–Antarctic rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael; Cleeland, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A new small-bodied ornithopod dinosaur, Diluvicursor pickeringi, gen. et sp. nov., is named from the lower Albian of the Eumeralla Formation in southeastern Australia and helps shed new light on the anatomy and diversity of Gondwanan ornithopods. Comprising an almost complete tail and partial lower right hindlimb, the holotype (NMV P221080) was deposited as a carcass or body-part in a log-filled scour near the base of a deep, high-energy river that incised a faunally rich, substantially forested riverine floodplain within the Australian–Antarctic rift graben. The deposit is termed the ‘Eric the Red West Sandstone.’ The holotype, interpreted as an older juvenile ∼1.2 m in total length, appears to have endured antemortem trauma to the pes. A referred, isolated posterior caudal vertebra (NMV P229456) from the holotype locality, suggests D. pickeringi grew to at least 2.3 m in length. D. pickeringi is characterised by 10 potential autapomorphies, among which dorsoventrally low neural arches and transversely broad caudal ribs on the anterior-most caudal vertebrae are a visually defining combination of features. These features suggest D. pickeringi had robust anterior caudal musculature and strong locomotor abilities. Another isolated anterior caudal vertebra (NMV P228342) from the same deposit, suggests that the fossil assemblage hosts at least two ornithopod taxa. D. pickeringi and two stratigraphically younger, indeterminate Eumeralla Formation ornithopods from Dinosaur Cove, NMV P185992/P185993 and NMV P186047, are closely related. However, the tail of D. pickeringi is far shorter than that of NMV P185992/P185993 and its pes more robust than that of NMV P186047. Preliminary cladistic analysis, utilising three existing datasets, failed to resolve D. pickeringi beyond a large polytomy of Ornithopoda. However, qualitative assessment of shared anatomical features suggest that the Eumeralla Formation ornithopods, South American Anabisetia saldiviai and

  14. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey L. Langeland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1 examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI; and (2, to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight. We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute

  15. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  16. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  17. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  18. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) ... Control and vitamin C-treated mice .... Tokyo, Japan).

  19. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  20. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  1. What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa

    2004-01-01

    Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...

  2. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    sediment size distribution based on land use is very crucial in river maintenance. ... a basis for river catchment management study and can be used by river management .... small. In this case, the difference between upstream and downstream ...

  3. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  4. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  5. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  6. A strategy for reducing CO_2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Richner, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Within the general context of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction, decomposition analysis allows the quantification of the contribution of different factors to changes in emissions as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of policy and technology measures. The Kaya identity has been widely used for that purpose in order to disaggregate carbon emissions into various driving forces. In this paper, it is applied for the analysis of emissions resulting from energy use at three different scales. First, a decomposition analysis of the carbon emissions for the complete Swiss energy system is presented using the future projections from the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The Kaya identity is then applied to the Swiss building sector after it is adapted with factors that are more relatable to building parameters, such as floor area instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Finally, the last level of analysis is a small scale community energy system for a unique Swiss village that aims to significantly reduce its emissions. An energy strategy is developed and its effectiveness is assessed with the adapted Kaya identity and benchmarked against the Swiss average values. The presented method demonstrates how the performance of buildings under various retrofitting scenarios can be benchmarked against future emission targets. - Highlights: • The Kaya identity is used to perform multi-scale emission decomposition analysis. • The original Kaya identity is updated with building-related parameters. • The main drivers of emissions reduction of the Swiss building stock are determined. • An energy strategy to transform the building stock of a Swiss village is developed. • The performance of efficiency measures are benchmarked using the Kaya identity.

  7. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  8. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  9. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  10. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  11. Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Individual stress items and overall GDES30 scores were used to quantify perceived stress. To measure burnout, proportions of burnout "cases" and MBI subscale scores were computed in the domains of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Analyses relied on descriptive and bi-variate methods. The mean GDES30 score was 2.1 (SD = 0.4). "Lack of leisure time", "meeting the research requirement of the programme" and "completing graduation requirements" emerged as the top three stressors. Thirty-six percent of respondents were burnout "cases" on the PA scale, while this proportion was 17% for EE and 8% for DP. Both stress and burnout levels increased according to year of study, whereas younger residents and females had consistently higher stress and burnout scores compared to older ones and males. Overall, low levels of perceived stress and burnout were found among this group of Swiss dental residents.

  12. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  13. Age and growth of European barbel Barbus barbus (Cyprinidae in the small, mesotrophic River Lee and relative to other populations in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilizzi L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspected of being in decline, the European barbel Barbus barbus population of the River Lee, a heavily-modified river in South East England, has been the subject of investigations to identify factors associated with perceived population decreases. Population surveys between 1995 and 1999 captured a total of 912 individuals, and standard length (SL frequency analyses between years suggested that the population decline was not related to juvenile recruitment but rather to a recruitment bottleneck in fish 300–340 mm SL. This bottleneck probably results from insufficient available habitat suitable to this size class. Of the sampled fish, scales were removed from 764 and were used in a scale ageing exercise among three researchers. Analyses of their independent age estimates revealed variable interpretations, which arose from uncertainties relating to the difficulty of analysing scale patterns from relatively large, slow-growing fish. Nevertheless, error was within published acceptable margins, and age estimates revealed B. barbus in the river to age 10 years, lower than in many UK rivers. The SL-at-age growth curve was characterised by very fast growth in the initial years of life. Thus, the causal factors in the decline of this B. barbus population appear to have been in the adult life-stage habitat and were likely related to the loss of longitudinal connectivity, mainly due to the presence of water retention structures. River and aquatic ecosystem remediation strategies should therefore focus on enhancing longitudinal connectivity in conjunction with the ongoing improvement of water quality and ecosystem integrity.

  14. The small-scale hydroelectric power plant project 'Les Esserts' in Boudry, Switzerland - Feasibility study and preliminary planning; Centrale des Esserts a Boudry. Etude de faisabilite et avant-projet detaille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelli, P; Croci, S; Ernst, J -R

    2004-07-01

    This report describes in details the project of the installation of a small-scale hydroelectric power plant on the river Areuse in Switzerland. Located on a 4 m high waterfall the plant includes a 10-13 m{sup 3}/s Kaplan turbine, which should deliver roughly 1.6 GWh/year for an installed power of about 500 kVA. The authors insist on the ecological aspect of the project. The plant will be built underground; the river track will be practically unchanged and the existing fish ladder maintained. The report includes maps and pictures of the site as well as technical drawings of the installation. An economic analysis of the project is presented and its viability is discussed. Finally, the authors state that the energy produced by this plant will certainly be certified under one of the Swiss labels 'naturemade star' or 'naturemade basic', in the framework of the federal government's promotion of renewable energy sources.

  15. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  16. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  17. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  18. Topographical change caused by moderate and small floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river – a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Lotsari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In ephemeral rivers, channel morphology represents a snapshot at the end of a succession of geomorphic changes caused by floods. In most cases, the channel shape and bedform migration during different phases of a flood hydrograph cannot be identified from field evidence. This paper analyses the timing of riverbed erosion and deposition of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain during consecutive and moderate- (March 2013 and low-magnitude (May 2013 discharge events, by applying a morphodynamic model (Delft3D calibrated with pre- and post-event surveys by RTK-GPS points and mobile laser scanning. The study reach is mainly depositional and all bedload sediment supplied from adjacent upstream areas is trapped in the study segment forming gravel lobes. Therefore, estimates of total bedload sediment mass balance can be obtained from pre- and post-field survey for each flood event. The spatially varying grain size data and transport equations were the most important factors for model calibration, in addition to flow discharge. The channel acted as a braided channel during the lower flows of the two discharge events, but when bars were submerged in the high discharges of May 2013, the high fluid forces followed a meandering river planform. The model results showed that erosion and deposition were in total greater during the long-lasting receding phase than during the rising phase of the flood hydrographs. In the case of the moderate-magnitude discharge event, deposition and erosion peaks were predicted to occur at the beginning of the hydrograph, whereas deposition dominated throughout the event. Conversely, the low-magnitude discharge event only experienced the peak of channel changes after the discharge peak. Thus, both type of discharge events highlight the importance of receding phase for this type of gravel bed ephemeral river channel.

