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Sample records for small source volume

  1. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynde, Søren, E-mail: kynde@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nagy, Gergely [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kohlbrecher, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.kohlbrecher@psi.ch [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Arleth, Lise, E-mail: arleth@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-11

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm{sup 3}, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ/λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  2. BNL volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Alessi, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The volume H minus ion source under development at Brookhaven is unique in that it has a toroidal plasma region, which feeds ions into the central extraction region through a conically shaped filter field. In pulsed operation, it produced 25 mA of H minus in a 1 cm 2 aperture, with an electron-to-H minus ratio of ∼ 3. At 19 mA, a normalized, 90% emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad has been measured. Up to 50 mA has been extracted through a 1.87 cm 2 aperture. Although not designed for steady state operation, up to 6 mA has been extracted d.c. The addition of xenon to the discharge was found to improve the source output by 20--70%. The circular magnetic cusp field geometry was found to be more favorable than radial cusp fields. 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  4. Small volume target for F-18 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicioli, M.; Schuler, J.; Marchand, P.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    In order to reduce the volume of O-18 enriched water used for each F-18 production for research a small volume target of 1 ml has been designed at IPHC. The designed is derived from ACSI 3.8ml F-18 target and uses both water and Helium cooling. After one year of use production yield is reported.

  5. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  6. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  7. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  8. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  9. The BNL toroidal volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.

    1991-01-01

    The BNL toroidal volume H - ion source, in pulsed operation is now producing up to 35 mA with an electron to H - ratio of less than 5, and a ratio of less than 3 for currents up to 20 mA. This improvement came about by increasing the strength of the conical filter field. The source has also been operated steady state at low arc currents, where up to 6 mA of H - was extracted. The electron to H - ratio is 2--3 times larger for dc operation. For dc currents up to 5 mA, the arc power efficiency was 5 mA/kW. Pulsed performance with Ta and W filaments were very similar, except for the large gas pumping observed with the Ta filament. In dc operation, the Ta filament performed somewhat better than W. Extraction from 7 apertures having a total area of 1 cm 2 produced the same results as a single 1 cm 2 aperture. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. Vibrational excitation in a hydrogen volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eenshuistra, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the complex of processes which determines the D - or H - density in a volume source, a hydrogen discharge, is studied. D - beams are of interest for driving the current of a fusion plasma in a TOKAMAK. Densities of vibrationally excited molecules, of H atoms, and of metastable hydrogen molecules were determined using Resonance-Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI). An experiment in which vibrationally highly excited molecules are formed by recombination of atoms in a cold metal surface, is described. The production and destruction of vibrationally excited molecules and atoms in the discharge is discussed. The vibrational distribution for 3≤ν≤5 (ν = vibrational quantumnumber) is strongly super-thermal. This effect is more apparent at higher discharge current and lower gas pressure. The analysis with a model based on rate equations, which molecules are predominantly produced by primary electron excitation of hydrogen molecules and deexcited upon one wall collision. The atom production is compatible with dissociation of molecules by primary electrons, dissociation of molecules on the filaments, and collisions between positive ions and electrons. The electrons are predominantly destroyed by recombination on the walls. Finally the production and destruction of H - in the discharge are discussed. The density of H - in the plasma, the electron density and temperature were determined. H - extraction was measured. The ratio of the extracted H - current and the H - density in the plasma gives an indication of the drift velocity of H - in the plasma. This velocity determines the emittance of the extracted beam. It was found that the H - velocity scales with the square root of the electron temperature. The measured H - densities are compatible with a qualitative model in which dissociative attachment of plasma electrons to vibrationally excited molecules is the most important process. (author). 136 refs.; 39 figs.; 10 tabs

  11. Small Business Management Volume III: Curriculum. An Adult Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    The small business management adult education program outlined in this curriculum guide is designed to help small business entrepreneurs solve their business management problems and attain the goals they have established for their businesses and their families. (An instructor's manual and practice problems are in separate volumes.) The 3-year…

  12. Do new anesthesia ventilators deliver small tidal volumes accurately during volume-controlled ventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Patricia R; McDonough, Joseph M; Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2008-05-01

    During mechanical ventilation of infants and neonates, small changes in tidal volume may lead to hypo- or hyperventilation, barotrauma, or volutrauma. Partly because breathing circuit compliance and fresh gas flow affect tidal volume delivery by traditional anesthesia ventilators in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a circle breathing system has become a common approach to minimizing the risk of mechanical ventilation for small patients, although delivered tidal volume is not assured during PCV. A new generation of anesthesia machine ventilators addresses the problems of VCV by adjusting for fresh gas flow and for the compliance of the breathing circuit. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of new anesthesia ventilators to deliver small tidal volumes. Four anesthesia ventilator systems were evaluated to determine the accuracy of volume delivery to the airway during VCV at tidal volume settings of 100, 200, and 500 mL under different conditions of breathing circuit compliance (fully extended and fully contracted circuits) and lung compliance. A mechanical test lung (adult and infant) was used to simulate lung compliances ranging from 0.0025 to 0.03 L/cm H(2)O. Volumes and pressures were measured using a calibrated screen pneumotachograph and custom software. We tested the Smartvent 7900, Avance, and Aisys anesthesia ventilator systems (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) and the Apollo anesthesia ventilator (Draeger Medical, Telford, PA). The Smartvent 7900 and Avance ventilators use inspiratory flow sensors to control the volume delivered, whereas the Aisys and Apollo ventilators compensate for the compliance of the circuit. We found that the anesthesia ventilators that use compliance compensation (Aisys and Apollo) accurately delivered both large and small tidal volumes to the airway of the test lung under conditions of normal and low lung compliance during VCV (ranging from 95.5% to 106.2% of the set tidal volume

  13. KCNQ1 channels sense small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2003-01-01

    Many important physiological processes involve changes in cell volume, e.g. the transport of salt and water in epithelial cells and the contraction of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we show that voltage-gated KCNQ1 channels, which are strongly expressed in epithelial cells or cardiomyocytes......, and KCNQ4 channels, expressed in hair cells and the auditory tract, are tightly regulated by small cell volume changes when co-expressed with aquaporin 1 water-channels (AQP1) in Xenopus oocytes. The KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 current amplitudes precisely reflect the volume of the oocytes. By contrast, the related...... KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels, which are prominently expressed in neurons, are insensitive to cell volume changes. The sensitivity of the KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels to cell volume changes is independent of the presence of the auxiliary KCNE1-3 subunits, although modulated by KCNE1 in the case of KCNQ1...

  14. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution for Patients in Traumatic Haemorrhagic Shock. ... The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock ...

  15. Thermodynamics of small systems two volumes bound as one

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Terrel L

    1994-01-01

    This authoritative summary of the basics of small system, or nonmacroscopic, thermodynamics was written by the field's founder. Originally published in two volumes, the text remains essential reading in an area in which the practical aim is to derive equations that provide interconnections among various thermodynamic functions. Part I introduces the basics of small system thermodynamics, exploring environmental variables, noting throughout the ways in which small thermodynamic systems differ operationally from macroscopic systems. Part II explores binding on macromolecules and aggregation, completes the discussion of environmental variables, and includes brief summaries of certain special topics, including electric and magnetic fields, spherical drops and bubbles, and polydisperse systems.

  16. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  17. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  18. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  19. 48 CFR 319.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 319.202-2 Locating small business sources. (a) OPDIVs shall foster, to the extent practicable, maximum participation by small businesses in HHS acquisitions...

  20. 48 CFR 2919.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Policies 2919.202-2 Locating small business sources. Any procurement conducted on an unrestricted basis will include solicitations to...

  1. 48 CFR 19.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-2 Locating small business sources. The contracting officer must, to the extent practicable, encourage maximum participation by small business...

  2. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  3. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  4. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.

