WorldWideScience

Sample records for small spatial dimensions

  1. The Spatial Dimension of House Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Gong

    2017-04-01

    This research underlines market forces in the operation of Chinese interurban housing markets in the post-reform era, and contributes to the understanding of spatial dimension of house prices, not only in China, but also in other market-oriented economies.

  2. Spatial dimensions of the demand for homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of "spatial location satisfaction" and examines its relation to the individual demand for homeownership. Based on a Danish questionnaire survey carried out in a rural study area (N=1000) and in an urban study area (N=1015), a tenure choice model was estimated...... relating spatial location satisfaction to homeownership, while adjusting for control variables. The spatial location satisfaction variable was constructed from two questionnaire items asking respondents to state their actual and preferred place of settlement given five location type options: large city......, medium-sized city, small town, village, and "in the countryside". As hypothesised, the study shows a strong association between spatial location satisfaction and the individual demand for homeownership. This association is robust across study areas. Spatial location satisfaction is highest in the rural...

  3. The spatial dimension of cycle logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Staricco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cycle logistics is emerging as a promising alternative in urban freight transport. Compared to fossil fuelled vans, the use of cycles for delivering goods within urban areas offers advantages in terms of environmental friendliness, economic efficiency, flexibility, and liveability of urban neighbourhood. At the same time, cycle logistics has to face limits in terms of weight and volume of goods that can be delivered, distances that can be covered, and spatial urban structures that can be served. This latter issue has till now received less attention in the scientific literature: it is generally recognized that cycle logistics performs at its best in inner urban areas, but no systematic study has been realized to identify specific spatial requisites for the effectiveness of cycle logistics. This paper provides a brief review of the main issues that emerge from the literature over cycle logistics, and contributes to stimulate the debate over the spatial dimension of cycle logistics: it presents a classification of cycle logistics schemes, on the basis of their integration with other urban logistic facilities and of the spatial structure of delivery operations. A three-level classification is proposed, depending on the type of goods consolidation: only distribution without consolidation, consolidation in a fixed urban consolidation centre, or consolidation in a mobile depot; for each level, operational examples and case studies are provided. This systematizing typology could support both public and private operators in decisions about the organization of cycle logistics facilities, such as the location of urban consolidation centres or the composition of cycle fleets.

  4. Interacting fermions in one spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains in its first part a critical survey about the method of the bosonization of fermi fields in one spatial dimension and its application to the Luttinger and the massive Thirring model. The first chapter served for the explanation of the term of the unitary inequivalence. Thereby two generally valid facts could be demonstrated very illustratively by the example of a fermion algebra and its representations, namely first that infinite, direct product space are not separable, and second that weak equivalence of the vacua is equivalent to the unitary equivalence of the corresponding representations of the field algebra. In the second part the statement first studied by Luther (1976) and since then often cited, that the continuum limit of the Heisenberg model is the massive Thirring model. It is concluded that it can up to today not be considered as proved although indications for its validity can be found. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Investigating the Spatial Dimension of Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Yenerall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the sensitivity of food access models to a dataset’s spatial distribution and the empirical definition of food access, which contributes to understanding the mixed findings of previous studies. Data was collected in the Dan River Region in the United States using a telephone survey for individual-level variables (n = 784 and a store audit for the location of food retailers and grocery store quality. Spatial scanning statistics assessed the spatial distribution of obesity and detected a cluster of grocery stores overlapping with a cluster of obesity centered on a grocery store suggesting that living closer to a grocery store increased the likelihood of obesity. Logistic regression further examined this relationship while controlling for demographic and other food environment variables. Similar to the cluster analysis results, increased distance to a grocery store significantly decreased the likelihood of obesity in the urban subsample (average marginal effects, AME = −0.09, p-value = 0.02. However, controlling for grocery store quality nullified these results (AME = −0.12, p-value = 0.354. Our findings suggest that measuring grocery store accessibility as the distance to the nearest grocery store captures variability in the spatial distribution of the health outcome of interest that may not reflect a causal relationship between the food environment and health.

  6. Tourism: spatial dimension and driving force

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Nelson; Jorge, Rosário

    2003-01-01

    Spatial and socio-economic impacts of tourism have been quite significant in some regions, causing changes in the economic structure, stimulating some sectors and displacing others. Tourism creates pressures on different domains—natural resources and environment, the built environment, and hospitality and cultural resources. The tourism infrastructure has impacted on the existing social, economic, and environmental dynamics of Goan society. Some of the tourism-related influences are discu...

  7. Fractal dimension evolution and spatial replacement dynamics of urban growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fractal dimension growth can be modeled by Boltzmann’s equation. ► Boltzmann’s model suggests urban spatial replacement dynamics. ► If the rate of urban growth is too high, periodic oscillations or chaos will arise. ► Chaos is associated with fractals by the fractal dimension evolution model. ► The fractal dimension of urban form implies the space-filling ratio of a city. - Abstract: This paper presents a new perspective of looking at the relation between fractals and chaos by means of cities. Especially, a principle of space filling and spatial replacement is proposed to interpret the fractal dimension of urban form. The fractal dimension evolution of urban growth can be empirically modeled with Boltzmann’s equation. For the normalized data, Boltzmann’s equation is just equivalent to the logistic function. The logistic equation can be transformed into the well-known 1-dimensional logistic map, which is based on a 2-dimensional map suggesting spatial replacement dynamics of city development. The 2-dimensional recurrence relations can be employed to generate the nonlinear dynamical behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos. A discovery is thus made in this article that, for the fractal dimension growth following the logistic curve, the normalized dimension value is the ratio of space filling. If the rate of spatial replacement (urban growth) is too high, the periodic oscillations and chaos will arise. The spatial replacement dynamics can be extended to general replacement dynamics, and bifurcation and chaos mirror a process of complex replacement.

  8. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  9. Spatially parallel processing of within-dimension conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, K J; Humphreys, G W

    2001-01-01

    Within-dimension conjunction search for red-green targets amongst red-blue, and blue-green, nontargets is extremely inefficient (Wolfe et al, 1990 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16 879-892). We tested whether pairs of red-green conjunction targets can nevertheless be processed spatially in parallel. Participants made speeded detection responses whenever a red-green target was present. Across trials where a second identical target was present, the distribution of detection times was compatible with the assumption that targets were processed in parallel (Miller, 1982 Cognitive Psychology 14 247-279). We show that this was not an artifact of response-competition or feature-based processing. We suggest that within-dimension conjunctions can be processed spatially in parallel. Visual search for such items may be inefficient owing to within-dimension grouping between items.

  10. Spatial attention can be biased towards an expected dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Katherine E; Close, Alex C; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Sapir, Ayelet

    2016-11-01

    A commonly held view in both exogenous and endogenous orienting is that spatial attention is associated with enhanced processing of all stimuli at the attended location. However, we often search for a specific target at a particular location, so an observer should be able to jointly specify the target identity and expected location. Whether attention can bias dimension-specific processes at a particular location is not yet clear. We used a dual task to examine the effects of endogenous spatial cues on the accuracy of perceptual judgments of different dimensions. Participants responded to a motion target and a colour target, presented at the same or different locations. We manipulated a central cue to predict the location of the motion or colour target. While overall performance in the two tasks was comparable, cueing effects were larger for the target whose location was predicted by the cue, implying that when attending a particular location, processing of the likely dimension was preferentially enhanced. Additionally, an asymmetry between the motion and colour tasks was seen; motion was modulated by attention, and colour was not. We conclude that attention has some ability to select a dimension at a particular location, indicating integration of spatial and feature-based attention.

  11. BI-AMALGAMATION OF SMALL WEAK GLOBAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Tamekkante, Mohammed; Bouba, El Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the bi-Amalgamations of small weakglobal dimension. The new results compare to previous works carried on varioussettings of duplications and amalgamations, and capitalize on recent resultson bi-amalgamations

  12. Risk factors for small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anandarajah, Seerone; Dudhia, Raahib; Sandham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze which parameters, gathered from standard orthodontic diagnostic material, were most relevant for identifying small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 105 cone beam computed tomography scans of healthy......, skeletal maturity and gender significant associations were found between pharyngeal airway dimensions and craniofacial morphology. Airway volume was positively associated with maxillary and mandibular width (P ... and sagittal jaw relationship were the most relevant factors for minimal cross-sectional area (r2 = 0.16). Conclusion: Pharyngeal airway dimensions were significantly associated with age, skeletal maturity, and craniofacial morphology in all three planes. Children with a reduced mandibular width and increased...

  13. Spatial Correlation Characterization of a Full Dimension Massive MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2017-02-07

    Elevation beamforming and Full Dimension MIMO (FD-MIMO) are currently active areas of research and standardization in 3GPP LTE-Advanced. FD-MIMO utilizes an active antenna array system (AAS), that provides the ability of adaptive electronic beam control over the elevation dimension, resulting in a better system performance as compared to the conventional 2D MIMO systems. FD-MIMO is more advantageous when amalgamated with massive MIMO systems, in that it exploits the additional degrees of freedom offered by a large number of antennas in the elevation. To facilitate the evaluation of these systems, a large effort in 3D channel modeling is needed. This paper aims at providing a summary of the recent 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling. The 3GPP proposed approach to model antenna radiation pattern is compared with the ITU approach. A closed-form expression is then worked out for the spatial correlation function (SCF) for channels constituted by individual antenna elements in the array by exploiting results on spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. The proposed expression can be used to obtain correlation coefficients for any arbitrary 3D propagation environment. Simulation results corroborate and study the derived spatial correlation expression. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of future 5G 3D massive MIMO systems.

  14. Instability of small Lovelock black holes in even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2009-01-01

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory, which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We derive a master equation for tensor perturbations in general Lovelock theory. It turns out that the resultant equation is characterized by one functional which determines the background black hole solutions. Thus, the stability issue of static black holes under tensor perturbations in general dimensions is reduced to an algebraic problem. We show that small Lovelock black holes in even-dimensions are unstable.

  15. Virial Theorem for Nonrelativistic Quantum Fields in D Spatial Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chris L.; Ordóñez, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    The virial theorem for nonrelativistic complex fields in D spatial dimensions and with arbitrary many-body potential is derived, using path-integral methods and scaling arguments recently developed to analyze quantum anomalies in low-dimensional systems. The potential appearance of a Jacobian J due to a change of variables in the path-integral expression for the partition function of the system is pointed out, although in order to make contact with the literature most of the analysis deals with the J=1 case. The virial theorem is recast into a form that displays the effect of microscopic scales on the thermodynamics of the system. From the point of view of this paper the case usually considered, J=1, is not natural, and the generalization to the case J≠1 is briefly presented

  16. Non-Abelian gauge fields in two spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalizing an earlier work on the Abelian case the most general non-Abelian gauge theory in two spatial dimensions is derived. It is shown that local gauge invariance leads to a new term in the action which in turn requires that the gauge current operator have a part which is bilinear in the non-Abelian gauge field-strength tensor. Although a radiation (or axial) gauge quantization is possible, this approach is found not to yield the maximal set of commutation relations among the basic fields. The latter goal can be accomplished only by a rather unusual gauge choice which has not previously been studied. Quantization conditions on the coupling constant implied by invariance under large gauge transformations are also derived

  17. Impact of spatial dimension on structural ordering in metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Tanaka, Hajime; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) have so far attracted considerable attention for their applications as bulk materials. However, new physics and applications often emerge by dimensional reduction from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D). Here, we study, by molecular dynamics simulations, how the liquid-to-glass transition of a binary Cu_{50}Zr_{50} MG is affected by spatial dimensionality. We find clear evidence that crystal-like structural ordering controls both dynamic heterogeneity and slow dynamics, and thus plays a crucial role in the formation of the 2DMG. Although the 2DMG reproduces the dynamical behaviors of its 3D counterpart by considering Mermin-Wagner-type fluctuations specific to 2D, this atomic-scale structural mechanism is essentially different from that for the 3DMG in which icosahedral clusters incompatible with crystallographic symmetry play a key role in glassy behaviors. Our finding provides a structural mechanism for the formation of 2DMGs, which cannot be inferred from the knowledge of 3DMGs. The results suggest a structural basis for the glass transition in 2DMG and provide possible explanations for some previous experimental observations in ultrathin film MGs.

  18. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  19. Spatial Dimension as a Variable in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Douglas James

    Several approximation methods potentially useful in electronic structure calculations are developed. These methods all treat the spatial dimension, D, as a variable. In an Introduction, the motivations for these methods are described, with special attention to the semiclassical 1/D expansion. Several terms in this expansion have been calculated for two-electron atoms. The results have qualitative appeal but poor convergence properties when D = 3. Chapter 1 shows that this convergence problem is due to singularities in the energy at D = 1 and a method of removing their effects is demonstrated. Chapter 2 treats several model problems, showing how to identify special dimensions at which the energy becomes singular or the Hamiltonian simplifies. Expansions are developed about these special finite values of D which are quite accurate at low order, regardless of the physical parameters of the Hamiltonian. In Chapter 3, expansions about singular points in the energy at finite values of D are used to resum the 1/D series in cases where its leading orders are not sufficient. This leads to a hybrid expansion which typically improves on both the 1/D and the finite D series. These methods are applied in Chapter 4 to two -electron atoms. The ground state energy of few-electron systems is dominated by the presence of a pole when D = 1. The residue of this pole is determined by the eigenvalue of a simple limiting Schrodinger equation. The limit and first order correction are determined for both unapproximated nonrelativistic two-electron atoms and the Hartree-Fock approximation to them. The hybrid expansion using only the first few terms in the 1/D series determines the energy at arbitrary D, providing estimates accurate to four or five figures when D = 3. Degeneracies between D = 3 states and those in nonphysical dimensions are developed in Chapter 5 which provide additional applications for this series. Chapter 6 illustrates these methods in an application to the H(' -) ion, an

  20. Fractal Dimension analysis for seismicity spatial and temporal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23

    The research can further promote the application of fractal theory in the study ... spatial-temporal propagation characteristics of seismic activities, fractal theory is not ... provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of earthquakes. 2. ... random self-similar structure of the earthquake in the time series and the spatial.

  1. Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xuejiao; Zhang Nanyang; Zeng Yanan; Yin Shiliang; Wang Weiyu

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .

  2. Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xuejiao; Zhang Nanyang; Zeng Yanan; Yin Shiliang; Wang Weiyu, E-mail: daisydelring@yahoo.com.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China)

    2011-02-01

    Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .

  3. Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xuejiao; Zhang, Nanyang; Zeng, Yanan; Yin, Shiliang; Wang, Weiyu

    2011-02-01

    Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .

  4. Spatial dimensions of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; South, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    esearch examining the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent offending typically examines only the influence of residential neighborhoods. This strategy may be problematic as 1) neighborhoods are rarely spatially independent of each other and 2) adolescents spend

  5. SPATIAL SEGMENTATION WITHIN METROPOLITAN LABOUR MARKET: MAPPING THE GENDER DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    DEBNATH, TANIA

    2017-01-01

    Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...

  6. On spatial coalescents with multiple mergers in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Benjamin; Sturm, Anja

    2013-08-01

    We consider the genealogy of a sample of individuals taken from a spatially structured population when the variance of the offspring distribution is relatively large. The space is structured into discrete sites of a graph G. If the population size at each site is large, spatial coalescents with multiple mergers, so called spatial Λ-coalescents, for which ancestral lines migrate in space and coalesce according to some Λ-coalescent mechanism, are shown to be appropriate approximations to the genealogy of a sample of individuals. We then consider as the graph G the two dimensional torus with side length 2L+1 and show that as L tends to infinity, and time is rescaled appropriately, the partition structure of spatial Λ-coalescents of individuals sampled far enough apart converges to the partition structure of a non-spatial Kingman coalescent. From a biological point of view this means that in certain circumstances both the spatial structure as well as larger variances of the underlying offspring distribution are harder to detect from the sample. However, supplemental simulations show that for moderately large L the different structure is still evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A.A.G. Annual Conference Participation: The Spatial Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Malcolm

    This paper analyzes the spatial patterning of participants attending four annual conferences of the Association of American Geographers (AAG). The four most recent conventions were selected for the study: Los Angeles in 1981, Louisville in 1980, Philadelphia in 1979, and New Orleans in 1980. A conference participant is defined as a person whose…

  8. 3D GEOMARKETING SEGMENTATION: A HIGHER SPATIAL DIMENSION PLANNING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geomarketing is a discipline which uses geographic information in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing such as price, promotion or geo targeting. The analysis of geomarketing data use a huge data pool such as location residential areas, topography, it also analyzes demographic information such as age, genre, annual income and lifestyle. This information can help users to develop successful promotional campaigns in order to achieve marketing goals. One of the common activities in geomarketing is market segmentation. The segmentation clusters the data into several groups based on its geographic criteria. To refine the search operation during analysis, we proposed an approach to cluster the data using a clustering algorithm. However, with the huge data pool, overlap among clusters may happen and leads to inefficient analysis. Moreover, geomarketing is usually active in urban areas and requires clusters to be organized in a three-dimensional (3D way (i.e. multi-level shop lots, residential apartments. This is a constraint with the current Geographic Information System (GIS framework. To avoid this issue, we proposed a combination of market segmentation based on geographic criteria and clustering algorithm for 3D geomarketing data management. The proposed approach is capable in minimizing the overlap region during market segmentation. In this paper, geomarketing in urban area is used as a case study. Based on the case study, several locations of customers and stores in 3D are used in the test. The experiments demonstrated in this paper substantiated that the proposed approach is capable of minimizing overlapping segmentation and reducing repetitive data entries. The structure is also tested for retrieving the spatial records from the database. For marketing purposes, certain radius of point is used to analyzing marketing targets. Based on the presented tests in this paper

  9. D Geomarketing Segmentation: a Higher Spatial Dimension Planning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Rahman, A. A.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.

    2016-09-01

    Geomarketing is a discipline which uses geographic information in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing such as price, promotion or geo targeting. The analysis of geomarketing data use a huge data pool such as location residential areas, topography, it also analyzes demographic information such as age, genre, annual income and lifestyle. This information can help users to develop successful promotional campaigns in order to achieve marketing goals. One of the common activities in geomarketing is market segmentation. The segmentation clusters the data into several groups based on its geographic criteria. To refine the search operation during analysis, we proposed an approach to cluster the data using a clustering algorithm. However, with the huge data pool, overlap among clusters may happen and leads to inefficient analysis. Moreover, geomarketing is usually active in urban areas and requires clusters to be organized in a three-dimensional (3D) way (i.e. multi-level shop lots, residential apartments). This is a constraint with the current Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. To avoid this issue, we proposed a combination of market segmentation based on geographic criteria and clustering algorithm for 3D geomarketing data management. The proposed approach is capable in minimizing the overlap region during market segmentation. In this paper, geomarketing in urban area is used as a case study. Based on the case study, several locations of customers and stores in 3D are used in the test. The experiments demonstrated in this paper substantiated that the proposed approach is capable of minimizing overlapping segmentation and reducing repetitive data entries. The structure is also tested for retrieving the spatial records from the database. For marketing purposes, certain radius of point is used to analyzing marketing targets. Based on the presented tests in this paper, we strongly

  10. Lessons from non-Abelian plasma instabilities in two spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Peter; Leang, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma instabilities can play a fundamental role in quark-gluon plasma equilibration in the high energy (weak coupling) limit. Early simulations of the evolution of plasma instabilities in non-Abelian gauge theory, performed in one spatial dimension, found behavior qualitatively similar to traditional QED plasmas. Later simulations of the fully three-dimensional theory found different behavior, unlike traditional QED plasmas. To shed light on the origin of this difference, we study the intermediate case of two spatial dimensions. Depending on how the 'two-dimensional' theory is formulated, we can obtain either behavior

  11. Does spatial proximity to small towns matter for rural livelihoods? : A propensity score matching analysis in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrekidan Abbay, A.; Rutten, R.P.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial dimension of rural–urban linkage has become a new subject of debate in regional development. In most empirical research the focus has usually been on the role of small urban centers in rural development. However, the effects of different particulars of the linkage such as spatial

  12. Marine spatial planning and Good Environmental Status: a perspective on spatial and temporal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Gilbert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the Good Environmental Status of marine environments in Europe's regional seas; yet, maritime activities, including sources of marine degradation, are diversifying and intensifying in an increasingly globalized world. Marine spatial planning is emerging as a tool for rationalizing competing uses of the marine environment while guarding its quality. A directive guiding the development of such plans by European Union member states is currently being formulated. There is an undeniable need for marine spatial planning. However, we argue that considerable care must be taken with marine spatial planning, as the spatial and temporal scales of maritime activities and of Good Environmental Status may be mismatched. We identify four principles for careful and explicit consideration to align the requirements of the two directives and enable marine spatial planning to support the achievement of Good Environmental Status in Europe's regional seas.

  13. Small-scale spatial cognition in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ken; Spetch, Marcia L; Kelly, Debbie M; Bingman, Verner P

    2006-05-01

    Roberts and Van Veldhuizen's [Roberts, W.A., Van Veldhuizen, N., 1985. Spatial memory in pigeons on the radial maze. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 11, 241-260] study on pigeons in the radial maze sparked research on landmark use by pigeons in lab-based tasks as well as variants of the radial-maze task. Pigeons perform well on open-field versions of the radial maze, with feeders scattered on the laboratory floor. Pigeons can also be trained to search precisely for buried food. The search can be based on multiple landmarks, but is sometimes controlled by just one or two landmarks, with the preferred landmarks varying across individuals. Findings are similar in landmark-based searching on a computer monitor and on a lab floor, despite many differences between the two kinds of tasks. A number of general learning principles are found in landmark-based searching, such as cue competition, generalization and peak shift, and selective attention. Pigeons also learn the geometry of the environment in which they are searching. Neurophysiological studies have implicated the hippocampal formation (HF) in avian spatial cognition, with the right hippocampus hypothesized to play a more important role in the spatial recognition of goal locations. Most recently, single-cell recording from the pigeon's hippocampal formation has revealed cells with different properties from the classic 'place' cells of rats, as well as differences in the two sides of the hippocampus.

  14. CERN LEP2 constraint on 4D QED having a dynamically generated spatial dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.-C.; Izumi, Etsuko; Sugamoto, Akio

    2002-01-01

    We study 4D QED in which one spatial dimension is dynamically generated from the 3D action, following the mechanism proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Cohen, and Georgi. In this model, the generated fourth dimension is discretized by an interval parameter a. We examine the phenomenological constraint on the parameter a coming from collider experiments on the QED process e + e - →γγ. It is found that the CERN e + e - collider LEP2 experiments give the constraint of 1/a > or approx. 461 GeV. The expected bound on the same parameter a at a future e + e - linear collider is briefly discussed

  15. Effect of Spatial Dimension and External Potential on Joule-Thomson Coefficients of Ideal Bose Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Duqi; Wang Canjun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the form of the n-dimensional generic power-law potential, the state equation and the heat capacity, the analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient (JTC) for an ideal Bose gas are derived in n-dimensional potential. The effect of the spatial dimension and the external potential on the JTC are discussed, respectively. These results show that: (i) For the free ideal Bose gas, when n/s ≤ 2 (n is the spatial dimension, s is the momentum index in the relation between the energy and the momentum), and T → T C (T C is the critical temperature), the JTC can obviously improve by means of changing the throttle valve's shape and decreasing the spatial dimension of gases. (ii) For the inhomogeneous external potential, the discriminant Δ = [1 - Π[ n i=1 (kT/varpi i ) 1/t i Γ(1/t i + 1)] (k is the Boltzmann Constant, T is the thermodynamic temperature, varpi i is the external field's energy), is obtained. The potential makes the JTC increase when Δ > 0, on the contrary, it makes the JTC decrease when Δ i < 1. (general)

  16. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  17. Contacts between poultry farms, their spatial dimension and their relevance for avian influenza preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Fiebig

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing economic losses by and exposure of humans to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI in poultry flocks across Asia and parts of Africa and Europe motivate also outbreak-free countries such as Switzerland to invest in preparedness planning. Country-specific population data on between-farm contacts are required to anticipate probable patterns of pathogen spread. Information is scarce; in particular on how strongly small, non-commercial poultry farms are involved in between-farm contacts. We aimed to identify between-farm contacts of interest for HPAI spread at both commercial and non-commercial farms in a non-outbreak situation: whether or not commercial and non-commercial farms were involved in poultry and person movements and shared resources by company integration. Focus was on poultry movements for the purpose of purchase, sale and poultry show visits, their spatial dimension, their frequencies and the farm types they connected. Of the total 49,437 recorded poultry farms in Switzerland, 95% had less than 500 birds. The farm number resulted in densities of up to 8 poultry farms per km2 and a median number of 47 neighbour farms within a 3 km radius around the farms. Person movements and shared resources were identified in 78% of the surveyed farms (93% among commercials, 67% among non-commercials. Poultry trading movements over extensive spatial ranges were stated at 65% (79% among commercials, 55% among non-commercials. Movement frequencies depended on farm specialization and were higher for commercial than for non-commercial farms except for poultry show visits. Estimates however for the entire population revealed 3.5 times higher chances of a poultry purchase, and 14.6 times higher chances of exhibiting birds at poultry shows occurring in a given time by a farm smaller than 500 birds (non-commercial farm than by a larger (commercial farm. These findings indicate that both commercial and non-commercial farms are involved in

  18. The large dimension limit of a small black hole instability in anti-de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Kim, Youngshin

    2018-02-01

    We study the dynamics of a black hole in an asymptotically AdS d × S d space-time in the limit of a large number of dimensions, d → ∞. Such a black hole is known to become dynamically unstable below a critical radius. We derive the dispersion relation for the quasinormal mode that governs this instability in an expansion in 1 /d. We also provide a full nonlinear analysis of the instability at leading order in 1 /d. We find solutions that resemble the lumpy black spots and black belts previously constructed numerically for small d, breaking the SO( d + 1) rotational symmetry of the sphere down to SO( d). We are also able to follow the time evolution of the instability. Due possibly to limitations in our analysis, our time dependent simulations do not settle down to stationary solutions. This work has relevance for strongly interacting gauge theories; through the AdS/CFT correspondence, the special case d = 5 corresponds to maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a spatial S 3 in the microcanonical ensemble and in a strong coupling and large number of colors limit.

  19. On the Casimir scaling violation in the cusp anomalous dimension at small angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2017-10-01

    We compute the four-loop n f contribution proportional to the quartic Casimir of the QCD cusp anomalous dimension as an expansion for small cusp angle ϕ. This piece is gauge invariant, violates Casimir scaling, and first appears at four loops. It requires the evaluation of genuine non-planar four-loop Feynman integrals. We present results up to O({φ}^4) . One motivation for our calculation is to probe a recent conjecture on the all-order structure of the cusp anomalous dimension. As a byproduct we obtain the four-loop HQET wave function anomalous dimension for this color structure.

  20. The fractal spatial distribution of pancreatic islets in three dimensions: a self-avoiding growth model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Junghyo; Periwal, Vipul; Hörnblad, Andreas; Ahlgren, Ulf; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2013-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans, responsible for controlling blood glucose levels, are dispersed within the pancreas. A universal power law governing the fractal spatial distribution of islets in two-dimensional pancreatic sections has been reported. However, the fractal geometry in the actual three-dimensional pancreas volume, and the developmental process that gives rise to such a self-similar structure, has not been investigated. Here, we examined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of islets in intact mouse pancreata using optical projection tomography and found a power law with a fractal dimension of 2.1. Furthermore, based on two-dimensional pancreatic sections of human autopsies, we found that the distribution of human islets also follows a universal power law with a fractal dimension of 1.5 in adult pancreata, which agrees with the value previously reported in smaller mammalian pancreas sections. Finally, we developed a self-avoiding growth model for the development of the islet distribution and found that the fractal nature of the spatial islet distribution may be associated with the self-avoidance in the branching process of vascularization in the pancreas. (paper)

  1. Low, slow, small target recognition based on spatial vision network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao; Guo, Pei; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Traditional photoelectric monitoring is monitored using a large number of identical cameras. In order to ensure the full coverage of the monitoring area, this monitoring method uses more cameras, which leads to more monitoring and repetition areas, and higher costs, resulting in more waste. In order to reduce the monitoring cost and solve the difficult problem of finding, identifying and tracking a low altitude, slow speed and small target, this paper presents spatial vision network for low-slow-small targets recognition. Based on camera imaging principle and monitoring model, spatial vision network is modeled and optimized. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance.

  2. Search for extra spatial dimensions and TeV scale quantum gravity at LEP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of measurements which probe the experimental consequences of extra spatial dimensions and TeV scale quantum gravity are accessible at the LEP-2 electron-positron collider. Preliminary results on the following processes, performed with the ALEPH detector at center of mass energies around 200 GeV, are presented: 1. search for direct graviton production in the reaction e + e - →γG; and, 2. search for effects due to virtual graviton exchange in the reactions e + e - →γγ and fermion-anti-fermion pairs

  3. Porous stainless steel hollow fibers with shrinkage-controlled small radial dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Raaijmakers, Michiel J.T.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of thin (∼250 μm) porous stainless steel hollow fiber membranes based on dry–wet spinning of a particle-loaded polymer solution followed by heat treatment. Extraordinarily small radial dimensions were achieved by controlled shrinkage during thermal

  4. Time-varying spatial data integration and visualization: 4 Dimensions Environmental Observations Platform (4-DEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Rossana; Coviello, Irina; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Pergola, Nicola; Sileo, Giancanio; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2014-05-01

    In environmental studies the integration of heterogeneous and time-varying data, is a very common requirement for investigating and possibly visualize correlations among physical parameters underlying the dynamics of complex phenomena. Datasets used in such kind of applications has often different spatial and temporal resolutions. In some case superimposition of asynchronous layers is required. Traditionally the platforms used to perform spatio-temporal visual data analyses allow to overlay spatial data, managing the time using 'snapshot' data model, each stack of layers being labeled with different time. But this kind of architecture does not incorporate the temporal indexing neither the third spatial dimension which is usually given as an independent additional layer. Conversely, the full representation of a generic environmental parameter P(x,y,z,t) in the 4D space-time domain could allow to handle asynchronous datasets as well as less traditional data-products (e.g. vertical sections, punctual time-series, etc.) . In this paper we present the 4 Dimensions Environmental Observation Platform (4-DEOS), a system based on a web services architecture Client-Broker-Server. This platform is a new open source solution for both a timely access and an easy integration and visualization of heterogeneous (maps, vertical profiles or sections, punctual time series, etc.) asynchronous, geospatial products. The innovative aspect of the 4-DEOS system is that users can analyze data/products individually moving through time, having also the possibility to stop the display of some data/products and focus on other parameters for better studying their temporal evolution. This platform gives the opportunity to choose between two distinct display modes for time interval or for single instant. Users can choose to visualize data/products in two ways: i) showing each parameter in a dedicated window or ii) visualize all parameters overlapped in a single window. A sliding time bar, allows

  5. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  6. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  7. One-dimension-based spatially ordered architectures for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Tang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Yugang; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-08-07

    The severe consequences of fossil fuel consumption have resulted in a need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. Conversion and storage of solar energy via a renewable method, such as photocatalysis, holds great promise as such an alternative. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have gained attention in solar energy conversion because they have a long axis to absorb incident sunlight yet a short radial distance for separation of photogenerated charge carriers. In particular, well-ordered spatially high dimensional architectures based on 1D nanostructures with well-defined facets or anisotropic shapes offer an exciting opportunity for bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world, providing a platform for integration of nanostructures on a larger and more manageable scale into high-performance solar energy conversion applications. In this review, we focus on the progress of photocatalytic solar energy conversion over controlled one-dimension-based spatially ordered architecture hybrids. Assembly and classification of these novel architectures are summarized, and we discuss the opportunity and future direction of integration of 1D materials into high-dimensional, spatially organized architectures, with a perspective toward improved collective performance in various artificial photoredox applications.

  8. Spatial prisoner's dilemma optimally played in small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation is commonly found in ecological and social systems even when it apparently seems that individuals can benefit from selfish behavior. We investigate how cooperation emerges with the spatial prisoner's dilemma played in a class of networks ranging from regular lattices to random networks. We find that, among these networks, small-world topology is the optimal structure when we take into account the speed at which cooperative behavior propagates. Our results may explain why the small-world properties are self-organized in real networks

  9. Bent dark soliton dynamics in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean field approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a bented dark soliton embedded in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean-field approximation is explored. We examine the case of a single bented dark soliton comparing the mean-field approximation to a correlated approach that involves multiple orbitals. Fragmentation is generally present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of stronger interparticle interactions and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for the appearance of solitonic and vortex structures in the higher-orbital dynamics. In particular, a variety of excitations including dark solitons in multiple orbitals and vortex-antidark complexes is observed to arise spontaneously within the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  10. Efimov effect in D spatial dimensions in A A B systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D. S.; Frederico, T.; Krein, G.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    The existence of the Efimov effect is drastically affected by the dimensionality of the space in which the system is embedded. The effective spatial dimension containing an atomic cloud can be continuously modified by compressing it in one or two directions. In the present Rapid Communication we determine the dimensionality D for which the Efimov effect can exist for different values of the mass ratio A =mB/mA for a general A A B system formed by two identical bosons A and a third particle B in the two-body unitary limit. In addition, we provide a prediction for the Efimov discrete scaling factor exp(π /s ) as a function of a wide range of values of A and D , which can be tested in experiments that can be realized with currently available technology.

  11. Potts Model in One-Dimension on Directed Small-World Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Édio O.; Lima, F. W. S.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Costa Filho, Raimundo N.

    2018-06-01

    The critical properties of the Potts model with q=3 and 8 states in one-dimension on directed small-world networks are investigated. This disordered system is simulated by updating it with the Monte Carlo heat bath algorithm. The Potts model on these directed small-world networks presents in fact a second-order phase transition with a new set of critical exponents for q=3 considering a rewiring probability p=0.1. For q=8 the system exhibits only a first-order phase transition independent of p.