  19. Topographical change caused by moderate and small floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river - a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsari, Eliisa S.; Calle, Mikel; Benito, Gerardo; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri

    2018-03-01

    In ephemeral rivers, channel morphology represents a snapshot at the end of a succession of geomorphic changes caused by floods. In most cases, the channel shape and bedform migration during different phases of a flood hydrograph cannot be identified from field evidence. This paper analyses the timing of riverbed erosion and deposition of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain) during consecutive and moderate- (March 2013) and low-magnitude (May 2013) discharge events, by applying a morphodynamic model (Delft3D) calibrated with pre- and post-event surveys by RTK-GPS points and mobile laser scanning. The study reach is mainly depositional and all bedload sediment supplied from adjacent upstream areas is trapped in the study segment forming gravel lobes. Therefore, estimates of total bedload sediment mass balance can be obtained from pre- and post-field survey for each flood event. The spatially varying grain size data and transport equations were the most important factors for model calibration, in addition to flow discharge. The channel acted as a braided channel during the lower flows of the two discharge events, but when bars were submerged in the high discharges of May 2013, the high fluid forces followed a meandering river planform. The model results showed that erosion and deposition were in total greater during the long-lasting receding phase than during the rising phase of the flood hydrographs. In the case of the moderate-magnitude discharge event, deposition and erosion peaks were predicted to occur at the beginning of the hydrograph, whereas deposition dominated throughout the event. Conversely, the low-magnitude discharge event only experienced the peak of channel changes after the discharge peak. Thus, both type of discharge events highlight the importance of receding phase for this type of gravel bed ephemeral river channel.

  20. A multicompartment approach--diatoms, macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish--to assess the impact of toxic industrial releases on a small French river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Lainé

    Full Text Available The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds. In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE. Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action and intensity of the contamination.

  1. A Multicompartment Approach - Diatoms, Macrophytes, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish - To Assess the Impact of Toxic Industrial Releases on a Small French River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination. PMID:25019954

  2. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in

  3. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  4. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  5. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  6. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  7. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  8. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2009-01-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  9. [Main results of the Swiss study on DRGs (Casemix Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemix, E

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Health Administrations of nine cantons, this study was conducted by the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine in Lausanne in order to assess how DRGs could be used within the Swiss context. A data base mainly provided by the Swiss VESKA statistics was used. The first step provided the transformation of Swiss diagnostic and intervention codes into US codes, allowing direct use of the Yale Grouper for DRG. The second step showed that the overall performance of DRG in terms of variability reduction of the length of stay was similar to the one observed in US; there are, however, problems when the homogeneity of medicotechnical procedures for DRG is considered. The third steps showed how DRG could be used as an account unit in hospital, and how costs per DRG could be estimated. Other examples of applications of DRG were examined, for example comparison of Casemix or length of stay between hospitals.

  10. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  11. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  12. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  13. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  14. Instrumentation and test of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J.A.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Just before Christmas 1983 the fabrication of the Swiss LCT-coil was finished. Tests at ambient temperature were performed on the factory site and after delivery in Oak Ridge. To avoid an undesirable delay of the rescheduled Partial-Array Test it was agreed to install the coil without its superconducting bus. In July 1984 the Swiss LCT-coil was successfully cooled down to LHe temperature together with the other two fully installed coils. Besides the cooling system, the instrumentation, measured parameters of the coil and some preliminary results obtained during the ongoing Partial-Array Test are presented

  15. A novel modelling approach for spatial and temporal variations in nitrate concentrations in an N-impacted UK small upland river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Richard P.; Cresser, Malcolm S.; Calver, Louise J.; Clark, Matthew; Chapman, Pippa J.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly data for 11 moorland streams displaying marked seasonality and spatial variation in nitrate concentrations have been used with readily available catchment characteristics to develop a method for predicting stream water nitrate concentrations throughout an upland river network in the Lake District, UK. Over a 12-month period, a simple asymmetric truncated cosine function of day number is used to describe seasonality effects on stream water nitrate concentrations. This is then adjusted to compensate for differences in seasonality effects with catchment elevation. Occurrence of greater proportions of steeper slopes (>20 deg. -40 deg. ) in individual catchments facilitated nitrate leaching, as did increased extent of occurrence of outcropping rocks. It is shown that the spatial and temporal variation in nitrate concentration through the river network studied may therefore be effectively represented by an equation which is a function of day number, % outcropping rock and % of catchment area with a >20 deg. -40 deg. slope. - A novel model of spatial and temporal variations in stream water nitrate concentration throughout an N-impacted upland catchment is described

  16. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  17. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  18. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  19. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  20. Aerial surveys for Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; J. Prukop; D. Overhulser; K. Sprengel

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the native fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, has severely damaged Douglas-fir in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The primary impact of the pathogen on Douglas-fir (the only susceptible tree species) is premature loss of foliage, which results in significant reduction in tree growth. Recent...

  1. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  3. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  4. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  5. Highly accurate sequence imputation enables precise QTL mapping in Brown Swiss cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Pausch, Hubert; Bapst, Beat; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Flury, Christine; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Fries, Ruedi; Gredler-Grandl, Birgit

    2017-12-29

    Within the last few years a large amount of genomic information has become available in cattle. Densities of genomic information vary from a few thousand variants up to whole genome sequence information. In order to combine genomic information from different sources and infer genotypes for a common set of variants, genotype imputation is required. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of imputation from high density chips to whole genome sequence data in Brown Swiss cattle. Using four popular imputation programs (Beagle, FImpute, Impute2, Minimac) and various compositions of reference panels, the accuracy of the imputed sequence variant genotypes was high and differences between the programs and scenarios were small. We imputed sequence variant genotypes for more than 1600 Brown Swiss bulls and performed genome-wide association studies for milk fat percentage at two stages of lactation. We found one and three quantitative trait loci for early and late lactation fat content, respectively. Known causal variants that were imputed from the sequenced reference panel were among the most significantly associated variants of the genome-wide association study. Our study demonstrates that whole-genome sequence information can be imputed at high accuracy in cattle populations. Using imputed sequence variant genotypes in genome-wide association studies may facilitate causal variant detection.

  6. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  7. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  8. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  9. Reimbursement of care for severe trauma under SwissDRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf M; Sprengel, Kai; Jensen, Kai Oliver; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Seifert, Burkhardt; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Neuhaus, Valentin; Volbracht, Jörk; Mehra, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with severe injuries is costly, with best results achieved in specialised care centres. However, diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based prospective payment systems have difficulties in depicting treatment costs for specialised care. We analysed reimbursement of care for severe trauma in the first 3 years after the introduction of the Swiss DRG reimbursement system (2012-2014). The study included all patients with solely basic insurance, hospital admission after 01.01.2011 and discharge in 2011 or 2012, who were admitted to the resuscitation room of the University Hospital of Zurich, aged ≥16 years and with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 (n = 364). Clinical, financial and administrative data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All cases were grouped into DRGs according to different SwissDRG versions. We considered results to be significant if p ≤0.002. The mean deficit decreased from 12 065 CHF under SwissDRG 1.0 (2012) to 2 902 CHF under SwissDRG 3.0 (2014). The main reason for the reduction of average deficits was a refinement of the DRG algorithm with a regrouping of 23 cases with an ISS ≥16 from MDC 01 to DRGs within MDC21A. Predictors of an increased total loss per case could be identified: for example, high total number of surgical interventions, surgeries on multiple anatomical regions or operations on the pelvis (p ≤0.002). Psychiatric diagnoses in general were also significant predictors of deficit per case (p<0.001). The reimbursement for care of severely injured patients needs further improvement. Cost neutral treatment was not possible under the first three versions of SwissDRG.

  10. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  11. Hydro electric scheme on the Forestay river. Communes of Chexbres and Rivaz. Feasibility study; Turbinage du Forestay. Communes de Chexbres et Rivaz. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme located in Rivaz, Switzerland on the shore of the lake of Geneva. Water of the Forestay river, which crosses a steep wine region, is used in a 89 kW Pelton turbine with a water head of 63 m and a maximum flow rate of 180 litre/s, producing about 350,000 kWh/year for now more than 50 years. After retrofitting the maximum electric power produced should be 707 kW, generating 2,500,000 kWh/y by using a water head of 184 m and a maximum flow rate of 500 litre/s. Part of the new equipment would be mounted underground in order to respect the aesthetics of the beautiful site. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.109 CHF/kWh.