    1992-08-01

    Accidents which have to be considered are core heat-up, reactivity transients, water of air ingress and primary circuit depressurization. The main effort of this paper belongs to water/air ingress and depressurization, which requires consideration of fission product plateout under normal operation conditions; for the latter it is clearly shown, that absorption (penetration) mechanisms are much less important than assumed sometimes in the past. Source term estimation procedures for core heat-up events are shortly reviewed; reactivity transients are apparently covered by them. Besides a general literature survey including identification of areas with insufficient knowledge this paper contains some estimations on the thermomechanical behaviour of fission products in water in air ingress accidents. Typical source term examples are also presented. In an appendix, evaluations of the AVR experiments VAMPYR-I and -II with respect to plateout and fission product filter efficiency are outlined and used for a validation step of the new plateout code SPATRA. (orig.)

  5. HCCR TBS LOCA and ICE into small confined volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2016-01-01

    KAERI has participated in the development of HCCR (Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector) TBS (Test Blanket System) as a member of the KO TBM Team. Conceptual design review of this system had been performed in 2015 and after resolving the chits, the final approval was achieved in March 2016. This safety issue is one of the category II chits in the CDR and resolution strategy was already approved, however, safety analysis should be done until PDR (Preliminary Design Review). In this paper, model and nodalization for the accident are given and preliminary result is included. Nominal design pressure of HCS loop is 8 MPa, therefore, as indicated in the figure below. During the break of cooling pipe between TBM and Shield, the high pressure coolant will ingress to the 'interspace' between TBM, Shield and Frame. The coolant will be released through the front gaps between TBM and Frame towards VV primary vacuum. Accident analysis about HCCR TBS LOCA and ICE into small confined volume has been done successfully. Inverspace volume is compatibly small volume for 8MPa helium loop rupture, which causes fast pressure build-up the space but it decrease within 10 seconds. It is expected that other type of TBM has almost the same behavior

  6. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  7. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  8. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  9. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, S.

    1988-01-01

    H - ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I - /I e becomes 1/20. H - ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm 2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  10. Design of small ECR ion source for neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Yang Haisu; Xiong Riheng

    2003-01-01

    The principles, structures and characteristics of small ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source used in the neutron generator are introduced. The processes of the design and key technique and innovations are described. (authors)

  11. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.

    2007-03-01

    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  12. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  13. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  14. The peak efficiency calibration of volume source using 152Eu point source in computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Tingyun; Qian Jianfu; Nan Qinliang; Zhou Yanguo

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the method of the peak efficiency calibration of volume source by means of 152 Eu point source for HPGe γ spectrometer. The peak efficiency can be computed by Monte Carlo simulation, after inputting parameter of detector. The computation results are in agreement with the experimental results with an error of +-3.8%, with an exception one is about +-7.4%

  15. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  16. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  17. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  18. Volumetric dispenser for small particles from plural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Miller, W.H.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for rapidly and accurately dispensing measured volumes of small particles from a supply hopper. The apparatus includes an adjustable, vertically oriented measuring tube and orifice member defining the volume to be dispensed, a ball plug valve for selectively closing the bottom end of the orifice member, and a compression valve for selectively closing the top end of the measuring tube. A supply hopper is disposed above and in gravity flow communication with the measuring tube. Properly sequenced opening and closing of the two valves provides accurate volumetric discharge through the ball plug valve. A dispensing system is described wherein several appropriately sized measuring tubes, orifice members, and associated valves are arranged to operate contemporaneously to facilitate blending of different particles

  19. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan---Conceptual Design Report SCP-CDR. The previous study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites. Volume 2 contains tables of source terms

  20. Numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation from land-excited large volume air-gun source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The land-excited large volume air-gun source can be used to study regional underground structures and to detect temporal velocity changes. The air-gun source is characterized by rich low frequency energy (from bubble oscillation, 2-8Hz) and high repeatability. It can be excited in rivers, reservoirs or man-made pool. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation from the air-gun source helps to understand the energy partitioning and characteristics of the waveform records at stations. However, the effective energy recorded at a distance station is from the process of bubble oscillation, which can not be approximated by a single point source. We propose a method to simulate the seismic wave propagation from the land-excited large volume air-gun source by finite difference method. The process can be divided into three parts: bubble oscillation and source coupling, solid-fluid coupling and the propagation in the solid medium. For the first part, the wavelet of the bubble oscillation can be simulated by bubble model. We use wave injection method combining the bubble wavelet with elastic wave equation to achieve the source coupling. Then, the solid-fluid boundary condition is implemented along the water bottom. And the last part is the seismic wave propagation in the solid medium, which can be readily implemented by the finite difference method. Our method can get accuracy waveform of land-excited large volume air-gun source. Based on the above forward modeling technology, we analysis the effect of the excited P wave and the energy of converted S wave due to different water shapes. We study two land-excited large volume air-gun fields, one is Binchuan in Yunnan, and the other is Hutubi in Xinjiang. The station in Binchuan, Yunnan is located in a large irregular reservoir, the waveform records have a clear S wave. Nevertheless, the station in Hutubi, Xinjiang is located in a small man-made pool, the waveform records have very weak S wave. Better understanding of

  1. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  2. Investigation of a large volume negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Bruneteau, A.M.; Bacal, M.

    1995-01-01

    The electron and negative ion densities and temperatures are reported for a large volume hybrid multicusp negative ion source. Based on the scaling laws an analysis is made of the plasma formation and loss processes. It is shown that the positive ions are predominantly lost to the walls, although the observed scaling law is n + ∝I 0.57 d . However, the total plasma loss scales linearly with the discharge current, in agreement with the theoretical model. The negative ion formation and loss is also discussed. It is shown that at low pressure (1 mTorr) the negative ion wall loss becomes a significant part of the total loss. The dependence of n - /n e versus the electron temperature is reported. When the negative ion wall loss is negligible, all the data on n - /n e versus the electron temperatures fit a single curve. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichelatti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The classical theory of radiation from a dipole located inside a microcavity is extended to the case of a volume source placed inside a layered medium. Cooperation phenomena that can take place in the spontaneous emission process are taken into account with an approach based on the theory of spatial coherence. Three cases are considered: noncooperation, long-range cooperation, and short-range cooperation. In all these cases, the expressions found for the out coupled power are analytical. As an application of the theory, an Alq 3 -based organic light emitting diode is analyzed. The optical properties of the device are evaluated and compared for two different types of cathode, one consisting of an Al layer, the other one consisting of an Al/LiF bi-layer. The results found show that the ultra-thin LiF layer significantly improves extraction efficiency [it

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in biological, chemical, physical and engineering research mandates that all intense neutron sources be equipped with SANS instruments. Four existing instruments at pulsed sources are described and the general differences between pulsed-source and reactor-based instrument designs are discussed. The basic geometries are identical, but dynamic range is generally achieved by using a broad band of wavelengths (with time-of-flight analysis) rather than by moving the detector. This allows optimization for maximum beam intensity at a given beam size over the full dynamic range with fixed collimation. Data-acquisition requirements at a pulsed source are more severe, requiring large fast histrograming memories. Data reduction is also more complex, as all wavelength-dependent and angle-dependent backgrounds and nonlinearities must be accounted for before data can be transformed to intensity vs momentum transfer (Q). A comparison is shown between the Los Alamos pulsed instrument and D11 (Institut Laue-Langevin) and examples from the four major topics of the conference are shown. The general conclusion is that reactor-based instruments remain superior at very low Q or if only a narrow range of Q is required, but that the current generation of pulsed-source instruments is competitive of moderate Q and may be faster when a wide range of Q is required. (orig.)