  12. Small regulatory RNAs may sharpen spatial expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erel Levine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise establishment of gene expression patterns is a crucial step in development. Formation of a sharp boundary between high and low spatial expression domains requires a genetic mechanism that exhibits sensitivity, yet is robust to fluctuations, a demand that may not be easily achieved by morphogens alone. Recently, it has been demonstrated that small RNAs (and, in particular, microRNAs play many roles in embryonic development. Whereas some RNAs are essential for embryogenesis, others are limited to fine-tuning a predetermined gene expression pattern. Here, we explore the possibility that small RNAs participate in sharpening a gene expression profile that was crudely established by a morphogen. To this end, we study a model in which small RNAs interact with a target gene and diffusively move from cell to cell. Though diffusion generally smoothens spatial expression patterns, we find that intercellular mobility of small RNAs is actually critical in sharpening the interface between target expression domains in a robust manner. This sharpening occurs as small RNAs diffuse into regions of low mRNA expression and eliminate target molecules therein, but cannot affect regions of high mRNA levels. We discuss the applicability of our results, as examples, to the case of leaf polarity establishment in maize and Hox patterning in the early Drosophila embryo. Our findings point out the functional significance of some mechanistic properties, such as mobility of small RNAs and the irreversibility of their interactions. These properties are yet to be established directly for most classes of small RNAs. An indirect yet simple experimental test of the proposed mechanism is suggested in some detail.

  13. More dimensions: Less entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions

  14. Influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emission characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions of coal under uniaxial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soaking time affects the physical and mechanical properties of coals, and the temporal and spatial evolution of acoustic emissions reflects the fracture damage process of rock. This study conducted uniaxial compression acoustic emissions tests of coal samples with different water-soaking times to investigate the influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emissions characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions during the deformation and failure process of coals. The results demonstrate that the acoustic emissions characteristics decrease with increases in the water-soaking time. The acoustic emissions spatial fractal dimension changes from a single dimensionality reduction model to a fluctuation dimensionality reduction model, and the stress level of the initial descending point of the fractal dimension increases. With increases in the water-soaking time, the destruction of coal transitions from continuous intense failure throughout the process to a lower release of energy concentrated near the peak strength.

  15. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Corvino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers small-sided handball games (each repeated twice. The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE. Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1 highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70 and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73 and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51 speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69 with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities, the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m, a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES. The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24

  16. Why diamond dimensions and electrode geometry are crucial for small photon beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F.; Tromson, D.; Tranchant, N.; Pomorski, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Chea, M.; Cristina, K.; Boisserie, G.; Buchheit, I.; Marchesi, V.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Lisbona, A.; Lazaro, D.; Hugon, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent use of very small photon beams (down to 4 mm) in stereotactic radiotherapy requires new detectors to accurately determine the delivered dose. Diamond detectors have been presented in the literature as an attractive candidate for this application, due to their small detection volume and the diamond atomic number (Z = 6) which is close to water effective atomic number (Zeff ∼ 7.42). However, diamond exhibits a density 3.51 times greater than that of water and recent studies using Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated the drawback of a high-density detector on small beam output factors. The current study focuses on geometrical parameters of diamond detector, namely, the diamond dimensions and the electrode geometry, in order to solve the dosimetric issues still observed in small photon beams with diamond detectors. To give better insights to these open questions, we have used both computational method and experimental analysis. This study highlighted that reducing diamond dimensions is crucial for small beam output factor measurements and to limit the influence of its high density. Furthermore, electrodes covering the whole diamond surface were essential for a dose rate independence of the diamond detector. The optimal dosimeter derived from this work presented small diamond dimensions of approximately 1 × 1 × 0.15 mm 3 , with diamond-like-carbon electrodes covering the whole diamond surface. A dose rate independence of this diamond detector (better than 0.5% over a wide range of dose rates available on a stereotactic dedicated facility) was obtained due to the electrode geometry. Concerning the output factor measurements, a good agreement (better than 1.1%) was observed between this carbon material detector and two types of passive dosimeters (LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films) for all beam sizes except the smallest field of 0.6 × 0.6 cm 2 with a deviation of 2.6%. This new study showed the high performance of this

  17. Why diamond dimensions and electrode geometry are crucial for small photon beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsolat, F.; Tromson, D.; Tranchant, N.; Pomorski, M.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bassinet, C.; Huet, C. [IRSN, PRP-HOM/SDE/LDRI, 31 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, S. [IRSN, PRP-HOM/SER/UEM, 31 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, M.; Cristina, K.; Boisserie, G. [Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, 47-83 Blvd de l' Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Buchheit, I.; Marchesi, V. [Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, 6 Av. de Bourgogne, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Lisbona, A. [Institut de Cancérologie de l' Ouest, Blvd Prof. Jacques Monod, 44805 Saint-Herblain (France); Lazaro, D.; Hugon, R. [CEA, LIST, LM2S, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-21

    Recent use of very small photon beams (down to 4 mm) in stereotactic radiotherapy requires new detectors to accurately determine the delivered dose. Diamond detectors have been presented in the literature as an attractive candidate for this application, due to their small detection volume and the diamond atomic number (Z = 6) which is close to water effective atomic number (Zeff ∼ 7.42). However, diamond exhibits a density 3.51 times greater than that of water and recent studies using Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated the drawback of a high-density detector on small beam output factors. The current study focuses on geometrical parameters of diamond detector, namely, the diamond dimensions and the electrode geometry, in order to solve the dosimetric issues still observed in small photon beams with diamond detectors. To give better insights to these open questions, we have used both computational method and experimental analysis. This study highlighted that reducing diamond dimensions is crucial for small beam output factor measurements and to limit the influence of its high density. Furthermore, electrodes covering the whole diamond surface were essential for a dose rate independence of the diamond detector. The optimal dosimeter derived from this work presented small diamond dimensions of approximately 1 × 1 × 0.15 mm{sup 3}, with diamond-like-carbon electrodes covering the whole diamond surface. A dose rate independence of this diamond detector (better than 0.5% over a wide range of dose rates available on a stereotactic dedicated facility) was obtained due to the electrode geometry. Concerning the output factor measurements, a good agreement (better than 1.1%) was observed between this carbon material detector and two types of passive dosimeters (LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films) for all beam sizes except the smallest field of 0.6 × 0.6 cm{sup 2} with a deviation of 2.6%. This new study showed the high performance

  18. The role of spatial topology in a toy model of classical electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the role of spatial topology in a toy model of classical electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions. The model describes a collection of Newtonian point particles coupled to a pair of scalar fields E(t,x) and B(t,x), which mediate forces between the particles and support freely propagating radiation. We formulate the model on both a line and a circle, and show that the behavior of the model strongly depends on the choice of spatial topology.

  19. Landscapes of Memories: Visual and Spatial Dimensions of Hajja's Narrative of Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Willemse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the focus is on how to represent narratives of self well. This dilemma concerns the specific narrative of self of Hajja, a market woman who lived in the provincial town of Kebkabiya, North Darfur, Sudan. The challenge of "responsible representation" in relation to her narrative concerns the question of how to represent a narrative that does not follow the expected structure of such a narrative. By considering the narrative as a performance of identities in the discursive and material context of narration, the author points out that a narrative is part and parcel of its context of narration. A representation of that narrative should therefore include elements of this context. Not only the discursive and verbal, but also the visual, spatial, and ultimately the temporal dimensions of the context allow us to understand narratives as enactments of self in a specific context. This consideration ties into the current debate on the nature of narrative. Narratives should not only be understood in terms of the what and how, but also in relation to the where and when of their narration. Narratives constitute spaces that allow the narrator a temporal moment of closure, of constructing oneself as a unified, coherent, bounded self in a specific place at a specific time.

  20. Solving the Vlasov equation in two spatial dimensions with the Schrödinger method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Michael; Vattis, Kyriakos; Skordis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that the Vlasov equation describing collisionless self-gravitating matter may be solved with the so-called Schrödinger method (ScM). With the ScM, one solves the Schrödinger-Poisson system of equations for a complex wave function in d dimensions, rather than the Vlasov equation for a 2 d -dimensional phase space density. The ScM also allows calculating the d -dimensional cumulants directly through quasilocal manipulations of the wave function, avoiding the complexity of 2 d -dimensional phase space. We perform for the first time a quantitative comparison of the ScM and a conventional Vlasov solver in d =2 dimensions. Our numerical tests were carried out using two types of cold cosmological initial conditions: the classic collapse of a sine wave and those of a Gaussian random field as commonly used in cosmological cold dark matter N-body simulations. We compare the first three cumulants, that is, the density, velocity and velocity dispersion, to those obtained by solving the Vlasov equation using the publicly available code ColDICE. We find excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement between these codes, demonstrating the feasibility and advantages of the ScM as an alternative to N-body simulations. We discuss, the emergence of effective vorticity in the ScM through the winding number around the points where the wave function vanishes. As an application we evaluate the background pressure induced by the non-linearity of large scale structure formation, thereby estimating the magnitude of cosmological backreaction. We find that it is negligibly small and has time dependence and magnitude compatible with expectations from the effective field theory of large scale structure.

  1. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

  2. Spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Gulyaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression where they are forest component of zonal forest-steppe vegetation. Two levels of spatial organization were determined. According to mesorelief communities of different associations are organized into topo-ecological series. These series differ by length and set of communities. On higher level spatial distribution is controlled by climate and reflects zonal structure. Central part of the depression is occupied by Artemisio–Betuletum communities in combination with communities of Calamagrostio–Betuletum which occur in more humid habitats. Near the eastern edge of the depres­sion forest vegetation is represented by combination of Trollio–Populetum and Campanulo–Betuletum communities where the first one is more typical for the plain conditions and second one – for the mountainous environment. In south­ern part of the depression communities of Campanulo–Betuletum are widespread in combination with Saussureo–Populetum communities which localized on higher well-moisturized slopes. In north-western part syntaxonomical diversity drops down to one association – Primulo–Betuletum, and communities of Carici–Betuletum association occur across the whole depression in lowest relief positions. Climatically it is possible to distinguish two belts – forest-steppe and subtaiga. Forest-steppe is represented by two types – typical plain forest-steppe in north-western part and submountainous forest-steppe in the central part of depression. Subtaiga belt in the depression is developed on eastern edge, but in western part it exists only on mountain slopes.

  3. Influence of the Spatial Dimensions of Ultrasonic Transducers on the Frequency Spectrum of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas

    2017-08-08

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain

  4. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settens, Charles M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CDSEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  5. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key points To cover the specific game demands, more

  6. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key pointsTo cover the specific game demands, more

  7. Effective Spatial Dimension of Extremal Nondilatonic Black p-Branes and the Description on the World Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, R.

    1997-01-01

    By investigating the critical behavior appearing at the extremal limit of the nondilatonic, black p-branes in (d+p) dimensions, we find that some critical exponents related to the critical point obey the scaling laws. From the scaling laws we obtain that the effective spatial dimension of the nondilatonic black holes and black strings is one, and is p for the nondilatonic black p-branes. For the dilatonic black holes and black p-branes, the effective dimension will depend on the parameters in theories. Thus, we give an interpretation why the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy may be given a simple world volume interpretation only for the nondilatonic black p-branes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Spatial aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren

    1998-01-01

    and spatial aspect of the sound field, that the spectral energy above 2 kHz of the individual reflection determines the importance of the reflection for the spatial aspects, and that only the first order floor reflection will contribute to the spatial aspects. ©1998 Acoustical Society of America....

  9. Dimension Reduction Aided Hyperspectral Image Classification with a Small-sized Training Dataset: Experimental Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral images (HSI provide rich information which may not be captured by other sensing technologies and therefore gradually find a wide range of applications. However, they also generate a large amount of irrelevant or redundant data for a specific task. This causes a number of issues including significantly increased computation time, complexity and scale of prediction models mapping the data to semantics (e.g., classification, and the need of a large amount of labelled data for training. Particularly, it is generally difficult and expensive for experts to acquire sufficient training samples in many applications. This paper addresses these issues by exploring a number of classical dimension reduction algorithms in machine learning communities for HSI classification. To reduce the size of training dataset, feature selection (e.g., mutual information, minimal redundancy maximal relevance and feature extraction (e.g., Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel PCA are adopted to augment a baseline classification method, Support Vector Machine (SVM. The proposed algorithms are evaluated using a real HSI dataset. It is shown that PCA yields the most promising performance in reducing the number of features or spectral bands. It is observed that while significantly reducing the computational complexity, the proposed method can achieve better classification results over the classic SVM on a small training dataset, which makes it suitable for real-time applications or when only limited training data are available. Furthermore, it can also achieve performances similar to the classic SVM on large datasets but with much less computing time.

  10. Spatial Dimensions of Christianity and Education in Western European History, with Legacies for the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to illustrate the significance of the geographical dimension of certain connections between Christianity and education in Europe. It does so by initially introducing the nature of the three components of the triangle with special reference to theory. Taking the fundamental geographical issue of scale, the discussion proceeds…

  11. Chaos in non-diagonal spatially homogeneous cosmological models in spacetime dimensions <=10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaret, Jacques; de Rop, Yves; Henneaux, Marc

    1988-08-01

    It is shown that the chaotic oscillatory behaviour, absent in diagonal homogeneous cosmological models in spacetime dimensions between 5 and 10, can be reestablished when off-diagonal terms are included. Also at Centro de Estudios Cientificos de Santiago, Casilla 16443, Santiago 9, Chile

  12. Small extra dimensions from the interplay of gauge and supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Catena, R.; Schmidt-Hoberg, K.

    2008-03-01

    Higher-dimensional theories provide a promising framework for unified extensions of the supersymmetric standard model. Compactifications to four dimensions often lead to U(1) symmetries beyond the standard model gauge group, whose breaking scale is classically undetermined. Without supersymmetry breaking, this is also the case for the size of the compact dimensions. Fayet-Iliopoulos terms generically fix the scale M of gauge symmetry breaking. The interplay with supersymmetry breaking can then stabilize the compact dimensions at a size 1/M, much smaller than the inverse supersymmetry breaking scale 1/μ. We illustrate this mechanism with an SO(10) model in six dimensions, compactified on an orbifold. (orig.)

  13. Human and spatial dimensions of retail density: Revisiting the role of perceived control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Moreno Garcia, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous research in environmental psychology and consumer behavior has demonstrated mostly negative effects of human density on consumer experience in retail settings. The effects of spatial density, however, have received scant attention. Results from previous studies show that retail density

  14. Characterization of the dimensions of colloidal calcium carbonate dispersions in toluene with neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlak, W.A.H.M.; Dorrepaal, J.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium carbonate particles, stabilized by a surface layer, and dispersed in toluene are investigated with neutron small-angle scattering. Estimates for the dimensions of the core particle and the layer have been obtained: the layer thickness is 8.6 A and the core particle radius is 16.5 A. The limits within which these results are valid are indicated. (Auth.)

  15. A Socio-spatial Dimension of Local Creative Industry Development in Semarang and Kudus Batik Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, P.

    2018-02-01

    Creative industries existence is inseparable from the underlying social construct which provides sources for creativity and innovation. The working of social capital in a society facilitates information exchange, knowledge transfer and technology acquisition within the industry through social networks. As a result, a socio-spatial divide exists in directing the growth of the creative industries. This paper aims to examine how such a socio-spatial divide contributes to the local creative industry development in Semarang and Kudus batik clusters. Explanatory sequential mixed methods approach covering a quantitative approach followed by a qualitative approach is chosen to understand better the interplay between tangible and intangible variables in the local batik clusters. Surveys on secondary data taken from the government statistics and reports, previous studies, and media exposures are completed in the former approach to identify clustering pattern of the local batik industry and the local embeddedness factors which have shaped the existing business environment. In-depth interviews, content analysis, and field observations are engaged in the latter approach to explore reciprocal relationships between the elements of social capital and the local batik cluster development. The result demonstrates that particular social ties have determined the forms of spatial proximity manifested in forward and backward business linkages. Trust, shared norms, and inherited traditions are the key social capital attributes that lead to such a socio-spatial divide. Therefore, the intermediating roles of the bridging actors are necessary to encouraging cooperation among the participating stakeholders for a better cluster development.

  16. The connected firm: The spatial dimension of interorganizational dependence along the industry life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vaan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high-tech industry in Silicon Valley, automobile production in Detroit, and financial services in New York and London are just a few examples of industries that are spatially concentrated. This phenomenon has attracted interest from a wide range of social scientists and regional and national

  17. Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.

    1992-01-01

    We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)

  18. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  19. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  20. On the physical problem of spatial dimensions: an alternative procedure to stability arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, F.; Xavier, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensionality of space as a physical problem is discussed. Consideration on previous works is done, in which it is showed that the n-dimensional solar system can be stable only for n=3 and, from quantum mechanics, that this is the case also for hydrogen atons. Thus the epistemological consequences of the use of the stability postulate to derive spatial dimensionality is critically reviewed. The distinguished role of Maxwell's eletromagnetic theory in the determination of space dimensionality is stressed. 'Metric versus' 'topological' 'arguments are compared and shown to apply respectively to 'matter' and 'fields'. (G.D.F.) [pt

  1. The Spatial Dimension of Trade- and FDI-driven Productivity Growth in Chinese Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, T.; Ozyurt, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the major determinants of long- and short-run labour productivity evolution for Chinese provinces between 1978 and 2010. The role played by openness to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) constitutes the main focus of this analysis. From a methodological perspective, our...... main contribution is the inclusion of spatial effects into a dynamic error correction modelling framework. The results show that, in addition to domestic factors such as investment intensity and infrastructure use, trade openness and inward FDI also exert a direct impact on labour productivity...

  2. Split Fermions in Extra Dimensions and Exponentially Small Cross-Sections at Future Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, yuval

    1999-09-22

    We point out a dramatic new experimental signature for a class of theories with extra dimensions, where quarks and leptons are localized at slightly separated parallel ''walls'' whereas gauge and Higgs fields live in the bulk of the extra dimensions. The separation forbids direct local couplings between quarks and leptons, allowing for an elegant solution to the proton decay problem. We show that scattering cross sections for collisions of fermions which are separated in the extra dimensions vanish at energies high enough to probe the separation distance. This is because the separation puts a lower bound on the attainable impact parameter in the collision. We present cross sections for two body high energy scattering and estimate the power with which future colliders can probe this scenario, finding sensitivity to inverse fermion separations of order 10-70 TeV.

  3. Stochastic dynamics of penetrable rods in one dimension: occupied volume and spatial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Galen T; Popov, Alexander V; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2013-06-28

    The occupied volume of a penetrable hard rod (HR) system in one dimension is probed through the use of molecular dynamics simulations. In these dynamical simulations, collisions between penetrable rods are governed by a stochastic penetration algorithm (SPA), which allows for rods to either interpenetrate with a probability δ, or collide elastically otherwise. The limiting values of this parameter, δ = 0 and δ = 1, correspond to the HR and the ideal limits, respectively. At intermediate values, 0 exclusive and independent events is observed, making prediction of the occupied volume nontrivial. At high hard core volume fractions φ0, the occupied volume expression derived by Rikvold and Stell [J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1014 (1985)] for permeable systems does not accurately predict the occupied volume measured from the SPA simulations. Multi-body effects contribute significantly to the pair correlation function g2(r) and the simplification by Rikvold and Stell that g2(r) = δ in the penetrative region is observed to be inaccurate for the SPA model. We find that an integral over the penetrative region of g2(r) is the principal quantity that describes the particle overlap ratios corresponding to the observed penetration probabilities. Analytic formulas are developed to predict the occupied volume of mixed systems and agreement is observed between these theoretical predictions and the results measured from simulation.

  4. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yong-Lan, E-mail: ylhe_526@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Hausmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.hausmann@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [St. John' s Medical Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); Attenberger, Ulrike I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Riffel, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.riffel@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra{sup ®}, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or

  5. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yong-Lan; Hausmann, Daniel; Morelli, John N.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Riffel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra ® , Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or of

  6. Small-angle scattering theory revisited: Photocurrent and spatial localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Michelsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    In this paper theory on collective scattering measurements of electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas is revisited. We present the first full derivation of the expression for the photocurrent beginning at the basic scattering concepts. Thereafter we derive detailed expressions for the auto......- and crosspower spectra obtained from measurements. These are discussed and simple simulations made to elucidate the physical meaning of the findings. In this context, the known methods of obtaining spatial localization are discussed and appraised. Where actual numbers are applied, we utilize quantities from two...

  7. Application of GIS in exploring spatial dimensions of Efficiency in Competitiveness of Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Shahid; Sen, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Infrastructure is an important component in building competitiveness of a region. Present global scenario of economic slowdown that is led by slump in demand of goods and services and decreasing capacity of government institutions in investing public infrastructure. Strategy of augmenting competitiveness of a region can be built around improving efficient distribution of public infrastructure in the region. This efficiency in the distribution of infrastructure will reduce the burden of government institution and improve the relative output of the region in relative lesser investment. A rigorous literature study followed by an expert opinion survey (RIDIT scores) reveals that Railway, Road, ICTs and Electricity infrastructure is very crucial for better competitiveness of a region. Discussion with Experts in ICTs, Railways and Electricity sectors were conducted to find the issues, hurdles and possible solution for the development of these sectors. In an underdeveloped country like India, there is a large constrain of financial resources, for investment in infrastructure sector. Judicious planning for allocation of resources for infrastructure provisions becomes very important for efficient and sustainable development. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the mathematical programming optimization tool that measure technical efficiency of the multiple-input and/or multiple-output case by constructing a relative technical efficiency score. This paper tries to utilize DEA to identify the efficiency at which present level of selected components of Infrastructure (Railway, Road, ICTs and Electricity) is utilized in order to build competitiveness of the region. This paper tries to identify a spatial pattern of efficiency of Infrastructure with the help of spatial auto-correlation and Hot-spot analysis in Arc GIS. This analysis leads to policy implications for efficient allocation of financial resources for the provision of infrastructure in the region and building a

  8. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  9. Teaching Spatial Awareness In Small-Sided Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David; Hannon, James C.; Molina, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This article supports the use of strategy and tactics at games stage three (how to teach basic offensive and defensive strategy using small-sided games) as a best practices in physical education. Potential learning through game stages three and four (full-sided games) is only possible when teachers have advanced content knowledge to teach the…

  10. DISPL: a software package for one and two spatially dimensioned kinetics-diffusion problems. [FORTRAN for IBM computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, G K; Minkoff, M; Byrne, G D; Sorensen, D; Bleakney, T; Saltzman, J

    1978-11-01

    DISPL is a software package for solving some second-order nonlinear systems of partial differential equations including parabolic, elliptic, hyperbolic, and some mixed types such as parabolic--elliptic equations. Fairly general nonlinear boundary conditions are allowed as well as interface conditions for problems in an inhomogeneous media. The spatial domain is one- or two-dimensional with Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical (in one dimension only) geometry. The numerical method is based on the use of Galerkin's procedure combined with the use of B-splines in order to reduce the system of PDE's to a system of ODE's. The latter system is then solved with a sophisticated ODE software package. Software features include extensive dump/restart facilities, free format input, moderate printed output capability, dynamic storage allocation, and three graphics packages. 17 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Deconfined quantum criticality of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two spatial dimensions: A renormalization-group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of the O(3) nonlinear σ model without Berry phase in two spatial dimensions. Utilizing the CP 1 representation of the nonlinear σ model, we obtain an effective action in terms of bosonic spinons interacting via compact U(1) gauge fields. Based on the effective field theory, we find that the bosonic spinons are deconfined to emerge at the quantum critical point of the nonlinear σ model. It is emphasized that the deconfinement of spinons is realized in the absence of Berry phase. This is in contrast to the previous study of Senthil et al. [Science 303, 1490 (2004)], where the Berry phase plays a crucial role, resulting in the deconfinement of spinons. It is the reason why the deconfinement is obtained even in the absence of the Berry phase effect that the quantum critical point is described by the XY ('neutral') fixed point, not the IXY ('charged') fixed point. The IXY fixed point is shown to be unstable against instanton excitations and the instanton excitations are proliferated. At the IXY fixed point it is the Berry phase effect that suppresses the instanton excitations, causing the deconfinement of spinons. On the other hand, the XY fixed point is found to be stable against instanton excitations because an effective internal charge is zero at the neutral XY fixed point. As a result the deconfinement of spinons occurs at the quantum critical point of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions

  12. Infection dynamics on spatial small-world network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Bryan; Antonioni, Alberto; Bullock, Seth; Darabos, Christian; Tomassini, Marco; Giacobini, Mario

    2017-11-01

    The study of complex networks, and in particular of social networks, has mostly concentrated on relational networks, abstracting the distance between nodes. Spatial networks are, however, extremely relevant in our daily lives, and a large body of research exists to show that the distances between nodes greatly influence the cost and probability of establishing and maintaining a link. A random geometric graph (RGG) is the main type of synthetic network model used to mimic the statistical properties and behavior of many social networks. We propose a model, called REDS, that extends energy-constrained RGGs to account for the synergic effect of sharing the cost of a link with our neighbors, as is observed in real relational networks. We apply both the standard Watts-Strogatz rewiring procedure and another method that conserves the degree distribution of the network. The second technique was developed to eliminate unwanted forms of spatial correlation between the degree of nodes that are affected by rewiring, limiting the effect on other properties such as clustering and assortativity. We analyze both the statistical properties of these two network types and their epidemiological behavior when used as a substrate for a standard susceptible-infected-susceptible compartmental model. We consider and discuss the differences in properties and behavior between RGGs and REDS as rewiring increases and as infection parameters are changed. We report considerable differences both between the network types and, in the case of REDS, between the two rewiring schemes. We conclude that REDS represent, with the application of these rewiring mechanisms, extremely useful and interesting tools in the study of social and epidemiological phenomena in synthetic complex networks.

  13. Psychophysical testing of spatial and temporal dimensions of endogenous analgesia: conditioned pain modulation and offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigman, Liat; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2013-08-01

    The endogenous analgesia (EA) system is psychophysically evaluated using various paradigms, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA) testing, respectively, the spatial and temporal filtering processes of noxious information. Though both paradigms assess the function of the EA system, it is still unknown whether they reflect the same aspects of EA and consequently whether they provide additive or equivalent data. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (15 males) underwent 5 trials of different stimulation conditions in random order including: (1) the classic OA three-temperature stimulus train ('OA'); (2) a three-temperature stimulus train as control for the OA ('OAcon'); (3) a constant temperature stimulus ('constant'); (4) the classic parallel CPM ('CPM'); and (5) a combination of OA and CPM ('OA + CPM'). We found that in males, the pain reduction during the OA + CPM condition was greater than during the OA (P = 0.003) and CPM (P = 0.07) conditions. Furthermore, a correlation was found between OA and CPM (r = 0.62, P = 0.01) at the time of maximum OA effect. The additive effect found suggests that the two paradigms represent at least partially different aspects of EA. The moderate association between the CPM and OA magnitudes indicates, on the other hand, some commonality of their underlying mechanisms.

  14. Spatial and temporal dimensions of landscape fragmentation across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Gabriel, Cristina; Carreiras, Joāo M B

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon in the past decades has been suffering severe landscape alteration, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, such as road building and land clearing for agriculture. Using a high-resolution time series of land cover maps (classified as mature forest, non-forest, secondary forest) spanning from 1984 through 2011, and four uncorrelated fragmentation metrics (edge density, clumpiness index, area-weighted mean patch size and shape index), we examined the temporal and spatial dynamics of forest fragmentation in three study areas across the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Santarém and Machadinho d'Oeste), inside and outside conservation units. Moreover, we compared the impacts on the landscape of: (1) different land uses (e.g. cattle ranching, crop production), (2) occupation processes (spontaneous vs. planned settlements) and (3) implementation of conservation units. By 2010/2011, municipalities located along the Arc of Deforestation had more than 55% of the remaining mature forest strictly confined to conservation units. Further, the planned settlement showed a higher rate of forest loss, a more persistent increase in deforested areas and a higher relative incidence of deforestation inside conservation units. Distinct agricultural activities did not lead to significantly different landscape structures; the accessibility of the municipality showed greater influence in the degree of degradation of the landscapes. Even with a high proportion of the landscapes covered by conservation units, which showed a strong inhibitory effect on forest fragmentation, we show that dynamic agriculturally driven economic activities, in municipalities with extensive road development, led to more regularly shaped, heavily fragmented landscapes, with higher densities of forest edge.

  15. Theorizing the narrative dimension of psychotherapy and counseling: A big and small story approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sools, Anna Maria; Schuhmann, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we develop a theoretically substantiated narrative framework for assessing psychotherapy practices, based on a big and small story approach. This approach stretches the narrative scope of these practices by making explicit and advancing small story counseling. We demonstrate how

  16. Relationships between Loblolly Pine small clear specimens and Dimension Lumber Tested in Static Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Finto Antony; Michael Kane; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Huizhe Jin; Kim Love-Myers; John Paul McTague

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens. However, the procedures were changed because these models were found to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts...

  17. Spatial Analysis and Safety Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Small and Medium Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Orekhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the spatial patterns of socio-economic development of small and medium-sized cities in the Volgograd region. We know that small and medium-sized cities as spatial socio-economic systems are not only the support frame of settlement, but the main “engine” of innovative impulses for the surrounding periphery. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the effort to implement a spatial approach to the assessment of the economic security of small and medium-sized cities (SCR. The content of the economic security of cities is determined by two system characteristics of the socio-economic system: economic activity (EA and quality of life (QL of the urban population, or SCR = F (EA; QL. For finding spatial patterns in GIS, great interest is in investigating the environment of each city by calculating the local statistical characteristics of geo-variability which allow assessing trends of spatial variation of the six components of security (human security, technosphere safety, environmental safety, etc., local variations in emissions and their values indicators Ki. The successful solution of these problems is possible with the use of tools of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA in ARCGIS, and in particular, the Voronoy maps. The spatial approach has allowed to perform an integrated assessment of the economic security and to evaluate safety risks in small and medium-sized cities of the Volgograd region with the security system of indicators.

  18. Cosmological dynamics of spatially flat Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet models in various dimensions: high-dimensional Λ-term case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavluchenko, Sergey A. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper we perform a systematic study of spatially flat [(3+D)+1]-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet cosmological models with Λ-term. We consider models that topologically are the product of two flat isotropic subspaces with different scale factors. One of these subspaces is three-dimensional and represents our space and the other is D-dimensional and represents extra dimensions. We consider no ansatz of the scale factors, which makes our results quite general. With both Einstein-Hilbert and Gauss-Bonnet contributions in play, D = 3 and the general D ≥ 4 cases have slightly different dynamics due to the different structure of the equations of motion. We analytically study the equations of motion in both cases and describe all possible regimes with special interest on the realistic regimes. Our analysis suggests that the only realistic regime is the transition from high-energy (Gauss-Bonnet) Kasner regime, which is the standard cosmological singularity in that case, to the anisotropic exponential regime with expanding three and contracting extra dimensions. Availability of this regime allows us to put a constraint on the value of Gauss-Bonnet coupling α and the Λ-term - this regime appears in two regions on the (α, Λ) plane: α < 0, Λ > 0, αΛ ≤ -3/2 and α > 0, αΛ ≤ (3D{sup 2} - 7D + 6)/(4D(D-1)), including the entire Λ < 0 region. The obtained bounds are confronted with the restrictions on α and Λ from other considerations, like causality, entropy-to-viscosity ratio in AdS/CFT and others. Joint analysis constrains (α, Λ) even further: α > 0, D ≥ 2 with (3D{sup 2} - 7D + 6)/(4D(D-1)) ≥ αΛ ≥ -(D+2)(D+3)(D{sup 2} + 5D + 12)/(8(D{sup 2} + 3D + 6){sup 2}). (orig.)

  19. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-01-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  20. Quadratic Plus Linear Operators which Preserve Pure States of Quantum Systems: Small Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saburov, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics says that a pure state of a quantum system corresponds to a vector of norm 1 and an observable is a self-adjoint operator on the space of states. It is of interest to describe all linear or nonlinear operators which preserve the pure states of the system. In the linear case, it is nothing more than isometries of Hilbert spaces. In the nonlinear case, this problem was open. In this paper, in the small dimensional spaces, we shall describe all quadratic plus linear operators which preserve pure states of the quantum system

  1. Search for large spatial extra dimensions with dimuon events from 7 TeV pp collisions at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Stefan Antonius

    2013-01-01

    Data recorded by the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is analyzed to study the production of high-mass muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Most of the presented results are based on a dataset of 5.3 fb -1 at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. The interpretation of the measured dimuon mass spectrum focuses on a potential non-resonant signal from s-channel graviton exchange. Such a signature of new physics is motivated by the ADD (Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali) model of large spatial extra dimensions. The main background for the search is given by the SM (Standard Model) prediction of neutral current Drell-Yan events. Other background sources like for example t anti t production are also considered. The Standard Model expectation is evaluated based on simulation studies and can be tested for dimuon masses below the signal region. Estimates of theory uncertainties on the background prediction and uncertainties related to the detector performance are included in the statistical evaluation of the measurement. The dimuon mass spectrum observed in the 2011 CMS dataset is found to be compatible with the SM expectation. For masses greater than 1.3 TeV, signal cross sections of greater than 0.84 fb -1 can be excluded at 95% confidence level. This result corresponds to an exclusion of values below 3.0 TeV for the ADD model parameters Λ T . A combination of dimuon, dielectron and diphoton results based on a dataset of about 2.0 fb -1 extends the excluded range to Λ T <3.3 TeV. Also limits based on the 2012 CMS dataset at collision energies of √(s)=8 TeV and some aspects of the CMS search for new dilepton resonances are briefly discussed.

  2. Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy (HCRT) for primary and metastatic lung cancers with small dimension. Efficacy and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirri, Maria Alessandra; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinzi, Valentina; Benassi, Marcello; D'Angelo, Annelisa; Strigari, Lidia; Caterino, Mauro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to report on the clinical outcome of hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy (HCRT) for medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) or limited pulmonary metastases ≤ 5 cm in diameter. Patients and methods: from June 2003 to March 2007, 40 patients (42 lesions) underwent HCRT consisting of 40 Gy in five fractions over 2.5 weeks received by at least 95% of planning target volume. All patients underwent CT simulation and treatment under free shallow breathing. To evaluate target displacement under respiratory activity, two additional CT scans were performed with breath-holding during the expiratory and inspiratory phases. Of all patients enrolled, those with a follow-up ≥ 4 months were considered suitable for analysis. Local response was evaluated with CT imaging 4 months after the end of HCRT and every 3 months thereafter. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: local response to the treatment was complete response, partial response, no change, and progressive disease as seen in 29%, 43%, 14%, and 7% of tumors, respectively. LRFS at 1 year and 3 years was 76% and 63%, respectively. Lung toxicities ≥ grade 2 were observed in 4/40 patients, but no grade 4. Pericardial effusion occurred in one patient. In stage I NSCLC patients (n = 15) with a median follow-up of 25 months, the 1-year LRFS and OS rates were 88% and 81%, respectively, and the 3-year rates 72% and 61%, respectively. Conclusion: HCRT is an effective and low-toxic treatment for medically inoperable early-stage lung cancers and pulmonary metastases for all clinicians lacking the aid of a dedicated stereotactic system. (orig.)