  12. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  13. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  14. The potential of GRACE gravimetry to detect the heavy rainfall-induced impoundment of a small reservoir in the upper Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Shuang; Song, Chunqiao; Wang, Qiuyu; Wang, Linsong; Heki, Kosuke; Sun, Wenke

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reservoirs are important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on environments, and their cumulative influences on the local water storage will change the gravity signal. However, because of their small signal size, such gravity changes are seldom studied using satellite gravimetry from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Here we investigate the ability of GRACE to detect water storage changes in the Longyangxia Reservoir (LR), which is situated in the uppe...

  15. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S.; Seiler, B.; Dettli, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

  16. Aquatic insect community structure under the influence of small dams in a stream of the Mogi-Guaçu river basin, state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulino, H H L; Corbi, J J; Trivinho-Strixino, S

    2014-02-01

    The fragmentation of lotic systems caused by construction of dams has modified many aquatic communities. The objective of this study was to analyse changes in the aquatic insect community structure by discontinuity of habitat created by dams along the Ribeirão das Anhumas, a sub-basin of the Mogi-Guaçu River (state of São Paulo, Brazil). Entomofauna collection was carried out in 10 segments upstream and downstream of five dams along the longitudinal profile of the stream, with a quick sampling method using a D net (mesh 250 mm) with 2 minutes of sampling effort. The insects were sorted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level and analysed by the Shannon diversity index, β diversity, richness estimated by rarefaction curves and relative participation of functional feeding groups. The results showed a slight reduction in diversity in the downstream segments, as well as along the longitudinal profile of the stream. However, there were no significant differences in abundance and richness between the upstream and downstream segments, indicating that the dams did not influence these variables. Differences were observed in the functional feeding groups along the longitudinal profile. Predator and gatherer insects were dominant in all segments analysed. The feeding group of shredders was more abundant in the segment DSIII with the participation of Marilia Müller (Odontoceridae - Trichoptera), although we observed a decrease of shredders and scrapers with the decrease of the canopy cover reducing values of β diversity in the continuum of Ribeirão das Anhumas. This result demonstrated the importance of the conservation of the riparian vegetation in order to maintain the integrity of the stream.

  17. Five years database of landslides and floods affecting Swiss transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland is a country threatened by a lot of natural hazards. Many events occur in built environment, affecting infrastructures, buildings or transportation networks and producing occasionally expensive damages. This is the reason why large landslides are generally well studied and monitored in Switzerland to reduce the financial and human risks. However, we have noticed a lack of data on small events which have impacted roads and railways these last years. This is why we have collect all the reported natural hazard events which have affected the Swiss transportation networks since 2012 in a database. More than 800 roads and railways closures have been recorded in five years from 2012 to 2016. These event are classified into six classes: earth flow, debris flow, rockfall, flood, avalanche and others. Data come from Swiss online press articles sorted by Google Alerts. The search is based on more than thirty keywords, in three languages (Italian, French, German). After verifying that the article relates indeed an event which has affected a road or a railways track, it is studied in details. We get finally information on about sixty attributes by event about event date, event type, event localisation, meteorological conditions as well as impacts and damages on the track and human damages. From this database, many trends over the five years of data collection can be outlined: in particular, the spatial and temporal distributions of the events, as well as their consequences in term of traffic (closure duration, deviation, etc.). Even if the database is imperfect (by the way it was built and because of the short time period considered), it highlights the not negligible impact of small natural hazard events on roads and railways in Switzerland at a national level. This database helps to better understand and quantify this events, to better integrate them in risk assessment.

  18. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Matis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabilitation concept seem to be the core of the Swiss stroke management system. Coordinated multidisciplinary care provided by specialized medical, nursing and therapy staff is of utmost importance for achieving a significant dependency and death reduction. It is believed that the implementation of these guidelines in the stroke care system would be beneficial not only for the stroke patients, but also for the health system.

  19. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  20. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  1. Second Harmonic Generation, Sum Frequency Generation, and χ(3): Dissecting Environmental Interfaces with a Nonlinear Optical Swiss Army Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Franz M.

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses recent advances in the nonlinear optics of environmental interfaces. We discuss the quantitative aspects of the label-free approaches presented here and demonstrate that nonlinear optics has now assumed the role of a Swiss Army knife that can be used to dissect, with molecular detail, the fundamental and practical aspects of environmental interfaces and heterogeneous geochemical environments. In this work, nonlinear optical methods are applied to complex organic molecules, such as veterinary antibiotics, and to small inorganic anions and cations, such as nitrate and chromate, or cadmium, zinc, and manganese. The environmental implications of the thermodynamic, kinetic, spectroscopic, structural, and electrochemical data are discussed.

  2. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  3. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  4. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  5. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  6. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser , Bernhard; Stolze , Matthias; Oehen , Bernadette; Gessler , Cesare; Weibel , Franco; Bravin , Esther; Kilchenmann , Adeline; Widmer , Albert; Charles , Raffael; Lang , Andreas; Stamm , Christian; Triloff , Peter; Tamm , Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/be...

  7. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  9. Tinjauan Keanekaragaman Moluska Air Tawar Di Beberapa Situ Di DAS Ciliwung - Cisadane [Study on the Freshwater Mollusc Diversity of the Small Lakes Along Ciliwung and Cisadane Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Marwoto, Ristiyanti M; Isnaningsih, Nur R

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) can be found in many type of water course either flowing or stagnant water. Some of them have survived living in bad condition such as polluted water. There are 199 situ (small lakes) in Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi) have been reported but only 20 % were in good condition, even 12% have dissapeared that caused by silting up of the situ. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diversity of the molluscs as well as to know t...

  10. Small-scale, joule-heated melting of Savannah River Plant waste glass. I. Factors affecting large-scale vitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Chismar, P.H.

    1979-10-01

    A promising method of immobilizing SRP radioactive waste solids is incorporation in borosilicate glass. In the reference vitrification process, called joule-heated melting, a mixture of glass frit and calcined waste is heated by passage of an electric current. Two problems observed in large-scale tests are foaming and formation of an insoluble slag. A small joule-heated melter was designed and built to study problems such as these. This report describes the melter, identifies factors involved in foaming and slag formation, and proposes ways to overcome these problems

  11. Retrofitting the small-scale hydro power plant 'La Chocolatiere' in Echandens-Bussigny, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a project study for the retrofitting of a small-scale hydro power plant installed on the River Venoge, between the communities of Echandens and Bussigny, western Switzerland. At this site, hydro power is used since the 18 th century. A permanent license to use at most 3 m 3 /s is available. The study concludes that the maximum flow rate of 6 m 3 /s would be more advantageous, implying a 35 cm higher dam on the river. Two turbines could then be installed, leading to the maximum electric power of 177 kW and the power production of 727,000 kWh/y. From the detailed inventory of the retrofitting work and the installation of the new turbines - including a new fish ladder according to the legislation in force - the authors conclude that electricity could be generated at a cost amounting to about CHF 0.24/kWh. It is recommended to request the modification of the water use license in order to be able to use up to 6 m 3 /s.

  12. A field study in the Swiss Rietholzbach basin to understand landscape filtering of hydro-climatic drivers and its effects on streamflow composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Freyberg, J.; Schirmer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Non-linear hydrological behavior of small mountainous watersheds is often attributed to variable streamflow contributions from different landscape units that differ in subsurface properties, vegetation cover and land use. Within this concept, the role of landscape can be seen as that of a filter, translating hydro-climatic drivers into particular streamflow signals - such as discharge rates or water quality. Our research addresses the question of how hydrologic connectivity between the relevant landscape units evolves during storm events and droughts at headwater catchments and seeks to establish a general framework of interdisciplinary interest (e.g., ecology and climate science). We focus on the description of groundwater flow on the local and regional scale, since groundwater - surface water - interaction in the valley bottoms, transport mechanisms of nutrients within hyporheic zones, and groundwater flow dynamics in the shallow subsurface have all been identified as important processes in describing hydrologic catchment response and streamflow composition. Our field-based study takes place in the pre-Alpine Rietholzbach research catchment (~ 3 sq km) in the headwaters of the Thur basin in NE Switzerland. We investigated the effects of landscape properties on river water quality and catchment hydrology over a two-year period. The Rietholzbach research catchment is equipped with a meteorological station, a weighting lysimeter, 20 piezometers, 3 stream gauging stations and various soil moisture and temperature probes, which provide continuous, high-frequency measurements of atmospheric and hydrometric data. These measurements are used in combination with hydro-chemistry data to determine groundwater residence times and streamflow composition. The installed setup facilitates the investigation of annual, inter-seasonal as well as short-term dynamics of water flow and its links to associated parameters describing atmospheric, surface and subsurface properties. We