  5. Characterizing Sources of Small DC Motor Noise and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Thung Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Small direct current (DC motors are widely used due to their low cost and compact structure. Small DC motors of various designs are available on the market in different sizes. The smaller the motor, the more closely it may be used by individuals. Contrary to the size and simplicity of these motors in terms of structural design, sources of motor noise and vibration can be quite diverse and complicated. In this study, the source of motor noise and vibration was visualized over a very wide range of frequencies. The particle velocity of the motor was reconstructed from nearfield sound pressure measurements of motor noise. In addition to noncontact measurements conducted on a motor running at constant speed, the particle velocity of a stationary motor due to the impulse of an impact hammer was measured with an accelerometer. Furthermore, motor noise was measured under motor run-up conditions with different rotational speeds. As a result, by combination of these three methods, the sources of motor noise were accurately identified over a wide range of frequencies.

  6. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  7. Preparation of very small point sources for high resolution radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, F.N.

    1976-01-01

    The need for very small point sources of high specific activity 192 Ir, 169 Yb, 170 Tm, and 60 Co in non-destructive testing has motivated the development of techniques for the fabrication of these sources. To prepare 192 Ir point sources for use in examination of tube sheet welds in LMFBR heat exchangers, 191 Ir enriched to greater than 90 percent was melted in a helium blanketed arc to form spheres as small as 0.38 mm in diameter. Methods were developed to form the roughly spherical shaped arc product into nearly symmetrical spheres that could be used for high resolution radiography. Similar methods were used for spherical shaped sources of 169 Yb and 170 Tm. The oxides were arc melted to form rough spheres followed by grinding to precise dimensions, neutron irradiation of the spheres at a flux of 2 to 3 x 10 15 nv, and use of enriched 168 Yb to provide the maximum specific activity. Cobalt-60 with a specific activity of greater than 1100 Ci/g was prepared by processing 59 Co that had been neutron irradiated to nearly complete burnup of the 59 Co target to produce 60 Co, 61 Ni, and 62 Ni. Ion exchange methods were used to separate the cobalt from the nickel. The cobalt was reduced to metal by plating either onto aluminum foil which was dissolved away from the cobalt plate, or by plating onto mercury to prepare amalgam that could be easily formed into a pellet of cobalt with exclusion of the mercury. Both methods are discussed

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed sources compared to reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed comparisons of measurements made on small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed spallation and reactor sources show that the results from the two types of instruments are comparable. It is further demonstrated that spallation instruments are preferable for measurements in the mid-momentum transfer domain or when a large domain is needed. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in biological, chemical, physical, and engineering research mandates that all intense neutron sources be equipped with SANS instruments. Four existing instruments are described, and the general differences between pulsed-source and reactor-based instrument designs are discussed. The basic geometries are identical, but dynamic range is achieved by using a broad band of wavelengths (with time-of-flight analysis) rather than by moving the detector. This allows a more optimized collimation system. Data acquisition requirements at a pulsed source are more severe, requiring large, fast histogramming memories. Data reduction is also more complex, as all wave length-dependent and angle-dependent backgrounds and non-linearities must be accounted for before data can be transformed to intensity vs Q. A comparison is shown between the Los Alamos pulsed instrument and D-11 (Institute Laue-Langevin), and examples from the four major topics of the conference are shown. The general conclusion is that reactor-based instruments remain superior at very low Q or if only a narrow range of Q is required, but that the current generation of pulsed-source instruments is competitive at moderate Q and may be faster when a wide range of Q is required. In principle, a user should choose which facility to use on the basis of optimizing the experiment; in practice the tradeoffs are not severe and the choice is usually made on the basis of availability

  10. Small neutron sources as centers for innovation and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    The education and training of the next generation of scientists who will form the user base for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) remains a significant issue for the future success of this national facility. These scientists will be drawn from a wide variety of disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering) and therefore the development of an effective interdisciplinary training program represents a significant challenge. In addition, effective test facilities to develop the full potential of pulsed neutron sources for science do not exist. Each of these problems represents a significant hurdle for the future health of neutron science in this country. An essential part of the solution to both problems is to get neutron sources of useful intensities into the hands of researchers and students at universities, where faculty can teach students about neutron production and the utility of neutrons for solving scientific problems. Due to a combination of developments in proton accelerator technology, neutron optics, cold neutron moderators, computer technology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrumentation, it is now technically possible and cost effective to construct a pulsed cold neutron source suitable for use in a university setting and devoted to studies of nano structures in the fields of materials science, polymers, microemulsions, and biology. Such a source, based on (p,n) reactions in light nuclei induced by a few MeV pulsed proton beam coupled to a cold neutron moderator, would also be ideal for the study of a number of technical issues which are essential for the development of neutron science such as cold and perhaps ultracold neutron moderators, neutron optical devices, neutron detector technology, and transparent DAQ/user interfaces. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we possess almost all of the required instrumentation and expertise to efficiently launch the first serious attempt to develop an intense pulsed cold

  11. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  12. Vrancea seismic source analysis using a small-aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.; Placinta, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    A small-aperture seismic array (BURAR) was installed in 1999 in the northern part of the Romanian territory (Bucovina area). Since then, the array has been in operation under a joint cooperation programme between Romania and USA. The array consists of 10 stations installed in boreholes (nine short period instruments and one broadband instrument) with enough high sensitivity to properly detect earthquakes generated in Vrancea subcrustal domain (at about 250 km epicentral distance) with magnitude M w below 3. Our main purpose is to investigate and calibrate the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes using specific techniques provided by the BURAR array data. Forty earthquakes with magnitudes between 2.9 and 6.0 were selected, including the recent events of September 27, 2004 (45.70 angle N, 26.45 angle E, h = 166 km, M w = 4.7), October 27, 2004 (45.84 angle N, 26.63 angle E, h = 105 km, M w = 6.0) and May 14, 2005 (45.66 angle N, 26.52 angle E, h = 146 km, M w = 5.1), which are the best ever recorded earthquakes on the Romanian territory: Empirical Green's function deconvolution and spectral ratio methods are applied for pairs of collocated events with similar focal mechanism. Stability tests are performed for the retrieved source time function using the array elements. Empirical scaling and calibration relationships are also determined. Our study shows the capability of the BURAR array to determine the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes as a stand alone station and proves that the recordings of this array alone provides reliable and useful tools to efficiently constrain the source parameters and consequently source scaling properties. (authors)

  13. Prospects for accelerator neutron sources for large volume minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Spackman, R.

    1988-01-01

    The electron Linac can be regarded as a practical source of thermal neutrons for activation analysis of large volume mineral samples. With a suitable target and moderator, a neutron flux of about 10 10 n/cm/s over 2-3 kg of rock can be generated. The proton Linac gives the possibility of a high neutron yield (> 10 12 n/s) of fast neutrons at selected energies. For the electron Linac, targets of W-U and W-Be are discussed. The advantages and limitations of the system are demonstrated for the analysis of gold in rocks and ores and for platinum in chromitite. These elements were selected as they are most likely to justify an accelerator installation at the present time. Errors due to self shielding in gold particles for thermal neutrons are discussed. The proton Linac is considered for neutrons generated from a lithium target through the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction. The analysis of gold by fast neutron activation is considered. This approach avoids particle self-absorption and, by appropriate proton energy selection, avoids potentially dominating interfering reactions. The analysis of 235 U in the presence of 238 U and 232 Th is also considered. (author)

  14. Small Business Management. Instructor's Manual. Volume I. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, Joseph A.; And Others

    The instructor's manual is one of four prepared as a guide in conducting a small Business Management course for American Indians to prepare them for jobs as owners/managers of their own businesses and for management positions with business owned by bonds, cooperatives, and others. The manual contains lesson plans, suggested methodologies, and…

  15. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  16. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  17. Small-volume amnioinfusion: a potential stimulus of intrapartum fetal heart rate accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Flaherty, Nina; Pinette, Michael G; Blackstone, Jacquelyn; Cartin, Angelina

    2004-02-01

    We describe a recurrent nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern in which small-volume amnioinfusions apparently evoked fetal heart rate accelerations suggested fetal well-being, allowing that progressive labor that culminated in the vaginal delivery of a healthy infant.