  3. Damage Spreading in Spatial and Small-world Random Boolean Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Teuscher, Christof [Portland State U.

    2014-02-18

    The study of the response of complex dynamical social, biological, or technological networks to external perturbations has numerous applications. Random Boolean Networks (RBNs) are commonly used a simple generic model for certain dynamics of complex systems. Traditionally, RBNs are interconnected randomly and without considering any spatial extension and arrangement of the links and nodes. However, most real-world networks are spatially extended and arranged with regular, power-law, small-world, or other non-random connections. Here we explore the RBN network topology between extreme local connections, random small-world, and pure random networks, and study the damage spreading with small perturbations. We find that spatially local connections change the scaling of the relevant component at very low connectivities ($\\bar{K} \\ll 1$) and that the critical connectivity of stability $K_s$ changes compared to random networks. At higher $\\bar{K}$, this scaling remains unchanged. We also show that the relevant component of spatially local networks scales with a power-law as the system size N increases, but with a different exponent for local and small-world networks. The scaling behaviors are obtained by finite-size scaling. We further investigate the wiring cost of the networks. From an engineering perspective, our new findings provide the key design trade-offs between damage spreading (robustness), the network's wiring cost, and the network's communication characteristics.

  4. Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet

  5. N2O emission hotspots at different spatial scales and governing factors for small scale hotspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R.N. van den; Hefting, M.M.; Tan, N.C.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronically nitrate-loaded riparian buffer zones show high N 2 O emissions. Often, a large part of the N 2 O is emitted from small surface areas, resulting in high spatial variability in these buffer zones. These small surface areas with high N 2 O emissions (hotspots) need to be investigated to generate knowledge on the factors governing N 2 O emissions. In this study the N 2 O emission variability was investigated at different spatial scales. Therefore N 2 O emissions from three 32 m 2 grids were determined in summer and winter. Spatial variation and total emission were determined on three different scales (0.3 m 2 , 0.018 m 2 and 0.0013 m 2 ) at plots with different levels of N 2 O emissions. Spatial variation was high at all scales determined and highest at the smallest scale. To test possible factors inducing small scale hotspots, soil samples were collected for slurry incubation to determine responses to increased electron donor/acceptor availability. Acetate addition did increase N 2 O production, but nitrate addition failed to increase total denitrification or net N 2 O production. N 2 O production was similar in all soil slurries, independent of their origin from high or low emission soils, indicating that environmental conditions (including physical factors like gas diffusion) rather than microbial community composition governed N 2 O emission rates

  6. Immediate and delayed recall of a small-scale spatial array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlauka, Michael; Donaldson, Phillip; Bonnar, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study examined people's spatial memory of a small-scale array of objects. Earlier work has primarily relied on short-retention intervals, and to date it is not known whether performance is affected by longer intervals between learning and recall. In the present investigation, university students studied seven target objects. Recall was tested immediately after learning and after an interval of seven days. Performance was found to be similar in the immediate and delayed conditions, and the results suggested that recall was facilitated by egocentric and intrinsic cues. The findings are discussed with reference to recent investigations that have shown task parameters can influence spatial recall.

  7. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y.; Braga, J.; Correa, R.; Leite, J.P.; Simoes, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  8. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia Molecular], e-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.br; Braga, J. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica; Correa, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ciencia Espacial e Atmosferica; Leite, J.P. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia, Psiquiatria e Psicologia Medica; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2009-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  9. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multipinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target’s radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals.

  10. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  11. Dimensions and Global Twist of Single-Layer DNA Origami Measured by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew A B; Tuckwell, Andrew J; Berengut, Jonathan F; Bath, Jonathan; Benn, Florence; Duff, Anthony P; Whitten, Andrew E; Dunn, Katherine E; Hynson, Robert M; Turberfield, Andrew J; Lee, Lawrence K

    2018-06-04

    The rational design of complementary DNA sequences can be used to create nanostructures that self-assemble with nanometer precision. DNA nanostructures have been imaged by atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides complementary structural information on the ensemble-averaged state of DNA nanostructures in solution. Here we demonstrate that SAXS can distinguish between different single-layer DNA origami tiles that look identical when immobilized on a mica surface and imaged with atomic force microscopy. We use SAXS to quantify the magnitude of global twist of DNA origami tiles with different crossover periodicities: these measurements highlight the extreme structural sensitivity of single-layer origami to the location of strand crossovers. We also use SAXS to quantify the distance between pairs of gold nanoparticles tethered to specific locations on a DNA origami tile and use this method to measure the overall dimensions and geometry of the DNA nanostructure in solution. Finally, we use indirect Fourier methods, which have long been used for the interpretation of SAXS data from biomolecules, to measure the distance between DNA helix pairs in a DNA origami nanotube. Together, these results provide important methodological advances in the use of SAXS to analyze DNA nanostructures in solution and insights into the structures of single-layer DNA origami.

  12. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  13. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model's representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev's electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species' smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  14. A spatial method to calculate small-scale fisheries effort in data poor scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew Frederick; Moreno-Báez, Marcia; Giron-Nava, Alfredo; Corominas, Julia; Erisman, Brad; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2017-01-01

    To gauge the collateral impacts of fishing we must know where fishing boats operate and how much they fish. Although small-scale fisheries land approximately the same amount of fish for human consumption as industrial fleets globally, methods of estimating their fishing effort are comparatively poor. We present an accessible, spatial method of calculating the effort of small-scale fisheries based on two simple measures that are available, or at least easily estimated, in even the most data-poor fisheries: the number of boats and the local coastal human population. We illustrate the method using a small-scale fisheries case study from the Gulf of California, Mexico, and show that our measure of Predicted Fishing Effort (PFE), measured as the number of boats operating in a given area per day adjusted by the number of people in local coastal populations, can accurately predict fisheries landings in the Gulf. Comparing our values of PFE to commercial fishery landings throughout the Gulf also indicates that the current number of small-scale fishing boats in the Gulf is approximately double what is required to land theoretical maximum fish biomass. Our method is fishery-type independent and can be used to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of growth in small-scale fisheries. This new method provides an important first step towards estimating the fishing effort of small-scale fleets globally.

  15. Spatial structure and distribution of small pelagic fish in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bigot, Jean-Louis; Bourdeix, Jean-Hervé; Morfin, Marie; Roos, David; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Bez, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and anthropogenic drivers of population dynamics requires detailed studies on habitat selection and spatial distribution. Although small pelagic fish aggregate in large shoals and usually exhibit important spatial structure, their dynamics in time and space remain unpredictable and challenging. In the Gulf of Lions (north-western Mediterranean), sardine and anchovy biomasses have declined over the past 5 years causing an important fishery crisis while sprat abundance rose. Applying geostatistical tools on scientific acoustic surveys conducted in the Gulf of Lions, we investigated anchovy, sardine and sprat spatial distributions and structures over 10 years. Our results show that sardines and sprats were more coastal than anchovies. The spatial structure of the three species was fairly stable over time according to variogram outputs, while year-to-year variations in kriged maps highlighted substantial changes in their location. Support for the McCall's basin hypothesis (covariation of both population density and presence area with biomass) was found only in sprats, the most variable of the three species. An innovative method to investigate species collocation at different scales revealed that globally the three species strongly overlap. Although species often co-occurred in terms of presence/absence, their biomass density differed at local scale, suggesting potential interspecific avoidance or different sensitivity to local environmental characteristics. Persistent favourable areas were finally detected, but their environmental characteristics remain to be determined.

  16. Finding big shots: small-area mapping and spatial modelling of obesity among Swiss male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Held, Leonhard; Moser, André; Jones, Philip A; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, as in other developed countries, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Most of the analyses so far have been based on sporadic surveys or self-reported data and did not offer potential for small-area analyses. The goal of this study was to investigate spatial variation and determinants of obesity among young Swiss men using recent conscription data. A complete, anonymized dataset of conscription records for the 2010-2012 period were provided by Swiss Armed Forces. We used a series of Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate the spatial pattern of obesity across 3,187 postcodes, varying them by type of random effects (spatially unstructured and structured), level of adjustment by individual (age and professional status) and area-based [urbanicity and index of socio-economic position (SEP)] characteristics. The analysed dataset consisted of 100,919 conscripts, out of which 5,892 (5.8 %) were obese. Crude obesity prevalence increased with age among conscripts of lower individual and area-based SEP and varied greatly over postcodes. Best model's estimates of adjusted odds ratios of obesity on postcode level ranged from 0.61 to 1.93 and showed a strong spatial pattern of obesity risk across the country. Odds ratios above 1 concentrated in central and north Switzerland. Smaller pockets of elevated obesity risk also emerged around cities of Geneva, Fribourg and Lausanne. Lower estimates were observed in North-East and East as well as south of the Alps. Importantly, small regional outliers were observed and patterning did not follow administrative boundaries. Similarly as with crude obesity prevalence, the best fitting model confirmed increasing risk of obesity with age and among conscripts of lower professional status. The risk decreased with higher area-based SEP and, to a lesser degree - in rural areas. In Switzerland, there is a substantial spatial variation in obesity risk

  17. How and Why Does Stream Water Temperature Vary at Small Spatial Scales in a Headwater Stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. C.; Gannon, J. P.; Kelleher, C.

    2017-12-01

    The temperature of stream water is controlled by climatic variables, runoff/baseflow generation, and hyporheic exchange. Hydrologic conditions such as gaining/losing reaches and sources of inflow can vary dramatically along a stream on a small spatial scale. In this work, we attempt to discern the extent that the factors of air temperature, groundwater inflow, and precipitation influence stream temperature at small spatial scales along the length of a stream. To address this question, we measured stream temperature along the perennial stream network in a 43 ha catchment with a complex land use history in Cullowhee, NC. Two water temperature sensors were placed along the stream network on opposite sides of the stream at 100-meter intervals and at several locations of interest (i.e. stream junctions). The forty total sensors recorded the temperature every 10 minutes for one month in the spring and one month in the summer. A subset of sampling locations where stream temperature was consistent or varied from one side of the stream to the other were explored with a thermal imaging camera to obtain a more detailed representation of the spatial variation in temperature at those sites. These thermal surveys were compared with descriptions of the contributing area at the sample sites in an effort to discern specific causes of differing flow paths. Preliminary results suggest that on some branches of the stream stormflow has less influence than regular hyporheic exchange, while other tributaries can change dramatically with stormflow conditions. We anticipate this work will lead to a better understanding of temperature patterns in stream water networks. A better understanding of the importance of small-scale differences in flow paths to water temperature may be able to inform watershed management decisions in the future.

  18. Assessing the spatial distribution of coral bleaching using small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hunter, Cynthia; Lukacazyk, Trent; Franklin, Erik C.

    2018-06-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are an affordable, effective complement to existing coral reef monitoring and assessment tools. sUAS provide repeatable low-altitude, high-resolution photogrammetry to address fundamental questions of spatial ecology and community dynamics for shallow coral reef ecosystems. Here, we qualitatively describe the use of sUAS to survey the spatial characteristics of coral cover and the distribution of coral bleaching across patch reefs in Kānéohe Bay, Hawaii, and address limitations and anticipated technology advancements within the field of UAS. Overlapping sub-decimeter low-altitude aerial reef imagery collected during the 2015 coral bleaching event was used to construct high-resolution reef image mosaics of coral bleaching responses on four Kānéohe Bay patch reefs, totaling 60,000 m2. Using sUAS imagery, we determined that paled, bleached and healthy corals on all four reefs were spatially clustered. Comparative analyses of data from sUAS imagery and in situ diver surveys found as much as 14% difference in coral cover values between survey methods, depending on the size of the reef and area surveyed. When comparing the abundance of unhealthy coral (paled and bleached) between sUAS and in situ diver surveys, we found differences in cover from 1 to 49%, depending on the depth of in situ surveys, the percent of reef area covered with sUAS surveys and patchiness of the bleaching response. This study demonstrates the effective use of sUAS surveys for assessing the spatial dynamics of coral bleaching at colony-scale resolutions across entire patch reefs and evaluates the complementarity of data from both sUAS and in situ diver surveys to more accurately characterize the spatial ecology of coral communities on reef flats and slopes.

  19. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, S; Nara, T; Kurihara, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally. (paper)

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the genetic organization of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Manlove, M.N.; Joule, J.

    1978-01-01

    A functional population is a group of organisms and their offspring that contributes to a common gene pool within a certain area and time period. It is also the unit of evolution and should be viewed both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Selection, drift, dispersal, and mutation can alter the composition of populations. Spatial heterogeneity in allele frequencies argues for a conceptual model that has a series of relatively small populations semi-isolated from one another. Because of the relatively high levels of genetic variability characteristic of most mammalian species, significant amounts of gene flow between these spatially subdivided populations must occur when longer time periods are considered. Fluctuations in the genetic structure of populations seem to be important in altering the fitness of the individuals within the populations. The interaction of populations through gene flow is important in changing the levels of intrapopulational genetic variability. Populations can be characterized as existing on a continuum from relatively stable to unstable numbers and by other associated changes in their characteristics. Temporal changes in allele frequency occur in a variety of mammals. Conceptually, a species can be viewed as a series of dynamic populations that vary in numbers and quality in both a spatial and temporal context even over short distances and time periods. Short term changes in the quality of individuals in a population can be important in altering the short term dynamics of a population

  1. State Support of Small and Medium Enterprises in Russia: Spatial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Victorovich Aleshchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is prepared by results of the researches executed at the expense of budgetary funds on the Government task of Financial University, 2014. The paper analyses the spatial asymmetry of the development level of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and its support by the state in Russian regions. Using the integrated assessments of the development level and per capita state support for SMEs the author makes grouping of subjects of the Russian Federation by 5 taxa: «very high development», «high development», «moderate development», «low development» and «very low development». The researcher also composes two-dimensional matrices based on above indicators (SME development and its state support for conditions of 2012 and the forecast to 2015 (under the current trend. The study shows that the asymmetry of the development level will persist over time; and maintaining the existing policy of state support for SMEs will only increase differences in the development level between the Russian territories. Moreover, the stability of matrix of the spatial asymmetry of SMEs does not presuppose stable positive changes. This suggests that the existing mechanism of state support for SMEs does not regulate the processes of spatial development

  2. Spatial distribution of an infectious disease in a small mammal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juana P.; Bacigalupo, Antonella; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Oda, Esteban; Cattan, Pedro E.; Solari, Aldo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect vectors to several mammals, but little is known about its spatial epidemiology. We assessed the spatial distribution of T. cruzi infection in vectors and small mammals to test if mammal infection status is related to the proximity to vector colonies. During four consecutive years we captured and georeferenced the locations of mammal species and colonies of Mepraia spinolai, a restricted-movement vector. Infection status on mammals and vectors was evaluated by molecular techniques. To examine the effect of vector colonies on mammal infection status, we constructed an infection distance index using the distance between the location of each captured mammal to each vector colony and the average T. cruzi prevalence of each vector colony, weighted by the number of colonies assessed. We collected and evaluated T. cruzi infection in 944 mammals and 1976 M. spinolai. We found a significant effect of the infection distance index in explaining their infection status, when considering all mammal species together. By examining the most abundant species separately, we found this effect only for the diurnal and gregarious rodent Octodon degus. Spatially explicit models involving the prevalence and location of infected vectors and hosts had not been reported previously for a wild disease.

  3. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  4. Search for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions using dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-04-24

    A search is presented for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV using dijet angular distributions. The search is based on a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Dijet angular distributions are found to be in agreement with the perturbative QCD predictions that include electroweak corrections. Limits on the contact interaction scale from a variety of models at next-to-leading order in QCD corrections are obtained. A benchmark model in which only left-handed quarks participate is excluded up to a scale of 9.0 (11.7) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference at 95% confidence level. Lower limits between 6.0 and 8.4 TeV on the scale of virtual graviton exchange are extracted for the Arkani-Hamed--Dimopoulos--Dvali model of extra spatial dimensions.

  5. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial Characteristics of Small Green Spaces' Mitigating Effects on Microscopic Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to find small greens' disposition, types and sizes to reduce air temperature effectively in urban blocks. The research sites were six high developed blocks in Seoul, Korea. Air temperature was measured with mobile loggers in clear daytime during summer, from August to September, at screen level. Also the measurement repeated over three times a day during three days by walking and circulating around the experimental blocks and the control blocks at the same time. By analyzing spatial characteristics, the averaged air temperatures were classified with three spaces, sunny spaces, building-shaded spaces and small green spaces by using Kruskal-Wallis Test; and small green spaces in 6 blocks were classified into their outward forms, polygonal or linear and single or mixed. The polygonal and mixed types of small green spaces mitigated averaged air temperature of each block which they belonged with a simple linear regression model with adjusted R2 = 0.90**. As the area and volume of these types increased, the effect of air temperature reduction (ΔT; Air temperature difference between sunny space and green space in a block) also increased in a linear relationship. The experimental range of this research is 100m2 ~ 2,000m2 of area, and 1,000m3 ~ 10,000m3 of volume of small green space. As a result, more than 300m2 and 2,300m3 of polygonal green spaces with mixed vegetation is required to lower 1°C; 650m2 and 5,000m3 of them to lower 2°C; about 2,000m2 and about 10,000m3 of them to lower 4°C air temperature reduction in an urban block.

  7. [Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan desert under saline water drip-irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin-yuan; Zhou, Zhi-bin; Xu, Xin-wen; Lei, Jia-qiang; Lu, Jing-jing; Ma, Xue-xi; Feng, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of the soil water characteristics during four irrigating cycles of months from April to July for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert under saline water drip-irrigation had been analyzed by timely measuring the soil water content in horizontal and vertical distances 60 cm and 120 cm away from the irrigating drips, respectively. Periodic spatial and temporal variations of soil water content were observed. When the precipitation effect was not considered, there were no significant differences in the characteristics of soil water among the irrigation intervals in different months, while discrepancies were obvious in the temporal and spatial changes of soil moisture content under the conditions of rainfall and non-rainfall. When it referred to the temporal changes of soil water, it was a little higher in April but a bit lower in July, and the soil water content in June was the highest among four months because some remarkable events of precipitation happened in this month. However, as a whole, the content of soil moisture was reduced as months (from April to July) went on and it took a decreasing tendency along with days (1-15 d) following a power function. Meanwhile, the characteristics of soil water content displayed three changeable stages in an irrigation interval. When it referred to the spatial distributions of soil water, the average content of soil moisture was reduced along with the horizontal distance following a linear regression function, and varied with double peaks along with the vertical distance. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of the soil water were not influenced by the factors of precipitation and irrigating time but the physical properties of soil.

  8. L-band HIgh Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Mapping using SMALL UnManned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, E.; Venkitasubramony, A.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Elston, J. S.; Walter, B.; Lankford, D.; Corey, C.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many hydrological, biological and biogeochemical processes, plays an important role in the development and evolution of convective weather and precipitation, water resource management, agriculture, and flood runoff prediction. The launch of NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission in 2015 provided new passive global measurements of soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state at fixed crossing times and spatial resolutions of 36 km. However, there exists a need for measurements of soil moisture on much smaller spatial scales and arbitrary diurnal times for SMAP validation, precision agriculture and evaporation and transpiration studies of boundary layer heat transport. The Lobe Differencing Correlation Radiometer (LDCR) provides a means of mapping soil moisture on spatial scales as small as several meters. Compared with other methods of validation based on either in-situ measurements [1,2] or existing airborne sensors suitable for manned aircraft deployment [3], the integrated design of the LDCR on a lightweight small UAS (sUAS) is capable of providing sub-watershed ( km scale) coverage at very high spatial resolution ( 15 m) suitable for scaling studies, and at comparatively low operator cost. To demonstrate the LDCR several flights had been performed during field experiments at the Canton Oklahoma Soilscape site and Yuma Colorado Irrigation Research Foundation (IRF) site in 2015 and 2016, respectively, using LDCR Revision A and Tempest sUAS. The scientific intercomparisons of LDCR retrieved soil moisture and in-situ measurements will be presented. LDCR Revision B has been built and integrated into SuperSwift sUAS and additional field experiments will be performed at IRF in 2017. In Revision B the IF signal is sampled at 80 MS/s to enable digital correlation and RFI mitigation capabilities, in addition to analog correlation. [1] McIntyre, E.M., A.J. Gasiewski, and D. Manda D, "Near Real-Time Passive C

  9. On the spatial distribution of small heavy particles in homogeneous shear turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, C.; Jacob, B.; Piva, R.

    2013-08-01

    We report on a novel experiment aimed at investigating the effects induced by a large-scale velocity gradient on the turbulent transport of small heavy particles. To this purpose, a homogeneous shear flow at Reλ = 540 and shear parameter S* = 4.5 is set-up and laden with glass spheres whose size d is comparable with the Kolmogorov lengthscale η of the flow (d/η ≈ 1). The particle Stokes number is approximately 0.3. The analysis of the instantaneous particle fields by means of Voronoï diagrams confirms the occurrence of intense turbulent clustering at small scales, as observed in homogeneous isotropic flows. It also indicates that the anisotropy of the velocity fluctuations induces a preferential orientation of the particle clusters. In order to characterize the fine-scale features of the dispersed phase, spatial correlations of the particle field are employed in conjunction with statistical tools recently developed for anisotropic turbulence. The scale-by-scale analysis of the particle field clarifies that isotropy of the particle distribution is tendentially recovered at small separations, even though the signatures of the mean shear persist down to smaller scales as compared to the fluid velocity field.

  10. The Spatial Dimension of Trade- and FDI-driven Productivity Growth in Chinese Provinces – A Global Cointegration Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özyurt, Selin; Mitze, Timo

    Since the introduction of its “open door” policy in the late 1970s, China has been attracting a growing share of FDI inflows and its international trade integration has advanced considerably. In this study, we take a closer look at the regional growth impact of the Chinese internationalization......-run relationship, regional labour productivity is indeed driven by direct and indirect spatial effects of FDI and trade activity next to further supply side factors such as the regional infrastructure equipment and human capital endowment. Similarly, in the short-run, changes in FDI activity and especially human...

  11. Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale

  12. Spatial capture-recapture design and modelling for the study of small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Romairone

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture modelling (SCR is a powerful analytical tool to estimate density and derive information on space use and behaviour of elusive animals. Yet, SCR has been seldom applied to the study of ecologically keystone small mammals. Here we highlight its potential and requirements with a case study on common voles (Microtus arvalis. First, we address mortality associated with live-trapping, which can be high in small mammals, and must be kept minimal. We designed and tested a nest box coupled with a classic Sherman trap and show that it allows a 5-fold reduction of mortality in traps. Second, we address the need to adjust the trapping grid to the individual home range to maximize spatial recaptures. In May-June 2016, we captured and tagged with transponders 227 voles in a 1.2-ha area during two monthly sessions. Using a Bayesian SCR with a multinomial approach, we estimated: (1 the baseline detection rate and investigated variation according to sex, time or behaviour (aversion/attraction after a previous capture; (2 the parameter sigma that describes how detection probability declines as a function of the distance to an individual´s activity centre, and investigated variation according to sex; and (3 density and population sex-ratio. We show that reducing the maximum distance between traps from 12 to 9.6m doubled spatial recaptures and improved model predictions. Baseline detection rate increased over time (after overcoming a likely aversion to entering new odourless traps and was greater for females than males in June. The sigma parameter of males was twice that of females, indicating larger home ranges. Density estimates were of 142.92±38.50 and 168.25±15.79 voles/ha in May and June, respectively, with 2-3 times more females than males. We highlight the potential and broad applicability that SCR offers and provide specific recommendations for using it to study small mammals like voles.

  13. Exploring the Linkage between Urban Flood Risk and Spatial Patterns in Small Urbanized Catchments of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global urbanization, urban flood risk in many cities has become a serious environmental issue, threatening the health of residents and the environment. A number of hydrological studies have linked urban flooding issues closely to the spectrum of spatial patterns of urbanization, but relatively little attention has been given to small-scale catchments within the realm of urban systems. This study aims to explore the hydrological effects of small-scaled urbanized catchments assigned with various landscape patterns. Twelve typical residential catchments in Beijing were selected as the study areas. Total Impervious Area (TIA, Directly Connected Impervious Area (DCIA, and a drainage index were used as the catchment spatial metrics. Three scenarios were designed as different spatial arrangement of catchment imperviousness. Runoff variables including total and peak runoff depth (Qt and Qp were simulated by using Strom Water Management Model (SWMM. The relationship between catchment spatial patterns and runoff variables were determined, and the results demonstrated that, spatial patterns have inherent influences on flood risks in small urbanized catchments. Specifically: (1 imperviousness acts as an effective indicator in affecting both Qt and Qp; (2 reducing the number of rainwater inlets appropriately will benefit the catchment peak flow mitigation; (3 different spatial concentrations of impervious surfaces have inherent influences on Qp. These findings provide insights into the role of urban spatial patterns in driving rainfall-runoff processes in small urbanized catchments, which is essential for urban planning and flood management.

  14. Exploring the Linkage between Urban Flood Risk and Spatial Patterns in Small Urbanized Catchments of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global urbanization, urban flood risk in many cities has become a serious environmental issue, threatening the health of residents and the environment. A number of hydrological studies have linked urban flooding issues closely to the spectrum of spatial patterns of urbanization, but relatively little attention has been given to small-scale catchments within the realm of urban systems. This study aims to explore the hydrological effects of small-scaled urbanized catchments assigned with various landscape patterns. Twelve typical residential catchments in Beijing were selected as the study areas. Total Impervious Area (TIA), Directly Connected Impervious Area (DCIA), and a drainage index were used as the catchment spatial metrics. Three scenarios were designed as different spatial arrangement of catchment imperviousness. Runoff variables including total and peak runoff depth (Qt and Qp) were simulated by using Strom Water Management Model (SWMM). The relationship between catchment spatial patterns and runoff variables were determined, and the results demonstrated that, spatial patterns have inherent influences on flood risks in small urbanized catchments. Specifically: (1) imperviousness acts as an effective indicator in affecting both Qt and Qp; (2) reducing the number of rainwater inlets appropriately will benefit the catchment peak flow mitigation; (3) different spatial concentrations of impervious surfaces have inherent influences on Qp. These findings provide insights into the role of urban spatial patterns in driving rainfall-runoff processes in small urbanized catchments, which is essential for urban planning and flood management. PMID:28264521

  15. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  16. Indigenous knowledge and science unite to reveal spatial and temporal dimensions of distributional shift in wildlife of conservation concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina N Service

    Full Text Available Range shifts among wildlife can occur rapidly and impose cascading ecological, economic, and cultural consequences. However, occurrence data used to define distributional limits derived from scientific approaches are often outdated for wide ranging and elusive species, especially in remote environments. Accordingly, our aim was to amalgamate indigenous and western scientific evidence of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis records and detail a potential range shift on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we test the hypothesis that data from each method yield similar results, as well as illustrate the complementary nature of this coupled approach. Combining information from traditional and local ecological knowledge (TEK/LEK interviews with remote camera, genetic, and hunting data revealed that grizzly bears are now present on 10 islands outside their current management boundary. LEK interview data suggested this expansion has accelerated over the last 10 years. Both approaches provided complementary details and primarily affirmed one another: all islands with scientific evidence for occupation had consistent TEK/LEK evidence. Moreover, our complementary methods approach enabled a more spatially and temporally detailed account than either method would have afforded alone. In many cases, knowledge already held by local indigenous people could provide timely and inexpensive data about changing ecological processes. However, verifying the accuracy of scientific and experiential knowledge by pairing sources at the same spatial scale allows for increased confidence and detail. A similarly coupled approach may be useful across taxa in many regions.

  17. GIS-assisted spatial analysis for urban regulatory detailed planning: designer's dimension in the Chinese code system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zeng, Zheng

    2009-10-01

    By discussing the causes behind the high amendments ratio in the implementation of urban regulatory detailed plans in China despite its law-ensured status, the study aims to reconcile conflict between the legal authority of regulatory detailed planning and the insufficient scientific support in its decision-making and compilation by introducing into the process spatial analysis based on GIS technology and 3D modeling thus present a more scientific and flexible approach to regulatory detailed planning in China. The study first points out that the current compilation process of urban regulatory detailed plan in China employs mainly an empirical approach which renders it constantly subjected to amendments; the study then discusses the need and current utilization of GIS in the Chinese system and proposes the framework of a GIS-assisted 3D spatial analysis process from the designer's perspective which can be regarded as an alternating processes between the descriptive codes and physical design in the compilation of regulatory detailed planning. With a case study of the processes and results from the application of the framework, the paper concludes that the proposed framework can be an effective instrument which provides more rationality, flexibility and thus more efficiency to the compilation and decision-making process of urban regulatory detailed plan in China.

  18. Bacteria are not too small for spatial sensing of chemical gradients: An experimental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thar, Roland; Kühl, Michael

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing the chemotactic behavior of a recently described marine bacterial species, we provide experimental evidence that bacteria are not too small for sensing chemical gradients spatially. The bipolar flagellated vibrioid bacteria (typical size 2 × 6 µm) exhibit a unique motility pattern...... as they translate along as well as rotate around their short axis, i.e., the pathways of the cell poles describe a double helix. The natural habitat of the bacteria is characterized by steep oxygen gradients where they accumulate in a band at their preferred oxygen concentration of ˜2 µM. Single cells leaving...... the band toward the oxic region typically return to the band within 16 s following a U-shaped track. A detailed analysis of the tracks reveals that the cells must be able to sense the oxygen gradient perpendicular to their swimming direction. Thus, they can detect oxygen gradients along a distance of ˜5 µm...

  19. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  20. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Alexander M; Silverberg, Jesse L; Padgett, Jennifer; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D) using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for 2 months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals) and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific), than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies.

  1. Measurement of magnetic fluctuations at small spatial scales in the Tokapole II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, E.J.

    1991-08-01

    This thesis is a presentation of the measurements of short-wavelength, high-frequency radial magnetic fluctuations performed on the Tokapole 2 tokamak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Theories of electron temperature gradient (η e ) driven turbulence predict the existence of increased magnetic fluctuation power at small spatial scales near the collisionless skin depth c/ω pe and over a wide range of frequencies near and below the electron diamagnetic drift frequency ω* ne . Small magnetic probes of sizes down to 1 m m have been constructed and used to resolve short poloidal and radial wavelength magnetic fluctuations. These probes have been used with larger probes to make comparisons of fluctuation spectra measured in various ranges of wavelength and over the range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 6 MHz in Tokapole 2 plasmas. A calculation of the short-wavelength, high-frequency response of an electrostatically shielded model B r probe has been performed to guide the interpretation of the power comparison measurements. Comparisons of magnetic fluctuation spectra at various positions within the plasma, and for discharges with edge safety factor 1, 2, and 3 are presented. The linear and nonlinear theories and numerical simulations of η e turbulence are reviewed and compared, where possible with the experimental parameters and results

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from a small and shallow temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Schmiedeskamp, Marcel; Broder, Tanja; Hüttemann, Caroline; Jansen, Laura; Metzelder, Ulrike; Wallis, Ronya; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Small inland waters (spots" and "hot moments" that could contribute significantly to total emissions. To address this knowledge gap, we determined CO2 and CH4 emissions and dynamics to identify their controlling environmental factors in a polymictic small (1.4 ha) and shallow (max. depth approx. 1.5 m) crater lake ("Windsborn") in the Eifel uplands in south-west Germany. As Lake Windsborn has a small catchment area (8 ha) and no surficial inflows, it serves well as a model system for the identification of factors and processes controlling emissions. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 we measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes with different techniques across the sediment/water and water/atmosphere interface. Atmospheric exchange was measured using mini-chambers equipped with CO2 sensors and with an infra-red greenhouse gas analyzer for high temporal resolution flux measurements. Ebullition of CH4 was quantified with funnel traps. Sediment properties were examined using pore-water peepers. All measurements were carried out along a transect covering both littoral and central parts of the lake. Moreover, a weather station on a floating platform in the center of the lake recorded meteorological data as well as CO2 concentration in different depths of the water column. So far, Lake Windsborn seems to be a source for both CO2 and CH4 on an annual scale. CO2 emissions generally increased from spring to summer. Even though CO2 uptake could be observed during some periods in spring and fall, CO2 emissions in the summer exceeded the uptake. CO2 and CH4 emissions also appeared to be spatially variable between littoral areas and the inner lake. Shallow areas turned out to be "hot spots" of CO2 emissions whereas CH4 emissions were - against our expectations - highest in the center of the lake. Moreover, CH4 ebullition contributed substantially to total CH4 emissions. Our results show the importance of spatially and temporally highly resolved long-term measurements of greenhouse gas emissions and

  3. Dimensions of biodiversity loss: Spatial mismatch in land-use impacts on species, functional and phylogenetic diversity of European bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Adriana; Kuhlmann, Michael; Bugter, Rob; Ferrier, Simon; Hoskins, Andrew J; Potts, Simon G; Roberts, Stuart P M; Schweiger, Oliver; Purvis, Andy

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural intensification and urbanization are important drivers of biodiversity change in Europe. Different aspects of bee community diversity vary in their sensitivity to these pressures, as well as independently influencing ecosystem service provision (pollination). To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of human impacts on bee diversity across Europe, we assess multiple, complementary indices of diversity. One Thousand four hundred and forty six sites across Europe. We collated data on bee occurrence and abundance from the published literature and supplemented them with the PREDICTS database. Using Rao's Quadratic Entropy, we assessed how species, functional and phylogenetic diversity of 1,446 bee communities respond to land-use characteristics including land-use class, cropland intensity, human population density and distance to roads. We combined these models with statistically downscaled estimates of land use in 2005 to estimate and map-at a scale of approximately 1 km 2 -the losses in diversity relative to semi-natural/natural baseline (the predicted diversity of an uninhabited grid square, consisting only of semi-natural/natural vegetation). We show that-relative to the predicted local diversity in uninhabited semi-natural/natural habitat-half of all EU27 countries have lost over 10% of their average local species diversity and two-thirds of countries have lost over 5% of their average local functional and phylogenetic diversity. All diversity measures were generally lower in pasture and higher-intensity cropland than in semi-natural/natural vegetation, but facets of diversity showed less consistent responses to human population density. These differences have led to marked spatial mismatches in losses: losses in phylogenetic diversity were in some areas almost 20 percentage points (pp.) more severe than losses in species diversity, but in other areas losses were almost 40 pp. less severe. These results highlight the importance of exploring

  4. Factors Impacting Spatial Patterns of Snow Distribution in a Small Catchment near Nome, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in the climate, hydrology and ecological systems of the Arctic due to its influence on the water balance, thermal regimes, vegetation and carbon flux. Thus, snow depth and coverage have been key components in all the earth system models but are often poorly represented for arctic regions, where fine scale snow distribution data is sparse. The snow data currently used in the models is at coarse resolution, which in turn leads to high uncertainty in model predictions. Through the DOE Office of Science Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic, high resolution snow distribution data is being developed and applied in catchment scale models to ultimately improve representation of snow and its interactions with other model components in the earth system models . To improve these models, it is important to identify key factors that control snow distribution and quantify the impacts of those factors on snow distribution. In this study, two intensive snow depth surveys (1 to 10 meters scale) were conducted for a 2.3 km2 catchment on the Teller road, near Nome, AK in the winter of 2016 and 2017. We used a statistical model to quantify the impacts of vegetation types, macro-topography, micro-topography, and meteorological parameters on measured snow depth. The results show that snow spatial distribution was similar between 2016 and 2017, snow depth was spatially auto correlated over small distance (2-5 meters), but not spatially auto correlated over larger distance (more than 2-5 meters). The coefficients of variation of snow depth was above 0.3 for all the snow survey transects (500-800 meters long). Variation of snow depth is governed by vegetation height, aspect, slope, surface curvature, elevation and wind speed and direction. We expect that this empirical statistical model can be used to estimate end of winter snow depth for the whole watershed and will further develop the model using data from other arctic regions to estimate

  5. Spontaneous mass generation and the small dimensions of the Standard Model gauge groups U(1, SU(2 and SU(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Fernández

    2017-02-01

    The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors together with scaling properties of the Dyson–Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.