  13. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  14. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  15. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  16. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  17. Effects of small-scale hydrogeologic heterogeneity on submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) dynamics in river dominated estuaries: example of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, D.; Dimova, N.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is known to be an important pathway for nutrients and dissolved constituents in estuarine environments worldwide. Despite its limited contribution to the total fresh water flux to the ocean (5 - 10 %), SGD-derived material loadings can rival riverine inputs. Therefore, a good understanding of the coastal hydrogeology and subsequent SGD dynamics is crucial to further investigate constituent fluxes and its implications on small and large scale coastal ecosystems. We evaluated SGD in Mobile Bay (Alabama), the fourth largest estuary in the US, using a combination of radiotracer techniques (223Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn), stable isotopes (δ 18O and δ 2H), geophysical surveys (continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)), and seepage meters during three consecutive years. A detailed examination of the entire shoreline of Mobile Bay using CRP, ERT imaging, and multiple sediment cores collection unveiled a heterogeneous (horizontal and vertical) distribution of the surficial coastal aquifer. This was reflected and confirmed by groundwater tracer measurements and direct measurements of SGD in the coastal zone. We found that SGD occurs mainly in the northeast section of Mobile Bay with a total flux that ranged between 0.9 and 13 × 105 m3 d-1 during dry and wet periods, which represents 0.4 - 2 % of the total fresh water inputs into the Bay. While total SGD is insignificant when accounting the whole water budget of Mobile Bay, we found that small-scale geology variations produce groundwater flow preferential pathways in particular areas where SGD inputs play an important role in the water and nutrient budgets.

  18. Investigation of radiological consequences of a serious accident in Swiss nuclear power plants on the drinking water supply and preventive measures in waterworks for securing drinking water quality and supply; Untersuchungen zu radiologischen Folgen schwerer Unfaelle in schweizerischen Kernkraftwerken auf die Trinkwasserversorgung und vorbeugende Massnahmen im Wasserwerk zur Absicherung der Trinkwasserqualitaet und -versorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustohalova, V.; Kueppers, C.; Claus, M. [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The radiological consequences of a serious accident in Swiss nuclear power plants on the drinking water supply was studied, preventive measures for securing the drinking water quality were elaborated. Based on the scaling of thermal power and burnup of the used nuclear fuel the fission product release in case of a severe accident was estimated for airborne and waterborne migration paths. In cities that use the rivers for their water drinking water supplies have to stop the water abstraction. The Swiss tolerance and limiting values for radionuclides in drinking water would be exceeded shortly after the accident and the hazardous situation would last for more than 90 days.

  19. The information content of KOF indicators on Swiss current account data revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses revisions of Swiss current account data, taking into account the actual data revision process and the implied types of revisions. In addition we investigate whether the first release of current account data can be improved upon by the use of survey results as gathered by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich. An answer in the affirmative indicates that it is possible to improve first releases and thereby enhance the current assessment of the Swiss economy.

  20. Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Romerio, Franco; Dalla Valle, Francesco; Gorret, Roberta; Maran, Stefano; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Stoffel, Markus; Volonterio, Michela

    2014-09-15

    This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned. Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms (Swiss and Italian Alps), they represent a wide variety of situations which may be affected by differing evolutions for instance in terms of annual runoff. In this study, we also differentiate between run-of-river, storage and pumping-storage power plants. By integrating and comparing various analyses carried out in the framework of the EU-FP7 ACQWA project, this paper discusses the complexity as well as current and future issues of hydropower management in the entire Alpine region. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of glacier shrinkage and adapted hydropower potential in the Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Stephane; Bieri, Martin; Jordan, Frederic; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is an alarming reality and likely leads to an increase of multiple pressures on socio-economic systems. However, in high-mountain regions it might also become an opportunity to adapt existing hydropower schemes and to develop new projects to this reality. In the Alps, the melting of glaciers first produces over the near future an increase of the average annual discharge depending on glacier and catchment characteristics, especially during the summer season. Nevertheless after a certain time, significant decrease of runoff related to glacier melting must be considered for hydropower management. Moreover, the shrinking glaciers free new areas, having the potential for the construction of new dams and reservoirs. The opportunity to build new dams and hydropower plants downstream of retreating glaciers is studied using two models. The first (GlabTop) is used to predict the future topography and geomorphology underneath the melting glaciers, in order to define the optimal locations of the future dams and reservoirs. Secondly, the RS3.0 CLIMATE rainfall-runoff hydrological model computes the glacier evolution, the river discharge at the outlet of the catchment area as well as the hydropower production of the new schemes. As a case study the Upper Aare River basin in Switzerland is presented. The opportunity of the construction of a new dam and a hydropower plant is studied, including its economic benefit. The result of the case study provides a basis to assess the potential of investing in such projects to ensure the Swiss hydroelectricity production also in future as well as peak energy for the European grid. (authors)

  2. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  3. Constraining Swiss Methane Emissions from Atmospheric Observations: Sensitivities and Temporal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus; Steinbacher, Martin; Eugster, Werner; Meinhardt, Frank; Bergamaschi, Peter; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2017-04-01

    Similar to other Western European countries, agricultural sources dominate the methane (CH4) emission budget in Switzerland. 'Bottom-up' estimates of these emissions are still connected with relatively large uncertainties due to considerable variability and uncertainties in observed emission factors for the underlying processes (e.g., enteric fermentation, manure management). Here, we present a regional-scale (˜300 x 200 km2) atmospheric inversion study of CH4 emissions in Switzerland making use of the recently established CarboCount-CH network of four stations on the Swiss Plateau as well as the neighbouring mountain-top sites Jungfraujoch and Schauinsland (Germany). Continuous observations from all CarboCount-CH sites are available since 2013. We use a high-resolution (7 x 7 km2) Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART-COSMO) in connection with two different inversion systems (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter) to estimate spatially and temporally resolved CH4 emissions for the Swiss domain in the period 2013 to 2016. An extensive set of sensitivity inversions is used to assess the overall uncertainty of our inverse approach. In general we find good agreement of the total Swiss CH4 emissions between our 'top-down' estimate and the national 'bottom-up' reporting. In addition, a robust emission seasonality, with reduced winter time values, can be seen in all years. No significant trend or year-to-year variability was observed for the analysed four-year period, again in agreement with a very small downward trend in the national 'bottom-up' reporting. Special attention is given to the influence of boundary conditions as taken from different global scale model simulations (TM5, FLEXPART) and remote observations. We find that uncertainties in the boundary conditions can induce large offsets in the national total emissions. However, spatial emission patterns are less sensitive to the choice of boundary condition. Furthermore and in order to demonstrate the

  4. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Past research suggests a link between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. Aim The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. Methods The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60–95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Main Outcome Measures Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory—Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Results Twenty‐two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. Conclusions This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314. PMID:26797066

  5. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechsteiner, Karin; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Past research suggests a link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60-95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Twenty-two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well-being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305-314.

  6. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  7. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  8. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  9. Suicide in adolescents: findings from the Swiss National cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.

  10. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  11. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  12. Survey and alignment for the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, F.Q.; Dreyer, K.; Fehlmann, U.; Pochon, J.L.; Wrulich, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a dedicated high brightness synchrotron light source currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen. It will be commissioned in 2001. The accelerator complex includes a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring (SR) with 288 in circumference, a full energy injection booster synchrotron (Booster) and a 100 MeV linear pre-accelerator. The general alignment method and first results of the network measurements are presented. A laser tracker LTD500 is mainly adopted for network measurements and the alignment of storage ring components. (authors)

  13. Swiss Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    森, 芳周

    2009-01-01

    To add an article against the misuse of a reproductive technology and a genetic engineering, theSwiss Federal Constitution was revised in 1992 through an initiative in 1987. On the basis of thisarticle of the constitution, the Reproductive Medicine Act and the Stem Cell Research Act wereenacted in turns; then, the Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans was enacted in October2004. This paper treats a process of the revision of the constitution in 1992 and the enactment of thelaw in 2004....

  14. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  15. Swiss electro-industry is oriented towards export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horat, E

    1982-08-20

    When a Swiss enterprise years ago got an order from the USA for two steam turbines with a power of 1100 and 1300 MW a British economic journal refered to this as a 'literally revolutionary event'. The reason was that the biggest machines for generation of electric energy had a performance of merely 500 to 600 MW. In between the competitive industry has gained pace and now builds machines of the same performance class. The competition for the technical leadership still goes on, research and development are constantly being pushed forward, emphasis is put on improving the degree of efficiency.