  18. Determination of disintegration rates of a 60Co point source and volume sources by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The disintegration rates of 60 Co as a point source (<2 mm in diameter on a thin plastic disc) and volume sources (10-100 mL solutions in a polyethylene bottle) are determined by the sum-peak method. The sum-peak formula gives the exact disintegration rate for the point source at different positions from the detector. However, increasing the volume of the solution results in enlarged deviations from the true disintegration rate. Extended sources must be treated as an amalgam of many point sources. (author)

  19. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  20. Development of a hydrogen analysis using a small neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, I.; Tachikawa, N.; Tominaga, H.

    1998-01-01

    Most of industrial nuclear gauges are based on the use of radiation transmission through matter. This document presents new techniques to measure hydrogen using a small neutron source. A new technique has been developed for measuring the thickness of a thin layer of 30-200 μm thick plastic, which is sandwiched between two sheets of 0.6-4.2 mm in total thickness. Another technique allows to monitor residual moisture in wet refractory newly coated on the inner surface of a steel vessel from its outside through a thick steel plate. For saving on the use of coke and for strict control of furnace heating in the iron making process a new type moisture gauge was developed using simultaneous measurement of transmission rates of both fast neutrons and gamma rays from 252 Cf

  1. E-beam direct write versus reticle/stepper technology for ASICS in small volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pros and cons of using e-beam direct writing or reticles plus optical/UV steppers in fast prototyping and the small volume production of ASICs are discussed. The main conclusion is that fast prototyping is best achieved by e-beam direct write whereas small volume production of ASICs is best done via reticles and optical/UV stepping provided that the reticles are made in-house rather than by commercial maskhouses

  2. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtai...

  3. Parsing partial molar volumes of small molecules: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2011-04-28

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for a number of small solutes of various chemical natures. We repeated our computations using modified pair potentials, first, in the absence of the Coulombic term and, second, in the absence of the Coulombic and the attractive Lennard-Jones terms. Comparison of our results with experimental data and the volumetric results of Monte Carlo simulation with hard sphere potentials and scaled particle theory-based computations led us to conclude that, for small solutes, the partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potential in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume. On the other hand, MD simulations carried out with the pair interaction potentials containing only the repulsive Lennard-Jones term produce unrealistically large partial molar volumes of solutes that are close to their excluded volumes. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the reported schemes for parsing partial molar volume data on small solutes. In particular, our determined interaction volumes() and the thickness of the thermal volume for individual compounds are in good agreement with empirical estimates. This work is the first computational study that supports and lends credence to the practical algorithms of parsing partial molar volume data that are currently in use for molecular interpretations of volumetric data.

  4. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  5. A Small-Volume, Low-Cost, and Versatile Continuous Culture Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick Matteau

    Full Text Available Continuous culture devices can be used for various purposes such as establishing reproducible growth conditions or maintaining cell populations under a constant environment for long periods. However, commercially available instruments are expensive, were not designed to handle small volumes in the milliliter range, and can lack the flexibility required for the diverse experimental needs found in several laboratories.We developed a versatile continuous culture system and provide detailed instructions as well as a graphical user interface software for potential users to assemble and operate their own instrument. Three culture chambers can be controlled simultaneously with the proposed configuration, and all components are readily available from various sources. We demonstrate that our continuous culture device can be used under different modes, and can easily be programmed to behave either as a turbidostat or chemostat. Addition of fresh medium to the culture vessel can be controlled by a real-time feedback loop or simply calibrated to deliver a defined volume. Furthermore, the selected light-emitting diode and photodetector enable the use of phenol red as a pH indicator, which can be used to indirectly monitor the bulk metabolic activity of a cell population rather than the turbidity.This affordable and customizable system will constitute a useful tool in many areas of biology such as microbial ecology as well as systems and synthetic biology.

  6. Self Absorbed Fraction for Electrons and Beta Particles in Small Spherical Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Absorbed fraction and target organ mass are important parameters of internal dosimetry calculations that define the geometry of the system. Standard MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry) formalism assumes that the absorbed fraction for non-penetrating radiations (e.g., electrons, beta particles) is 1. This may not be correct in cases where dimensions of organs/tissues are comparable with the ranges of electrons/beta particles. Such is the case for example in radiodine ablation of thyroid remnant tissue. In this work the self-absorbed fraction (source and target volumes are the same) for monoenergetic electrons and beta particles is calculated for small spherical volumes of various sizes and unit density. Absorbed fraction can be expressed as an integral of the product of two quantities: (a) Scaled beta dose point kernel (mean absorbed dose rate per activity of the point source in infinite homogenous medium), F β ; (b) special geometrical reduction factor (GRF). F β is calculated using EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) code for transport of electrons and photons. MC source code calculates the deposition of energy inside concentric spherical shells around the isotropic point source of electrons/beta particles in infinite medium (water). Shell thickness was δr=0.02·X 90 , where X 90 represents the radius of the sphere inside which 90% of the source energy is absorbed. Number of concentric spherical shells was 100, 10000 electron histories were started in each program run, and 10 runs were repeated for statistical reason. Numerical integration of the product of F β , calculated by MC program, and GRF for sphere was done using Simpson method. Absorbed fractions were calculated for spheres with mass from 0.01-20 g (r = 0.13 - 1.68 cm). Results are given for monoenergetic electrons with kinetic energy T=0.2, 0.4, 1.0 MeV, and for three beta emitters 1 31I , 3 2P , 9 0Y . For quantitative dosimetric protocols in radioiodine ablation therapy, results for 1 31I are of

  7. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D. H.; Huh, S. J.; Ahn, Y. C.; Kim, D. Y.; Wu, H. G.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, D. R.; Shin, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  8. Dose-volume correlation in radiation-related late small-bowel complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Boer, R.W. de; hart, A.A.M.; Barteling, H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the volume of irradiated small bowel on late small-bowel tolerance was studied, taking into account the equivalent total dose ant type of pre-irradiation surgical procedure. A method was developed to estimate small-bowel volumes in the high-bowel volumes were measured for three-field and AP-PA pelvic treatments (165 cm 3 and 400 cm 3 , respectively), extended AP-PA treatment of para-aortic and iliac nodes (1000 cm 3 ). In a retrospective study of 111 patientst irradiated after surgery for rectal or recto-sigmoid cancer to a dose of 45-50 Gy in 5 weeks, extended AP-PA pelvic treatment (n = 27) resulted in a high incidence of severe small-bowel complications (37%), whereas for limited (three-field) pelvic treatment (n = 84) the complication rate was 6%. These complication data together with data from the literature on postoperative radiation-related small-bowel complications were analysed using the maximum likelihood method to fit the data to the logistic form of the dose-response relation, taking the volume effect into account by a power law. The analysis indicated that the incidence of radiation-related small-bowel compllications was higher after rectal surgery than after other types of surgery, which might be explained by the development of more adhesions. For both types of surgery a volume exponent of the power-law of 0.26 ± 0.05 was established. This means that if the small-bowel volume is increased by a factor of 2, the total dose has to be reduced by 17% for the same incidence of small-bowel complications. (author). 45 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Neutron gauging applications using a small 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a small 252 Cf source, in the 3 to 4 μg range, for neutron gauging applications is described. Emphasis is placed on determination of low concentrations of moisture in homogeneous media, e.g., solvents, explosives, dried food products, etc. and on measurement of charge or fill weight of hydrogenous materials in sealed items, e.g., propellant in a cartridge case. Both moderation of fast neutrons and attenuation of thermalized neutrons have been explored for these applications. Parameters related to the attainment of optimum sensitivity for each method are discussed. Fast neutron moderation is superior for low level moisture measurement whereas thermal neutron attenuation is more sensitive for ''neutron weighing'' applications. Under optimum conditions, sensitivity for moisture measurement approaches 0.1 weight percent whereas ''neutron weighing'' can detect changes in hydrogeneous material content as little as a fraction of a gram. Examples are given for each technique. A number of different thermal neutron detectors are compared for neutron gauging measurements. A 6 LiI (Eu) scintillation detector is judged to be superior with regard to high thermal neutron detection efficiency and low fast neutron and gamma ray response. In this study, emphasis is placed on the use of simple, portable equipment easily adaptable to field or plant use and for on-line process or quality control. (U.S.)