  6. Dim small targets detection based on self-adaptive caliber temporal-spatial filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiangsuo; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Yongmei; Peng, Zhenming

    2017-09-01

    To boost the detect ability of dim small targets, this paper began by using improved anisotropy for background prediction (IABP), followed by target enhancement by improved high-order cumulates (HQS). Finally, on the basis of image pre-processing, to address the problem of missed and wrong detection caused by fixed caliber of traditional pipeline filtering, this paper used targets' multi-frame movement correlation in the time-space domain, combined with the scale-space theory, to propose a temporal-spatial filtering algorithm which allows the caliber to make self-adaptive changes according to the changes of the targets' scale, effectively solving the detection-related issues brought by unchanged caliber and decreased/increased size of the targets. Experiments showed that the improved anisotropic background predication could be loyal to the true background of the original image to the maximum extent, presenting a superior overall performance to other background prediction methods; the improved HQS significantly increased the signal-noise ratio of images; when the signal-noise ratio was lower than 2.6 dB, this detection algorithm could effectively eliminate noise and detect targets. For the algorithm, the lowest signal-to-noise ratio of the detectable target is 0.37.

  7. Analysis of the spatial structure of rigid polyphenylene dendrimers by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeldt, S.; Dingenouts, N.; Poetschke, D.; Ballauff, M.; Berresheim, A.J.; Muellen, K.; Lindner, P.; Saalwaechter, K.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial structure of a rigid polyphenylene dendrimer G4-M of fourth generation by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is presented. This dendrimer is composed of phenyl units and is therefore devoid of any flexible unit. The scattering intensity of dilute solutions of the dendrimer was measured by SANS at different contrast which was adjusted by mixtures of protonated and deuterated toluene. Hence, the method of contrast variation could be applied and the data yield the scattering function extrapolated to infinite contrast. The comparison of this data with simulations demonstrates that the scaffold of the dendrimer is rigid as expected from its chemical structure. The positions of the various units setting up consecutive shells of the dendrimer are relatively well localized and the entire structure cannot be modeled in terms of spherically symmetric models. No backfolding of the terminal groups can occur and the model calculations demonstrate that higher generations of this dendritic scaffold must exhibit a dense shell and a congestion of the terminal groups. This finding is directly corroborated by recent solid-state NMR data. All results show that the rigid dendrimer investigated here presents the first example for a dendritic structure whose segment density does not have its maximum at the center. Rigid scaffolds are therefore the only way to achieve the goal of a 'dense-shell' dendrimer whereas flexible scaffolds leads invariably to the 'dense-core' case

  8. Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorder of otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed

  9. Size matters: pitch dimensions constrain inter-team distances and surface area difference in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under con- straints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour

  10. Modelling spatial and temporal variations of annual suspended sediment yields from small agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; Bruen, M; O'Sullivan, J J; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Harrington, J R; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2018-04-01

    Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments. Regression based models, calibrated to field measurements, can offer an advantage over complex and computational models due to their simplicity, easy access to input data and due to the additional insights into factors controlling sediment export in the study sites. While traditionally calibrated to long-term average values of sediment yields such predictions cannot represent temporal variations. This study addresses this issue in a novel way by taking account of the variation from year to year in hydrological variables in the developed models (using annual mean runoff, annual mean flow, flows exceeded in five percentage of the time (Q5) and seasonal rainfall estimated separately for each year of observations). Other parameters included in the models represent spatial differences influenced by factors such as soil properties (% poorly drained soils and % peaty soils), land-use (% pasture or % arable lands), channel slope (S1085) and drainage network properties (drainage density). Catchment descriptors together with year-specific hydrological variables can explain both spatial differences and inter-annual variability of suspended sediment yields. The methodology is demonstrated by deriving equations from Irish data-sets (compiled in this study) with the best model

  11. "HOOF-Print" Genotyping and Haplotype Inference Discriminates among Brucella spp Isolates From a Small Spatial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate that the “HOOF-Print” assay provides high power to discriminate among Brucella isolates collected on a small spatial scale (within Portugal). Additionally, we illustrate how haplotype identification using non-random association among markers allows resolution of B. melitensis biovars ...

  12. Use of erp systems as antecedent of (interorganizational efficiency and effectiveness: a study in strategic dimensions in small and medium sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Borges Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the impact of the use of ERP systems on organizational efficiency and effectiveness and inter-organizational efficiency of small and medium enterprises in Patos de Minas County. Using a survey adapted from Saccol et al. (2004, the study evaluated the strategic dimensions of customers and consumers, suppliers, market and competitive rivalry and their relationship to organizational efficiency and effectiveness and inter-organizational efficiency, all of which aided by ERP systems. The results showed slight positive relationship in explaining the organizational efficiency and effectiveness and a little higher in inter-organizational efficiency. It is concluded that ERP systems have low relevance to the strategic aspects on small and medium enterprises, confirming the thesis of the need to maturity in the use of information systems to extract strategic benefits.

  13. Filter Bank Regularized Common Spatial Pattern Ensemble for Small Sample Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, David; Lee, Sang-Goog

    2018-02-01

    For the last few years, many feature extraction methods have been proposed based on biological signals. Among these, the brain signals have the advantage that they can be obtained, even by people with peripheral nervous system damage. Motor imagery electroencephalograms (EEG) are inexpensive to measure, offer a high temporal resolution, and are intuitive. Therefore, these have received a significant amount of attention in various fields, including signal processing, cognitive science, and medicine. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a useful method for feature extraction from motor imagery EEG. However, performance degradation occurs in a small-sample setting (SSS), because the CSP depends on sample-based covariance. Since the active frequency range is different for each subject, it is also inconvenient to set the frequency range to be different every time. In this paper, we propose the feature extraction method based on a filter bank to solve these problems. The proposed method consists of five steps. First, motor imagery EEG is divided by a using filter bank. Second, the regularized CSP (R-CSP) is applied to the divided EEG. Third, we select the features according to mutual information based on the individual feature algorithm. Fourth, parameter sets are selected for the ensemble. Finally, we classify using ensemble based on features. The brain-computer interface competition III data set IVa is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method improves the mean classification accuracy by 12.34%, 11.57%, 9%, 4.95%, and 4.47% compared with CSP, SR-CSP, R-CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and SR-FBCSP. Compared with the filter bank R-CSP ( , ), which is a parameter selection version of the proposed method, the classification accuracy is improved by 3.49%. In particular, the proposed method shows a large improvement in performance in the SSS.

  14. The spatial dimensions of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at assumptions and ideas fundamental to theories of ‘regional innovation systems’ and ‘learning regions’. First the original theories and their roots are presented briefly. Then a number of key concepts and assumptions will be discussed. After that two trends...... of development of the original theories will be discussed. One trend is the diversification of the notion of proximity. The other is the inclusion of the global or extralocal linkages in the models. The concluding part suggests a change in perspective in the study of innovation towards a focus on the actors...... of this process and their societal embeddedness on different scales. More exploratory methods of research would be useful for the creation of relevant scientific knowledge on social processes of innovation....

  15. The Spatial Dimension of Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Stanley Vincent

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the use of physical and imagined space and time in three plays. Describes how these features interact, assume dramatic force, and augment the tension, irony, and meaning of the play. The plays used are Chekhov's "The Three Sisters," Moliere's "Tartuffe," and Stoppard's "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead." (JMF)

  16. Green in the heart or greens in the wallet? The spatial uptake of small-scale renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant J.; McIntyre, Stuart G.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) support mechanism has spurred development of small-scale domestic renewable electricity generation throughout Great Britain (GB), however the spatial pattern of uptake has been uneven, suggesting that local, as well as between neighbourhood, factors may be at important. As well as confirming that local socio-economic factors, including wealth, housing type and population density are found to be important in explaining uptake of this policy, local “green” attitudes – measured in three different ways – are shown not to be important. Existing local technical expertise, proxied for using data on small-scale renewable electricity devices in each area prior to the introduction of FIT, is an important factor in explaining subsequent adoption. Critically, we also find that there are spatial (i.e. between neighbourhood) processes explaining the uptake of these technologies. Taken together, our results suggest that, as currently designed, FIT policy may be regressive in income and could exacerbate spatial economic inequalities. - Highlights: • First examination of uptake of renewable capacity under the UK's Feed-In Tariff. • Analyse socio-economic and environmental factors as well as spatial processes. • Wealth, population density, property type & existing capacity affect local FIT uptake. • Spatial process confirms effects between neighbourhoods, neglected in current policy Highlights.

  17. Characterization of small-to-medium head-and-face dimensions for developing respirator fit test panels and evaluating fit of filtering facepiece respirators with different faceseal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A respirator fit test panel (RFTP) with facial size distribution representative of intended users is essential to the evaluation of respirator fit for new models of respirators. In this study an anthropometric survey was conducted among youths representing respirator users in mid-Taiwan to characterize head-and-face dimensions key to RFTPs for application to small-to-medium facial features. The participants were fit-tested for three N95 masks of different facepiece design and the results compared to facial size distribution specified in the RFTPs of bivariate and principal component analysis design developed in this study to realize the influence of facial characteristics to respirator fit in relation to facepiece design. Nineteen dimensions were measured for 206 participants. In fit testing the qualitative fit test (QLFT) procedures prescribed by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration were adopted. As the results show, the bizygomatic breadth of the male and female participants were 90.1 and 90.8% of their counterparts reported for the U.S. youths (P < 0.001), respectively. Compared to the bivariate distribution, the PCA design better accommodated variation in facial contours among different respirator user groups or populations, with the RFTPs reported in this study and from literature consistently covering over 92% of the participants. Overall, the facial fit of filtering facepieces increased with increasing facial dimensions. The total percentages of the tests wherein the final maneuver being completed was “Moving head up-and-down”, “Talking” or “Bending over” in bivariate and PCA RFTPs were 13.3–61.9% and 22.9–52.8%, respectively. The respirators with a three-panel flat fold structured in the facepiece provided greater fit, particularly when the users moved heads. When the facial size distribution in a bivariate RFTP did not sufficiently represent petite facial size, the fit testing was inclined to overestimate the general fit

  18. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  19. Spatial distribution and species composition of small pelagic fishes in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lanz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional regionalization methods in fisheries based on provinces or major fishing areas, includes large and arbitrary grids in which basic statistics or inferences on distribution or abundance are made. We describe a method for regionalization and analysis of fishing activities for small pelagic fisheries in the Gulf of California based on spatial patterns of landing and catch data in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment. A fisheries database from logbooks with spatial attributes from October 2002 to June 2007 was analyzed. Landings and catching data were transformed to a Weighted Region Index (WRI by using fuzzy logic operators. The WRI revealed fishing action centers characterized by areas with the highest WRI values, and a hierarchy for the relative importance of the regions was established. Guaymas, Desemboque de Caborca, Isla Patos, and Bahía San Rafael they were the most prominent ones. An analysis of the relative frequency of species composition showed that the Pacific sardine had an over 80 % abundance in the midriff islands, and remained as the most important in the upper gulf regions, while in the central part of the gulf, relative abundances of Pacific sardine and Northern anchovy were more balanced. Relative abundance of mackerel was significantly larger around Isla Patos than in any other place. Guaymas had the largest relative composition of Northern anchovy and the lowest values for Pacific sardine. Desemboque de Caborca showed the largest homogeneity in species relative composition. It is important to highlight that this results come from in situ data, while the results previously reported come from landing statistics by port. Therefore, the present method acknowledges the spatial differences of species by regions, additional to the traditional time series analysis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 575-590. Epub 2008 June 30.Los métodos tradicionales de regionalización en pesquerías, basados en provincias o grandes

  20. Universal empirical relation for the variation of ksub(eff) with core dimensions of bare and reflected small fast systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Srinivasan, M; Basu, T K; Subba Rao, K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Neutron Physics Section

    1977-01-01

    A number of 26-group, S/sub 4/, transport theory calculations in spherical geometry were carried out to study the variation of ksub(eff) with core radius of bare and reflected small hard spectrum fast assemblies. For each system ksub(eff) was calculated for various core radii keeping reflector thickness and density constant. A plot of ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) gave an almost universal curve independent of core material, density and reflector properties. An empirical relation of the form ksub(eff) = k infinitely* (1 - exp(-Theta R/Rsub(c))) could be fitted to the ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) plot where Rsub(c) is the critical radius, and the constants k infinitely* and Theta are related through Theta = ln(k infinitely*/(k infinitely* - 1)). Thus the ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) relation is found to be governed by a single constant k infinitely*, valid for both bare and reflected systems. The agreement between DTF-IV calculated ksub(eff) values and that given by the empirical relation is better than 3% except in the highly subcritical domain where the discrepancy is a bit higher. The best fit value of k infinitely* for Pu 239 systems is found to be 2.88 and for U 235 systems 2.224. The paper discusses the physical interpretation of the form of the relation, its region of validity and makes an attempt to extend it to non-spherical geometries also.

  1. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  2. Spatial structure and scaling of macropores in hydrological process at small catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Broer, Martine; Blöschl, Günter

    2013-04-01

    During rainfall events, the formation of overland flow can occur under the circumstances of saturation excess and/or infiltration excess. These conditions are affected by the soil moisture state which represents the soil water content in micropores and macropores. Macropores act as pathway for the preferential flows and have been widely studied locally. However, very little is known about their spatial structure and conductivity of macropores and other flow characteristic at the catchment scale. This study will analyze these characteristics to better understand its importance in hydrological processes. The research will be conducted in Petzenkirchen Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), a 64 ha catchment located 100 km west of Vienna. The land use is divided between arable land (87%), pasture (5%), forest (6%) and paved surfaces (2%). Video cameras will be installed on an agricultural field to monitor the overland flow pattern during rainfall events. A wireless soil moisture network is also installed within the monitored area. These field data will be combined to analyze the soil moisture state and the responding surface runoff occurrence. The variability of the macropores spatial structure of the observed area (field scale) then will be assessed based on the topography and soil data. Soil characteristics will be supported with laboratory experiments on soil matrix flow to obtain proper definitions of the spatial structure of macropores and its variability. A coupled physically based distributed model of surface and subsurface flow will be used to simulate the variability of macropores spatial structure and its effect on the flow behaviour. This model will be validated by simulating the observed rainfall events. Upscaling from field scale to catchment scale will be done to understand the effect of macropores variability on larger scales by applying spatial stochastic methods. The first phase in this study is the installation and monitoring configuration of video

  3. SU-F-T-645: To Test Spatial Anddosimetric Accuracy of Small Cranial Target Irradiation Based On 1.5 T MRIscans Using Static Arcs with MLCDefined Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Popple, R; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Bolding, M; Fiveash, J; Kraus, J; Spencer, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test spatial and dosimetric accuracy of small cranial target irradiation based on 1.5 T MRI scans using static arcs with MLC-defined fields Methods: A plastic (PMMA) phantom simulating a small brain lesion was mounted on a GammaKnife headframe equipped with MRI localizer. The lesion was a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm diameter cylindrical cavity filled with MRI contrast. Radiochromic film passing through the cavity was marked with pin pricks at the cavity center. The cavity was contoured on an MRI image and fused with CT to simulate treatment of a lesion not visible on CT. The transfer of the target to CT involved registering the MRI contrast cannels of the localizer that were visible on both modalities. Treatments were planned to deliver 800 cGy to the cavity center using multiple static arcs with 5.0×2.4 mm MLC-defined fields. The phantom was aligned on a STx accelerator by registering the conebeam CT with the planning CT. Films from coronal and sagittal planes were scanned and evaluated using ImageJ software Results: Geographic errors in treatment based on 1.5 T scans agreed within 0.33, −0.27 and 1.21 mm in the vertical, lateral and longitudinal dimensions, respectively. The doses delivered to the cavity center were 7.2% higher than planned. The dose distributions were similar to those of a GammaKnife. Conclusion: Radiation can be delivered with an accelerator at mm accuracy to small cranial targets based on 1.5 MRI scans fused to CTs using a standard GammaKnife headframe and MRI localizer. MLC-defined static arcs produce isodose lines very similar to the GammaKnife.

  4. Genetic differentiation over a small spatial scale of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Allison T; Ross, Max S; Schall, Jos J; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

    2016-10-18

    The geographic scale and degree of genetic differentiation for arthropod vectors that transmit parasites play an important role in the distribution, prevalence and coevolution of pathogens of human and wildlife significance. We determined the genetic diversity and population structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator over spatial scales from 0.56 to 3.79 km at a study region in northern California. The study was provoked by observations of differentiation at fine spatial scales of a lizard malaria parasite vectored by Lu. vexator. A microsatellite enrichment/next-generation sequencing protocol was used to identify variable microsatellite loci within the genome of Lu. vexator. Alleles present at these loci were examined in four populations of Lu. vexator in Hopland, CA. Population differentiation was assessed using Fst and D (of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards), and the program Structure was used to determine the degree of subdivision present. The effective population size for the sand fly populations was also calculated. Eight microsatellite markers were characterized and revealed high genetic diversity (uHe = 0.79-0.92, Na = 12-24) and slight but significant differentiation across the fine spatial scale examined (average pairwise D = 0.327; F ST  = 0.0185 (95 % bootstrapped CI: 0.0102-0.0264). Even though the insects are difficult to capture using standard methods, the estimated population size was thousands per local site. The results argue that Lu. vexator at the study sites are abundant and not highly mobile, which may influence the overall transmission dynamics of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and other parasites transmitted by this species.

  5. National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and assumptions on small town economic investment by government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oranje, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available What matters from the perspective of the NSDP is whether an area has the potential to grow economically in a sustainable way, create jobs and alleviate poverty. If small towns have such potential, there is nothing that precludes such investment...

  6. Spatially varying small-strain stiffness in soils subjected to K0 loading

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyun-Ki; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Grain-scale characteristics and formation history determine spatial variability in granular masses. We investigate the effect of spatially varying stiffness on the load-deformation response under zero-lateral strain conditions using numerical simulations of correlated random fields, where the granular medium is represented by a non-linear stress-dependent meso-scale model. Results show that stiffness heterogeneity results in higher global compressibility as compared to the homogeneous medium with the same arithmetic mean stiffness. Furthermore, the non-homogeneous stress field that develops inside the granular mass is characterized by focused load transfer along columnar regions, higher stress anisotropy and lower horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio K0 than in a granular medium of homogenous stiffness. As the applied stress increases, the inherent stress-dependent response of the granular material leads to a more homogenous stress field. While greater variance in stiffness causes lower global stiffness, a longer correlation length results in greater variance in global mechanical response among multiple realizations.

  7. Spatially varying small-strain stiffness in soils subjected to K0 loading

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyun-Ki

    2017-08-08

    Grain-scale characteristics and formation history determine spatial variability in granular masses. We investigate the effect of spatially varying stiffness on the load-deformation response under zero-lateral strain conditions using numerical simulations of correlated random fields, where the granular medium is represented by a non-linear stress-dependent meso-scale model. Results show that stiffness heterogeneity results in higher global compressibility as compared to the homogeneous medium with the same arithmetic mean stiffness. Furthermore, the non-homogeneous stress field that develops inside the granular mass is characterized by focused load transfer along columnar regions, higher stress anisotropy and lower horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio K0 than in a granular medium of homogenous stiffness. As the applied stress increases, the inherent stress-dependent response of the granular material leads to a more homogenous stress field. While greater variance in stiffness causes lower global stiffness, a longer correlation length results in greater variance in global mechanical response among multiple realizations.

  8. Small-scale spatial variability of phenoxy acid mineralization potentials in transition zones with a multidisciplinary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu

    The phenoxy acid group of herbicides is widely used to control broadleaf weeds, and it contaminates groundwater and surface water by leaching from agricultural soil or landfills. Due to the distinct vertical and horizontal gradients in nutrients and hydrologic exchange in transition zones...... in two transition zones, (1) the interfaces of unsaturated and saturated zones and (2) groundwater and surface water. Small-scale spatial variability of phenoxy acids was previously shown in topsoil; however, such small-scale studies are scarce in subsurface environments. We therefore studied the factors...... classes in the different mineralization potentials of discharge zones. Understanding of the natural attenuation potential of groundwater-surface water transition zones is important for stream water protection. In landfill-impacted groundwater-surface water interface, we further analyzed bacterial...

  9. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Van der Merwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV. Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  10. Long-term Observations of Intense Precipitation Small-scale Spatial Variability in a Semi-arid Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, E. L.; Hazenberg, P.; Castro, C. L.; Demaria, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the southwestern US, the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM) provides about 60% of the region's annual precipitation. Recent research using high-resolution atmospheric model simulations and retrospective predictions has shown that since the 1950's, and more specifically in the last few decades, the mean daily precipitation in the southwestern U.S. during the NAM has followed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, days with more extreme precipitation have intensified. The current work focuses the impact of these long-term changes on the observed small-scale spatial variability of intense precipitation. Since limited long-term high-resolution observational data exist to support such climatological-induced spatial changes in precipitation frequency and intensity, the current work utilizes observations from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. Within this 150 km^2 catchment over 90 rain gauges have been installed since the 1950s, measuring at sub-hourly resolution. We have applied geospatial analyses and the kriging interpolation technique to identify long-term changes in the spatial and temporal correlation and anisotropy of intense precipitation. The observed results will be compared with the previously model simulated results, as well as related to large-scale variations in climate patterns, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  11. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  12. Small Scale Spatial Variability of Apparent Electrical Conductivity within a Paddy Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimrun, W.; Amin, M.S.M.; Ezrin, M.H.; Amin, M.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Quick variability description is an important component for zone management practices. Precision farming requires topping up of only the nutrients that are lacking in the soil to attain the highest yield with the least input. The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensor is a useful tool in mapping to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. In non saline soils, ECa is a substitute measurement for soil texture. It is directly related to both water holding capacity and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), which are key ingredients of productivity. This sensor measures the ECa across a field quickly and gives detailed soil features (one-second interval) with few operators. Hence, a dense sampling is possible and therefore a high-resolution ECa map can be produced. This study aims to characterize the variability of soil ECa within a Malaysian paddy field with respect to the spatial and seasonal variability. The study was conducted at Block C, Sawah Sempadan, Selangor, Malaysia, for three continuous seasons. Soil ECa was collected after harvesting period. The results showed that deep ECa visualized the pattern of the former river routes clearly as continuous lines (about 45 m width) at the northern and central regions of the study area. This exploration has shown different maps with higher contrast as compared to the existing soil series map for the study area. Seasonal variability test showed that the ECa that was acquired during rainy season (collected after harvest in December to January) has the highest value as compared to another season.

  13. Analysis of the spatial variability of crop yield and soil properties in small agricultural plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Sidney Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spatial variability of soil properties and crop yield under no tillage as a function of time, in two soil/climate conditions in São Paulo State, Brazil. The two sites measured approximately one hectare each and were cultivated with crop sequences which included corn, soybean, cotton, oats, black oats, wheat, rye, rice and green manure. Soil fertility, soil physical properties and crop yield were measured in a 10-m grid. The soils were a Dusky Red Latossol (Oxisol and a Red Yellow Latossol (Ultisol. Soil sampling was performed in each field every two years after harvesting of the summer crop. Crop yield was measured at the end of each crop cycle, in 2 x 2.5 m sub plots. Data were analysed using semivariogram analysis and kriging interpolation for contour map generation. Yield maps were constructed in order to visually compare the variability of yields, the variability of the yield components and related soil properties. The results show that the factors affecting the variability of crop yield varies from one crop to another. The changes in yield from one year to another suggest that the causes of variability may change with time. The changes with time for the cross semivariogram between phosphorus in leaves and soybean yield is another evidence of this result.

  14. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  15. Consequences of severe habitat fragmentation on density, genetics, and spatial capture-recapture analysis of a small bear population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Murphy

    Full Text Available Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary habitat fragmentation and investigate the consequences of habitat fragmentation on population density and genetics of the HGS. Remaining natural habitats sustaining the HGS were significantly more fragmented and patchier than those supporting Florida's largest black bear subpopulation. Genetic diversity was low (AR = 3.57; HE = 0.49 and effective population size was small (NE = 25 bears, both of which remained unchanged over a period spanning one bear generation despite evidence of some immigration. Subpopulation density (0.054 bear/km2 was among the lowest reported for black bears, was significantly female-biased, and corresponded to a subpopulation size of 98 bears in available habitat. Conserving remaining natural habitats in the area occupied by the small, genetically depauperate HGS, possibly through conservation easements and government land acquisition, is likely the most important immediate step to ensuring continued persistence of bears in this area. Our study also provides evidence that preferentially placing detectors (e.g., hair traps or cameras primarily in quality habitat across fragmented landscapes poses a challenge to estimating density-habitat covariate relationships using spatial

  16. Towards a generic method for inorganic porous hollow fibers preparation with shrinkage-controlled small radial dimensions, applied to Al2O3, Ni, SiC, stainless steel, and YSZ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A versatile method is presented for the preparation of porous inorganic hollow fibers with small tunable radial dimensions, down to ∼250 μm outer diameter. The approach allows fabrication of thin hollow fibers of various materials, as is demonstrated for alumina, nickel, silicon carbide, stainless

  17. Encountering Urbanization on Jersey: Development, Sustainability, and Spatiality in a Small Island Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the island of Jersey, the success of local industries including agriculture, tourism, and financial services has helped grow the population of permanent residents, contract workers, seasonal workers, and short-term tourists. As a result, between 1950 and 2015 the island’s population nearly doubled from about 55,000 to 100,000, and, consequently, the landscape has undergone much urban development, not only in and around the parish capital of St Helier, but also in varying degrees in each of the island’s other parishes. During this period of population growth, the island’s urbanization has been framed within a context of developing the island’s industries on the one hand, yet sustaining the island’s unique environment on the other. After all, one of the main qualities of Jersey that has helped its tourism industry has been its ability to maintain characteristics of the island in a context of population growth and increased resource restraints. Using a method of critical inquiry of primary and secondary sources, this article foregrounds how the geographically small island of Jersey has encountered urbanization, particularly in the decades following the Second World War. The discussion illustrates some of the consequences for islanders and how development and sustainability as an assemblage of interconnected practices and perceptions have helped craft a distinct environment for the island that contributes to its local character. The article shows that inward migration flows have led to a locally-defined urbanization, which has resulted in a continually growing population and a type of urban island lure. For the field of Island Studies, a study of Jersey’s locally-defined urbanization sheds light on how urban development and sustainability consciousness is characterized and practised on this particular small island in an era that sees it especially dependent on the finance and tourism industries.

  18. Deconstructing dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Extra-dimensional physics is realized as the low-energy limit of lower-dimensional gauge theories. This 'deconstruction' of dimensions provides a UV completion of higher-dimensional theories, and has been used to investigate the physics of extra-dimensions. This technique has also led to a variety of interesting phenomenological applications, especially a new class of models of electroweak superconductivity, called the 'little Higgs'. (author)

  19. Assessing spatial associations between thermal stress and mortality in Hong Kong: a small-area ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Zheng, Qishi; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina Pui-Yun; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Jahn, Heiko J; Plass, Dietrich; Katzschner, Lutz; Kraemer, Alexander; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is a widely used index to assess thermal comfort of the human body. Evidence on how thermal stress-related health effects vary with small geographical areas is limited. The objectives of this study are (i) to explore whether there were significant patterns of geographical clustering of thermal stress as measured by PET and mortality and (ii) to assess the association between PET and mortality in small geographical areas. A small area ecological cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary planning units (TPUs) level. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and monthly deaths at TPUs level for 2006 were calculated for cause-specific diseases. A PET map with 100 m × 100 m resolution for the same period was derived from Hong Kong Urban Climatic Analysis Map data and the annual and monthly averages of PET for each TPU were computed. Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) analyses were performed. A generalized linear mixed model was used to model monthly deaths against PET adjusted for socio-economic deprivation. We found positive spatial autocorrelation between PET and ASMR. There were spatial correlations between PET and ASMR, particularly in the north of Hong Kong Island, most parts of Kowloon, and across New Territories. A 1°C change in PET was associated with an excess risk (%) of 2.99 (95% CI: 0.50-5.48) for all natural causes, 4.75 (1.14-8.36) for cardiovascular, 7.39 (4.64-10.10) for respiratory diseases in the cool season, and 4.31 (0.12 to 8.50) for cardiovascular diseases in the warm season. Variations between TPUs in PET had an important influence on cause-specific mortality, especially in the cool season. PET may have an impact on the health of socio-economically deprived population groups. Our results suggest that targeting policy interventions at high-risk areas may be a feasible option for reducing PET-related mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-01

    Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair) and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore) samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively) than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively) and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g) in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g). Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day) for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day) and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day) scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities.

  1. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g. Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities.

  2. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Long, Rachel N.; Renne, Elisha P.; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair) and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore) samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively) than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively) and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g) in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g). Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day) for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day) and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day) scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities. PMID:26340636

  3. Surface fluxes and water balance of spatially varying vegetation within a small mountainous headwater catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Flerchinger

    2010-06-01

    above the aspen canopy than from the other sites. While growing season carbon fluxes were very similar for the sagebrush and aspen understory, latent heat fluxes for the sagebrush were consistently higher, likely because it is more exposed to the wind. Sensible heat flux from the aspen tended to be slightly less than the sagebrush site during the growing season when the leaves were actively transpiring, but exceeded that from the sagebrush in May, September and October when the net radiation was not offset by evaporative cooling in the aspen. Results from this study demonstrate the utility of EC systems in closing the water balance of headwater mountain catchments and illustrate the influence of vegetation on the spatial variability of surface fluxes across mountainous rangeland landscapes.