  16. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  17. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  18. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  19. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  20. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  1. Experts' perspectives on SwissDRG: Second class care for vulnerable patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A; Wepf, H; Elger, B; Wangmo, T

    2018-03-14

    On the 1st of January 2012, Switzerland introduced the diagnosis-related group hospital tariff structure (SwissDRG). It was recognised that healthcare provided to the most vulnerable patient groups would be a challenge for the new SwissDRG. Coincident with the implementation of SwissDRG, we explored hospital experts' perceptions of which patient groups are vulnerable under the SwissDRG system, what has changed for this group, as well as solutions to ensure adequate access to health care for them. We interviewed 43 experts from 40 Swiss hospitals. Participating experts named several vulnerable patient groups who share some common characteristics. These hospital experts were concerned about the patient groups that are not financially profitable and questioned the practicability of the current regulation. At the same time, they highlighted the complexity associated with caring for this group under the new SwissDRG and reported measures at the macro, meso, and micro levels to protect vulnerable patient groups from negative effects. To curb negative outcomes for vulnerable patient groups after the introduction of the SwissDRG, the Swiss legislation has introduced various instruments including the acute and transitional care (ATC) measures. We conclude that ATC measures do not produce the expected effect the legislators had hoped for. More health data is needed to identify situations where vulnerable patient groups are more susceptible to inadequate health care access in Switzerland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  3. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Anzonico - Preliminary project; Progetto microcentrale idroelettrica, Anzonico. Programma Centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant in the municipality of Anzonico, southern Switzerland. The water of a small alpine stream is to be used for power generation and vineyard irrigation as well as for the creation of an additional water resource for fire fighting in this sensitive region. The report is foreseen to support the request for a water usage concession to the authorities of the Canton of Ticino. It presents details on the hydrological data for the river and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as is the removal of river sediment. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Synergies exist with the local electricity utility that will renew and improve its power distribution and telecommunication system when the penstock will be mounted in the underground.

  4. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10 -6 per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  5. Swiss operating experience: availability and post-Chernobyl upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Switzerland started its era of nuclear power with the foundation stone for the country's first nuclear power unit (Beznau-1) onSeptember 6, 1965. Up to that date, Switzerland was the classic country for hydropower, negligible amounts of electricity being produced by fossil-fuelled plants. Today, nuclear accounts for close to 40 % of Swiss total electricity generation. Whwn credits for lifetime capacity factors of each individual plant are combined, Switzerland tops the world list for light water reactor performance over many years. The Chernobyl reactor type RBMK-1000 has very little in common with the light water reactors operating in Switzerland, so one would certainly not expect any direct influence on Swiss plant design, operation or maintenance as an immediate consequence of the accident. Some important safety measures against severe accidents are currently being implemented. These measures were not a direct outcome of the Chernobyl accident and were already in discussion quite some time before. With this action, the proper position of nuclear power to meet the ever increasing demand for electricity in Switzerland will hopefully again find greater public acceptance. 1 tab

  6. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  7. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  8. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Chesson, C; Hope, R

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this survey was to measure levels of genetic variation within and between 5 different strains of outbred Swiss mice. Ten to 15 animals from each strain (NIH, Q(S), ARC, IMVS and STUD) were typed, using allozyme electrophoresis, at 10 gene loci: Mod-1, Idh-1, Gpi-I, Es-1, Es-3, Hbb, Pep-3, Gr-1, Got-2 and Pgm-1. Polymorphic variation in at least one of the 5 strains was detected at all 10 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.3 (NIH) to 0.8 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.52. Average expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 (NIH) to 0.37 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.21. The inbred strain SWR was, as expected, homozygous at all 10 loci. The amount of allelic substitution between pairs of strains was quantified using Nei's genetic distance, and a dendrogram based on these genetic distances showed a close overall similarity in its branching pattern to the known genealogy of the strains. This survey showed that a considerable degree of genetic variation persists in the 5 strains examined, a level of variation similar to that previously detected by Rice and O'Brien (1980) in 3 other outbred Swiss strains.

  9. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  11. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  12. Fish, the protection of streams and rivers, and hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Blasel, K.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the river Rhine along the Swiss-German border has been affected by man-made changes over the last 200 years. The grave effects on fish stocks caused by the construction of several hydropower stations along this stretch of the river are discussed. The two programmes 'Salmon 2000' and 'Rhine 2020' are discussed that aim to provide power station dams with fish passes to enable migrant fish to reach their old spawning grounds. Proposals are described that are to improve the situation and new Europe-wide regulations on the matter are discussed. The changes that the influence of man have caused on the Rhine's fauna are described and an historical review of the changes which the river has undergone is presented

  13. Fracture mechanics investigations within the swiss surveillance programme for the pressure vessel of modern nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, G; Krompholz, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    In the frame of surveillance programmes of Swiss nuclear power plants, irradiation tests have been performed on tensile, impact and wedge opening load specimens as well as on three point bend-type specimens (for J-integral investigations) and pre-cracked Charpy impact specimens (for dynamical stress intensities K{sub ID}). An experimental method (potential drop technique) is used together with a mathematical procedure which allow for the determination of the stress intensity K{sub IC} for small CT-samples instead of large ones: agreement of these both methods is found excellent, and the mapping of both methods to fatigue pre-cracked small specimens (3 PB and Charpy) is possible. The application of the analysis method to dynamical tests is also possible. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Small-scale hydro power in the Anniviers Valley. Project Ayer-Nava. Variants and preliminary project; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique en Anniviers. Projet Ayer-Nava. Etude de variantes et avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant near Ayer, a village in the Anniviers Valley (Swiss Alps). Water from the Nava, a steep mountain river, should be lead into a hydraulic scheme for power generation. A hydraulic head of 400 to 550 m is available, depending on the variant considered. The corresponding expected mechanical power is 0.9 to 1.1 MW. For the most promising variant a preliminary project is described (peak electric power: 0.91 MW, annual electrical energy production: 3.1 GWh). The local geology and hydrogeology are presented. The water collection points, conduits and the power station are described. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

  15. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  16. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  17. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  18. Protein sequence annotation in the genome era: the annotation concept of SWISS-PROT+TREMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apweiler, R; Gateau, A; Contrino, S; Martin, M J; Junker, V; O'Donovan, C; Lang, F; Mitaritonna, N; Kappus, S; Bairoch, A

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation, a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Ongoing genome sequencing projects have dramatically increased the number of protein sequences to be incorporated into SWISS-PROT. Since we do not want to dilute the quality standards of SWISS-PROT by incorporating sequences without proper sequence analysis and annotation, we cannot speed up the incorporation of new incoming data indefinitely. However, as we also want to make the sequences available as fast as possible, we introduced TREMBL (TRanslation of EMBL nucleotide sequence database), a supplement to SWISS-PROT. TREMBL consists of computer-annotated entries in SWISS-PROT format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except for CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. While TREMBL is already of immense value, its computer-generated annotation does not match the quality of SWISS-PROTs. The main difference is in the protein functional information attached to sequences. With this in mind, we are dedicating substantial effort to develop and apply computer methods to enhance the functional information attached to TREMBL entries.