  10. NBS SURF 11: A small versatile synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources do not have to be large multi-megadollar installations. SURF II is based on a compact electron storage ring with a radius of only 0.84 m, an operating energy of 250 MeV, and useful light output down to 5 nm. Small beam size, high brightness and wide-angle light ports give SURF II unique capabilities. Presently five beamlines are instrumented and operational, supporting experiments in atomic and molecular physics, surface science and materials studies, as well as providing optical calibration services. Nearing completion is a large facility for calibrating optical instruments, especially those intended for space flight. The capability of determining the absolute light flux emitted by SURF II has recently been improved and is now operational. The technique employs ultralinear silicon photodiodes to detect and count individual electrons in the stored beam. Other user conveniences include close access to the machine, flexible scheduling and close interaction with the operations staff. The machine's simplicity contributes to reliability and a high ratio of beamtime to downtime

  11. Evaluating sources and processing of nonpoint source nitrate in a small suburban watershed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Huang, Minsheng; Ma, Minghai; Wei, Jinbao; Hu, Wei; Chouhan, Seema

    2018-04-01

    Identifying nonpoint sources of nitrate has been a long-term challenge in mixed land-use watershed. In the present study, we combine dual nitrate isotope, runoff and stream water monitoring to elucidate the nonpoint nitrate sources across land use, and determine the relative importance of biogeochemical processes for nitrate export in a small suburban watershed, Longhongjian watershed, China. Our study suggested that NH4+ fertilizer, soil NH4+, litter fall and groundwater were the main nitrate sources in Longhongjian Stream. There were large changes in nitrate sources in response to season and land use. Runoff analysis illustrated that the tea plantation and forest areas contributed to a dominated proportion of the TN export. Spatial analysis illustrated that NO3- concentration was high in the tea plantation and forest areas, and δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 were enriched in the step ponds. Temporal analysis showed high NO3- level in spring, and nitrate isotopes were enriched in summer. Study as well showed that the step ponds played an important role in mitigating nitrate pollution. Nitrification and plant uptake were the significant biogeochemical processes contributing to the nitrogen transformation, and denitrification hardly occurred in the stream.

  12. Minding your Own Small Business - An Introductory Curriculum for Small Business Management. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nancy; And Others

    Ten units on the basic knowledge and skills needed to manage a small business are provided in this curriculum guide designed for use with secondary and postsecondary students. Unit topics include forms of businesses, marketing, location, systems and records, promotion, pricing, human relations, financing a business, and effects of business…

  13. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    radius. The error sources were also studied in vivo under realistic clinical conditions, and the theoretical results were applied for correcting the volume flow errors. Twenty dialysis patients with arteriovenous fistulas were scanned to obtain vector flow maps of fistulas. When fitting an ellipsis......A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo...

  14. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  15. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Crannell, C. J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again.

  16. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard x rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft x ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard x ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard x rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 X 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard x ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard x ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again

  17. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again. 29 references

  18. MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, Sonja; Kuehle, Christiane A.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Barkhausen, Joerg; Herbig, Sebastian; Haag, Sebastian; Lauenstein, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

  19. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status

  20. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions related to the transition to new emission standards. See § 1045.145. (2) More flexible arrangements for creating engine families for high-performance engines. See § 1045.230. (3) Assigned... small-volume engine manufacturer, we will work with you to determine a reasonable schedule for complying...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume... companies; (iv) Vehicles and/or engines imported or distributed by all firms where the vehicles and/or...-use verification testing to have a minimum odometer mileage of 75 percent of the full useful life...

  2. Dose rate from the square volume radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The expression for determining the dose rate from a three-dimensional square flat-parallel source of any dimensions is obtained. A simplified method for integrating the resultant expression is proposed. A comparison of the calculation results with the results by the Monte Carlo method has shown them to coincide within 6-8%. Since buildings and structures consist of rectangular elements, the method is recommended for practical calculations of dose rates in residential buildings

  3. Irradiator design with large-volume source cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Craft, T.F.; Suh, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    To provide for economic utilization of prospective vitrified cesium-137 waste elements, a study was conducted for a conceptual irradiator system based on these elements for the commercial sterilization of sewage sludge for land spreading as fertilizer. A literature study showed that dried sludge could be sterilized more efficiently than wet. Adequate destruction of E. coli in sludge could be obtained with radiation doses as low as 150 kR. However, a dose of about 1 megarad is generally regarded as mandatory. Two cesium waste concentrations had been proposed. The one incorporating lower concentrations of Cs-137 and a surface dose of 20 kR/h was insufficiently active. Work, therefore, concentrated on the more active source cylinders, which are 18 cm in diameter with a specific activity of 16 to 17 Ci/cc. The conceptual design envisages the dry sludge passing horizontally by a conveyor system, past two rows of source elements in a three-pass array. A computer program has been developed to produce isodose contours and to calculate integrated doses for various source-target configurations

  4. Target volume determination in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer-facts and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, L.; Bujko, K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the precise target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy is required by ICRU Report 50 and 62, this task in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often controversial and strict accordance with ICRU requirements is hard to achieve. The Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) definition depends mainly on the imaging method used. We discuss the use of new imaging modalities, like PET, in GTV definition. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) definition remains a separate, and still unresolved problem, especially in the part concerning the Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI). Nowadays, there is no unified attitude among radiation oncologists regarding the necessity and extent of ENI. The common use of combined treatment modalities and the tendency to dose escalation, both increasing the potential toxicity, result in the more frequent use of involved-fields techniques. Problems relating to margins during Planning Target Volume (PTV) of lung cancer irradiation are also discussed. Another issue is the Interclinician variability in target volumes definition, especially when there is data indicating that the GTV, as defined by 3 D-treatment planning in NSCLC radiotherapy, may be highly prognostic for survival. We postulate that special attention should be paid to detailed precision of target volume determination in departmental and trial protocols. Careful analysis of patterns of failures from ongoing protocols will enable us to formulate the guidelines for target volume definition in radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  5. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E; Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Sperling, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  6. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); Mathew, D [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tanny, S [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NY (United States); Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  7. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.

    1994-09-01

    This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude

  8. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  9. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  10. Indirect solar wind geothermal: Alternative energy sources 4, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The utilities are obliged to provide electricity in a reliable and cost effective manner. Some unique problems posed by large scale wind turbines as an electricity source have to be considered. A value model is presented which is based upon the fuel displacement capability and the capacity displacement capability of wind turbines. The amount of fossil fuels which is saved by wind turbines depends on the forecasted wind power output, the actual power output fluctuations of the wind turbines and on system operation. The highly controversial capacity credit of wind turbines is discussed under the aspect of system reliability. It is shown that calculations of the capacity credit should be based upon detailed investigations with regard to the time dependence of the hourly wind power output.