  4. Non-linearity and spatial resolution in a cellular automaton model of a small upland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Coulthard

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing development of computational fluid dynamics is allowing the high resolution study of hydraulic and sediment transport processes but, due to computational complexities, these are rarely applied to areas larger than a reach. Existing approaches, based upon linked cross sections, can give a quasi two-dimensional view, effectively simulating sediment transport for a single river reach. However, a basin represents a whole discrete dynamic system within which channel, floodplain and slope processes operate over a wide range of space and time scales. Here, a cellular automaton (CA approach has been used to overcome some of these difficulties, in which the landscape is represented as a series of fixed size cells. For every model iteration, each cell acts only in relation to the influence of its immediate neighbours in accordance with appropriate rules. The model presented here takes approximations of existing flow and sediment transport equations, and integrates them, together with slope and floodplain approximations, within a cellular automaton framework. This method has been applied to the basin of Cam Gill Beck (4.2 km2 above Starbotton, upper Wharfedale, a tributary of the River Wharfe, North Yorkshire, UK. This approach provides, for the first time, a workable model of the whole basin at a 1 m resolution. Preliminary results show the evolution of bars, braids, terraces and alluvial fans which are similar to those observed in the field, and examples of large and small scale non-linear behaviour which may have considerable implications for future models.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content. PMID:29652811

  6. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  7. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The single photon emission microscope (SPEM is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD. Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  8. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E. Jr

    2013-01-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s -1 ·MBq -1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99m Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity

  9. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, M.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, A.C.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, I.R. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fu, G. [GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bressan, R.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro, E. Jr [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-06

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s{sup -1}·MBq{sup -1} were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging {sup 99m}Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie; Huang, Xianfei

    2018-04-13

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km², 4.50 km², and 1.87 km², respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  11. 2D convolution kernels of ionization chambers used for photon-beam dosimetry in magnetic fields: the advantage of small over large chamber dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khee Looe, Hui; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at developing an optimization strategy for photon-beam dosimetry in magnetic fields using ionization chambers. Similar to the familiar case in the absence of a magnetic field, detectors should be selected under the criterion that their measured 2D signal profiles M(x,y) approximate the absorbed dose to water profiles D(x,y) as closely as possible. Since the conversion of D(x,y) into M(x,y) is known as the convolution with the ‘lateral dose response function’ K(x-ξ, y-η) of the detector, the ideal detector would be characterized by a vanishing magnetic field dependence of this convolution kernel (Looe et al 2017b Phys. Med. Biol. 62 5131–48). The idea of the present study is to find out, by Monte Carlo simulation of two commercial ionization chambers of different size, whether the smaller chamber dimensions would be instrumental to approach this aim. As typical examples, the lateral dose response functions in the presence and absence of a magnetic field have been Monte-Carlo modeled for the new commercial ionization chambers PTW 31021 (‘Semiflex 3D’, internal radius 2.4 mm) and PTW 31022 (‘PinPoint 3D’, internal radius 1.45 mm), which are both available with calibration factors. The Monte-Carlo model of the ionization chambers has been adjusted to account for the presence of the non-collecting part of the air volume near the guard ring. The Monte-Carlo results allow a comparison between the widths of the magnetic field dependent photon fluence response function K M(x-ξ, y-η) and of the lateral dose response function K(x-ξ, y-η) of the two chambers with the width of the dose deposition kernel K D(x-ξ, y-η). The simulated dose and chamber signal profiles show that in small photon fields and in the presence of a 1.5 T field the distortion of the chamber signal profile compared with the true dose profile is weakest for the smaller chamber. The dose responses of both chambers at large field size are shown to be altered by not

  12. Non-invasive 3D-microscopy with 10-μm spatial resolution inside alive small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasov, A.; Dewaele, D.; De Clerck, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small laboratory animals (mice and rats) are widely used in development of drugs and treatments. Micro-CT or microtomography allows non-invasive 3D imaging and measurements of the microstructure inside the body of alive animals. To recognise the internal changes of bones and different organs in the very early stage, high-resolution micro-CT scanner for in-vivo 3D-imaging has been developed. The Micro-CT scanner based on the X-ray geometry with source-detector pair rotation around the object instead of object rotation geometry, typical for other micro-CT systems. Object illuminated by an X-ray source with 5 microns spot size and 20-100keV energies. X-ray images collected by a digital x-ray camera. Projection images with 8000x1000x16bit format collected from several hundreds angular projections. On the base of this information cross sectional images can be reconstructed in 8000x8000x32bit full format or 1024x1024x32bit preview. Maximum object size (scanning volume) is 80mm in diameter by 200mm in length with 10-microns isotropic pixel size for reconstruction at any place of this space. All software for system control, reconstruction and 3D analysis runs on Pentium-4 2GHz or Dual Intel Xeon 1.7GHz computer under Microsoft Windows-2000. The instrument is widely used for scanning of physical phantoms as well as different alive small laboratory animals under anesthesia. Achieved spatial resolution is 20microns for low-contrast objects and 10-microns for high-contrast objects (bone, etc.). Typical scanning time is 20-120min, typical irradiation dose - 0.25-0.7Gy per scan. To avoid movement artefacts from breathing, the instrument can synchronise acquisition cycle with pulses from special breathing sensor. Software package includes dual-processor reconstruction software, 3D-rendering and measurement of all general and bone-specific morphological parameters. New in-vivo Micro-CT scanner allows non-destructive 3D-imaging and measurements of the internal

  13. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors; Analise temporal das oscilacoes espaciais de Xenonio em reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-07-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  14. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXWELL SANDADA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning process, time horizon of strategic planning, implementation incentives, evaluation and control, formality of strategic planning and source of information about the environment. It was also found that mission and vision, formality of strategic planning and evaluation and control were the most valued factors. No significant statistical difference existed among owners and managers of different age, gender and positions in strategic planning practices. The value of the study is that it offers various dimensions of strategic planning that SMEs can implement to be competitive and sustainable.

  15. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  16. Informal Settlements in Jamaica’s Tourism Space: Urban Spatial Development in a Small Island Developing State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the compatibility of government programmes for regularising or relocating informal settlements situated in a growing tourism space in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS. The case study of Ocho Rios involves mapping, charting, and defining this resort town’s island tourism space. The paper questions the effectiveness of broad government programmes aimed at addressing informal settlements at a time when governance actors and Jamaica’s tourism policy agenda prioritise land use that accommodates a diversified and spatially growing tourism industry. Findings show that government programmes have been insufficiently responsive to informal settlements located in the Ocho Rios tourism space for a number of reasons and that attempts to address the informal settlements are often beset by corruption and a lack of trust between residents and the government. Under the current tourism policy agenda, regularisation of existing informal settlements is not feasible in light of the high real estate value of lands surrounding tourist resort towns. A more targeted approach to addressing informal settlements based on the location of an informal settlement in the vicinity of island tourism regions is required.

  17. Spatial distribution of intra-molecular water and polymeric components in polyelectrolyte dendrimers revealed by small angle scattering investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Porcar, Lionel; Chen, Chun-Yu; Liu, Emily L.; Smith, Gregory S.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2011-10-01

    An experimental scheme using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering technique is developed to investigate the structural characteristics of amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers solutions. Using this methodology, we present the dependence of both the intra-dendrimer water and the polymer distribution on molecular protonation, which can be precisely adjusted by tuning the pH of the solution. Assuming spherical symmetry of the spatial arrangement of the constituent components of dendrimer, and that the atomic ratio of hydrogen-to-deuterium for the solvent residing within the cavities of dendrimer is identical to that for the solvent outside the dendrimer, the intra-dendrimer water distribution along the radial direction is determined. Our result clearly reveals an outward relocation of the peripheral groups, as well as enhanced intra-dendrimer hydration, upon increasing the molecular protonation and, therefore, allows the determination of segmental backfolding in a quantitative manner. The connection between these charge-induced structural changes and our recently observed progressively active segmental dynamics is also discussed.

  18. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  19. Wave actions and topography determine the small-scale spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clams Ruditapes philippinarum on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ryogen; Saito, Hajime; Tanaka, Yoshio; Higano, Junya; Kuwahara, Hisami

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies on spatial distributions of Asari clam Ruditapes philippinarum adults on tidal flats but few have dealt with spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam (physical/topographical conditions on tidal flats. We examined small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled individuals on the Matsunase tidal flat, central Japan, during the low spring tides on two days 29th-30th June 2007, together with the shear stress from waves and currents on the flat. The characteristics of spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clam markedly varied depending on both of hydrodynamic and topographical conditions on the tidal flat. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), factors responsible for affecting newly settled Asari clam density and its spatial distribution were distinguished between sampling days, with "crest" sites always having a negative influence each on the density and the distribution on both sampling days. The continuously recorded data for the wave-current flows at the "crest" site on the tidal flat showed that newly settled Asari clam, as well as bottom sediment particles, at the "crest" site to be easily displaced. Small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam changed with more advanced benthic stages in relation to the wave shear stress.

  20. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  1. High spatial-temporal resolution and integrated surface and subsurface precipitation-runoff modelling for a small stormwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2018-02-01

    Reliable runoff estimation is important for design of water infrastructure and flood risk management in urban catchments. We developed a spatially distributed Precipitation-Runoff (P-R) model that explicitly represents the land cover information, performs integrated modelling of surface and subsurface components of the urban precipitation water cycle and flow routing. We conducted parameter calibration and validation for a small (21.255 ha) stormwater catchment in Trondheim City during Summer-Autumn events and season, and snow-influenced Winter-Spring seasons at high spatial and temporal resolutions of respectively 5 m × 5 m grid size and 2 min. The calibration resulted in good performance measures (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE = 0.65-0.94) and acceptable validation NSE for the seasonal and snow-influenced periods. The infiltration excess surface runoff dominates the peak flows while the contribution of subsurface flow to the sewer pipes also augments the peak flows. Based on the total volumes of simulated flow in sewer pipes (Qsim) and precipitation (P) during the calibration periods, the Qsim/P ranges from 21.44% for an event to 56.50% for the Winter-Spring season, which are in close agreement with the observed volumes (Qobs/P). The lowest percentage of precipitation volume that is transformed to the total simulated runoff in the catchment (QT) is 79.77%. Computation of evapotranspiration (ET) indicated that the ET/P is less than 3% for the events and snow-influenced seasons while it is about 18% for the Summer-Autumn season. The subsurface flow contribution to the sewer pipes are markedly higher than the total surface runoff volume for some events and the Summer-Autumn season. The peakiest flow rates correspond to the Winter-Spring season. Therefore, urban runoff simulation for design and management purposes should include two-way interactions between the subsurface runoff and flow in sewer pipes, and snow-influenced seasons. The developed urban P-R model is

  2. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  3. Analysing malaria incidence at the small area level for developing a spatial decision support system: A case study in Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S; Yoo, E-H; Ahmed, S A; Haining, R; Kadannolly, S

    2017-02-01

    Spatial decision support systems have already proved their value in helping to reduce infectious diseases but to be effective they need to be designed to reflect local circumstances and local data availability. We report the first stage of a project to develop a spatial decision support system for infectious diseases for Karnataka State in India. The focus of this paper is on malaria incidence and we draw on small area data on new cases of malaria analysed in two-monthly time intervals over the period February 2012 to January 2016 for Kalaburagi taluk, a small area in Karnataka. We report the results of data mapping and cluster detection (identifying areas of excess risk) including evaluating the temporal persistence of excess risk and the local conditions with which high counts are statistically associated. We comment on how this work might feed into a practical spatial decision support system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Confinement limit of a Dirac particle in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, F.M.; Nogami, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Consider a particle that is in a stationary state described by the Dirac equation with a finite-range potential. In two and three dimensions the particle can be confined to an arbitrarily small spatial region. This is in contrast to the one-dimensional case in which the confinement region cannot be much narrower than the Compton wavelength.

  5. Temporal and spatial patterns of habitat use by juveniles of a small coastal shark (Mustelus lenticulatus in an estuarine nursery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm P Francis

    Full Text Available Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km(2 estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer-autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2-7 km(2, suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution, so integration of marine and terrestrial management tools across a range of government agencies is essential to fully protect nursery areas.

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of habitat use by juveniles of a small coastal shark (Mustelus lenticulatus) in an estuarine nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Malcolm P

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus) were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km(2)) estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer-autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2-7 km(2), suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution, so integration of marine and terrestrial management tools across a range of government agencies is essential to fully protect nursery areas.

  7. Spatial resolution evaluation with a pair of two four-layer DOI detectors for small animal PET scanner: jPET-RD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tsuda, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Shibuya, Kengo; Yamaya, Taiga; Kitamura, Keishi; Takahashi, Kei; Ohmura, Atsushi; Murayama, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a small animal PET scanner, 'jPET-RD' to achieve high sensitivity as well as high spatial resolution by using four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The jPET-RD is designed with two detector rings. Each detector ring is composed of six DOI detectors arranged hexagonally. The diameter of the field-of-view (FOV) is 8.8 cm, which is smaller than typical small animal PET scanners on the market now. Each detector module consists of a crystal block and a 256-channel flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The crystal block, consisting of 32x32x4 crystal (4096 crystals, each 1.46 mmx1.46 mmx4.5 mm) and a reflector, is mounted on the 256ch FP-PMT. In this study, we evaluated the spatial resolution of reconstructed images with the evaluation system of two four-layer DOI detectors which consist of 32x32x4 LYSO (Lu: 98%, Y: 2%) crystals coupled on the 256ch FP-PMT by using RTV rubber. The spatial resolution of 1.5 mm was obtained at the center of the FOV by the filtered back projection. The spatial resolution, better than 2 mm in the whole FOV, was also achieved with DOI while the spatial resolution without DOI was degraded to 3.3 mm

  8. Spatial resolution evaluation with a pair of two four-layer DOI detectors for small animal PET scanner: jPET-RD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: funis@nirs.go.jp; Tsuda, Tomoaki [Shimadzu Corporation, Nishinokyo Kuwabaracho 1 Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Shibuya, Kengo; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Keishi [Shimadzu Corporation, Nishinokyo Kuwabaracho 1 Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); Takahashi, Kei [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ohmura, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a small animal PET scanner, 'jPET-RD' to achieve high sensitivity as well as high spatial resolution by using four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The jPET-RD is designed with two detector rings. Each detector ring is composed of six DOI detectors arranged hexagonally. The diameter of the field-of-view (FOV) is 8.8 cm, which is smaller than typical small animal PET scanners on the market now. Each detector module consists of a crystal block and a 256-channel flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The crystal block, consisting of 32x32x4 crystal (4096 crystals, each 1.46 mmx1.46 mmx4.5 mm) and a reflector, is mounted on the 256ch FP-PMT. In this study, we evaluated the spatial resolution of reconstructed images with the evaluation system of two four-layer DOI detectors which consist of 32x32x4 LYSO (Lu: 98%, Y: 2%) crystals coupled on the 256ch FP-PMT by using RTV rubber. The spatial resolution of 1.5 mm was obtained at the center of the FOV by the filtered back projection. The spatial resolution, better than 2 mm in the whole FOV, was also achieved with DOI while the spatial resolution without DOI was degraded to 3.3 mm.

  9. Detecting small-scale spatial differences and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced on arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal as well as small-scale spatial dynamics of ΔSOC. Therefore, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) was used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 under a silage maize/winter fodder rye/sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid/alfalfa crop rotation at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany. Widespread in large areas of the formerly glaciated Northern Hemisphere, this depression type is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC and nitrogen (Nt). After monitoring the initial stage during 2010, soil erosion was experimentally simulated by incorporating topsoil material from an eroded midslope soil into the plough layer of the colluvial depression. SOC stocks were quantified before and after soil manipulation and at the end

  10. Detecting small-scale spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial (10-30 m) and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced in arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal dynamics as well as small-scale spatial differences of ΔSOC using measurements of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) as a proxy. To estimate the NECB, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) were used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. Soil resampling and AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of northeastern Germany. The measurement site is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity regarding SOC and nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Tendencies and magnitude of ΔSOC values derived by AC measurements and repeated soil inventories corresponded well. The period of maximum plant growth was identified as being most important for the development of spatial differences in annual ΔSOC. Hence, we were able to confirm that AC-based C budgets are able

  11. Multiplying dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time.   TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...

  12. Inflation from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest (1) in the possibility that the universe could have more than four dimensions. Aside from any light this may shed on problems in particle physics, if true it would undoubtedly have important implications for early cosmology. A rather speculative but very appealing possibility suggested by D. Sahdev and by E. Alvarez and B. Gavela is that the gravitational collapse of extra spatial dimensions could drive an inflation of ordinary space. This kind of inflationary cosmology would be quite different from the inflationary cosmologies now so intensively studied which are supposed to result from changes in vacuum energy during phase transitions in the early universe. In our work we examine the physics of these Kaluza-Klein inflationary cosmologies and come to three main conclusions. (1) It is desirable to have many extra dimensions, many being of order forty or fifty. (2) For models which give a realistically large inflation almost all of this inflation occurs in a period when quantum gravity is certainly important. This means that Einstein's equations cannot be used to calculate the details of this inflationary period. (3) Under plausible assumptions one may argue from the second law of thermodynamics that given appropriate initial conditions a large inflation will occur even when details of the inflationary phase cannot be calculated classically

  13. Black Holes and Sub-millimeter Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; March-Russell, John David; Argyres, Philip C.; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Small black holes---with Schwarzschild radii smaller than the size of the new spatial dimensions---are quite different. They are bigger, colder, and longer-lived than a usual $(3+1)$-dimensional black hole of the same mass. Furthermore, they primarily decay into harmless bulk graviton modes rather than standard-model degrees of freedom. We discuss the interplay of our scenario with the holographic principle. Our results also have implications for the bounds on the spectrum of primordial black holes (PBHs) derived from the photo-dissociation of primordial nucleosynthesis products, distortion of the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum, overcl...

  14. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Kosinski, Karen C.; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N.; Ayamgah, Gilbert A.; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M.; Plummer, Jeanine D.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. Despite providing the highest and most flexible level of service with better microbiological water quality to their users, these systems remain vulnerable to rural water sustainability challenges. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public stan...

  15. Validation of the blurring of a small object on CT images calculated on the basis of three-dimensional spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Saito, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    We determine three-dimensional (3D) blurring of a small object on computed tomography (CT) images calculated on the basis of 3D spatial resolution. The images were characterized by point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF) and slice sensitivity profile (SSP). In advance, we systematically arranged expressions in the model for the imaging system to calculate 3D images under various conditions of spatial resolution. As a small object, we made a blood vessel phantom in which the direction of the vessel was not parallel to either the xy scan-plane or the z-axis perpendicular to the scan-plane. Therefore, when scanning the phantom, non-sharpness must be induced in all axes of the image. To predict the image blurring of the phantom, 3D spatial resolution is essential. The LSF and SSP were measured on our scanner, and two-dimensional (2D) PSF in the scan-plane was derived from the LSF by solving an integral equation. We obtained 3D images by convolving the 3D object-function of the phantom with both 2D PSF and SSP, corresponding to the 3D convolution. Calculated images showed good agreement with scanned images. Our technique of determining 3D blurring offers an accuracy advantage in 3D shape (size) and density measurements of small objects. (author)

  16. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  17. Lovelock inflation and the number of large dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Francesc

    2007-01-01

    We discuss an inflationary scenario based on Lovelock terms. These higher order curvature terms can lead to inflation when there are more than three spatial dimensions. Inflation will end if the extra dimensions are stabilised, so that at most three dimensions are free to expand. This relates graceful exit to the number of large dimensions.

  18. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part I: performance estimation and design considerations unique to small dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Research and development activities pertaining to the development of a 10 W, homogeneous charge compression ignition free-piston engine-compressor are presented. Emphasis is place upon the miniature engine concept and design rationale. Also, a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine performance estimation method (slider-crank piston motion) is developed and used to explore the influence of engine operating conditions and geometric parameters on power density and establish plausible design conditions. The minimization of small-scale effects such as enhanced heat transfer, is also explored. (author)

  19. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  20. The spatial dimension of knowledge sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at assumptions and ideas fundamental to theories of regional innovation systems? and ?learning regions?. First the original theories and their roots are presented briefly. Then a number of key concepts and assumptions will be discussed. After that two trends...

  1. SPATIAL DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY AND FINANCIAL PRECARIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei CHIRILA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is presented an territorial analysis2 taking into consideration the workforce occupational status and the incomes features of each of its socio-occupational categories. Two were calculated (based on the last Population Census with available data: the workforce precariousness index (which considers the labour resources that do not realize any income by their own forces and the relative average occupational poverty index (that takes into consideration the national average incomes level and the percentage of the occupational categories whose incomes are situated below the national average. A special attention was paid to the analysis of the institutional means conceived to diminish these phenomena and the vulnerabilities they imply, given the concept of financial territorial resources (European structural funds.

  2. A central role for the small GTPase Rac1 in hippocampal plasticity and spatial learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haditsch, Ursula; Leone, Dino P; Farinelli, Mélissa

    2009-01-01

    in excitatory neurons in the forebrain in vivo not only affects spine structure, but also impairs synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus with consequent defects in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Furthermore, Rac1 mutants display deficits in working/episodic-like memory in the delayed matching...

  3. Small-scale spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem properties, microbial community composition and microbial activities in a temperate mountain forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štursová, Martina; Bárta, J.; Šantrůčková, H.; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 12 (2016), fiw185 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-08916S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spatial heterogeneity * litter * soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  4. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  5. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  6. search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs. AMBREEsH GUPTA (for the ATLAs Collaboration). 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago,. IL 60637, USA. Abstract. If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ...

  7. A universal empirical relation for the variation of Ksub(eff) with core dimensions of bare and reflected small fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Srinivasan, M.; Basu, T.K.; Subba Rao, K.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 26 group Ssub(4) transport theory calculations in spherical geometry were carried out to study the variation of Ksub(eff) with core radius of bars and reflected small fast systems. For each system Ksub(eff) was calculated for various core radii keeping reflector thickness and density constant. A plot of Ksub(eff) vs R/Rsub(e) gave an almost universal curve independent of core material, density and reflector properties. An empirical relation of the form Ksub(eff)=Ksub(infinity)sup(*)[1-esup(-(THETA R/Rsub(c))] could be fitted to the Ksub(eff) vs R/Rsub(c) plot where Rsub(c) is the critical radius, and the constants Ksub(infinity) and THETA are related through THETA =ln(Ksub(infinity)sup(*)/Ksub(infinity)sup(*)-1). Thus the Ksub(eff) vs R/Rsub(c) relation is found to be governed by a single constant Ksub(infinity(sup(*)), valid for both bare and reflected systems. The agreement between DTF-IV calculated Ksub(eff) values and that given by the empirical relation is better than 3% except in the highly subcritical domain where the discrepency is a bit higher. The physical interpretation of the form of the relation, its regions of validity are discussed. An attempt is made to extend it to non-spherical geometries also. (author)

  8. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  9. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  10. Modelling aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in spatial point pattern datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavancier, Frédéric; Møller, Jesper

    We consider a dependent thinning of a regular point process with the aim of obtaining aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in the resulting target point process of retained points. Various parametric models for the underlying processes are suggested and the properties...

  11. Evaluation of spatial sensitivity of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis facility for the in vivo determination of nitrogen in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Ioannina University; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the spatial dependence of the sensitivity of nitrogen measurement with a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for small animals and developed an analysis procedure that permits the reduction of systematic errors due to that dependence. The analysis procedure is based on neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP code in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the PGNAA facility. The system can be calibrated experimentally using a small number of phantoms of known size and composition. The calculation approach can then be used to predict responses for animal body sizes and shapes relatively to those experimentally determined and to include the effect of tissue inhomogeneities. Our calculations were verified by experimental measurements performed for a set of cylindrical inhomogeneous phantoms. The calculated to experimental ratios observed were within 6%. (author)

  12. Topological magnetoelectric pump in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori

    2017-11-01

    We study the topological pump for a lattice fermion model mainly in three spatial dimensions. We first calculate the U(1) current density for the Dirac model defined in continuous space-time to review the known results as well as to introduce some technical details convenient for the calculations of the lattice model. We next investigate the U(1) current density for a lattice fermion model, a variant of the Wilson-Dirac model. The model we introduce is defined on a lattice in space but in continuous time, which is suited for the study of the topological pump. For such a model, we derive the conserved U(1) current density and calculate it directly for the (1 +1 )-dimensional system as well as (3 +1 )-dimensional system in the limit of the small lattice constant. We find that the current includes a nontrivial lattice effect characterized by the Chern number, and therefore the pumped particle number is quantized by the topological reason. Finally, we study the topological temporal pump in 3 +1 dimensions by numerical calculations. We discuss the relationship between the second Chern number and the first Chern number, the bulk-edge correspondence, and the generalized Streda formula which enables us to compute the second Chern number using the spectral asymmetry.

  13. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Small Businesses in the Eastern Villages of Gilan Province with Emphasis on the Tourism Sector in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hajilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of small businesses in rural areas as a key strategy for sustaining the population and improving the quality of life of villagers has always been a concern for many developed and developing countries. Some rural areas provide their villagers with favorable conditions for the development of businesses in order to enjoy the potential in the field of tourism. Sustainable development in these areas can be achieved with systematic attention and planning. In the present work, the spatial analysis of the distribution of small businesses in the eastern parts of Gilan Province was studied with an emphasis on tourism in mountainous regions. The study population consisted of all villages in the east part of Gilan Province, and the sample included all businesses officially supported by the Omid Entrepreneurship Fund. The research method was a descriptive analytic in which GIS software and the G statistic were used for the analysis of spatial correlation, clustering, hot and cold spots analysis and buffer zones. Finally, the results of the study showed that the spatial distribution of businesses in different economic sectors (agriculture, industry, services and tourism were different between 2011 and 2016 in the way the cluster pattern was formed in agricultural and service activities. A cluster pattern cannot be considered in the tourism and industrial activities, but there is a random (point pattern; in this regard, the results indicate the importance of the factor of distance between the village and the city center in the distribution of tourism businesses. In addition, the highest levels of support for businesses were in the agricultural and services sectors, while the lowest support was in industry and tourism. Finally, the results showed that the distribution of businesses in all activities was much higher in the plains and valleys as compared to the mountainous and hill areas.

  14. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  15. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  16. Theoretical Dimensions of Small Unit Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Post - traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ), Suicide 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...sent home. Yet, there were still others, those with post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). Soldiers who were changed by their experiences and unable...surveys on Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans have found high rates of post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD

  17. Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, JoAnne

    2006-01-01

    Extra dimensions of space may be present in our universe. Their discovery would dramatically change our view of the cosmos and would prompt many questions. How do they hide? What is their shape? How many are there? How big are they? Do particles and forces feel their presence? This lecture will explain the concept of dimensions and show that current theoretical models predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions which could be in the discovery reach of present and near-term experiments. The manner by which these additional dimensions reveal their existence will be described. Searches for modifications of the gravitational force, astrophysical effects, and collider signatures already constrain the size of extra dimensions and will be summarized. Once new dimensions are discovered, the technology by which the above questions can be answered will be discussed.

  18. Compactified vacuum in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M 4 and a compactified space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum by annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. The authors illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S 6 where S 6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. He explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The examples M 4 x S 6 is still plagued by the semi-classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum

  19. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori

    2013-06-10

    Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha-1 yr-1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy.

  20. Quantum control in infinite dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwowski, Witold; Vilela Mendes, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate control of quantum evolution is an essential requirement for quantum state engineering, laser chemistry, quantum information and quantum computing. Conditions of controllability for systems with a finite number of energy levels have been extensively studied. By contrast, results for controllability in infinite dimensions have been mostly negative, stating that full control cannot be achieved with a finite-dimensional control Lie algebra. Here we show that by adding a discrete operation to a Lie algebra it is possible to obtain full control in infinite dimensions with a small number of control operators

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations in streamflow, drainage and runoff in a small Swedish agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Maria; Piikki, Kristin; Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Kreuger, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    A better understanding of the dominant source areas and transport pathways of pesticide losses to surface water is needed for targeting mitigation efforts in a more cost-effective way. To this end, we monitored pesticides in surface water in an agricultural catchment typical of one of the main crop production regions in Sweden. Three small sub-catchments (88-242ha) were selected for water sampling based on a high-resolution digital soil map developed from proximal sensing methods and soil sampling; one sub-catchment had a high proportion of clay soils, another was dominated by coarse sandy soils while the third comprised a mix of soil types. Samples were collected from the stream, from field drains discharging into the stream and from within-field surface runoff during spring and early summer in three consecutive years. These samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for 99 compounds, including most of the polar and semi-polar pesticides frequently used in Swedish agriculture. Information on pesticide applications (products, doses and timing) was obtained from annual interviews with the farmers. There were clear and consistent differences in pesticide occurrence in the stream between the three sub-catchments, with both the numbers of detected compounds and concentrations being the largest in the area with a high proportion of clay soils and with very few detections in the sandy sub-catchment. Macropore flow to drains was most likely the dominant loss pathway in the studied area. Many of the compounds that were detected in drainage and stream water samples had not been applied for several years. This suggests that despite the predominant role of fast flow pathways in determining losses to the stream, long-term storage along the transport pathways also occurs, presumably in subsoil horizons where degradation is slow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  3. OLD MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF PHOTOMETRY IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND ITS SPATIAL GRADIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Noelia E. D.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of 12 fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on unprecedented deep [(B - R), R] color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Our fields reach down to the oldest main-sequence turnoff with a high photometric accuracy, which is vital for obtaining accurate SFHs, particularly at intermediate and old ages. We use the IAC-pop code to obtain the SFH, using synthetic CMDs generated with IAC-star. We obtain the SFH as a function ψ(t, z) of age and metallicity. We also consider several auxiliary functions: the initial mass function (IMF), φ(m), and a function accounting for the frequency and relative mass distribution of binary stars, β(f, q). We find that there are several main periods of enhancement of star formation: a young one peaked at ∼0.2-0.5 Gyr old, only present in the eastern and in the central-most fields; two at intermediate ages present in all fields: a conspicuous one peaked at ∼4-5 Gyr, and a less significant one peaked at ∼1.5-2.5; and an old one, peaked at ∼10 Gyr in all fields but the western ones. In the western fields, this old enhancement splits into two, one peaked at ∼8 Gyr old and another at ∼12 Gyr old. This 'two-enhancement' zone is unaffected by our choice of stellar evolutionary library but more data covering other fields of the SMC are necessary in order to ascertain its significancy. Correlation between star formation rate enhancements and SMC-Milky Way encounters is not clear. Some correlation could exist with encounters taken from the orbit determination of Kallivayalil et al. But our results would also fit in a first pericenter passage scenario like the one claimed by Besla et al. For SMC-Large Magellanic Cloud encounters, we find a correlation only for the most recent encounter ∼0.2 Gyr ago. This coincides with the youngest ψ(t) enhancement peaked at these ages in our eastern fields. The population younger than 1 Gyr represents ∼7%-12% of the total

  4. [Spatial heterogeneity in body condition of small yellow croaker in Yellow Sea and East China Sea based on mixed-effects model and quantile regression analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-Lei; Yuan, Xing-Wei; Yan, Li-Ping; Yang, Lin-Lin; Cheng, Jia-Hua

    2013-09-01

    By using the 2008-2010 investigation data about the body condition of small yellow croaker in the offshore waters of southern Yellow Sea (SYS), open waters of northern East China Sea (NECS), and offshore waters of middle East China Sea (MECS), this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of body length-body mass of juvenile and adult small yellow croakers by the statistical approaches of mean regression model and quantile regression model. The results showed that the residual standard errors from the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the linear mixed-effects model were similar, and those from the simple linear regression were the highest. For the juvenile small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in SYS and NECS estimated by the mixed-effects mean regression model was higher than the overall average mass across the three regions, while the mean body mass in MECS was below the overall average. For the adult small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in NECS was higher than the overall average, while the mean body mass in SYS and MECS was below the overall average. The results from quantile regression indicated the substantial differences in the allometric relationships of juvenile small yellow croakers between SYS, NECS, and MECS, with the estimated mean exponent of the allometric relationship in SYS being 2.85, and the interquartile range being from 2.63 to 2.96, which indicated the heterogeneity of body form. The results from ANCOVA showed that the allometric body length-body mass relationships were significantly different between the 25th and 75th percentile exponent values (F=6.38, df=1737, P<0.01) and the 25th percentile and median exponent values (F=2.35, df=1737, P=0.039). The relationship was marginally different between the median and 75th percentile exponent values (F=2.21, df=1737, P=0.051). The estimated body length-body mass exponent of adult small yellow croakers in SYS was 3.01 (10th and 95th percentiles = 2.77 and 3.1, respectively). The

  5. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  6. Spatial and temporal variations in non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small agricultural catchment in the Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenglong; Gao, Ming; Xie, Deti; Ni, Jiupai

    2016-04-01

    Losses of agricultural pollutants from small catchments are a major issue for water quality in the Three Gorges Region. Solutions are urgently needed. However, before pollutant losses can be controlled, information about spatial and temporal variations in pollutant losses is needed. The study was carried out in the Wangjiagou catchment, a small agricultural catchment in Fuling District, Chongqing, and the data about non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus was collected here. Water samples were collected daily by an automatic water sampler at the outlets of two subcatchments from 2012 to 2014. Also, samples of surface runoff from 28 sampling sites distributed through the subcatchments were collected during 12 rainfall events in 2014. A range of water quality variables were analyzed for all samples and were used to demonstrate the variation in non-point losses of nitrogen and phosphorus over a range of temporal and spatial scales and in different types of rainfall in the catchment. Results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between the mass concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-N) in surface runoff and that the relationship was maintained with changes in time. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N peaked after fertilizer was applied to crops in spring and autumn; concentrations decreased rapidly after the peak values in spring but declined slowly in autumn. N and P concentrations fluctuated more and showed a greater degree of dispersion during the spring crop cultivation period than those in autumn. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff were significantly and positively correlated with the proportion of the area that was planted with corn and mustard tubers, but were negatively correlated with the proportion of the area taken up with rice and mulberry plantations. The average concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff reached the highest level from the sampling points at the bottom of the land used for corn

  7. Dimension of chaotic attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.

  8. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  9. Spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Mizera, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity by simulating random walks on causal sets. In contrast to other approaches to quantum gravity, we find an increasing spectral dimension at small scales. This observation can be connected to the nonlocality of causal set theory that is deeply rooted in its fundamentally Lorentzian nature. Based on its large-scale behaviour, we conjecture that the spectral dimension can serve as a tool to distinguish causal sets that approximate manifolds from those that do not. As a new tool to probe quantum spacetime in different quantum gravity approaches, we introduce a novel dimensional estimator, the causal spectral dimension, based on the meeting probability of two random walkers, which respect the causal structure of the quantum spacetime. We discuss a causal-set example, where the spectral dimension and the causal spectral dimension differ, due to the existence of a preferred foliation. (paper)

  10. Dimensions of Creative Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined evaluative reasoning taking place during expert ‘design critiques’. We focused on key dimensions of creative evaluation (originality, functionality and aesthetics) and ways in which these dimensions impact reasoning strategies and suggestions offered by experts for how the student could...... continue. Each dimension was associated with a specific underpinning ‘logic’ determining how these dimensions were evaluated in practice. Our analysis clarified how these dimensions triggered reasoning strategies such as running mental simulations or making design suggestions, ranging from ‘go...

  11. Fractal dimension of turbulent black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan

    2017-11-01

    We present measurements of the fractal dimension of a turbulent asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane reconstructed from simulated boundary fluid data at the perfect fluid order using the fluid-gravity duality. We argue that the boundary fluid energy spectrum scaling as E (k )˜k-2 is a more natural setting for the fluid-gravity duality than the Kraichnan-Kolmogorov scaling of E (k )˜k-5 /3, but we obtain fractal dimensions D for spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in both cases: D =2.584 (1 ) and D =2.645 (4 ), respectively. These results are consistent with the upper bound of D =3 , thereby resolving the tension with the recent claim in Adams et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 151602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151602] that D =3 +1 /3 . We offer a critical examination of the calculation which led to their result, and show that their proposed definition of the fractal dimension performs poorly as a fractal dimension estimator on one-dimensional curves with known fractal dimension. Finally, we describe how to define and in principle calculate the fractal dimension of spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in a covariant manner, and we speculate on assigning a "bootstrapped" value of fractal dimension to the entire horizon H when it is in a statistically quasisteady turbulent state.