  19. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  20. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  1. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  2. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  3. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  4. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  5. Swiss guideline: Protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Swiss guideline R-21 establishing the protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste has been reviewed and amended in order to adapt it to improvements made in the field of radioactive waste disposal. In an introductory part, the new guideline states the overall objective of radioactive waste disposal and the associated principles which have to be observed. The guideline then establishes the safety requirements applied to a geological disposal facility. These safety requirements are formulated as protection goals for the whole disposal system and not as specific criteria applying to the system components. The guideline gives finally a series of explanatory comments and indications concerning the conduct of the safety assessment for a disposal facility

  6. An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Williams, W; Hajnal, J V

    2007-01-01

    The 'Swiss Roll' metamaterial medium is well suited to operation in the radio frequency (RF) range, because it has a low resonant frequency and a strong magnetic response. Two prisms of this material, one hexagonal and one square, have been constructed and characterized both at the metamaterial's resonant frequency of 21.5 MHz and above it, where the effective permeability is strongly negative. A series of spatial resonances is observed in the field patterns on the surfaces of the prisms. Using an effective medium description, we have carried out both analytical and numerical modelling of the electromagnetic behaviour of the metamaterial, and find, within certain obvious limitations, extremely good agreement between the measured and modelled results

  7. How does a Swiss citizen want to heat his home?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    This short article presents a summary of the results of representative market research carried out on which forms of energy are the most favoured in Switzerland. Solar energy is the form of energy at the top of the list of the most desired forms of energy for providing hot water. Natural gas is the energy carrier most favoured for space-heating, having for the first time overtaken solar energy in this sector. The article also quotes further findings of the survey, including the roles played by air pollution and other factors that influence energy desires. Also, the survey studied the sources used by the Swiss to obtain information on the subject of energy supply when building, buying or refurbishing their homes. The results are presented in the form of diagrams

  8. Design, commissioning and operation of the Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the most recent 3rd generation light source coming to operation. It consists of a 12- TBA storage ring of 288 m circumference providing 5 nm rad emittance at 2.4 GeV, a novel type of full energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV linac. The initial four beamlines cover protein X-ray crystallography (PX), materials science (MS), surface and interface spectroscopy (SIS) and microscopy (SIM). We will review the project history, describe the design concepts of the accelerators and the technical subsystems, and report on the commissioning process and the status of operation by end of 2002. (author)

  9. Engaging the public in decision-making. A Swiss approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Swiss public is still involved in main decisions which may be concern them. The nuclear industry knows a lot about the difficulties of advancing with projects such as repository or new plants. The temptation is very high to change the existing law to simplify the procedure of authorization. But this would be a very bad way to circumvent the distrust of public against nuclear projects. Everywhere today politicians are promoting the empowerment of responsible citizens: in health care, consumers decision and so on. In the domain of nuclear concerns this empowerment is extremely important: especially in this field the public has rights and needs which must be taken into account. (R.P.)

  10. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  11. Swiss family physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards knowledge translation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, Theresa; Bovet, Emilie; Bécherraz, Camille; Schlegel, Susanne; Burnand, Bernard; Pidoux, Vincent

    2015-12-11

    Several studies have been performed to understand the way family physicians apply knowledge from medical research in practice. However, very little is known concerning family physicians in Switzerland. In an environment in which information constantly accumulates, it is crucial to identify the major sources of scientific information that are used by family physicians to keep their medical knowledge up to date and barriers to use these sources. Our main objective was to examine medical knowledge translation (KT) practices of Swiss family physicians. The population consisted of French- and German-speaking private practice physicians specialised in family medicine. We conducted four interviews and three focus groups (n = 25). The interview guides of the semi-structured interviews and focus groups focused on (a) ways and means used by physicians to keep updated with information relevant to clinical practice; (b) how they consider their role in translating knowledge into practice; (c) potential barriers to KT; (d) solutions proposed by physicians for effective KT. Family physicians find themselves rather ambivalent about the translation of knowledge based on scientific literature, but generally express much interest in KT. They often feel overwhelmed by "information floods" and perceive clinical practice guidelines and other supports to be of limited usefulness for their practice. They often combine various formal and informal information sources to keep their knowledge up to date. Swiss family physicians report considering themselves as artisans, caring for patients with complex needs. Improved performance of KT initiatives in family medicine should be tailored to actual needs and based on high quality evidence-based sources.

  12. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-15

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  14. Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megali, A; Yannic, G; Zahno, M-L; Brügger, D; Bertoni, G; Christe, P; Zanoni, R

    2010-10-01

    Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. We report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the Swiss Rabies Centre between 1976 and 2009 were found by immunofluorescence (FAT) to be positive for EBLVs. All three positive cases were in Myotis daubentoni, from 1992, 1993 and 2002. In addition to this passive surveillance, we undertook a targeted survey in 2009, aimed at detecting lyssaviruses in live bats in Switzerland. A total of 237 bats of the species M. daubentoni, Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus and Nyctalus noctula were captured at different sites in western Switzerland. Oropharyngeal swabs and blood from each individual were analysed by RT-PCR and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), respectively. RNA corresponding to EBLV-2 was detected from oropharyngeal swabs of a single M. daubentoni bat, but no infectious virus was found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the corresponding sequence was closely related to the other EBLV-2 sequences identified in previous rabies isolates from Swiss bats (particularly to that found at Geneva in 2002). Three M. daubentoni bats were found to be seropositive by RFFIT. In conclusion, even though the prevalence is low in Switzerland, continuous management and surveillance are required to assess the potential risk to public health.

  15. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  16. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  17. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remondeulaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Until the 19 th century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19 th century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MW th and 6 MW el

  18. Relative age effects in Swiss talent development - a nationwide analysis of all sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Rössler, Roland; Javet, Marie; Faude, Oliver

    2018-09-01

    Relative age effects (RAE) generate consistent participation inequalities and selection biases in sports. The study aimed to investigate RAE across all sports of the national Swiss talent development programme (STDP). In this study, 18 859 youth athletes (female N = 5353; mean age: 14.8 ± 2.5 y and male N = 13 506; mean age: 14.4 ± 2.4 y) in 70 sports who participated in the 2014 competitive season were evaluated. The sample was subdivided by sex and the national level selection (NLS, N = 2464). Odds ratios (ORs) of relative age quarters (Q1-Q4) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In STDP, small RAE were evident for females (OR 1.35 (95%-CI 1.24, 1.47)) and males (OR 1.84 (95%-CI 1.74, 1.95)). RAE were similar in female NLS athletes (OR 1.30 (95%-CI 1.08, 1.57)) and larger in male NLS athletes (OR 2.40 (95%-CI 1.42, 1.97)) compared to athletes in the lower selection level. In STDP, RAE are evident for both sexes in several sports with popular sports showing higher RAE. RAE were larger in males than females. A higher selection level showed higher RAE only for males. In Switzerland, talent identification and development should be considered as a long-term process.

  19. Organizational structures, roles and responsibilities within the Swiss waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.; Issler, H.; Kowalski, E.

    1993-01-01

    The organizational structures and the division of responsibilities within the Swiss radioactive waste management program are based strongly on the principle that waste producers must assume full responsibility for choosing and implementing appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of residues while independent oversight and control by government safety authorities must be guaranteed. The structures within the governmental bodies ensure that proper regulatory and control functions are as free as possible from any conflicts of interest and that appropriate technical expertise is available. The more detailed organization within Nagra, which is necessary to over the wide range of tasks--in technical projects as well as in legal matters and in the area of communication--is also described. Important boundary conditions which determine the allocation of roles and responsibilities, and which are rather specific to Switzerland, include the small absolute size of the country and its nuclear program, the absence of a major centralized national geological survey, the high level of technical expertise in engineering organizations and in the university system, and the modest size of all bodies involved

  20. Scale economies and optimal size in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaeifar, Mozhgan; Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the cost structure of Swiss gas distribution utilities. Several econometric models are applied to a panel of 26 companies over 1996–2000. Our main objective is to estimate the optimal size and scale economies of the industry and to study their possible variation with respect to network characteristics. The results indicate the presence of unexploited scale economies. However, very large companies in the sample and companies with a disproportionate mixture of output and density present an exception. Furthermore, the estimated optimal size for majority of companies in the sample has shown a value far greater than the actual size, suggesting remarkable efficiency gains by reorganization of the industry. The results also highlight the effect of customer density on optimal size. Networks with higher density or greater complexity have a lower optimal size. - highlights: • Presence of unexploited scale economies for small and medium sized companies. • Scale economies vary considerably with customer density. • Higher density or greater complexity is associated with lower optimal size. • Optimal size varies across the companies through unobserved heterogeneity. • Firms with low density can gain more from expanding firm size

  1. Urethane influence in the urine formation in swiss rats and syrian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Silva, Natanael G.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de