  11. Quasiballistic heat removal from small sources studied from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Bjorn; Mingo, Natalio

    2018-01-01

    Heat sources whose characteristic dimension R is comparable to phonon mean free paths display thermal resistances that exceed conventional diffusive predictions. This has direct implications to (opto)electronics thermal management and phonon spectroscopy. Theoretical analyses have so far limited themselves to particular experimental configurations. Here, we build upon the multidimensional Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to derive universal expressions for the apparent conductivity suppression S (R ) =κeff(R ) /κbulk experienced by radially symmetric 2D and 3D sources. In striking analogy to cross-plane heat conduction in thin films, a distinct quasiballistic regime emerges between ballistic (κeff˜R ) and diffusive (κeff≃κbulk ) asymptotes that displays a logarithmic dependence κeff˜ln(R ) in single crystals and fractional power dependence κeff˜R2 -α in alloys (with α the Lévy superdiffusion exponent). Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations for spherical and circular heat sources in Si, GaAs, Si0.99Ge0.01 , and Si0.82Ge0.18 , all carried out from first principles, confirm the predicted generic tendencies. Contrary to the thin film case, common approximations like kinetic theory estimates κeff≃∑Sωgreyκω and modified Fourier temperature curves perform relatively poorly. Up to threefold deviations from the BTE solutions for sub-100 nm sources underline the need for rigorous treatment of multidimensional nondiffusive transport.

  12. Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Sheng; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Tung-Yi; Huang, Yu-Li; Shaio, Men-Fang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2017-07-01

    Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring. As a consequence of this, a survey and analysis of environmental V. corneae present in hot springs became an urgent need. In this study, sixty water samples from six hot spring recreation areas around Taiwan were analyzed. One liter of water from each sample site was filtered to harvest the fungi. The positive samples were detected using a modified nested PCR approach followed by sequencing using specific SSU rRNA gene primer pairs for V. corneae. In total fifteen V. corneae-like isolates were identified (25.0% of sites). Among them, six isolates, which were collected from recreational areas B, C and D, were highly similar to known V. corneae keratitis strains from Taiwan and other countries. Furthermore, five isolates, which were collected from recreation areas A, C, E and F, were very similar to Vittaforma-like diarrhea strains isolated in Portugal. Cold spring water tubs and public foot bath pools had the highest detection rate (50%), suggesting that hot springs might be contaminated via untreated water sources. Comparing the detection rate across different regions of Taiwan, Taitung, which is in the east of the island, gave the highest positive rate (37.5%). Statistical analysis showed that outdoor/soil exposure and a high heterotrophic plate count (HPC) were risk factors for the occurrence of V. corneae. Our findings provide empirical evidence

  13. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  14. Small Area Model-Based Estimators Using Big Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.

  15. Small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with polymerized human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Catalina; Yalcin, Ozlem; Palmer, Andre F; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is used as a plasma expander; however, albumin is readily eliminated from the intravascular space. The objective of this study was to establish the effects of various-sized polymerized HSAs (PolyHSAs) during small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock on systemic parameters, microvascular hemodynamics, and functional capillary density in the hamster window chamber model. Polymerized HSA size was controlled by varying the cross-link density (ie, molar ratio of glutaraldehyde to HSA). Hemorrhage was induced by controlled arterial bleeding of 50% of the animal's blood volume (BV), and hypovolemic shock was maintained for 1 hour. Resuscitation was implemented in 2 phases, first, by infusion of 3.5% of the BV of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) then followed by infusion of 10% of the BV of each PolyHSA. Resuscitation provided rapid recovery of blood pressure, blood gas parameters, and microvascular perfusion. Polymerized HSA at a glutaraldehyde-to-HSA molar ratio of 60:1 (PolyHSA(60:1)) provided superior recovery of blood pressure, microvascular blood flow, and functional capillary density, and acid-base balance, with sustained volume expansion in relation to the volume infused. The high molecular weight of PolyHSA(60:1) increased the hydrodynamic radius and solution viscosity. Pharmacokinetic analysis of PolyHSA(60:1) indicates reduced clearance and increased circulatory half-life compared with monomeric HSA and other PolyHSA formulations. In conclusion, HSA molecular size and solution viscosity affect central hemodynamics, microvascular blood flow, volume expansion, and circulation persistence during small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. In addition, PolyHSA can be an alternative to HSA in pathophysiological situations with compromised vascular permeability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal halides vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanov, D. V.; Sukhanov, V. B.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    Investigation of the energy characteristics of copper, manganese, lead halide vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume 90 cm3 was made. The optimal operating pulse repetition rates, temperatures, and buffer gas pressure for gas discharge tubes with internal and external electrodes are determined. Under identical pump conditions, such systems are not inferior in their characteristics to standard metal halide vapor lasers. It is shown that the use of a zeolite halogen generator provides lifetime laser operation.

  17. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  18. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtain required parts; 2) assembly of the dialyzer; and 3) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyser takes about 1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1–24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane employed. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume nonenzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading, and vesicle microscopy. PMID:26020615

  19. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  20. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: dose assessment methodologies; exposure from natural sources; exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation and occupational radiation exposures

  1. Quantification of Tumor Volume Changes During Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Jana; Ford, Eric; Redmond, Kristin; Zhou, Jessica; Wong, John; Song, Danny Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for lung cancer is limited by normal tissue toxicity. We evaluated sequential computed tomography (CT) scans to assess the possibility of adaptively reducing treatment volumes by quantifying the tumor volume reduction occurring during a course of radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients underwent RT for Stage I-III non-small-cell lung cancer with conventional fractionation; 15 received concurrent chemotherapy. Two repeat CT scans were performed at a nominal dose of 30 Gy and 50 Gy. Respiration-correlated four-dimensional CT scans were used for evaluation of respiratory effects in 17 patients. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on simulation and all individual phases of the repeat CT scans. Parenchymal tumor was evaluated unless the nodal volume was larger or was the primary. Subsequent image sets were spatially co-registered with the simulation data for evaluation. Results: The median GTV reduction was 24.7% (range, -0.3% to 61.7%; p 100 cm 3 vs. 3 , and hilar and/or mediastinal involvement vs. purely parenchymal or pleural lesions. A tendency toward a greater volume reduction with increasing dose was seen, although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated significant alterations in the GTV seen on repeat CT scans during RT. These observations raise the possibility of using an adaptive approach toward RT of non-small-cell lung cancer to minimize the dose to normal structures and more safely increase the dose directed at the target tissues.

  2. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 2 tabs

  3. Volume dose ratios relevant for alanine dosimetry in small, 6 MV photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard O.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Behrens, Claus F.

    2012-01-01

    therapy). To this end, we here present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study with DOSRZnrc that investigated the influence of field and detector size for small 6 MV photon beams. The study focusses on doses averaged over the volume of the detector rather than point doses.The ratio of volume...... averaged doses to water (D¯W) and alanine (D¯det) was found to be approximately 1.025 for most situations studied, and a constant ratio is likely to be representative for many applications in radiation therapy. However, D¯W/D¯det was found to be as low as 0.9908 ± 0.0037 in situations where one might...... expect significant deviations from charged particle equilibrium (i.e. at shallow depths and when the field size was smaller than the range of the secondary electrons). These effects therefore need consideration when finite-size alanine dosimeters are used under such conditions....

  4. Deviations in expected price impact for small transaction volumes under fee restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M.; Hendricks, D.; Gebbie, T.; Wilcox, D.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the occurrence of an anomaly in the price impacts of small transaction volumes following a change in the fee structure of an electronic market. We first review evidence for the existence of a master curve for price impact on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). On attempting to re-estimate a master curve after fee reductions, it is found that the price impact corresponding to smaller volume trades is greater than expected relative to prior estimates for a range of listed stocks. We show that a master curve for price impact can be found following rescaling by an appropriate liquidity proxy, providing a means for practitioners to approximate price impact curves without onerous processing of tick data.