  12. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining- and smelting-affected watershed: high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Marache, Antoine; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Maneux, Eric; Bossy, Cécile; Masson, Matthieu; Lavaux, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Riou Mort River watershed (SW France), representative of a heavily polluted, small, heterogeneous watershed, represents a major source for the polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system due to former mining and ore-treatment activities. In order to assess spatial distribution of the metal/metalloid contamination in the watershed, a high resolution hydrological and geochemical monitoring were performed during one year at four permanent observation stations. Additionally, thirty-five stream sediment samples were collected at representative key sites and analyzed for metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Mo, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Th, U and Hg) concentrations. The particulate concentrations in water and stream sediments show high spatial differences for most of the studied elements suggesting strong anthropogenic and/or lithogenic influences; for stream sediments, the sequence of the highest variability, ranging from 100% to 300%, is the following: Mo < Cu < Hg < As < Sb < Cd < Zn < Pb. Multidimensional statistical analyses combined with metal/metalloid maps generated by GIS tool were used to establish relationships between elements, to identify metal/metalloid sources and localize geochemical anomalies attributed to local geochemical background, urban and industrial activities. Finally, this study presents an approach to assess anthropogenic trace metal inputs within this watershed by combining lithology-dependent geochemical background values, metal/metalloid concentrations in stream sediments and mass balances of element fluxes at four key sites. The strongest anthropogenic contributions to particulate element fluxes are 90-95% for Cd, Zn and Hg in downstream sub-catchments. The localisation of anthropogenic metal/metalloid sources in restricted areas offers a great opportunity to further significantly reduce metal emissions and restore the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine ecosystem.

  14. Shock formation in small-data solutions to 3D quasilinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, Jared

    2016-01-01

    In 1848 James Challis showed that smooth solutions to the compressible Euler equations can become multivalued, thus signifying the onset of a shock singularity. Today it is known that, for many hyperbolic systems, such singularities often develop. However, most shock-formation results have been proved only in one spatial dimension. Serge Alinhac's groundbreaking work on wave equations in the late 1990s was the first to treat more than one spatial dimension. In 2007, for the compressible Euler equations in vorticity-free regions, Demetrios Christodoulou remarkably sharpened Alinhac's results and gave a complete description of shock formation. In this monograph, Christodoulou's framework is extended to two classes of wave equations in three spatial dimensions. It is shown that if the nonlinear terms fail to satisfy the null condition, then for small data, shocks are the only possible singularities that can develop. Moreover, the author exhibits an open set of small data whose solutions form a shock, and he prov...

  15. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  16. Relaxing to Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Extra dimensions of space might be present in our universe. If so, we want to know 'How do dimensions hide?' and 'Why are three dimensions special?' I'll give potential answers to both these questions in the context of localized gravity. Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00. Talk is broadcasted in Council Chamber

  17. The Modal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giluano Torrengo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Space and time are two obvious candidates as dimensions of reality. Yet, are they the only two dimensions of reality? Famously, David Lewis maintained the doctrine of ―modal realism‖, the thesis that possible worlds exist and are entities as concrete as the actual world that we live in. In this paper, I will explore the idea that modality can be construed as a dimension along with space and time. However, although Lewis‘ modal realism is the main source of inspiration for this construal of modality, I will argue that something else is required for having a modal dimension.

  18. Effects of rotation radiographic dimensions of metacarpals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armes, F.M.; Horsman, A.; Bentley, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described which shows that small rotations of metacarpals about their long axis produce small systematic changes in the cortical dimensions as measured by radiographic morphometry. The effect is of no significance in cross-sectional studies but is an important source of error in sequential studies. (author)

  19. The geographic scale of diversification on islands: genetic and morphological divergence at a very small spatial scale in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Aves: Zosterops borbonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thébaud Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanic islands provide unique scenarios for studying the roles of geography and ecology in driving population divergence and speciation. Assessing the relative importance of selective and neutral factors in driving population divergence is central to understanding how such divergence may lead to speciation in small oceanic islands, where opportunities for gene flow and population mixing are potentially high. Here we report a case of genetic and morphological structure in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Zosterops borbonicus a species that shows a striking, geographically structured plumage polymorphism on the topographically and ecologically complex island of Réunion, yet is monotypic on the relatively uniform neighbouring island of Mauritius. Results Analysis of 276 AFLP loci in 197 individuals revealed prolonged independent evolution of Réunion and Mauritius populations, which is congruent with previous mtDNA assessments. Furthermore, populations on Réunion showed significant differentiation into three main genetic groups separating lowland from highland areas despite the small geographic distances involved. Genetic differentiation along the altitudinal gradient is consistent with morphometric analysis of fitness-related traits. Birds in the highlands were larger, yet had relatively smaller beaks than in the lowlands, suggesting the role of selection in shaping morphology and restricting gene flow along the gradient. No genetic differentiation between plumage morphs was detected in neutral markers, suggesting that plumage differences are of recent origin. Conclusions Our results suggest a dual role of vicariance and natural selection in differentiating populations of a passerine bird in an oceanic island at very small spatial scales. We propose a combination of past microallopatry driven by volcanic activity and selection-constrained dispersal along steep ecological gradients to explain the striking levels of population

  20. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological developments in remote sensing (RS during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS, which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users’ needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides

  1. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    The technological developments in remote sensing (RS) during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS), which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users' needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides selected, practice

  2. Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minkowski, there are d additional spatial dimensions which are curled up into circles, ... In the framework of string theory, this is also related to the string tension .... This marks an ..... of about 1 TeV, with an uncertainty of about 50 GeV either way — which improves only .... [5] J C Long, H W Chan and J C Price, Nucl. Phys.

  3. Spatio-temporal correlations in the Manna model in one, three and five dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Gary; Pruessner, Gunnar

    2018-02-01

    Although the paradigm of criticality is centered around spatial correlations and their anomalous scaling, not many studies of self-organized criticality (SOC) focus on spatial correlations. Often, integrated observables, such as avalanche size and duration, are used, not least as to avoid complications due to the unavoidable lack of translational invariance. The present work is a survey of spatio-temporal correlation functions in the Manna Model of SOC, measured numerically in detail in d = 1,3 and 5 dimensions and compared to theoretical results, in particular relating them to “integrated” observables such as avalanche size and duration scaling, that measure them indirectly. Contrary to the notion held by some of SOC models organizing into a critical state by re-arranging their spatial structure avalanche by avalanche, which may be expected to result in large, nontrivial, system-spanning spatial correlations in the quiescent state (between avalanches), correlations of inactive particles in the quiescent state have a small amplitude that does not and cannot increase with the system size, although they display (noisy) power law scaling over a range linear in the system size. Self-organization, however, does take place as the (one-point) density of inactive particles organizes into a particular profile that is asymptotically independent of the driving location, also demonstrated analytically in one dimension. Activity and its correlations, on the other hand, display nontrivial long-ranged spatio-temporal scaling with exponents that can be related to established results, in particular avalanche size and duration exponents. The correlation length and amplitude are set by the system size (confirmed analytically for some observables), as expected in systems displaying finite size scaling. In one dimension, we find some surprising inconsistencies of the dynamical exponent. A (spatially extended) mean field theory (MFT) is recovered, with some corrections, in five

  4. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  6. User Experience Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the obser...

  7. Dimensions des stabulations 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika; Schneider, Claudia; Schürmann, Stefan; Spengler Neff, Anet; Werne, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Les «Dimensions des stabulations» contiennent toutes les dimensions pour les stabulations et les parcours pour la production animale en agriculture biologique. Cette liste sert d’instrument de planification pour les éleveurs, d’outil de travail pour la vulgarisation et d’ouvrage de référence pour le contrôle bio.

  8. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  9. Evolution Of The Concept Of Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Philippe F.

    2007-01-01

    Concepts of time elapsing 'in' a space measuring the real emerge over the centuries. But Kant refutes absolute time and defines it, with space, as forms reacting to Newtonian mechanics. Einstein and Minkowski open a 20th century where time is a dimension, a substratum of reality 'with' space rather than 'in' it. Kaluza-Klein and String theories then develop a trend of additional spatial dimensions while de Broglie and Bohm open the possiblity that form, to begin with wave, be a reality together 'with' a space-time particle. Other recent theories, such as spin networks, causal sets and twistor theory, even head to the idea of other 'systems of dimensions'. On the basis of such progresses and recent experiments the paper then considers a background independent fourfold time-form-action-space system of dimensions

  10. Extra dimensions round the corner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.

    1999-01-01

    How many dimensions are we living in? This question is fundamental and yet, astonishingly, it remains unresolved. Of course, on the everyday level it appears that we are living in four dimensions three space plus one time dimension. But in recent months theoretical physicists have discovered that collisions between high-energy particles at accelerators may reveal the presence of extra space-time dimensions. On scales where we can measure the acceleration of falling objects due to gravity or study the orbital motion of planets or satellites, the gravitational force seems to be described by a 1/r 2 law. The most sensitive direct tests of the gravitational law are based on torsion-balance experiments that were first performed by Henry Cavendish in 1798. However, the smallest scales on which this type of experiment can be performed are roughly 1 mm (see J C Long, H W Chan and J C Price 1999 Nucl. Phys. B 539 23). At smaller distances, objects could be gravitating in five or more dimensions that are rolled up or ''compactified'' - an idea that is bread-and-butter to string theorists. Most string theorists however believe that the gravitational effects of compact extra dimensions are too small to be observed. Now Nima Arkani-Hamed from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US, Savas Dimopoulos at Stanford University and Gia Dvali, who is now at New York University, suggest differently (Phys. Lett. B 1998 429 263). They advanced earlier ideas from string theory in which the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces are confined to membranes, like dirt particles trapped in soap bubbles, while the gravitational force operates in the entire higher-dimensional volume. In their theory extra dimensions should have observable effects inside particle colliders such as the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab in the US or at the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The effect will show up as an excess of events in which a single jet of particles is produced with no

  11. The fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    ""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else

  12. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  13. Escaping in extra dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in the formulation of fundamental theories for a Universe with more than 4 dimensions will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to theories predicting the existence of extra dimensions at distance scales within the reach of current or forthcoming experiments. The phenomenological implications of these theories, ranging from detectable deviations from Newton's law at sub-millimeter scales, to phenomena of cosmological and astrophysical interest, as well as to high-energy laboratory experiments, will be discussed.

  14. Gender Dimensions Framework Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a presentation of the The Gender Dimensions Framework (GDF). The GDF was developed to provide guidance to USAID staff and partner organizations for working with USAID projects looking at promoting equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains. The GDF contemplates four dimensions: access to and control over key productive assets (tangible and intangible); beliefs and perceptions; practices and participation, and legal frameworks. CCRA-7 (Gendered Knowledge)

  15. A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Marine Spatial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lydia C. L.; Teh, Louise S. L.

    2011-04-01

    Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.

  16. A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.

    1994-01-01

    Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...

  17. Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M

    2015-08-26

    Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.

  18. The third dimension of reading the sugar code by lectins: design of glycoclusters with cyclic scaffolds as tools with the aim to define correlations between spatial presentation and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paul V; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2013-04-04

    Coding of biological information is not confined to nucleic acids and proteins. Endowed with the highest level of structural versatility among biomolecules, the glycan chains of cellular glycoconjugates are well-suited to generate molecular messages/signals in a minimum of space. The sequence and shape of oligosaccharides as well as spatial aspects of multivalent presentation are assumed to underlie the natural specificity/selectivity that cellular glycans have for endogenous lectins. In order to eventually unravel structure-activity profiles cyclic scaffolds have been used as platforms to produce glycoclusters and afford valuable tools. Using adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins and the pan-galectin ligand lactose as a model, emerging insights into the potential of cyclodextrins, cyclic peptides, calixarenes and glycophanes for this purpose are presented herein. The systematic testing of lectin panels with spatially defined ligand presentations can be considered as a biomimetic means to help clarify the mechanisms, which lead to the exquisite accuracy at which endogenous lectins select their physiological counterreceptors from the complexity of the cellular glycome.

  19. Electric field control of the small-polaron hopping conduction in spatial confined Pr0.7(Ca0.6Sr0.40.3MnO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Kuang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric field dependent high-temperature small-polaron hopping conduction was investigated in patterned Pr0.7(Ca0.6Sr0.40.3MnO3 strips. The small-polaronic activation energy EA and the carrier localization were found to decrease with the reduction of the strip size. Meanwhile, a similar dependence on the strip size was also obtained for the calculated small-polaron coupling constants, which could be related to the strain relaxation in strips. These results indicate that the spatial confinement prefers to delocalize the carrier and reduce the electron-phonon interaction. Furthermore, opposite variation trends of EA under negative and positive electric field were found in the strips with small size, which could be attributed to the enhancement of polarization effect induced by the reduction of strip size.

  20. New dimensions new hopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Utpal

    2001-05-01

    We live in a four dimensional world. But the idea of unification of fundamental interactions lead us to higher dimensional theories. Recently a new theory with extra dimensions has emerged where only gravity propagates in the extra dimension and all other interactions are confined to only four dimensions. This theory gives us many new hopes. In earlier theories unification of strong, weak and the electromagnetic forces was possible at around 10 16 GeV in a grand unified theory (GUT) and it could get unified with gravity at around the Planck scale of 10 19 GeV. With this new idea it is possible to bring down all unification scales within the reach of the new generation accelerators, i.e., around 10 4 GeV. (author)

  1. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  2. Pellet dimension checker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A pellet dimension checker was developed for use in making nuclear-fuel pellets. This checker eliminates operator handling of the pellet but permits remote-monitoring of the operation, and is thus suitable for mass production of green fuel pellets particularly in reprocessing plants handling irradiated uranium or plutonium. It comprises a rotatable arm for transferring a pellet from a conveyor to several dimensional measuring stations and back to the conveyor if the dimensions of the pellet are within predetermined limits. If the pellet is not within the limits, the arm removes the pellet from the process stream. (DN)

  3. Physics of extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I

    2006-01-01

    Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range

  4. Fractal dimension of cantori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Bak, P.

    1986-01-01

    At a critical point the golden-mean Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory of Chirikov's standard map breaks up into a fractal orbit called a cantorus. The transition describes a pinning of the incommensurate phase of the Frenkel-Kontorowa model. We find that the fractal dimension of the cantorus is D = 0 and that the transition from the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory with dimension D = 1 to the cantorus is governed by an exponent ν = 0.98. . . and a universal scaling function. It is argued that the exponent is equal to that of the Lyapunov exponent

  5. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  6. Space synthesis: an application of synthesis method to two and three dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations; Synthese spatiale: une application de la methode de synthese aux equations de diffusion neutronique multigroupe a deux et trois dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Ngoc, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In order to reduce computing time, two and three-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations in cylindrical, rectangular (X, Y), (X, Y, Z) and hexagonal geometries are solved by the method of synthesis using an appropriate variational principle (stationary principle). The basic idea is to reduce the number of independent variables by constructing two or three-dimensional solutions from solutions of fewer variables, hence the name 'synthesis method'. Whatever the geometry, we are led to solve a system of ordinary differential equations with matrix coefficients to which one can apply well-known numerical methods: CHEBYSHEV's polynomial method, Gaussian elimination. Numerical results furnished by synthesis programs written for the IBM 7094, the IBM 360-75 and the CDC 6600 computers, are confronted with those which are given by programs employing the classical finite difference method. [French] En vue de reduire le-temps de calcul, les equations de diffusion neutronique, multigroupe, a deux et trois dimensions d'espace dans les geometries cylindrique, rectangulaire (X, Y), (X, Y, Z) et hexagonale sont resolues par la methode de synthese utilisant un principe variationnel approprie (principe stationnaire). L'idee consiste a reduire le nombre de variables independantes par construction d'une solution bi ou tridimensionnelle au moyen de solutions dependant d'un nombre inferieur de variables, d'ou le nom de la methode. Dans tous les cas de geometrie, nous sommes conduits a resoudre un systeme d'equations differentielles a coefficients matriciels auquel peuvent s'appliquer les methodes numeriques courantes; methode polynomiale de TCHEBYCHEFF et methode d'elimination de GAUSS. Les resultats numeriques obtenus par nos codes de synthese programmes sur IBM 7094, IBM 360-75 et CDC 6600, sont confrontes avec ceux que fournissent les programmes adoptant la methode classique des differences finies. (auteur)

  7. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  8. Extra Dimensions of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…

  9. Dimension theory and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 167, April 15 (2014), s. 31-35 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cohen real * infinite dimension * calibrated ideal Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864114001151

  10. Understanding the brain through its spatial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Will Zachary

    The spatial location of cells in neural tissue can be easily extracted from many imaging modalities, but the information contained in spatial relationships between cells is seldom utilized. This is because of a lack of recognition of the importance of spatial relationships to some aspects of brain function, and the reflection in spatial statistics of other types of information. The mathematical tools necessary to describe spatial relationships are also unknown to many neuroscientists, and biologists in general. We analyze two cases, and show that spatial relationships can be used to understand the role of a particular type of cell, the astrocyte, in Alzheimer's disease, and that the geometry of axons in the brain's white matter sheds light on the process of establishing connectivity between areas of the brain. Astrocytes provide nutrients for neuronal metabolism, and regulate the chemical environment of the brain, activities that require manipulation of spatial distributions (of neurotransmitters, for example). We first show, through the use of a correlation function, that inter-astrocyte forces determine the size of independent regulatory domains in the cortex. By examining the spatial distribution of astrocytes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease, we determine that astrocytes are not actively transported to fight the disease, as was previously thought. The paths axons take through the white matter determine which parts of the brain are connected, and how quickly signals are transmitted. The rules that determine these paths (i.e. shortest distance) are currently unknown. By measurement of axon orientation distributions using three-point correlation functions and the statistics of axon turning and branching, we reveal that axons are restricted to growth in three directions, like a taxicab traversing city blocks, albeit in three-dimensions. We show how geometric restrictions at the small scale are related to large-scale trajectories. Finally we discuss the

  11. Krull dimension in modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Lucero-Bryan, J.; van Mill, J.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the theory of Krull dimension for S4-algebras and Heyting algebras. This leads to the concept of modal Krull dimension for topological spaces. We compare modal Krull dimension to other well-known dimension functions, and show that it can detect differences between topological spaces that

  12. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.

    2015-06-22

    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.

  13. Small scale spatial variability and pattern of soil respiration and water content in wet and a dry temperate grasslands and bare soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fóti, S.; Nagy, Z.; Balogh, J.; Bartha, S.; Acosta, Manuel; Czóbel, S.; Péli, E.; Marek, Michal V.; Tuba, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2009), s. 389-398 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chamber technique * coefficient of variation * semivariance * Soil respiration * spatial pattern Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Think big, start small : restricted room for manoeuvre by practitioners in socio-spatial planning of peripheral regions in Third World Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van den A.; Veenstra, J.

    2000-01-01

    In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim

  15. Chromatic Dimensions Earthy, Watery, Airy, and Fiery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In our study, for a small number of antonyms, we investigate whether they are cross-modally or ideaesthetically related to the space of colors. We analyze the affinities of seven antonyms (cold-hot, dull-radiant, dead-vivid, soft-hard, transparent-chalky, dry-wet, and acid-treacly) and their intermediate connotations (cool-warm, matt-shiny, numb-lively, mellow-firm, semi-transparent-opaque, semi-dry-moist, and sour-sweet) as a function of color. We find that some antonyms relate to chromatic dimensions, others to achromatic ones. The cold-hot antonym proves to be the most salient dimension. The dry-wet dimension coincides with the cold-hot dimension, with dry corresponding to hot and wet to cold. The acid-treacly dimension proves to be transversal to the cold-hot dimension; hence, the pairs mutually span the chromatic domain. The cold-hot and acid-treacly antonyms perhaps recall Hering's opponent color system. The dull-radiant, transparent-chalky, and dead-vivid pairs depend little upon chromaticity. Of all seven antonyms, only the soft-hard one turns out to be independent of the chromatic structure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    Book review: The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f (R)−theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called ‘Gravity’. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza–Klein scheme

  17. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  18. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  19. Cultural dimensions of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  20. Dimensions of Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education...... as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...

  1. Rare events in finite and infinite dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikoff, Maria G.

    Thermal noise introduces stochasticity into deterministic equations and makes possible events which are never seen in the zero temperature setting. The driving force behind the thesis work is a desire to bring analysis and probability to bear on a class of relevant and intriguing physical problems, and in so doing, to allow applications to drive the development of new mathematical theory. The unifying theme is the study of rare events under the influence of small, random perturbations, and the manifold mathematical problems which ensue. In the first part, we apply large deviation theory and prefactor estimates to a coherent rotation micromagnetic model in order to analyze thermally activated magnetic switching. We consider recent physical experiments and the mathematical questions "asked" by them. A stochastic resonance type phenomenon is discovered, leading to the definition of finite temperature astroids. Non-Arrhenius behavior is discussed. The analysis is extended to ramped astroids. In addition, we discover that for low damping and ultrashort pulses, deterministic effects can override thermal effects, in accord with very recent ultrashort pulse experiments. Even more interesting, perhaps, is the study of large deviations in the infinite dimensional context, i.e. in spatially extended systems. Inspired by recent numerical investigations, we study the stochastically perturbed Allen Cahn and Cahn Hilliard equations. For the Allen Cahn equation, we study the action minimization problem (a deterministic variational problem) and prove the action scaling in four parameter regimes, via upper and lower bounds. The sharp interface limit is studied. We formally derive a reduced action functional which lends insight into the connection between action minimization and curvature flow. For the Cahn Hilliard equation, we prove upper and lower bounds for the scaling of the energy barrier in the nucleation and growth regime. Finally, we consider rare events in large or infinite

  2. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  3. Physics in few dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1981-03-01

    This article is a qualitative account of some aspects of physics in few dimensions, and its relationship to nonlinear field theories. After a survey of materials and some of the models that have been used to describe them, the various methods of solution are compared and contrasted. The roles of exact results, operator representations and the renormalization group transformation are described, and a uniform picture of the behavior of low-dimensional systems is presented

  4. A dimensão espacial nos estudos sobre saúde: uma trajetória histórica The spatial dimension in health studies: a historical trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylene Bousquat

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo recupera as concepções de espaço incorporadas pela saúde pública entre final do século XVIII e meados do XX. É proposta uma padronização, com base na produção intelectual da área, iniciando-se com a apresentação da obra de Finke (1792, passando-se então à análise do século XIX, quando geografia e medicina se transformaram em disciplinas científicas. A concepção de espaço como ambiente físico, abstraído da ação humana - consolida-se no interior da geografia, enquanto na medicina prevalece o paradigma biológico-individual. Discute-se a importância da incorporação das noções geográficas de determinismo, gênero de vida e ecologia humana pela saúde pública e apresentam-se as contribuições de Max Sorré e Pavlovsky. Recupera-se a criação, em 1952, da Comissão de Geografia Médica de Saúde e Doença da União Geográfica Internacional e analisa-se o surgimento e a consolidação da New Geography.Focusing on concepts taken from critical geography, this article re-examines the spatial notions that were incorporated by the public health field between the late eighteenth and mid-twentieth centuries. Based on a review and systematization of intellectual production within the field of medical geography, this time span is broken into periods. We begin with a presentation of Finke's work (1792 and then move on to analyze the nineteenth century, when geography and medicine became scientific disciplines. The concept of space as a physical environment, with human action abstracted out, took hold within geography, while the biological-individual paradigm prevailed within the field of medicine. The text discusses the implications of the public health field's decision to embrace the geographic notions of determinism, type of life, and human ecology, and describes the contributions of Max Sorré and Pavlovsky. It also looks at the International Geographical Union's 1952 creation of a Commission on the Medical

  5. Thermal Fluxes and Temperatures in Small Urban Headwater Streams of the BES LTER: Landscape Forest and Impervious Patches and the Importance of Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Belt, K. T.; Welty, C.; Heisler, G.; Pouyat, R. V.; McGuire, M. P.; Stack, W. P.

    2006-05-01

    Water and material fluxes from urban landscape patches to small streams are modulated by extensive "engineered" drainage networks. Small urban headwater catchments are different in character and function from their larger receiving streams because of their extensive, direct connections to impervious surface cover (ISC) and their sometimes buried nature. They need to be studied as unique functional hydrologic units if impacts on biota are to be fully understood. As part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER project, continuous water temperature data are being collected at 2-minute intervals at over twenty small catchments representing various mixtures of forest and ISC. Suburban stream sites with greater ISC generally have higher summer water temperatures. Suburban catchments with most of their channel drainage contained within storm drain pipes show subdued diurnal variation and cool temperatures, but with very large spikes in summer runoff events. Conversely, high ISC urban piped streams have elevated "baseline" temperatures that stand well above all the other monitoring sites. There is a pronounced upstream-downstream effect; nested small headwater catchments experience more frequent, larger temperature spikes related to runoff events than downstream sites. Also, runoff-initiated temperature elevations at small stream sites unexpectedly last much longer than the storm runoff hydrographs. These observations suggest that for small headwater catchments, urban landscapes not only induce an ambient, "heat island" effect on stream temperatures, but also introduce thermal disturbance regimes and fluxes that are not trivial to aquatic biota.

  6. The fate of pesticides in soil and aquifers from a small-scale point of view: Does microbial and spatial heterogeneity have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, J.; Badawi, N.; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    Millions of tonnes of pesticides are used each year worldwide in agricultural production resulting in pollution of groundwater aquifers. There is, however, a striking contrast between the input levels (up to several kg per hectare) and the contaminant concentrations detected in groundwater, which...... are normally in the microgram to nanogram per litre range. Resent research has revealed a large spatial variation in pesticide mineralisation potentials, but little is known about how these variations/heterogeneities affect the fate of contaminants. We analysed how mineralisation potentials of phenoxy acid...... herbicides (MCPA, 2,4-D) were spatially distributed in soil, subsoil, and groundwater aquifers using a 96-well microplate mineralisation assay. In the top soil, all samples showed rapid mineralisation following Monod mineralisation kinetics. In the subsoil sediments, a more heterogeneous distribution...

  7. A novel modelling approach for spatial and temporal variations in nitrate concentrations in an N-impacted UK small upland river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Richard P.; Cresser, Malcolm S.; Calver, Louise J.; Clark, Matthew; Chapman, Pippa J.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly data for 11 moorland streams displaying marked seasonality and spatial variation in nitrate concentrations have been used with readily available catchment characteristics to develop a method for predicting stream water nitrate concentrations throughout an upland river network in the Lake District, UK. Over a 12-month period, a simple asymmetric truncated cosine function of day number is used to describe seasonality effects on stream water nitrate concentrations. This is then adjusted to compensate for differences in seasonality effects with catchment elevation. Occurrence of greater proportions of steeper slopes (>20 deg. -40 deg. ) in individual catchments facilitated nitrate leaching, as did increased extent of occurrence of outcropping rocks. It is shown that the spatial and temporal variation in nitrate concentration through the river network studied may therefore be effectively represented by an equation which is a function of day number, % outcropping rock and % of catchment area with a >20 deg. -40 deg. slope. - A novel model of spatial and temporal variations in stream water nitrate concentration throughout an N-impacted upland catchment is described

  8. Brane-world motion in compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Parikh, Maulik

    2011-08-01

    The topology of extra dimensions can break global Lorentz invariance, singling out a globally preferred frame even in flat spacetime. Through experiments that probe global topology, an observer can determine her state of motion with respect to the preferred frame. This scenario is realized if we live on a brane universe moving through a flat space with compact extra dimensions. We identify three experimental effects due to the motion of our universe that one could potentially detect using gravitational probes. One of these relates to the peculiar properties of the twin paradox in multiply-connected spacetimes. Another relies on the fact that the Kaluza-Klein modes of any bulk field are sensitive to boundary conditions. A third concerns the modification to the Newtonian potential on a moving brane. Remarkably, we find that even small extra dimensions are detectable by brane observers if the brane is moving sufficiently fast. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

  9. [Christian dimension of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, K

    1999-01-01

    Human existence is marked by imperfection, whose expression--among other things--is suffering. The problem of answering the question about the meaning of suffering for human life in its entirety is of great significance in philosophy and theology. In the Old Testament it meant God's punishment for the evil done by man. In Christianity this bleak notion of suffering has found a new dimension--suffering is creative, redemptive in character; it enables a man to surpass his limits. The understanding of suffering and its sense has a profound meaning in building a suitable attitude of a sick person towards his own weakness.

  10. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  11. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  12. A Statistical Toolbox For Mining And Modeling Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Aubigny Gérard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most data mining projects in spatial economics start with an evaluation of a set of attribute variables on a sample of spatial entities, looking for the existence and strength of spatial autocorrelation, based on the Moran’s and the Geary’s coefficients, the adequacy of which is rarely challenged, despite the fact that when reporting on their properties, many users seem likely to make mistakes and to foster confusion. My paper begins by a critical appraisal of the classical definition and rational of these indices. I argue that while intuitively founded, they are plagued by an inconsistency in their conception. Then, I propose a principled small change leading to corrected spatial autocorrelation coefficients, which strongly simplifies their relationship, and opens the way to an augmented toolbox of statistical methods of dimension reduction and data visualization, also useful for modeling purposes. A second section presents a formal framework, adapted from recent work in statistical learning, which gives theoretical support to our definition of corrected spatial autocorrelation coefficients. More specifically, the multivariate data mining methods presented here, are easily implementable on the existing (free software, yield methods useful to exploit the proposed corrections in spatial data analysis practice, and, from a mathematical point of view, whose asymptotic behavior, already studied in a series of papers by Belkin & Niyogi, suggests that they own qualities of robustness and a limited sensitivity to the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP, valuable in exploratory spatial data analysis.

  13. Exploring the small-scale spatial distribution of hypertension and its association to area deprivation based on health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, B; Maier, W; Schweikart, J; Keste, A; Moskwyn, M

    2018-01-10

    Hypertension is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic conditions in Germany. Targeted prevention strategies and allocation of general practitioners where they are needed most are necessary to prevent severe complications arising from high blood pressure. However, data on chronic diseases in Germany are mostly available through survey data, which do not only underestimate the actual prevalence but are also only available on coarse spatial scales. The discussion of including area deprivation for planning of healthcare is still relatively young in Germany, although previous studies have shown that area deprivation is associated with adverse health outcomes, irrespective of individual characteristics. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the spatial distribution of hypertension at very fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific associations between hypertension, socio-demographic population characteristics and area deprivation based on health insurance claims of the AOK Nordost. To visualize the spatial distribution of hypertension prevalence at very fine geographic scales, we used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model. Geographically weighted regression modelling (GWR) was applied to analyze the location-specific association of hypertension to area deprivation and further socio-demographic population characteristics. The sex- and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 33.1% in 2012 and varied widely across northeastern Germany. The main risk factors for hypertension were proportions of insurants aged 45-64, 65 and older, area deprivation and proportion of persons commuting to work outside their residential municipality. The GWR model revealed important regional variations in the strength of the examined associations. Area deprivation has only a significant and therefore direct influence in large parts of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. However, the spatially varying strength of the association between demographic

  14. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  15. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  16. Spatial distribution of 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs in surface soil layer observed at small areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Prohic, E.; Culinovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to give a more detailed insight into spatial radionuclide distribution in soils. It has been necessary in order to plant the future soil sampling procedure that would assure the representative soil samples for broader areas that are usually covered by in situ gamma-spectrometry measurements or aerial gamma-ray spectrometry. The spatial distributions of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs activity in surface soil layer were studed in five regular grids, consisting of 9 points each. The distances between sampled points were 30 cm (A grid), 2.45 m (B grid), 19.5 m (C grid), 156 m (D grid) and 213 m (E grid), respectively. Soil samples were dominantly taken at agricultural ploughed fields from areas of ca. 315 cm 2 (circle of a. 20 cm diameter), from surface up to 15 cm depth. The results indicate that representative soil sample must cover the broader area to provide data that could be compared with data collected by aerial gamma-spectrometry. The average sample on each locality must be prepared from several point samples. It seems that the central point and four points, each at approximately 50-100 m N, S, E, and W from the central point, could be enough

  17. Youth entrepreneurship: gender dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Čiburienė, Jadvyga; Guščinskienė, Jūratė

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the entrepreneurship and small and medium business (SMB) concept, shows the role of SMBs in Lithuanian economy. The article discusses the labour market employment policy in gender equality aspect. The summarized results of Eurostat survey (2007) on small and medium business success factors in Lithuania and the European Union countries are presented. Based on the results of this survey were determined the factors of gender of entrepreneurs in the success of SMEs in EU and ...

  18. The neoliberalisation of strategic spatial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    scales, and partly through the normalisation of neoliberal discourses in strategic spatial planning processes. This paper analyses the complex relationship, partly of unease and partly of coevolution, between neoliberalism and strategic spatial planning. Furthermore, the paper discusses the key......Strategic spatial planning practices have recently taken a neoliberal turn in many northwestern European countries. This neoliberalisation of strategic spatial planning has materialised partly in governance reforms aiming to reduce or abolish strategic spatial planning at national and regional...... challenges for strategic spatial planning in the face of neoliberalism and argues for a need to strengthen strategic spatial planning’s critical dimension....

  19. Localised estimates and spatial mapping of poverty incidence in the state of Bihar in India-An application of small area estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Hukum; Aditya, Kaustav; Sud, U C

    2018-01-01

    Poverty affects many people, but the ramifications and impacts affect all aspects of society. Information about the incidence of poverty is therefore an important parameter of the population for policy analysis and decision making. In order to provide specific, targeted solutions when addressing poverty disadvantage small area statistics are needed. Surveys are typically designed and planned to produce reliable estimates of population characteristics of interest mainly at higher geographic area such as national and state level. Sample sizes are usually not large enough to provide reliable estimates for disaggregated analysis. In many instances estimates are required for areas of the population for which the survey providing the data was unplanned. Then, for areas with small sample sizes, direct survey estimation of population characteristics based only on the data available from the particular area tends to be unreliable. This paper describes an application of small area estimation (SAE) approach to improve the precision of estimates of poverty incidence at district level in the State of Bihar in India by linking data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey 2011-12 of NSSO and the Population Census 2011. The results show that the district level estimates generated by SAE method are more precise and representative. In contrast, the direct survey estimates based on survey data alone are less stable.