    2011-01-01

    Urethane is an anaesthetic agent with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory system depression with long-lasting (6-10h) effects. Its carcinogenic potential avoids it from veterinary use. Either, the knowledge of its effects over the circulating catecholamines (cortisone and corticosterone), with reflects in the muscles physiology, it is widely used in pharmacological studies in laboratory species. At the first minutes, Urethane induces a hyperglycaemia condition due the insulin concentration decrease, later than, the insulin concentration and the condition becomes in hypoglycaemia, but the Urethane interfering in the urine production mechanisms has not been described. It is accepted that the glycolic level would not interferes in the kidney function, except in chronic states, notably associated with insulin related diseases. The relative high biological half-life of 177 Lu-Dotatate allows its use in biodistribution studies among small animals whose metabolic rates are so fast that would be impossible observe them with the most part of the labeled molecules. During the performance of a cross-species extrapolation study using Urethane as anaesthesia and 177 Lu-Dotatate as metabolic tracer, was observed the Urethane influence over urine formation in Swiss rats and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). The objective of this work is only describes the Urethane action over the urine production. Firstly, four male inbread Wistar Swiss rats (±250 g), are anesthetized, with around 1200 mg/kg, i.p., in groups of two. One rat from each group get ahead to the injection of 177 Lu-Dotatate and Gamma camera in vivo study, the second ones, anesthetized, waited under warming lights until more than one hour to initiate the biodistribution study. The scintillographical images shown the radiopeptide stopped at the kidneys and the urinary empty in the animals who attempt more than one hour before enter to radiopharmaceutical injection and Gamma camera imaging procedures. The rates

  2. Urethane influence in the urine formation in swiss rats and syrian hamster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marina F.; Silva, Natanael G.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de, E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Urethane is an anaesthetic agent with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory system depression with long-lasting (6-10h) effects. Its carcinogenic potential avoids it from veterinary use. Either, the knowledge of its effects over the circulating catecholamines (cortisone and corticosterone), with reflects in the muscles physiology, it is widely used in pharmacological studies in laboratory species. At the first minutes, Urethane induces a hyperglycaemia condition due the insulin concentration decrease, later than, the insulin concentration and the condition becomes in hypoglycaemia, but the Urethane interfering in the urine production mechanisms has not been described. It is accepted that the glycolic level would not interferes in the kidney function, except in chronic states, notably associated with insulin related diseases. The relative high biological half-life of {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate allows its use in biodistribution studies among small animals whose metabolic rates are so fast that would be impossible observe them with the most part of the labeled molecules. During the performance of a cross-species extrapolation study using Urethane as anaesthesia and {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate as metabolic tracer, was observed the Urethane influence over urine formation in Swiss rats and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). The objective of this work is only describes the Urethane action over the urine production. Firstly, four male inbread Wistar Swiss rats ({+-}250 g), are anesthetized, with around 1200 mg/kg, i.p., in groups of two. One rat from each group get ahead to the injection of {sup 177}Lu-Dotatate and Gamma camera in vivo study, the second ones, anesthetized, waited under warming lights until more than one hour to initiate the biodistribution study. The scintillographical images shown the radiopeptide stopped at the kidneys and the urinary empty in the animals who attempt more than one hour before enter to radiopharmaceutical injection and Gamma camera imaging

  3. The Swiss-Army-Knife Approach to the Nearly Automatic Analysis for Microearthquake Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Simon, V.; Tormann, T.; Diehl, T.; Herrmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many Swiss earthquake sequence have been studied using relative location techniques, which often allowed to constrain the active fault planes and shed light on the tectonic processes that drove the seismicity. Yet, in the majority of cases the number of located earthquakes was too small to infer the details of the space-time evolution of the sequences, or their statistical properties. Therefore, it has mostly been impossible to resolve clear patterns in the seismicity of individual sequences, which are needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind them. Here we present a nearly automatic workflow that combines well-established seismological analysis techniques and allows to significantly improve the completeness of detected and located earthquakes of a sequence. We start from the manually timed routine catalog of the Swiss Seismological Service (SED), which contains the larger events of a sequence. From these well-analyzed earthquakes we dynamically assemble a template set and perform a matched filter analysis on the station with: the best SNR for the sequence; and a recording history of at least 10-15 years, our typical analysis period. This usually allows us to detect events several orders of magnitude below the SED catalog detection threshold. The waveform similarity of the events is then further exploited to derive accurate and consistent magnitudes. The enhanced catalog is then analyzed statistically to derive high-resolution time-lines of the a- and b-value and consequently the occurrence probability of larger events. Many of the detected events are strong enough to be located using double-differences. No further manual interaction is needed; we simply time-shift the arrival-time pattern of the detecting template to the associated detection. Waveform similarity assures a good approximation of the expected arrival-times, which we use to calculate event-pair arrival-time differences by cross correlation. After a SNR and cycle-skipping quality

  4. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

  5. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  6. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  7. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  8. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  9. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  10. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  11. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  12. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  13. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  14. Transcatheter renal denervation for the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension: the Swiss expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerzner, Gregoire; Muller, Olivier; Erne, Paul; Cook, Stéphane; Sudano, Isabella; Lüscher, Thomas F; Noll, Georg; Kaufmann, Urs; Rickli, Hans; Waeber, Bernard; Kaiser, Christophe; Sticherling, Christian; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Baumgartner, Iris; Jacob, Augustinus L; Burnier, Michel; Qanadli, Salah D

    2014-03-20

    Transcatheter (or percutaneous) renal denervation is a novel technique developed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. So far, only one randomised controlled trial has been published, which has shown a reduction of office blood pressure. The Swiss Society of Hypertension, the Swiss Society of Cardiology, The Swiss Society of Angiology and the Swiss Society of Interventional Radiology decided to establish recommendations to practicing physicians and specialists for good clinical practice. The eligibility of patients for transcatheter renal denervation needs (1.) confirmation of truly resistant hypertension, (2.) exclusion of secondary forms of hypertension, (3.) a multidisciplinary decision confirming the eligibility, (4.) facilities that guarantee procedural safety and (5.) a long-term follow-up of the patients, if possible in cooperation with a hypertension specialist. These steps are essential until long-term data on safety and efficacy are available.

  15. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  16. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  17. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  18. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  19. 'Finite' non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, (arXiv: 0707.0105)] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, (arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th])] and using the formalisms of [S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar slow-roll inflation, (arXiv: 0705.3178 [astro-ph]); S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar inflation, Phys. Rev. D 77 (2008) 083511, (arXiv: 0711.2920 [astro-ph])], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-)instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of getting finite values for the non-linear parameter f NL while looking for non-Gaussianities in type IIB compactifications on orientifolds of the Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] in the L(arge) V(olume) S(cenarios) limit. We show the same in two contexts. First is multi-field slow-roll inflation with D3-instanton contribution coming from a large number of multiple wrappings of a single (Euclidean) D3-brane around the 'small' divisor yielding f NL ∼O(1). The second is when the slow-roll conditions are violated and for the number of the aforementioned D3-instanton wrappings being of O(1) but more than one, yielding f NL ∼O(1). Based on general arguments not specific to our (string-theory) set-up, we argue that requiring curvature perturbations not to grow at horizon crossing and at super-horizon scales, automatically picks out hybrid inflationary scenarios which in our set up can yield f NL ∼O(1) and tensor-scalar ratio of O(10 -2 ). For all our calculations, the world-sheet instanton contributions to the Kaehler potential coming from the non-perturbative α ' corrections

  20. Bank retreat study of a meandering river reach case study : River Irwell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran, R.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2010-01-01

    Lack of data is often considered a limitation when undertaking morphological studies. This research deals with morphological studies of small rivers experiencing bank erosion processes when only limited data are available. A reach of the meandering gravel-bed river Irwell (United Kingdom) is taken

  1. Bank retreat of a meandering river reach case study : River Irwell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran, R.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of data is often considered a limitation when undertaking morphological studies. This research deals with the morphological study of a small river experiencing bank erosion for which only limited data are available. A reach of the meandering gravel-bed river Irwell (United Kingdom) is taken as

  2. Differences in health status and health behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...

  3. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  4. Swiss roll nanomembranes with controlled proton diffusion as redox micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Mei, Yongfeng; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2010-06-14

    We demonstrate a redox Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor by rolling up a multilayered nanomembrane with an electrochemical active layer at either the outer or inner surface for different proton diffusion behaviors. The Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor could achieve high performance (e.g. capacity and life time) in a microscale power source and is helpful for studying charge transfer at the electrolyte/electrode interface.

  5. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  6. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  7. SwissProt search result: AK068266 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068266 J013149A10 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chloro...plast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 1e-32 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK068555 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068555 J013156H12 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chloro...plast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 6e-34 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK070257 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070257 J023042N11 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chloro...plast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 5e-33 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK061611 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061611 001-032-F07 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chlor...oplast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 4e-33 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK099574 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099574 J013036G21 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chloro...plast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 8e-34 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK121444 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121444 J023141B14 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chloro...plast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 6e-33 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK119219 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119219 001-046-F11 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chlor...oplast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 4e-33 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK059909 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059909 006-209-C06 (P16881) Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chains, chlor...oplast precursor (EC 4.1.1.39) (RuBisCO small subunits) [Contains: Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P1; Ribulos...e bisphosphate carboxylase small chain P2; Ribulose bispho RBS_EUGGR 2e-33 ...