  5. Improvement of 137Cs analysis in small volume seawater samples using the Ogoya underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K.; Kanazawa University, Ishikawa; Aoyama, M.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs in seawater is one of the most powerful tracers of water motion. Large volumes of samples have been required for determination of 137 Cs in seawater. This paper describes improvement of separation and purification processes of 137 Cs in seawater, which includes purification of 137 Cs using hexachloroplatinic acid in addition to ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) precipitation. As a result, we succeeded the 137 Cs determination in seawater with a smaller sample volume of 10 liter by using ultra-low background gamma-spectrometry in the Ogoya underground facility. 137 Cs detection limit was about 0.1 mBq (counting time: 10 6 s). This method is applied to determine 137 Cs in small samples of the South Pacific deep waters. (author)

  6. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Volume 2. Empirical analysis of risk perception and acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-01-01

    Volume 2 presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive inquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two inquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia.

  7. Sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment: A composite fingerprinting approach based on the selection of potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiping; Chang, Weina; Zhang, Longjiang

    2016-08-01

    Fingerprinting techniques have been widely used as a reasonable and reliable means for investigating sediment sources, especially in relatively large catchments in which there are significant differences in surface materials. However, the discrimination power of fingerprint properties for small catchments, in which the surface materials are relatively homogeneous and human interference is marked, may be affected by fragmentary or confused source information. Using fingerprinting techniques can be difficult, and there is still a need for further studies to verify the effectiveness of such techniques in these small catchments. A composite fingerprinting approach was used in this study to investigate the main sources of sediment output, as well as their relative contributions, from a small catchment (30 km2) with high levels of farming and mining activities. The impact of the selection of different potential sediment sources on the derivation of composite fingerprints and its discrimination power were also investigated by comparing the results from different combinations of potential source types. The initial source types and several samples that could cause confusion were adjusted. These adjustments improved the discrimination power of the composite fingerprints. The results showed that the composite fingerprinting approach used in this study had a discriminatory efficiency of 89.2% for different sediment sources and that the model had a mean goodness of fit of 0.90. Cultivated lands were the main sediment source. The sediment contribution of the studied cultivated lands ranged from 39.9% to 87.8%, with a mean of 76.6%, for multiple deposited sediment samples. The mean contribution of woodlands was 21.7%. Overall, the sediment contribution from mining and road areas was relatively low. The selection of potential sources is an important factor in the application of fingerprinting techniques and warrants more attention in future studies, as is the case with other

  8. Description and performance of a prototype PET system for small volume imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.; Hogan, M.J.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario; Dinsdale, H.B.; Howse, D.C.N.; Kulick, J.; Mak, H.B.; Stewart, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype positron emission tomography (PET) system has been designed for high-resolution imaging of small volumes. The detectors use Pb converter stacks and multiwire proportional counters (MWPC); the data acquisition components and image reconstruction methods are also described briefly. The performance of the system is discussed in terms of sensitivity, count rate capability, spatial resolution, and scattered background. Three examples of metabolic or transport imaging demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the system. These are blood flow to bone, cerebral glucose uptake, and nutrient translocation in plants. The performance of the prototype has been sufficiently promising that an improved system is under development. (orig.)

  9. Comments on H- volume production in Cs-seeded ion sources. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable interest was generated at the IAEA Negative Ion Beam Workshop in Grenoble, France, in March, 1985, by a report from the Kurchatov Institute on the development of a 2-ampere steady-state H - ion source, in which the ions were volume-produced in a discharge in H 2 , seeded with Cs vapor. The mechanism primarily responsible for this remarkably high current from a volume production source was not yet understood, but it was tentatively presumed to involve the collisional energy transfer from electronically excited Cs 6p atoms into H 2 vibrations. In any case, it was apparently different from the surface-plasma interactions that have been assumed to control the H - production in the Dudnikov-Dimov type sources

  10. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan /endash/ Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites

  11. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  13. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd; Schwenke, Carsten; Huppertz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m 2 ) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G 30 , 30 mL; G 40 , 40 mL; G 50 , 50 mL; G 60 , 60 mL; G 70 , 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G 30 to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G 70 . Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P 30 , G 40 , G 50 , G 60 and G 70 were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  15. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  16. Accuracy and Sources of Error for an Angle Independent Volume Flow Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors....... A BK Medical UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer is used to obtain Vector Flow Imaging sequences of a superficial part of the fistulas. Cross-sectional diameters of each fistu la are measured on B-mode images by rotating the scan plane 90 degrees. The major axis...

  17. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  18. Test of Effective Solid Angle code for the efficiency calculation of volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is hard to determine a full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency curve for an arbitrary volume source by experiment. That's why the simulation and semi-empirical methods have been preferred so far, and many works have progressed in various ways. Moens et al. determined the concept of effective solid angle by considering an attenuation effect of γ-rays in source, media and detector. This concept is based on a semi-empirical method. An Effective Solid Angle code (ESA code) has been developed for years by the Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. ESA code converts an experimental FE efficiency curve determined by using a standard point source to that for a volume source. To test the performance of ESA Code, we measured the point standard sources and voluminous certified reference material (CRM) sources of γ-ray, and compared with efficiency curves obtained in this study. 200∼1500 KeV energy region is fitted well. NIST X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data is used currently to check for the effect of linear attenuation only. We will use the interaction cross-section data obtained from XCOM code to check the each contributing factor like photoelectric effect, incoherent scattering and coherent scattering in the future. In order to minimize the calculation time and code simplification, optimization of algorithm is needed.

  19. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  20. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  1. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  2. [The concept of small volume resuscitation for preclinical trauma management. Experiences in the Air Rescue Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Hauke, J; Kohler, J; Lampl, L

    2013-04-01

    Prompt hemorrhage control and adequate fluid resuscitation are the key components of early trauma care. However, the optimal resuscitation strategy remains controversial. In this context the small volume resuscitation (SVR) concept with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions is a new strategy. This was a retrospective study in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service over a 5-year period. Included were all major trauma victims if they were candidates for SVR (initially 4 ml HyperHaes/kg body weight, followed by conventional fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and colloids). Demographic data, type and cause of injury and injury severity score (ISS) were recorded and the amount of fluid volume and the hemodynamic profile were analyzed. Negative side-effects as well as sodium chloride serum levels on hospital admission were recorded. A total of 342 trauma victims (male 70.2%, mean age 39.0 ± 18.8 years, ISS 31.6 ± 16.9, ISS>16, 81.6%) underwent prehospital SVR. A blunt trauma mechanism was predominant (96.8%) and the leading cause of injury was motor vehicle accidents (61.5%) and motorcycle accidents (22.3%). Multiple trauma and polytrauma were noted in 87.4% of the cases. Predominant was traumatic brain injury (73.1%) as well as chest injury (73.1%) followed by limb injury (69.9%) and abdominal/pelvic trauma (45.0%). Within the whole study group in addition to 250 ml HyperHaes, mean volumes of 1214 ± 679 ml lactated Ringers and 1288 ± 954 ml hydroxethylstarch were infused during the prehospital treatment phase. There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of crystalloids and colloids infused regarding the subgroups multisystem trauma (ISS>16), severe traumatic brain injury (GCS80 mmHg significantly less colloids (1035 ± 659 ml vs. 1288 ± 954 ml, pconcept of small volume resuscitation provides early and effective hemodynamic control. Clinical side-effects associated with bolus infusion of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are rare.

  3. Advanced energy sources and conversion techniques. Proceedings of a seminar. Volume 1. [35 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-11-01

    The Seminar was organized as a series of tutorial presentations and round table discussions on a technical level to implement the following: (a) to identify and explore present and projected needs for energy sources and conversion techniques for military applications; (b) to exchange information on current and planned efforts in these fields; (c) to examine the effect of anticipated scientific and technological advances on these efforts; and (d) to present suggested programs aimed at satisfying the military needs for energy sources and conversion techniques. Volume I contains all of the unclassified papers presented at the Seminar. (W.D.M.)