  20. Localised estimates and spatial mapping of poverty incidence in the state of Bihar in India—An application of small area estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Kaustav; Sud, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    Poverty affects many people, but the ramifications and impacts affect all aspects of society. Information about the incidence of poverty is therefore an important parameter of the population for policy analysis and decision making. In order to provide specific, targeted solutions when addressing poverty disadvantage small area statistics are needed. Surveys are typically designed and planned to produce reliable estimates of population characteristics of interest mainly at higher geographic area such as national and state level. Sample sizes are usually not large enough to provide reliable estimates for disaggregated analysis. In many instances estimates are required for areas of the population for which the survey providing the data was unplanned. Then, for areas with small sample sizes, direct survey estimation of population characteristics based only on the data available from the particular area tends to be unreliable. This paper describes an application of small area estimation (SAE) approach to improve the precision of estimates of poverty incidence at district level in the State of Bihar in India by linking data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey 2011–12 of NSSO and the Population Census 2011. The results show that the district level estimates generated by SAE method are more precise and representative. In contrast, the direct survey estimates based on survey data alone are less stable. PMID:29879202

  1. Active materials by four-dimension printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2013-09-01

    We advance a paradigm of printed active composite materials realized by directly printing glassy shape memory polymer fibers in an elastomeric matrix. We imbue the active composites with intelligence via a programmed lamina and laminate architecture and a subsequent thermomechanical training process. The initial configuration is created by three-dimension (3D) printing, and then the programmed action of the shape memory fibers creates time dependence of the configuration—the four-dimension (4D) aspect. We design and print laminates in thin plate form that can be thermomechanically programmed to assume complex three-dimensional configurations including bent, coiled, and twisted strips, folded shapes, and complex contoured shapes with nonuniform, spatially varying curvature. The original flat plate shape can be recovered by heating the material again. We also show how the printed active composites can be directly integrated with other printed functionalities to create devices; here we demonstrate this by creating a structure that can assemble itself.

  2. Shower fractal dimension analysis in a highly-granular calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the self-similar structure of particle showers recorded at a highly-granular calorimeter. On both simulated and experimental data, a strong correlation between the number of hits and the spatial scale of the readout channels is observed, from which we define the shower fractal dimension. The measured fractal dimension turns out to be strongly dependent on particle type, which enables new approaches for particle identification. A logarithmic dependence of the particle energy on the fractal dimension is also observed.

  3. Flowing to four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Rubakov, Valery

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a model with four-dimensional brane-localized Higgs type potential of a six dimensional scalar field satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on the boundary of a transverse two-dimensional compact space. The regularization of the localized couplings generates classical renormalization group running. A tachyonic mass parameter grows in the infrared, in analogy with the QCD gauge coupling in four dimensions. We find a phase transition at a critical value of the bare mass parameter such that the running mass parameter becomes large in the infrared precisely at the compactification scale. Below the critical coupling, the theory is in symmetric phase, whereas above it spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Close to the phase transition point there is a very light mode in the spectrum. The massive Kaluza-Klein spectrum at the critical coupling becomes independent of the UV cutoff

  4. Dimensions of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Georg Simmel is the seminal author on trust within sociology, but though inspired by Simmel, subsequent studies of intersubjective trust have failed to address Simmel’s suggestion that trust is as differentiated as the social relations of which it is part. Rather, trust has been studied within...... limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...

  5. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  6. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  7. Correlation dimension of financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chun-Xiao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  9. Catastrophic Instability of Small Lovelock Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We show that Lovelock black holes are stable under vector perturbations in all dimensions. However, we prove that small Lovelock black holes are unstable under tensor perturbations in even-dimensions and under scalar perturbations in odd-dimensions. Therefore, we can conclude that small Lovelock black holes are unstable in any dimensions. The instability is ...

  10. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.; Byrne, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations

  11. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 3D geomarketing segmentation: A higher spatial dimension planning perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Rahman, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Geomarketing is a discipline which uses geographic information in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing such as price, promotion or geo targeting. The analysis of geomarketing data use a huge data pool such as location...... residential areas, topography, it also analyzes demographic information such as age, genre, annual income and lifestyle. This information can help users to develop successful promotional campaigns in order to achieve marketing goals. One of the common activities in geomarketing is market segmentation...... a combination of market segmentation based on geographic criteria and clustering algorithm for 3D geomarketing data management. The proposed approach is capable in minimizing the overlap region during market segmentation. In this paper, geomarketing in urban area is used as a case study. Based on the case study...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THE SPATIAL DIMENSION OF LANDSCAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... with adequate landscaping, - using landscape elements, to create a ... air, water and energy cycles that replenish and rejuvenate ... First, using the street map of. Ogbomoso ... swimming pools, etc, were regarded as conscious.

  14. Supersymmetry Breaking through Transparent Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaltz, Martin

    1999-11-23

    We propose a new framework for mediating supersymmetry breaking through an extra dimension. It predicts positive scalar masses and solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. Supersymmetry breaks on a ''source'' brane that is spatially separated from a parallel brane on which the standard model matter fields and their superpartners live. The gauge and gaugino fields propagate in the bulk, the latter receiving a supersymmetry breaking mass from direct couplings to the source brane. Scalar masses are suppressed at the high scale but are generated via the renormalization group. We briefly discuss the spectrum and collider signals for a range of compactification scales.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  17. Microscopic Disease Extension in Three Dimensions for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Development of a Prediction Model Using Pathology-Validated Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, Judith van; Siedschlag, Christian; Stroom, Joep; Blauwgeers, Hans; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Knegjens, Joost; Rossi, Maddalena; Baardwijk, Angela van; Boersma, Liesbeth; Klomp, Houke; Vogel, Wouter; Burgers, Sjaak; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One major uncertainty in radiotherapy planning of non–small-cell lung cancer concerns the definition of the clinical target volume (CTV), meant to cover potential microscopic disease extension (MDE) around the macroscopically visible tumor. The primary aim of this study was to establish pretreatment risk factors for the presence of MDE. The secondary aim was to establish the impact of these factors on the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) to assess the total tumor-bearing region at pathologic examination (CTV path ). Methods and Materials: 34 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer who underwent CT and PET before lobectomy were included. Specimens were examined microscopically for MDE. The gross tumor volume (GTV) on CT and PET (GTV CT and GTV PET , respectively) was compared with the GTV and the CTV at pathologic examination, tissue deformations being taken into account. Using multivariate logistic regression, image-based risk factors for the presence of MDE were identified, and a prediction model was developed based on these factors. Results: MDE was found in 17 of 34 patients (50%). The MDE did not exceed 26 mm in 90% of patients. In multivariate analysis, two parameters (mean CT tumor density and GTV CT ) were significantly associated with MDE. The area under the curve of the two-parameter prediction model was 0.86. Thirteen tumors (38%, 95% CI: 24–55%) were identified as low risk for MDE, being potential candidates for reduced-intensity therapy around the GTV. In the low-risk group, the effective diameter of the GTV CT/PET accurately represented the CTV path . In the high-risk group, GTV CT/PET underestimated the CTV path with, on average, 19.2 and 26.7 mm, respectively. Conclusions: CT features have potential to predict the presence of MDE. Tumors identified as low risk of MDE show lower rates of disease around the GTV than do high-risk tumors. Both CT and PET accurately visualize the CTV path in low

  18. Spatial Relation of Apparent Soil Electrical Conductivity with Crop Yields and Soil Properties at Different Topographic Positions in a Small Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of electromagnetic induction (EMI sensors along with geospatial modeling provide a better opportunity for understanding spatial distribution of soil properties and crop yields on a landscape level and to map site-specific management zones. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship of crop yields, soil properties and apparent electrical conductivity (ECa at different topographic positions (shoulder, backslope, and deposition slope. The second objective was to examine whether the correlation of ECa with soil properties and crop yields on a watershed scale can be improved by considering topography in modeling ECa and soil properties compared to a whole field scale with no topographic separation. This study was conducted in two headwater agricultural watersheds in southern Illinois, USA. The experimental design consisted of three basins per watershed and each basin was divided into three topographic positions (shoulder, backslope and deposition using the Slope Position Classification model in ESRI ArcMap. A combine harvester equipped with a GPS-based recording system was used for yield monitoring and mapping from 2012 to 2015. Soil samples were taken at depths from 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm from 54 locations in the two watersheds in fall 2015 and analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The ECa was measured using EMI device, EM38-MK2, which provides four dipole readings ECa-H-0.5, ECa-H-1, ECa-V-0.5, and ECa-V-1. Soybean and corn yields at depositional position were 38% and 62% lower than the shoulder position in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Soil pH, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, Mehlich-3 Phosphorus (P, Bray-1 P and ECa at depositional positions were significantly higher compared to shoulder positions. Corn and soybeans yields were weakly to moderately (<±0.75 correlated with ECa. At the deposition position at the 0–15 cm depth ECa-H-0.5 was weakly correlated (r < ±0.50 with soil pH and was

  19. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  20. Preheating with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate preheating in a higher-dimensional generalized Kaluza-Klein theory with a quadratic inflaton potential V(/φ) = /frac12 m 2 /φ 2 including metric perturbations explicitly. The system we consider is the multi-field model where there exists a dilaton field /σ which corresponds to the scale of compactifications and another scalar field /χ coupled to inflaton with the interaction frac12 g 2 /φ 2 /χ 2 +/g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ. In the case of g-tilde=0, we find that the perturbation of dilaton does not undergo parametric amplification while the χ field fluctuation can be enhanced in the usual manner by parametric resonance. In the presence of the /g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ coupling, the dilaton fluctuation in sub-Hubble scales is modestly amplified by the growth of metric perturbations for the large coupling g-tilde. In super-Hubble scales, the enhancement of the dilaton fluctuation as well as metric perturbations is weak, taking into account the backreaction effect of created /χ particles. We argue that not only is it possible to predict the ordinary inflationary spectrum in large scales but extra dimensions can be held static during preheating in our scenario. (author)

  1. Induction chemotherapy with carboplatin, irinotecan, and paclitaxel followed by high dose three-dimension conformal thoracic radiotherapy (74 Gy) with concurrent carboplatin, paclitaxel, and gefitinib in unresectable stage IIIA and stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Morris, David E; Lee, Carrie B; Moore, Dominic T; Hayes, D Neil; Halle, Jan S; Rivera, M Patricia; Rosenman, Julian G; Socinski, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Combined modality therapy is a standard therapy for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib is active in advanced NSCLC, and in preclinical models, it potentiates the activity of radiation therapy. We investigate the tolerability of gefitinib in combined modality therapy in combination with three-dimensional thoracic conformal radiation therapy (3-dimensional TCRT). Stage III patients with a good performance status were treated with induction chemotherapy (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] of 5, irinotecan 100 mg/m(2), and paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) days 1 and 22) with pegfilgrastim support followed by concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin AUC 2, and paclitaxel 45 mg/m(2) weekly) and gefitinib 250 mg daily beginning on day 43 with 3-dimensional TCRT to 74 Gy. Between March 2004 and January 2006, 23 patients received treatment on the trial: median age 62 years (range 44-82), 52% female, 61% stage IIIA, 61% performance status 0, 17% > or =5% weight loss, and 91% underwent positron emission tomography staging. Induction chemotherapy with pegfilgrastim support was well tolerated and active (partial response rate, 24%; stable disease, 76%; and early progression, 0%). Twenty-one patients initiated the concurrent chemoradiation, and 20 patients completed therapy to 74 Gy. The primary toxicities of concurrent chemoradiation were grade 3 esophagitis (19.5%) and cardiac arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation) (9.5%). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 9 months (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 7-13 months) and 16 months (95% CI: 10-20 months), respectively. Treatment with induction chemotherapy and gefitinib concurrent with 3-dimensional TCRT has an acceptable toxicity and tolerability, but the survival results were disappointing.

  2. Extra dimensions and color confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleitez, V

    1995-04-01

    An extension of the ordinary four dimensional Minkowski space by introducing additional dimensions which have their own Lorentz transformation is considered. Particles can transform in a different way under each Lorentz group. It is shown that only quark interactions are slightly modified and that color confinement automatic since these degrees of freedom run only in the extra dimensions. No compactification of the extra dimensions is needed. (author). 4 refs.

  3. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  4. Small hydropower plants in Switzerland: definition of spatial priorities, taking into account the conflicting interests of power production and protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehse, Heiko; Pazhepurackel, Vinitha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the promotion of small hydropower plants in Switzerland, a lot of new projects have been planned. This leads to conflicts of interests, especially between ecology and power production. Where should new power plants be built, and which rivers should be protected from any further impact ? In this paper a methodology is developed in order to find answers to those questions. It confronts the oppositional interests for the use and protection of rivers in a transparent way. By doing so, it is hoped to rationalize conflicts. The methodology should help the authorities to evaluate new projects, and it is a basis for regional strategies of river use and protection. The method was tested in collaboration with the cantonal authority of Bern to classify all the rivers of the canton (12'000 km) [Conseil-executif du canton de Berne 2009]. For each river section, the different interests were identified. It has been adapted for the canton of Fribourg to classify the river reaches where new plants are planned [Wehse 2010]. In 2011 the swiss confederation has published a recommendation for the cantonal and communal authorities, concerning the elaboration of cantonal strategies for the use and protection of the rivers [Wehse 2011], which is based on the same method. (authors)

  5. Fermionic Casimir effect for parallel plates in the presence of compact dimensions with applications to nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive fermionic field in the geometry of two parallel plates on background of Minkowski spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified spatial dimensions. The bag boundary conditions are imposed on the plates and periodicity conditions with arbitrary phases are considered along the compact dimensions. The Casimir energy is decomposed into purely topological, single plate and interaction parts. With independence of the lengths of the compact dimensions and the phases in the periodicity conditions, the interaction part of the Casimir energy is always negative. In order to obtain the resulting force, the contributions from both sides of the plates must be taken into account. Then, the forces coming from the topological parts of the vacuum energy cancel out and only the interaction term contributes to the Casimir force. Applications of the general formulae to Kaluza-Klein-type models and carbon nanotubes are given. In particular, we show that for finite-length metallic nanotubes, the Casimir forces acting on the tube edges are always attractive, whereas for semiconducting-type ones, they are attractive for small lengths of the nanotube and repulsive for large lengths.

  6. The Dangers of Being a Small, Oligotrophic and Light Demanding Freshwater Plant across a Spatial and Historical Eutrophication Gradient in Southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Sand-Jensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for – and interacted with – anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood. We took advantage of some recently completed regional plant distribution surveys, relying on hundreds of skilled citizen scientists, and analyzed the hydrophyte richness to environment relations in five contiguous South-Scandinavian regions. For three of the regions, we also assessed changes to the freshwater flora over the latest 50–80 years. We found a considerable variation in background total phosphorus concentrations and alkalinity, both within and between regions. The prevalence of functional groups differed between regions in accordance with the environmental conditions and the species’ tolerance to turbid waters. Similarly, the historical changes within regions followed the same trend in correspondence to the altered environmental conditions over time. Small submerged species decreased relative to tall submerged and floating-leaved species along the regional and historical eutrophication gradients. These changes were accompanied by systematically greater relative abundance of species of higher phosphorus prevalence. We conclude that species traits in close correspondence with anthropogenic impacts are the main determinants of local, regional and historical changes of species distribution and occupancy, while pure biogeography plays a minor role. Conservation measures, such as re-oligotrophication and re-established disturbance regimes through grazing and water level fluctuations, may help reduce the tall reed

  7. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Saliency of social comparison dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present article discusses a theory of the saliency of social comparison dimensions and presents the results of an experiment about the effects of two different experimental situations on the saliency of exterior, task-related and socio-emotional dimensions. Saliency was operationalized with a

  9. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub- ... strongly coupled heterotic theory with one large dimension is described by a weakly ..... one additional U(1) factor corresponding to an extra 'U(1)' D-brane is ...

  10. The Hidden Dimensions of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bruce

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art program for preschool children that includes four social dimensions of art in order to heighten aesthetic perception, improve artistic creativity, and nurture self-esteem. The social dimensions are children having power, children acting on norms legitimate in their own eyes, children functioning "nonestrangedly," and children…

  11. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  12. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lauren; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Feingold, Beth; Berky, Axel; Diringer, Sarah; Morales, Ana Maria; Jurado, Elvis Rojas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William

    2017-12-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities ( n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual's oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) provisional level (1.2 µg/g) that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8-10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana) and grains (quinoa) was significantly associated with 29-75% reductions in hair mercury. Collectively, these

  13. Graviton collider effects in one and more large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Plehn, Tilman; Strumia, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    Astrophysical bounds severely limit the possibility of observing collider signals of gravity with less than 3 flat extra dimensions. However, small distortions of the compactified space can lift the masses of the lightest graviton excitations, evading astrophysical bounds without affecting collider signals of quantum gravity. Following this procedure we reconsider theories with one large extra dimension. A slight space warping gives a model which is safe in the infrared against astrophysical and observational bounds, and which has the ultraviolet properties of gravity with a single flat extra dimension. We extend collider studies to the case of one extra dimension, pointing out its peculiarities. Finally, for a generic number of extra dimensions, we compare different channels in LHC searches for quantum gravity, introducing an ultraviolet cutoff as an additional parameter besides the Planck mass

  14. From dispersion relations to spectral dimension - and back again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2011-01-01

    The so-called spectral dimension is a scale-dependent number associated with both geometries and field theories that has recently attracted much attention, driven largely, though not exclusively, by investigations of causal dynamical triangulations and Horava gravity as possible candidates for quantum gravity. We advocate the use of the spectral dimension as a probe for the kinematics of these (and other) systems in the region where spacetime curvature is small, and the manifold is flat to a good approximation. In particular, we show how to assign a spectral dimension (as a function of so-called diffusion time) to any arbitrarily specified dispersion relation. We also analyze the fundamental properties of spectral dimension using extensions of the usual Seeley-DeWitt and Feynman expansions and by using saddle point techniques. The spectral dimension turns out to be a useful, robust, and powerful probe, not only of geometry, but also of kinematics.

  15. Four fermion interaction near four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that field theories with attractive four-point fermion interactions can produce scalar bound states: Fermion mass generation by spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking associated with such fermion bound states provides an attractive mechanism for building models of composite Higgs bosons. The ratio of fermion and boson masses can then be predicted while it seems to be a free parameter in similar models where a boson field explicitly appears in the action. The main problem is that the corresponding models are renormalizable only in two dimensions, in contrast with models with explicit bosons. Many fermion models with four-point interaction are asymptotically free in two dimensions and then behave also like renormalizable models in higher dimensions, at least within the framework of some 1/N expansion. On the other hand mass ratio predictions also follow in the models with explicit bosons, when they have an IR fixed point, from the additional natural assumption that coupling constants have generic values at the cut-off scale. To the model with a four fermion interaction one can associate an effective model containing an additional scalar field, renormalizable in four dimensions, which has the same large distance, small momentum physics, at least to all orders in some 1/N expansion. Even the leading corrections corresponding to irrelevant or marginal operators are identical. This property is important in four dimensions where the IR fixed point coupling constants vanish: The correction amplitudes can be varied by changing the coupling constants in the renormalizable model and the cut-off function in the perturbatively non-renormalizable model. We shall consider here for definiteness only the Gross-Neveu model but it will be clear that the arguments are more general

  16. An introduction to extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lorenzana, Abdel

    2005-01-01

    Models that involve extra dimensions have introduced completely new ways of looking up on old problems in theoretical physics. The aim of the present notes is to provide a brief introduction to the many uses that extra dimensions have found over the last few years, mainly following an effective field theory point of view. Most parts of the discussion are devoted to models with flat extra dimensions, covering both theoretical and phenomenological aspects. We also discuss some of the new ideas for model building where extra dimensions may play a role, including symmetry breaking by diverse new and old mechanisms. Some interesting applications of these ideas are discussed over the notes, including models for neutrino masses and proton stability. The last part of this review addresses some aspects of warped extra dimensions, and graviton localization

  17. Contribution to the study of position sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, Abdellah.

    1978-01-01

    With a view to improving the spatial resolution of the localization of thermal neutrons, the work covers four position sensitive detectors: - 800 cell multi-detectors (1 dimension), - linear 'Jeu de Jacquet' detectors (1 dimension) - Multi-detector XYP 128x128 (2 dimensions), - 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector with 2 dimensions. Mention is made of the various position finding methods known so far, as well as the reasons for selecting BF 3 as detector gas. A study is then made of the parameters of the multiwire chamber whose principle will form the basis of most of the position detecting appliances subsequently dealt with. Finally, a description is given of the detection tests of the thermal neutrons in the multiwire chamber depending on the pressure, a parameter that greatly affects the accuracy of the position finding. The single dimension position tests on two kinds of appliance, the 800 cell multi-detector for the wide angle diffraction studies, and the linear 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector designed for small angle diffraction are mentioned. A description is then given of two position appliances with two dimensions; the multi-detector XYP 128x128 and the two dimensional 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector. In the case of this latter detector, only the hoped for characteristics are indicated [fr

  18. Spatial Modulation Improves Performance in CTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Johnson, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Suitably formulated spatial modulation of a scene imaged by a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) has been found to be useful as a means of improving the imaging performance of the CTIS. As used here, "spatial modulation" signifies the imposition of additional, artificial structure on a scene from within the CTIS optics. The basic principles of a CTIS were described in "Improvements in Computed- Tomography Imaging Spectrometry" (NPO-20561) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 38 and "All-Reflective Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometers" (NPO-20836), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 7a. To recapitulate: A CTIS offers capabilities for imaging a scene with spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The spectral disperser in a CTIS is a two-dimensional diffraction grating. It is positioned between two relay lenses (or on one of two relay mirrors) in a video imaging system. If the disperser were removed, the system would produce ordinary images of the scene in its field of view. In the presence of the grating, the image on the focal plane of the system contains both spectral and spatial information because the multiple diffraction orders of the grating give rise to multiple, spectrally dispersed images of the scene. By use of algorithms adapted from computed tomography, the image on the focal plane can be processed into an image cube a three-dimensional collection of data on the image intensity as a function of the two spatial dimensions (x and y) in the scene and of wavelength (lambda). Thus, both spectrally and spatially resolved information on the scene at a given instant of time can be obtained, without scanning, from a single snapshot; this is what makes the CTIS such a potentially powerful tool for spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved imaging. A CTIS performs poorly in imaging some types of scenes in particular, scenes that contain little spatial or spectral variation. The computed spectra of

  19. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  20. Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni, E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Brighenti, Francesco [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Bologna and Sez. Bologna INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gubitosi, Giulia [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Santos, Grasiele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-04-10

    Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of “dynamical dimensional reduction” which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the “spectral dimension”, which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the “thermal dimension” which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.

  1. FONT DISCRIMINATIO USING FRACTAL DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mozaffari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the related problems of OCR systems is discrimination of fonts in machine printed document images. This task improves performance of general OCR systems. Proposed methods in this paper are based on various fractal dimensions for font discrimination. First, some predefined fractal dimensions were combined with directional methods to enhance font differentiation. Then, a novel fractal dimension was introduced in this paper for the first time. Our feature extraction methods which consider font recognition as texture identification are independent of document content. Experimental results on different pages written by several font types show that fractal geometry can overcome the complexities of font recognition problem.

  2. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)

  3. Gender Dimensions of Rural Livelihoods in Artisanal and Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information collected include: socio-demographic characteristics of miners, income level of miners, as well as perceived health and environmental impacts of mining activities. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed significant differences in the socio-economic characteristics, ...

  4. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  5. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2 ... The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as ... by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region.

  6. Temporal dimension in cognitive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decortis, F.; Cacciabue, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Increased attention has been given to the role of humans in nuclear power plant safety, but one aspect seldom considered is the temporal dimension of human reasoning. Time is recognized as crucial in human reasoning and has been the subject of empirical studies where cognitive mechanisms and strategies to face the temporal dimension have been studied. The present study shows why temporal reasoning is essential in Human Reliability Analysis and how it could be introduced in a human model. Accounting for the time dimension in human behaviour is discussed first, with reference to proven field studies. Then, theoretical modelling of the temporal dimension in human reasoning and its relevance in simulation of cognitive activities of plant operator is discussed. Finally a Time Experience Model is presented

  7. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.; Wonka, Peter; Mueller, P.

    2015-01-01

    that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify

  8. Conformal dimension theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, John M

    2010-01-01

    Conformal dimension measures the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a metric space can be lowered by quasisymmetric deformations. Introduced by Pansu in 1989, this concept has proved extremely fruitful in a diverse range of areas, including geometric function theory, conformal dynamics, and geometric group theory. This survey leads the reader from the definitions and basic theory through to active research applications in geometric function theory, Gromov hyperbolic geometry, and the dynamics of rational maps, amongst other areas. It reviews the theory of dimension in metric spaces and of deformations of metric spaces. It summarizes the basic tools for estimating conformal dimension and illustrates their application to concrete problems of independent interest. Numerous examples and proofs are provided. Working from basic definitions through to current research areas, this book can be used as a guide for graduate students interested in this field, or as a helpful survey for experts. Background needed ...

  9. The search for extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Steven; March-Russell, John

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of extra dimensions, beyond the three dimensions of space of our everyday experience, sometimes crops up as a convenient, if rather vague, plot in science fiction. In science, however, the idea of extra dimensions has a rich history, dating back at least as far as the 1920s. Recently there has been a remarkable renaissance in this area due to the work of a number of theoretical physicists. It now seems possible that we, the Earth and, indeed, the entire visible universe are stuck on a membrane in a higher-dimensional space, like dust particles that are trapped on a soap bubble. In this article the authors look at the major issues behind this new development. Why, for example, don't we see these extra dimensions? If they exist, how can we detect them? And perhaps the trickiest question of all: how did this fanciful idea come to be considered in the first place? (U.K.)

  10. Learning to Change: New Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Change involves thoughts, emotions, values, and actions but thought gets the most attention. Learning to change necessitates an integration of rational and nonrational ways of knowing. Nonrational ways and human care are important dimensions of the learning process. (SK)

  11. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  12. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  13. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  14. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  15. Transition of fractal dimension in a latticed dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong-van, M.

    1986-03-01

    We study a recursion relation that manifests two distinct routes to turbulence, both of which reproduce commonly observed phenomena: the Feigenbaum route, with period-doubling frequencies; and a much more general route with noncommensurate frequencies and frequency entrainment, and locking. Intermittency and large-scale aperiodic spatial patterns are reproduced in this new route. In the oscillatory instability regime the fracal dimension saturates at D/sub F/ approx. = 2.6 with imbedding dimensions while in the turbulent regime D/sub F/ saturates at 6.0. 19 refs., 3 figs

  16. TeV gravity in four dimensions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D.H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model in which the fundamental scale M * of the theory which unifies gravity and quantum mechanics is in the TeV range, but without requiring additional spacetime dimensions. The weakness of gravity at low energies is due to a large vacuum expectation of a dilaton like field. The model requires a small dimensionless parameter (the self-coupling of the dilaton) but no fine-tuning. We discuss in detail the dynamical assumptions about non-perturbative quantum gravity required within the model. We observe that M * could be quite small, less than a TeV, and that the model could lead to copious strong coupling effects at the LHC. However, semiclassical black holes will not be produced

  17. Nuclear transport - The regulatory dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits that the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have brought to society are due in no small part to industry's capacity to transport radioactive materials safely, efficiently and reliably. The nuclear transport industry has a vital role in realising a fundamental objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as stated in its statute to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The context in which transports currently take place is complex, and rapidly changing. In many respects transport is being viewed as an integral market issue and not a subsidiary concern. The availability of carriers drives routing decisions and changes in material flows necessitate new approaches to packaging and transport scenarios. Pressures on the transport sector are not without serious consequences; they can cause delays and in some cases cancellation of planned movements. Complex routings and the necessary use of chartered carriers can push up costs and work against cost efficiency. Since the events of 11 September 2001 the security of nuclear transports has contributed an added dimension to how transports take place. Transports of radioactive material have an outstanding safety record, indeed the transport of such materials could be regarded as a model for the transport of other classes of dangerous goods. This safety record is achieved by two inter-related factors. It is due primarily to well founded regulations developed by such key intergovernmental organisations as the IAEA, with the essential contributions of the member states who participate in the implementation of regulations and the review process. It is due also to the professionalism of those in the industry. There is a necessary synergy between the two - between the regulators whose task it is to make and to enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. It

  18. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schmaltz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale

  20. Anomalous dimensions from boson lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Shaun; de Mello Koch, Robert; Larweh Mahu, Augustine

    2018-06-01

    Operators dual to strings attached to giant graviton branes in AdS5×S5 can be described rather explicitly in the dual N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory. They have a bare dimension of order N so that for these operators the large N limit and the planar limit are distinct; summing only the planar diagrams will not capture the large N dynamics. Focusing on the one-loop S U (3 ) sector of the theory, we consider operators that are a small deformation of a 1/2 -Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) multigiant graviton state. The diagonalization of the dilatation operator at one loop has been carried out in previous studies, but explicit formulas for the operators of a good scaling dimension are only known when certain terms which were argued to be small are neglected. In this article, we include the terms which were neglected. The diagonalization is achieved by a novel mapping which replaces the problem of diagonalizing the dilatation operator with a system of bosons hopping on a lattice. The giant gravitons define the sites of this lattice, and the open strings stretching between distinct giant gravitons define the hopping terms of the Hamiltonian. Using the lattice boson model, we argue that the lowest energy giant graviton states are obtained by distributing the momenta carried by the X and Y fields evenly between the giants with the condition that any particular giant carries only X or Y momenta, but not both.

  1. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  2. Extra dimensions in space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics

  3. Higuchi dimension of digital images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Ahammer

    Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.

  4. Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N

    2005-09-01

    We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.

  5. Bianchi identities in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravda, V; Pravdova, A; Coley, A; Milson, R

    2004-01-01

    A higher dimensional frame formalism is developed in order to study implications of the Bianchi identities for the Weyl tensor in vacuum spacetimes of the algebraic types III and N in arbitrary dimension n. It follows that the principal null congruence is geodesic and expands isotropically in two dimensions and does not expand in n - 4 spacelike dimensions or does not expand at all. It is shown that the existence of such principal geodesic null congruence in vacuum (together with an additional condition on twist) implies an algebraically special spacetime. We also use the Myers-Perry metric as an explicit example of a vacuum type D spacetime to show that principal geodesic null congruences in vacuum type D spacetimes do not share this property

  6. Physics with large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2004-01-01

    The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.

  7. The Existential Dimension of Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    2017-01-01

    for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood......The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... as referring to the existential condition of plurality and uses this insight to draw up a theoretical ground for further phenomenological analysis of right....

  8. Collapse of large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, James

    2002-01-01

    In models of spacetime that are the product of a four-dimensional spacetime with an 'extra' dimension, there is the possibility that the extra dimension will collapse to zero size, forming a singularity. We ask whether this collapse is likely to destroy the spacetime. We argue, by an appeal to the four-dimensional cosmic censorship conjecture, that--at least in the case when the extra dimension is homogeneous--such a collapse will lead to a singularity hidden within a black string. We also construct explicit initial data for a spacetime in which such a collapse is guaranteed to occur and show how the formation of a naked singularity is likely avoided

  9. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Effects of distribution density and cell dimension of 3D vegetation model on canopy NDVI simulation base on DART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhu; Shi, Runhe; Zeng, Yuyan; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The 3D model is an important part of simulated remote sensing for earth observation. Regarding the small-scale spatial extent of DART software, both the details of the model itself and the number of models of the distribution have an important impact on the scene canopy Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).Taking the phragmitesaustralis in the Yangtze Estuary as an example, this paper studied the effect of the P.australias model on the canopy NDVI, based on the previous studies of the model precision, mainly from the cell dimension of the DART software and the density distribution of the P.australias model in the scene, As well as the choice of the density of the P.australiass model under the cost of computer running time in the actual simulation. The DART Cell dimensions and the density of the scene model were set by using the optimal precision model from the existing research results. The simulation results of NDVI with different model densities under different cell dimensions were analyzed by error analysis. By studying the relationship between relative error, absolute error and time costs, we have mastered the density selection method of P.australias model in the simulation of small-scale spatial scale scene. Experiments showed that the number of P.australias in the simulated scene need not be the same as those in the real environment due to the difference between the 3D model and the real scenarios. The best simulation results could be obtained by keeping the density ratio of about 40 trees per square meter, simultaneously, of the visual effects.

  11. The geographic dimensions of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhupatiraju, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of institutions relative to economic performance, absolute geography and financial performance of a country. In order to do this, we use the spatial principal component analysis and a spatial canonical correlation analysis to obtain multi-dimensional measure of

  12. Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

  13. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  14. On bosonization in 3 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci, D.G.; Fosco, C.D.; Oxman, L.E.

    1995-08-01

    A recently proposed path-integral bosonization scheme for massive fermions in 3 dimensions is extended by keeping the full momentum-dependence of the one-loop vacuum polarization tensor. This makes it possible to discuss both the massive and massless fermion cases on an equal footing, and moreover the results it yields for massless fermions are consistent with the ones of another, seemingly different, canonical quantization approach to the problem of bosonization for a massless fermionic field in 3 dimensions. (author). 10 refs

  15. The Ethical Dimension of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...

  16. Physics with large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2004-01-01

    A theory with such a mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this was one of the main arguments in favor of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, neither the space of extra dimensions where they live. However, there is a hope that the “hidden”dimensions of string theory are much larger than what we thought in the past and they become within experimental reach in the near future, together with the strings themselves.

  17. Quantum physics in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    This book presents in a pedagogical yet complete way correlated systems in one dimension. Recent progress in nanotechnology and material research have made one dimensional systems a crucial part of today's physics. After an introduction to the basic concepts of correlated systems, the book gives a step by step description of the techniques needed to treat one dimension, and discusses the resulting physics. Then specific experimental realizations of one dimensional systems such asspin chains, quantum wires, nanotubes, organic superconductors etc. are examined. Given its progressive and pedagogi

  18. High dimensions - a new approach to fermionic lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollhardt, D.

    1991-01-01

    The limit of high spatial dimensions d, which is well-established in the theory of classical and localized spin models, is shown to be a fruitful approach also to itinerant fermion systems, such as the Hubbard model and the periodic Anderson model. Many investigations which are probability difficult in finite dimensions, become tractable in d=∞. At the same time essential features of systems in d=3 and even lower dimensions are very well described by the results obtained in d=∞. A wide range of applications of this new concept (e.g., in perturbation theory, Fermi liquid theory, variational approaches, exact results, etc.) is discussed and the state-of-the-art is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Multi-dimension feature fusion for action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pei; Li, Jie; Dong, Junyu; Qi, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Typical human actions last several seconds and exhibit characteristic spatio-temporal structure. The challenge for action recognition is to capture and fuse the multi-dimension information in video data. In order to take into account these characteristics simultaneously, we present a novel method that fuses multiple dimensional features, such as chromatic images, depth and optical flow fields. We built our model based on the multi-stream deep convolutional networks with the help of temporal segment networks and extract discriminative spatial and temporal features by fusing ConvNets towers multi-dimension, in which different feature weights are assigned in order to take full advantage of this multi-dimension information. Our architecture is trained and evaluated on the currently largest and most challenging benchmark NTU RGB-D dataset. The experiments demonstrate that the performance of our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.