  15. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  16. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  17. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-08-14

    In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress, poorly structured

  18. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress

  19. Energy consumption of small refrigerators - Information leaflet; Merkblatt Kleinkuehlschrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this leaflet published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the energy consumption of small refrigerators with a capacity of less than 100 litres is reported on. Such small refrigerators are often used in hotel rooms or in campers. It is noted that, in comparison, a typical, 150 litre class A++ domestic refrigerator uses only a fraction of the amount of energy used by such small refrigerators. The results of measurements made according to EN 153 and ISO 15502 norms are discussed. Recommendations are made on the purchase and operation of these small refrigerators.

  20. A Swiss paradox? Higher income inequality of municipalities is associated with lower mortality in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Egger, Matthias; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    It has long been surmised that income inequality within a society negatively affects public health. However, more recent studies suggest there is no association, especially when analyzing small areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of income inequality on mortality in Switzerland using the Gini index on municipality level. The study population included all individuals >30 years at the 2000 Swiss census (N = 4,689,545) living in 2,740 municipalities with 35.5 million person-years of follow-up and 456,211 deaths over follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were adjusted for age, gender, marital status, nationality, urbanization, and language region. Results were reported as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. The mean Gini index across all municipalities was 0.377 (standard deviation 0.062, range 0.202-0.785). Larger cities, high-income municipalities and tourist areas had higher Gini indices. Higher income inequality was consistently associated with lower mortality risk, except for death from external causes. Adjusting for sex, marital status, nationality, urbanization and language region only slightly attenuated effects. In fully adjusted models, hazards of all-cause mortality by increasing Gini index quintile were HR = 0.99 (0.98-1.00), HR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99), HR = 0.95 (0.94-0.96), HR = 0.91 (0.90-0.92) compared to the lowest quintile. The relationship of income inequality with mortality in Switzerland is contradictory to what has been found in other developed high-income countries. Our results challenge current beliefs about the effect of income inequality on mortality on small area level. Further investigation is required to expose the underlying relationship between income inequality and population health.

  1. Alpine hydropower schemes and their 'remote influence' on lakes and rivers downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the effect that alpine dams and reservoirs have on lakes and rivers in the lowlands. Not only the contribution of Swiss alpine hydropower installations to Switzerland's electricity generation capacity is mentioned, but also the way they 'export' ecological deficits to lower-lying regions. Examples of this are quoted, including, for example, the filtering-out of around 50% of water-borne particles in the river Rhone by the dams in its catchment area. The consequences of such effects for the ecology of lakes and rivers are discussed. Further examples of how the alpine dams hold back nutrients and regulate the flow and temperature of rivers are given and the resulting ecological effects are commented on

  2. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  3. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  4. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  5. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  6. Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, C.

    1980-12-01

    The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 μg U and 4 μg Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 20 0 C, 50 0 C and 80 0 C. At 80 0 C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.)

  7. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  8. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  9. Interfamiliar specific fertility in Italian Brown Swiss cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bagnato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of interaction between sire of cow and service sire on the success/unsuccess of inseminations. Data from insemination events of Italian Brown Swiss cows collected from January 1993 through August 2007 were restricted to repeat breeder cows. A cluster analysis was carried out to group herds with very few observations in clusters with at least 15 observations. The edited data set included 102,710 services of 10,708 cows, daughters of 1,716 sires and mated to 3,108 service sires. The success or unsuccess at each insemination was evaluated by a linear mixed model including the fixed effects of herd-year interaction, month of insemination, age, and the random effects of sire service-sire of cow interaction and residual. The distribution of bull combination estimates was bimodal. When the tails of distribution (best and worst 5% of estimates were considered, 271 service sires were included in both tails. Results suggest that major gene can affect the survival of embryos and that positive or negative interactions between paternal and maternal genotype can affect this reproductive trait.

  10. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  11. Intrabeam scattering studies at the Swiss light source

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, F; Aiba, M; Boege, M; Milas, N; Streun, A; Demma, T

    2012-01-01

    The target parameters of modern ultra-low emittance rings are entering into a regime where Intra-beam Scattering (IBS) becomes important and, in the case of linear collider damping rings, even a limitation for the delivered emittances. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) storage ring, as it has achieved a vertical geometrical emittance of around 1 pm at 2.4 GeV [1], and it has the ability to run at even lower energies, and the availability of emittance monitoring diagnostics, is an ideal testbed for IBS studies. Simulations using the classical IBS theories and tracking codes are undertaken in order to explore the possibilities and limitations for IBS measurements at the SLS. In this respect, comparison between the theories and codes is first discussed. The dependence of the output emittances, taking into account the effect of IBS, with respect to energy, bunch charge and zero current vertical and longitudinal emittance is also studied, in order to define the regimes where the IBS effect can be significant. First mea...

  12. Implementation of the ICRP-60 Recommendations by Swiss Pharmaceutical Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R. P.; Traub, K.; Berlepsch, P.; Reischmann, F. J.; Zoubek, N.

    2004-01-01

    Switzerland was among the first countries that adapted its national law to the recommendations of the ICRP-publication No. 60. Already in 1991, the Federal Parliament enacted a new Radiological Protection Act. In 1994, the Federal Government adopted the new Radiation Protection Ordinance. Federal Ministries followed with technical ordinances and guidelines, e.g., for radioactive waste in 1996, for handling open sources in 1997, for X-rays in 1998 and for the training and dosimetry of radiation workers in 1999. In 1996, the Council of the European Union (Switzerland is not a member of the EU) decreed the Directive for the Protection of the Health of Workers and the General Public against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Based on this directive, Germany adopted a new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001 and a new X-Ray-Ordinance in 2002. To transform the ordinances into radiation protection in the workplace further technical ordinances and guidelines are under development. Almost ten years ago, users of ionising radiation in Switzerland had to deal with the problems of implementing the new radiation protection legislation into their local rules that Germany and other EU companies are facing now. Therefore it may be interesting and helpful for authorities and companies in the EU to learn from the experience of their Swiss colleagues. (Author) 4 refs

  13. Annual Report - Remotely Operated NDE System for Inspection of Hanford's Waste Tank Knuckle Regions and Development of a Small Roving Annulus Inspection Vehicle T-SAFT Scanning Bridge for Savannah River Site Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Crawford, Susan L.; Harris, Robert V.; Samuel, Todd J.; Roberts, Ron A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Maynard, Melody A.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2002-01-01

    The design, development, and performance testing of a prototype system known as the Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination (RONDE)system to examine the knuckle region of a Hanford DST have been completed. The design and fabrication of a scanning bridge to support the Savannah River Site utilizing similar technology was also completed

  14. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  15. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.mueller@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gerecke, Andreas C. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlanstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. - Highlights: > Consumer products are the most important source of PFAAs in Swiss surface waters. > Acesulfame proofs to be a good population marker in surface waters. > PFAA pattern analyses reveal specific industrial emissions. - The analysis of correlations between surface water concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and source parameters revealed that consumer products are the most important source for PFCs in Switzerland, whereas industry and atmospheric deposition make a minor contribution.

  16. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Claudia E.; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Alder, Alfredo C.; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. - Highlights: → Consumer products are the most important source of PFAAs in Swiss surface waters. → Acesulfame proofs to be a good population marker in surface waters. → PFAA pattern analyses reveal specific industrial emissions. - The analysis of correlations between surface water concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and source parameters revealed that consumer products are the most important source for PFCs in Switzerland, whereas industry and atmospheric deposition make a minor contribution.

  17. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  18. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing

  19. The Nothuesli small hydro project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.; Jorde, K.

    2008-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the project for a small 16-kilowatt hydro plant on the Gonzenbaechli stream in eastern Switzerland. The site, which was used even before 1860 for obtaining power from the stream is briefly described, as are the present remains of earlier installations. An old Francis turbine has been retrieved and could possibly be reused. Water-flow figures and fall-heights are noted. Design flows and residual water quantities required by legislation are noted and discussed, as are the geology and topology of the catchment area. The proposals for a new hydro-power plant are described, including the apparatus proposed with a power of 20 kVA. Environmental aspects are also discussed, as are the investment costs and the economic viability of the project. The paper is completed with a comprehensive appendix, including detailed cost estimates.

  20. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.