  1. The essence of student visual-spatial literacy and higher order thinking skills in undergraduate biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Nashon, Samson Madera

    2012-02-01

    Science, engineering and mathematics-related disciplines have relied heavily on a researcher's ability to visualize phenomena under study and being able to link and superimpose various abstract and concrete representations including visual, spatial, and temporal. The spatial representations are especially important in all branches of biology (in developmental biology time becomes an important dimension), where 3D and often 4D representations are crucial for understanding the phenomena. By the time biology students get to undergraduate education, they are supposed to have acquired visual-spatial thinking skills, yet it has been documented that very few undergraduates and a small percentage of graduate students have had a chance to develop these skills to a sufficient degree. The current paper discusses the literature that highlights the essence of visual-spatial thinking and the development of visual-spatial literacy, considers the application of the visual-spatial thinking to biology education, and proposes how modern technology can help to promote visual-spatial literacy and higher order thinking among undergraduate students of biology.

  2. Fractal Dimension of Particle Showers Measured in a Highly Granular Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Manqi; Bourdy, Vincent; Brients, Jean-Claude; Videau, Henri

    2014-01-01

    fractal dimension of showers measured in a high granularity calorimeter designed for a future lepton collider. The shower fractal dimension reveals detailed information of the spatial configuration of the shower. It is found to be characteristic of the type of interaction and highly sensitive to the nature of the incident particle. Using the shower fractal dimension, we demonstrate a particle identification algorithm that can efficiently separate electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers and non-showering tracks. We also find a logarithmic dependence of the shower fractal dimension on the particle energy.

  3. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  4. Continuous dimensions and evanescent couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical solutions for the wave equation in many dimensional calculation, are given. The difference for even or odd number of dimensions is shown. The simplest cases of the lowest order divergent diagrams (self-energy, vacuum polarization) are discussed. Causal solution of Klein-Gordon equation is used [pt

  5. Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Asger Cronberg

    The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...

  6. Massive particles in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    We consider a five-dimensional model of the universe with a dynamical extra dimension. Calculations of the ratio of the number density of Kolb and Slansky type pyrgons to that of photons show the model to be unacceptable. However by inserting N matter fields into the original action, it becomes possible to reduce the ratio below the observational bound. (orig.)

  7. Teachers' Careers: The Objective Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the objective dimension of teachers' careers showing how 530 British male/female teachers are distributed throughout the pay scale and promotions making up the formal structure of teaching. Indicates length of experience is the rewarding but not the sole factor in bureaucratic structure and differential male/female career achievements.…

  8. THE DIMENSIONS OF COMPOSITION ANNOTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCOLLY, WILLIAM

    ENGLISH TEACHER ANNOTATIONS WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THE DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE ENTIRE SYSTEM FOR WRITING CORRECTIONS AND CRITICISMS ON COMPOSITIONS. FOUR SETS OF COMPOSITIONS WERE WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN GRADES 9 THROUGH 13. TYPESCRIPTS OF THE COMPOSITIONS WERE ANNOTATED BY CLASSROOM ENGLISH TEACHERS. THEN, 32 ENGLISH TEACHERS JUDGED…

  9. Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex

    Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both

  10. String theory in four dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    ``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.

  11. supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large number of parameters, there is no explanation for the origin and the stability of two different mass .... Theories formulated in more than four space-time dimensions have been discussed for several decades, starting from the historical papers by Kaluza and Klein on. 500 .... For the consistency of the orbifold construction,.

  12. Complex numbers in n dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, Silviu

    2002-01-01

    Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...

  13. The inner dimension of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation to sustainability has been defined as the fundamental alteration of the nature of a system, once the current conditions become untenable or undesirable. Transformation requires a shift in people's values, referred to as the inner dimension of sustainability, or change from the

  14. Effective dimension in flocking mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2011-01-01

    Even in its minimal representation (Vicsek Model, VM [T. Vicsek, A. Czirok, E. Ben-Jacob, I. Cohen and O. Shochet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995).]), the widespread phenomenon of flocking raises intriguing questions to the statistical physicists. While the VM is very close to the better understood XY Model because they share many symmetry properties, a major difference arises by the fact that the former can sustain long-range order in two dimensions, while the latter can not. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of this feature, by means of extensive numerical simulations of the VM, we study the network structure of clusters showing that they can also sustain purely orientational, mean-field-like, long-range order. We identify the reason of this capability with the key concept of ''effective dimension.'' In fact, by analyzing the behavior of the average path length and the mean degree, we show that this dimension is very close to four, which coincides with the upper critical dimension of the XY Model, where orientational order is also of a mean-field nature. We expect that this methodology could be generalized to other types of dynamical systems.

  15. The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…

  16. Dimensions of the Composing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Aviva

    As a by-product of a study concerning how university level writers develop new genres of discourse, a study was undertaken to examine what factors or dimensions affect the composing process of university writers. Six undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa participated, making available to researchers information about how they…

  17. Correlation Dimension-Based Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 12 (2014), s. 2253-2263 ISSN 2168-2267 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier * multidimensional data * correlation dimension * scaling exponent * polynomial expansion Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014

  18. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  19. Correlation Dimension Estimation for Classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2006), s. 547-557 ISSN 1895-8648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : correlation dimension * probability density estimation * classification * UCI MLR Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Computer simulations of auxetic foams in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozniak, A A; Smardzewski, J; Wojciechowski, K W

    2013-01-01

    Two simple models of two-dimensional auxetic (i.e. negative Poisson’s ratio) foams are studied by computer simulations. In the first one, further referred to as a Y-model, the ribs forming the cells of the foam are connected at points corresponding to sites of a disordered honeycomb lattice. In the second one, coined a Δ-model, the connections of the ribs are not point-like but spatial. For simplicity, they are represented by triangles centered at the honeycomb lattice points. Three kinds of joints are considered for each model, soft, normal and hard, respectively corresponding to materials with Young’s modulus ten times smaller than, equal to and ten times larger than that of the ribs. The initial lattices are uniformly compressed, which decreases their linear dimensions by about 15%. The resulting structures are then used as reference structures with no internal stress. The Poisson’s ratios of these reference structures are determined by stretching them, in either the x or the y direction. The results obtained for finite meshes and finite samples are extrapolated to infinitely fine mesh and to the thermodynamic limit, respectively. The extrapolations indicate that meshes with as few as 13 nodes across a rib and samples as small as containing 16 × 16 cells approximate the Poisson’s ratios of systems of infinite size and infinite mesh resolution within the statistical accuracy of the experiments, i.e. a few per cent. The simulations show that by applying harder joints one can reach lower Poisson’s ratios, i.e. foams with more auxetic properties. It also follows from the simulations performed that the Δ-model gives lower Poisson’s ratios than the Y-model. Finally, the simulations using fine meshes for the samples are compared with the ones in which the ribs are approximated by Timoshenko beams. Taking into account simplifications in the latter model, the agreement is surprisingly good. (paper)

  1. Latent spatial models and sampling design for landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Knick, Steven T.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Cross, Todd B.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a spatially-explicit approach for modeling genetic variation across space and illustrate how this approach can be used to optimize spatial prediction and sampling design for landscape genetic data. We propose a multinomial data model for categorical microsatellite allele data commonly used in landscape genetic studies, and introduce a latent spatial random effect to allow for spatial correlation between genetic observations. We illustrate how modern dimension reduction approaches to spatial statistics can allow for efficient computation in landscape genetic statistical models covering large spatial domains. We apply our approach to propose a retrospective spatial sampling design for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population genetics in the western United States.

  2. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  3. General gauge mediation in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrie, Moritz; Russo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    We use the ''general gauge mediation'' (GGM) formalism to describe a five-dimensional setup with an S 1 /Z 2 orbifold. We first consider a model independent supersymmetry breaking hidden sector on one boundary and generic chiral matter on another. Using the definition of GGM, the effects of the hidden sector are contained in a set of global symmetry current correlator functions and is mediated through the bulk. We find the gaugino, sfermion and hyperscalar mass formulas for minimal and generalized messengers in different regimes of a large, small and intermediate extra dimension. Then we use the five-dimensional GGM formalism to construct a model in which an SU(5) Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih (ISS) model is located on the hidden boundary. We weakly gauge a global symmetry of the ISS model and associate it with the bulk vector superfield. Compared to four-dimensional GGM, there is a natural way to adjust the gaugino versus sfermion mass ratio by a factor (Ml) 2 , where M is a characteristic mass scale of the supersymmetry breaking sector and l is the length of the extra dimension.

  4. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0-28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  5. Higgs Phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakizaki Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal model of Universal Extra Dimensions (MUED is briefly reviewed. We explain how the cross-sections for Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into photons are modified, relative the the Standard Model (SM values, by KK particles running in loops, leading to an enhancement of the gg → h → γγ and gg → h → W+W− cross-sections. ATLAS and CMS searches for the SM Higgs in these channels are reinterpreted in the context of MUED and used to place new limits on the MUED parameter space. Only a small region of between 1 and 3 GeV around mh = 125 GeV for 500 GeV < R−1 < 1600 GeV remains open at the 95 % confidence level.

  6. Family unification in five and six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Barr, S.M.; Kyae, Bumseok

    2002-01-01

    In family unification models, all three families of quarks and leptons are grouped together into an irreducible representation of a simple gauge group, thus unifying the standard model gauge symmetries and a gauged family symmetry. Large orthogonal groups, and the exceptional groups E 7 and E 8 , have been much studied for family unification. The main theoretical difficulty of family unification is the existence of mirror families at the weak scale. It is shown here that family unification without mirror families can be realized in simple five-dimensional and six-dimensional orbifold models similar to those recently proposed for SU(5) and SO(10) grand unification. It is noted that a family unification group that survived to near the weak scale and whose coupling extrapolated to high scales unified with those of the standard model would be evidence, accessible in principle at low energy, of the existence of small (Planckian or GUT-scale) extra dimensions

  7. Spatial Welfare Economics versus Ecological Footprint: Modeling Agglomeration, Externalities and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazi, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Rietveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    A welfare framework for the analysis of the spatial dimensions of sustainability is developed. It covers agglomeration effects, interregional trade, negative environmental externalities, and various land use categories. The model is used to compare rankings of spatial configurations according to

  8. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  9. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  10. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pepur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.

  11. The Creative Dimension of Visuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2013-01-01

    This essay reflects critically on the notion of visuality, a centrepiece of current theory on visual culture and its underlying idea of a structural ‘discursive determination’ of visual phenomena. Is the visual really to be addressed through the post-war heritage of discourse and representation...... analysis relying on language/linguistics as a model for explaining culture? More specifically, how can the – creative – novelty of visual culture be addressed by a notion of discourse? This essay will argue that the debate on visual culture is lacking with regard to discerning the creative dimension of its...... and the invisible’ to the notion of collective creativity and ‘the imaginary institution of society’ of Cornelius Castoriadis. In the theoretical relationship between Merleau-Ponty and Castoriadis it is possible to indicate a notion of visuality as a creative dimension....

  12. Flavour physics from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, G; Scrucca, C A; Silvestrini, L

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of introducing an SU(2) global flavour symmetry in the context of flat extra dimensions. In particular we concentrate on the 5-dimensional case and we study how to obtain the flavour structure of the Standard Model quark sector compacti(ying the fifth dimension on the orbifold St/Z2 a la Scberk-Scbwarz (SS). We show that in this case it is possible to justify the five orders of magnitude among the values of the quark masses with only one parameter: the SS flavour parameter. The non-local nature of the SS symmetry breaking mechanism allows to realize this without introducing new instabilities in the theory.

  13. Designing a socio-spatial need indicator for urban social services analysis and decision making. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morenos Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision taking on social services requires, as a previous step, to appraise the human needs and their spatial distribution, a key issue particularly sensitive in less developed zones or during economic crisis periods, as far as socio-spatial cohesion is then strongly challenged. Vari-ous methods have been used for measuring social needs, provided that these are diverse in nature and sometimes elusive. Incorporating the spatial dimension in this task involves an additional challenge, but the results add meaningful value for socio-spatial planning. Along this concern, in this work it is tackled the problema of estimating the needs typically met by local social service centers (SSC. To this end, it is designed a novel statistical indicator for intra-urban zones, incorporating in the formula the main components of the actual observed de-mand as well as the per capita income, to take into account the relevant spatial equity principle. Using a geographical information systems (GIS, the indicator for estimating SSC need has been experimentally obtained for two types of spatial units in the city of Madrid: municipal districts and small statistical areas, looking for complementary applied uses. The results reveal the intra-urban inequalities for these types of needs and may support public decision making on spatial provision and location of this kind of social resources. In addition, a preliminary and statistically based exam of the indicator potentialities and limitations is carried out for both types of spatial units.

  14. High and low dimensions in the black hole negative mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnin, Vadim; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak; Levi, Michele; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    The negative mode of the Schwarzschild black hole is central to Euclidean quantum gravity around hot flat space and for the Gregory-Laflamme black string instability. We analyze the eigenvalue as a function of spacetime dimension λ = λ(d) by constructing two perturbative expansions: one for large d and the other for small d - 3, and determining as many coefficients as we are able to compute analytically. By joining the two expansions, we obtain an interpolating rational function accurate to better than 2% through the whole range of dimensions including d = 4

  15. String theory in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.

    1988-01-01

    A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs

  16. The social dimensions of entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  17. The social dimension of entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of 'personality characteristics' or in sterile economic terms. The paper addresses by concluding implications for practitioners and for research....

  18. RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...

  19. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    to military, and to make them able to operate effectively in multicultural dimensions. This cultural impact forced the military doctrine to adapt...degree the research findings and conclusions. The bibliography reviewed for this thesis is available at the Combined Arms Research Library . Unfortunately...in terms of increased ability of understanding and operating in a different cultural or multicultural setting, led the military decision makers to

  20. Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.

  1. Quantum matrices in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)

  2. Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the naked singularities arising in dust collapse from smooth initial data (which include those discovered by Eardley and Smarr, Christodoulou, and Newman) are removed when we make a transition to higher dimensional spacetimes. Cosmic censorship is then restored for dust collapse, which will always produce a black hole as the collapse end state for dimensions D≥6, under conditions to be motivated physically such as the smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops

  3. Massive MIMO meets small cell backhaul and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Howard H

    2017-01-01

    This brief explores the utilization of large antenna arrays in massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) for both interference suppression, where it can improve cell-edge user rates, and for wireless backhaul in small cell networks, where macro base stations can forward data to small access points in an energy efficient way. Massive MIMO is deemed as a critical technology for next generation wireless technology. By deploying an antenna array that has active elements in excess of the number of users, massive MIMO not only provides tremendous diversity gain but also powers new aspects for network design to improve performance. This brief investigates a better utilization of the excessive spatial dimensions to improve network performance. It combines random matrix theory and stochastic geometry to develop an analytical framework that accounts for all the key features of a network, including number of antenna array, base station density, inter-cell interference, random base station deployment, and network tra...

  4. Wave equations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...

  5. Search for extra dimensions in diphoton events from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV in the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Aben, R.; Beemster, L.J.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berglund, E.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; de Nooij, L.; Deluca, C.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Ferrari, P.; Garitaonandia, H.; Geerts, D.A.A.; Gosselink, M.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Igonkina, O.; Kayl, M.S.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Lenz, T.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Mahlstedt, J.; Massaro, G.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Pani, P.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Ta, D.; Tsiakiris, M.; Turlay, E.; van der Deijl, P.C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    The large difference between the Planck scale and the electroweak scale, known as the hierarchy problem, is addressed in certain models through the postulate of extra spatial dimensions. A search for evidence of extra spatial dimensions in the diphoton channel has been performed using the full set

  6. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  7. Price and quality in spatial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt R.; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2010-01-01

    We study the relationship between competition and quality within a spatial competition framework where firms compete in prices and quality. We generalise existing literature on spatial price–quality competition along several dimensions, including utility functions that are non-linear in income and cost functions that are non-separable in output and quality. Our main message is that the scope for a positive relationship between competition and quality is underestimated in the existing literatu...

  8. The Spatial and the Visual in Mental Spatial Reasoning: An Ill-Posed Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Holger; Bertel, Sven; Barkowsky, Thomas; Seifert, Inessa

    It is an ongoing and controversial debate in cognitive science which aspects of knowledge humans process visually and which ones they process spatially. Similarly, artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science research, in building computational cognitive systems, tended to use strictly spatial or strictly visual representations. The resulting systems, however, were suboptimal both with respect to computational efficiency and cognitive plau sibility. In this paper, we propose that the problems in both research strands stem from a mis conception of the visual and the spatial in mental spatial knowl edge pro cessing. Instead of viewing the visual and the spatial as two clearly separable categories, they should be conceptualized as the extremes of a con tinuous dimension of representation. Regarding psychology, a continuous di mension avoids the need to exclusively assign processes and representations to either one of the cate gories and, thus, facilitates a more unambiguous rating of processes and rep resentations. Regarding AI and cognitive science, the con cept of a continuous spatial / visual dimension provides the possibility of rep re sentation structures which can vary continuously along the spatial / visual di mension. As a first step in exploiting these potential advantages of the pro posed conception we (a) introduce criteria allowing for a non-dichotomic judgment of processes and representations and (b) present an approach towards rep re sentation structures that can flexibly vary along the spatial / visual dimension.

  9. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  10. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  11. In-situ materials characterization across spatial and temporal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Graafsma, Heinz; Zhang, Xiao; Frenken, Joost

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of nanoscale materials can change rapidly with time either because the environment changes rapidly, or because the influence of the environment propagates quickly across the intrinsically small dimensions of nanoscale materials. Extremely fast time resolution studies using X-rays, electrons and neutrons are of very high interest to many researchers and is a fast-evolving and interesting field for the study of dynamic processes. Therefore, in situ structural characterization and measurements of structure-property relationships covering several decades of length and time scales (from atoms to millimeters and femtoseconds to hours) with high spatial and temporal resolutions are crucially important to understand the synthesis and behavior of multidimensional materials. The techniques described in this book will permit access to the real-time dynamics of materials, surface processes, and chemical and biological reactions at various time scales. This book provides an interdisciplinary reference for res...

  12. The fourth dimension simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders

  13. Dimensions of problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2013-01-01

    The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning such...... and Learning (MIL). We discuss changes in the roles of the teachers as supervisors within this learning environment, and we explore the involvement of students as active participants and co-designers of how course and project activities unfold....

  14. Keynote speech: Dimensions of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The presentation seeks to construct a framework for understanding knowledge and knowledge work. I argue that knowledge may be understood as a social construction of reality. I argue that people construct their reality by integrating four dimensions of reality: Facts, logic, values and communicati....... I argue that this framework leads to a new and critical understanding of the disciplines organizational learning and knowledge management. In particular I argue that these disciplines often contain their own image of work and identity, which may be a sharp contrast to extant work forms...

  15. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-06

    In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  16. Massively Parallel Dimension Independent Adaptive Metropolis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets. The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non

  17. Cosmology in theories with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    Some possible cosmological effects of the existence of extra compact dimensions are discussed. Particular attention is given to the possibility that extra dimensions might naturally lead to an inflationary Universe scenario

  18. Packing in Two and Three Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Gustavo H

    2003-01-01

    ...), the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MD-KP), and the Multidimensional Bin Packing Problem (MD-BPP). In these problems, there is a set of items, with rectangular dimensions, and a set of large containers, or bins, also with rectangular dimensions...

  19. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  20. Gravity theories in more than four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1985-03-01

    String theories suggest particular forms for gravity interactions in higher dimensions. We consider an interesting class of gravity theories in more than four dimensions, clarify their geometric meaning and discuss their special properties. 9 refs

  1. A New Dimension for Earth Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.

  2. Distinguishing dimensions of pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically identifies dimensions of behaviour that are distinct in terms of the extent to which people act pro-environmentally. Three dimensions are identified, relating to at-home, transport-related and purchasing behaviour. The correlation between behaviour in each dimension is explored and the characteristics and attitudes associated with the extent to which behaviour is pro-environmental in each dimension are compared. The correlates of pro-environmental behaviour are found to...

  3. Topological dimension and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coornaert, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Translated from the popular French edition, the goal of the book is to provide a self-contained introduction to mean topological dimension, an invariant of dynamical systems introduced in 1999 by Misha Gromov. The book examines how this invariant was successfully used by Elon Lindenstrauss and Benjamin Weiss to answer a long-standing open question about embeddings of minimal dynamical systems into shifts. A large number of revisions and additions have been made to the original text. Chapter 5 contains an entirely new section devoted to the Sorgenfrey line. Two chapters have also been added: Chapter 9 on amenable groups and Chapter 10 on mean topological dimension for continuous actions of countable amenable groups. These new chapters contain material that have never before appeared in textbook form. The chapter on amenable groups is based on Følner’s characterization of amenability and may be read independently from the rest of the book. Although the contents of this book lead directly to several active ar...

  4. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kalaydzhyan, T.; Polikarpov, M.I.

    2011-11-01

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  5. Conformal invariance at a deconfinement phase transition in (2+1) dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.; Damgaard, P.H.

    1990-08-01

    The conformal dimension of the Polyakov line at the deconfinement phase transition of (2+1)-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory is determined numerically using two-dimensional finite size conformal field theory. Excellent agreement with two-dimensional Ising model values is found for both the renormalized coupling on a spatially toroidal geometry and the conformal dimensions on a finite-width strip geometry. (orig.)

  6. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  7. New universality class in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13<...

  8. Divergence, spacetime dimension and fractal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    With a Cantor spacetime in mind, we assume the dimension of spacetime to be slightly smaller than four. Within the framework of QED, this dimension can be determined by calculating Feynman diagrams. We infer that the dimension of spacetime may be influenced by holes in space. (author)

  9. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  10. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Elsner

    Full Text Available The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93 [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  11. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  12. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  13. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A; Martyniuk, P; Kopytko, M

    2016-04-01

    In the last two decades, several new concepts for improving the performance of infrared detectors have been proposed. These new concepts particularly address the drive towards the so-called high operating temperature focal plane arrays (FPAs), aiming to increase detector operating temperatures, and as a consequence reduce the cost of infrared systems. In imaging systems with the above megapixel formats, pixel dimension plays a crucial role in determining critical system attributes such as system size, weight and power consumption (SWaP). The advent of smaller pixels has also resulted in the superior spatial and temperature resolution of these systems. Optimum pixel dimensions are limited by diffraction effects from the aperture, and are in turn wavelength-dependent. In this paper, the key challenges in realizing optimum pixel dimensions in FPA design including dark current, pixel hybridization, pixel delineation, and unit cell readout capacity are outlined to achieve a sufficiently adequate modulation transfer function for the ultra-small pitches involved. Both photon and thermal detectors have been considered. Concerning infrared photon detectors, the trade-offs between two types of competing technology-HgCdTe material systems and III-V materials (mainly barrier detectors)-have been investigated.

  14. Fractal dimension of microbead assemblies used for protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Ariel; Commiskey, Patrick; Lazaridis, Filippos; Argyrakis, Panos; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-10

    We use fractal analysis to calculate the protein concentration in a rotating magnetic assembly of microbeads of size 1 μm, which has optimized parameters of sedimentation, binding sites and magnetic volume. We utilize the original Forrest-Witten method, but due to the relatively small number of bead particles, which is of the order of 500, we use a large number of origins and also a large number of algorithm iterations. We find a value of the fractal dimension in the range 1.70-1.90, as a function of the thrombin concentration, which plays the role of binding the microbeads together. This is in good agreement with previous results from magnetorotation studies. The calculation of the fractal dimension using multiple points of reference can be used for any assembly with a relatively small number of particles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Three-dimension imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    This invention is directed to a 3-dimensional imaging lidar, which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction to provide contiguous high spatial resolution mapping of surface features including ground, water, man-made objects, vegetation and submerged surfaces from an aircraft or a spacecraft.

  16. Quantum Physics in One Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, David

    2004-01-01

    To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted peculiarities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic - spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assuming little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a

  17. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  18. Can geodesics in extra dimensions solve the cosmological horizon problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Freese, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-inflationary solution to the cosmological horizon problem in scenarios in which our observable universe is confined to three spatial dimensions (a three-brane) embedded in a higher dimensional space. A signal traveling along an extra-dimensional null geodesic may leave our three-brane, travel into the extra dimensions, and subsequently return to a different place on our three-brane in a shorter time than the time a signal confined to our three-brane would take. Hence, these geodesics may connect distant points which would otherwise be ''outside'' the four dimensional horizon (points not in causal contact with one another). (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzano, Michele [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (Italy); Calcagni, Gianluca [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia

    2017-12-15

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations. (orig.)

  20. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations. (orig.)

  1. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations.

  2. Quality Of Work Life: Implications Of Career Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Raduan C. Rose; LooSee Beh; Jegak Uli; Khairuddin Idris

    2006-01-01

    Literature on QWL is limited and several studies commonly correlates with job satisfaction but no study on QWL has associated with career related factors. This empirical study was done to predict QWL in relation to career-related dimensions. The sample consists of 475 managers from the free trade zones in Malaysia for both the multinational corporations (MNCs) and the small-medium industries (SMIs). The result indicates that three exogenous variables are significant: career satisfaction, care...

  3. Human dimension of strategic partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to point to the widespread practice of neglecting behavioral aspects of different forms of fusions and integrations of enterprises that have emerged in the process of privatization through strategic partnerships with foreign companies among Serbian enterprises. The initial hypothesis in this paper is that the process of privatization, restructuring and transformation in Serbian enterprises cannot be completely successful and equally advantageous for all the subjects involved if there is no concern for human dimension of these processes. Without this concern there is a possibility for behavioral problems to arise, and the only way to resolve them is through post festum respecting and introducing elements that should never have been neglected in the first place. This paper refers to the phenomenon of collision of cultures and the ways of resolving it while forming strategic partnerships.

  4. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  5. Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1999-08-01

    We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)

  6. Ultraviolet sensitivity in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, Doug; Burgess, Clifford P.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the first three Gilkey-DeWitt (heat-kernel) coefficients, a 0 , a 1 and a 2 , for massive particles having the spins of most physical interest in n dimensions, including the contributions of the ghosts and the fields associated with the appropriate generalized Higgs mechanism. By assembling these into supermultiplets we compute the same coefficients for general supergravity theories, and show that they vanish for many examples. One of the steps of the calculation involves computing these coefficients for massless particles, and our expressions in this case agree with - and extend to more general background spacetimes - earlier calculations, where these exist. Our results give that part of the low-energy effective action which depends most sensitively on the mass of heavy fields once these are integrated out. These results are used in hep-th/0504004 to compute the sensitivity to large masses of the Casimir energy in Ricci-flat 4D compactifications of 6D supergravity

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE DIMENSIONS AND VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria Popa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous definitions of the concept in the specialized literature and the majority present organizational culture as a system of values, norms, rules, beliefs, habits learned and internalized by the organization members and embodied in their behaviors. Such definitions highlight the fact that organizational culture is a system of values, norms, customs and beliefs shared and assimilated by the entire membership of the organization in order to transform them into inherent characteristics of their behavior. The newly acquired behavior will be promoted, defended and developed throughout their work. Even if organizational culture is built upon such a strict, rigid, formal institutional support, it evolves and develops in order to help the organization adapt and perform efficiently. In order to have an easier understanding of the concept, in this paper we shall use for our analysis the following dimensions: cognitive, normative, human and material.

  8. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  9. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building......This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...

  10. VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Olcay Taner

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.

  11. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Um

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE in the tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS campaign at mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T between −87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D', length (L', and width (W' of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were further distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. The dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, the dimension of the major axis divided by the dimension of the minor axis of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased with temperature. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W' of the minor axis (i.e., a axis for a given dimension (i.e., D' orL' of the major axis (i.e., c axis, and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50 ± 1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32 ± 1.34 (5.46 ± 1.34; 4.95 ± 1.01 during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC. The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationships determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.

  12. Analysis of Spatial Voting Patterns: An Approach in Political Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Passage of the 26th Amendment gave young adults the right to vote. This study attempts to further student understanding of the electoral process by presenting a method for analyzing spatial voting patterns. The spatial emphasis adds another dimension to the temporal and behavioral-structural approaches in studying the American electoral system.…

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-10-01

    flatness of the Universe, the horizon problem and isotropy of cosmological microwave background. All this material is covered in chapter seven. Chapter eight contains brief discussion of several popular inflation models. Chapter nine is devoted to the problem of the large-scale structure formation from initial quantum vacuum fluctuation during the inflation and the spectrum of the density fluctuations. It also contains remarks on the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe, baryogenesis and primordial black holes. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza-Klein scheme. The authors also discuss how extra dimensions may affect low energy physics. They present examples of higher-dimensional generalizations of the gravity with higher-in-curvature corrections and discuss a possible mechanism of self-stabilization of an extra space. A considerable part of the chapter 10 is devoted to cosmological models with extra dimensions. In particular, the authors discuss how extra dimensions can modify 'standard' inflation models. At the end of this chapter they make several remarks on a possible relation of the value of fundamental constants in our universe with the existence of extra dimensions. Finally, in chapter 11 they demonstrate that several observable properties of the Universe are closely related with the special value of the fundamental physical constants and their fine tuning. They give interesting examples of such fine tuning and summarize many other cases. The book ends with discussion of a so-called 'cascade birth of universes in multidimensional spaces' model, proposed by one of the authors. As is evident from this brief summary of topics presented in the book, many interesting areas of modern gravity and cosmology are covered. However, since the subject is so wide, this inevitably implies that the

  14. Nonlinear Filtering in High Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    near J (that is, the spatial accumulation of errors is mitigated). This localization comes at a price , however; the local filter stability bound holds...Appendix A to complete the proof of the variance bound. The present approach is inspired by [15]. The price we pay is that the variance bound scales...Random fields and diffusion processes. In École d’Été de Prob- abilités de Saint- Flour XV–XVII, 1985–87, volume 1362 of Lecture Notes in Math., pages

  15. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Allan Kardec, E-mail: allan@elo.com.br

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  16. Vacuum polarization energy for general backgrounds in one space dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For field theories in one time and one space dimensions we propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow a decomposition into symmetric and anti-symmetric channels. The method also applies to scenarios in which the masses of the quantum fluctuations at positive and negative spatial infinity are different. As an example we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the soliton to the different masses.

  17. Simulation of time-dependent Heisenberg models in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we provide a theoretical analysis of strongly interacting quantum systems confined by a time-dependent external potential in one spatial dimension. We show that such systems can be used to simulate spin chains described by Heisenberg Hamiltonians in which the exchange coupling...... constants can be manipulated by time-dependent driving of the shape of the external confinement. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trapping potential with a variable frequency and an infinite square well potential with a time-dependent barrier in the middle....

  18. Active processes in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Thibaut; Maes, Christian

    2018-03-01

    We consider the thermal and athermal overdamped motion of particles in one-dimensional geometries where discrete internal degrees of freedom (spin) are coupled with the translational motion. Adding a driving velocity that depends on the time-dependent spin constitutes the simplest model of active particles (run-and-tumble processes) where the violation of the equipartition principle and of the Sutherland-Einstein relation can be studied in detail even when there is generalized reversibility. We give an example (with four spin values) where the irreversibility of the translational motion manifests itself only in higher-order (than two) time correlations. We derive a generalized telegraph equation as the Smoluchowski equation for the spatial density for an arbitrary number of spin values. We also investigate the Arrhenius exponential law for run-and-tumble particles; due to their activity the slope of the potential becomes important in contrast to the passive diffusion case and activity enhances the escape from a potential well (if that slope is high enough). Finally, in the absence of a driving velocity, the presence of internal currents such as in the chemistry of molecular motors may be transmitted to the translational motion and the internal activity is crucial for the direction of the emerging spatial current.

  19. Weighted radial dimension: an improved fractal measurement for highway transportation networks distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Miaolong; Tong, Xiaohua

    2007-06-01

    An improved fractal measurement, the weighted radial dimension, is put forward for highway transportation networks distribution. The radial dimension (DL), originated from subway investigation in Stuttgart, is a fractal measurement for transportation systems under ideal assumption considering all the network lines to be homogeneous curves, ignoring the difference on spatial structure, quality and level, especially the highway networks. Considering these defects of radial dimension, an improved fractal measurement called weighted radial dimension (D WL) is introduced and the transportation system in Guangdong province is studied in detail using this novel method. Weighted radial dimensions are measured and calculated, and the spatial structure, intensity and connectivity of transportation networks are discussed in Guangdong province and the four sub-areas: the Pearl River Delta area, the East Costal area, the West Costal area and the Northern Guangdong area. In Guangdong province, the fractal spatial pattern characteristics of transportation system vary remarkably: it is the highest in the Pearl River Delta area, moderate in Costal area and lowest in the Northern Guangdong area. With the Pearl River Delta area as the centre, the weighted radial dimensions decrease with the distance increasing, while the decline level is smaller in the costal area and greater in the Northern Guangdong province. By analysis of the conic of highway density, it is recognized that the density decrease with the distance increasing from the calculation centre (Guangzhou), demonstrating the same trend as weighted radial dimensions shown. Evidently, the improved fractal measurement, weighted radial dimension, is an indictor describing the characteristics of highway transportation system more effectively and accurately.

  20. CERN LHC signals from warped extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Belyaev, Alexander; Krupovnickas, Tadas; Perez, Gilad; Virzi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We study production of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gluons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the framework of a warped extra dimension with the standard model fields propagating in the bulk. We show that the detection of the KK gluon is challenging since its production is suppressed by small couplings to the proton's constituents. Moreover, the KK gluon decays mostly to top pairs due to an enhanced coupling and hence is broad. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that for M KKG -1 of data at the LHC can provide discovery of the KK gluon. We utilize a sizable left-right polarization asymmetry from the KK gluon resonance to maximize the signal significance, and we explore the novel feature of extremely highly energetic 'top-jets'. We briefly discuss how the detection of electroweak gauge KK states (Z/W) faces a similar challenge since their leptonic decays (golden modes) are suppressed. Our analysis suggests that other frameworks, for example, little Higgs, which rely on UV completion via strong dynamics might face similar challenges, namely, (1) suppressed production rates for the new particles (such as Z ' ), due to their 'light-fermion-phobic' nature, and (2) difficulties in detection since the new particles are broad and decay predominantly to third generation quarks and longitudinal gauge bosons