  4. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. Volume 1 of this document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) SNS accident source terms for EIS input; (B) Reports on the selection of alternative sites for the SNS; (C) Letters of consultation on protected species and cultural resources; (D) Ecological resource survey reports and summaries; (E) Descriptions of ORNL research projects in the Walker Branch Watershed; (F) Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculations for normal and accident conditions; (G) Projected air quality modeling effects at NOAA's Walker Branch Monitoring Tower

  5. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ''volume'' ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques

  6. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  7. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  8. Finite element analysis of cylindrical indentation for determining plastic properties of materials in small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y Charles; Kurapati, Siva N V R K; Yang Fuqian

    2008-01-01

    The cylindrical indentation is analysed, using the finite element method, for determining the plastic properties of elastic-plastic materials and the effect of strain hardening. The results are compared with those obtained from spherical indentation, the commonly used technique for measuring plastic properties of materials in small volumes. The analysis shows that the deformation under a cylindrical indenter quickly reaches a fully plastic state and that the size (diameter) of the plastic zone remains constant during further indentation. The indentation load is proportional to the indentation depth at large indentation depth, from which the indentation pressure P m at the onset of yielding can be readily extrapolated. The analysis of cylindrical indentation suggests that it does not need parameters such as impression radius (a) and contact stiffness (S) for determining the plastic behaviour of materials. Thus, the cylindrical indentation can suppress the uncertainties in measuring material properties

  9. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  10. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  11. SU-E-T-623: Polarity Effects for Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Cobalt-60 Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y; Bhatnagar, J; Huq, M Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the polarity effects for small volume ionization chambers in {sup 60}Co gamma-ray beams using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. Methods: Measurements were made for 7 small volume ionization chambers (a PTW 31016, an Exradin A14, 2 Capintec PR0-5P, and 3 Exradin A16) using a PTW UNIDOSwebline Universal Dosemeter and an ELEKTA solid water phantom with proper inserts. For each ion chamber, the temperature/pressure corrected electric charge readings were obtained for 16 voltage values (±50V, ±100V, ±200V, ±300V, ±400V, ±500V, ±600V, ±700V). For each voltage, a five-minute leakage charge reading and a series of 2-minute readings were continuously taken during irradiation until 5 stable signals (less than 0.05% variation) were obtained. The average of the 5 reading was then used for the calculation of the polarity corrections at the voltage and for generating the saturation curves. Results: The polarity effects are more pronounced at high or low voltages than at the medium voltages for all chambers studied. The voltage dependence of the 3 Exradin A16 chambers is similar in shape. The polarity corrections for the Exradin A16 chambers changes rapidly from about 1 at 500V to about 0.98 at 700V. The polarity corrections for the 7 ion chambers at 300V are in the range from 0.9925 (for the PTW31016) to 1.0035 (for an Exradin A16). Conclusion: The polarity corrections for certain micro-chambers are large even at normal operating voltage.

  12. Density-viscosity product of small-volume ionic liquid samples using quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Glen; Hardacre, Chris; Ge, Rile; Doy, Nicola; Allen, Ray W K; MacInnes, Jordan M; Bown, Mark R; Newton, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Quartz crystal impedance analysis has been developed as a technique to assess whether room-temperature ionic liquids are Newtonian fluids and as a small-volume method for determining the values of their viscosity-density product, rho eta. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a 5-MHz fundamental frequency quartz crystal induced by a water-miscible room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimiclazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), were measured. From coupled frequency shift and bandwidth changes as the concentration was varied from 0 to 100% ionic liquid, it was determined that this liquid provided a Newtonian response. A second water-immiscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][NTf2], with concentration varied using methanol, was tested and also found to provide a Newtonian response. In both cases, the values of the square root of the viscosity-density product deduced from the small-volume quartz crystal technique were consistent with those measured using a viscometer and density meter. The third harmonic of the crystal was found to provide the closest agreement between the two measurement methods; the pure ionic liquids had the largest difference of approximately 10%. In addition, 18 pure ionic liquids were tested, and for 11 of these, good-quality frequency shift and bandwidth data were obtained; these 12 all had a Newtonian response. The frequency shift of the third harmonic was found to vary linearly with square root of viscosity-density product of the pure ionic liquids up to a value of square root(rho eta) approximately 18 kg m(-2) s(-1/2), but with a slope 10% smaller than that predicted by the Kanazawa and Gordon equation. It is envisaged that the quartz crystal technique could be used in a high-throughput microfluidic system for characterizing ionic liquids.

  13. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  14. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  15. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV{sub bldder}), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV{sub sb}), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV{sub sb}). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb}. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI (p<0.04), HDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01), LDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV{sub sb} but does not with LDV{sub sb} (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI, TV{sub bladder} and HDV{sub sb}, TV{sub bladder} and LDV{sub sb} . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV{sub bladder} has significant negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb} (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order

  16. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2013-01-01

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV bldder ), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV sb ), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV sb ). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV sb and LDV sb . Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV sb and BMI (p<0.04), HDV sb and TV bladder (p<0.01), LDV sb and TV bladder (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV sb but does not with LDV sb (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV sb and BMI, TV bladder and HDV sb , TV bladder and LDV sb . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV sb (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV bladder has significant negative correlation with HDV sb and LDV sb (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order to reduce the small bowel toxicity in rectal radiotherapy, if patients' BMI is above 23

  17. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  18. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  19. Customer choice? A perspective from a representative for the small volume consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachowich, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The whole idea behind Alberta's decision to deregulate its' electric power industry was to provide more choice to consumers. The author, a representative of residential utility customers in utility hearings as well as in the deregulation of electric industry restructuring process, presents his views about choice and the small consumer who is eligible for the regulated rate option tariff (RROT). There are about 1 million of such customers who are free to exercise choice at any time and leave the RROT provider for commodity service from a retailer. There are two tiers within the RROT which is of significance, because these two tiers promote the real need for customer choice to be active in the electric power industry. The author cautioned that if there is no viable level of retail electric market development by January 2004 or January 2006, there will not be any workable customer choice for consumers coming from RROT. The author also described the experience of those customers that were not RROT eligible from late 2000 to early 2001. Experience from other industries such as the telecom and natural gas industry, provide a comparative analysis of whether customer choice works. The author concludes that it does not work for the small volume customer and suggests that perhaps stable rates and reliable service would be more appealing for consumers

  20. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  1. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, G; Slater, J [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, A [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  2. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, B. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the authors have made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  3. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the author shave made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  4. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  5. Calibration of Ge(Li) semiconductor detector by method using agar volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kasai, Atsushi

    1979-12-01

    The Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was calibrated for measurements of environmental samples. The radioisotopes used for standard sources are 22 Na, 51 Cr, 56 Co, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 241 Am. These are mixed with hot agar aqueous solution and fixed uniformly in a cylindrical plastic case in cooling. The agar volume source is advantageous in handling over the fluid aqueous source. The prepared cylindrical standard sources are in diameters 6 and 8 cm and thicknesses 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm (only for 8 cm diameter). The radioactivities of prepared standard sources are between 0.03 μCi and 0.2 μCi. It takes only a week to make the calibration except data processing. The obtained full energy peak efficiency curves include 5 - 10% error due to preparation of agar source, reference radioactivity data of purchased standard solutions, reference data of branching ratio of gamma-ray and sum effect. The efficiency curves, however, are sufficient for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  6. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study. Volume 2: Appendices -- Final report, Revision 12/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology. Volume 2 of this report contains 26 appendices containing results, meeting minutes, and fuel panel presentations. There are 26 appendices in this volume

  7. A mechanical velocity selector for a small angle scattering instrument on a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meardon, B.H.; Stewart, R.J.; Williams, W.G.

    1978-11-01

    Design parameters and performance calculations are given for a straight-slot velocity selector which can be used for discriminating between elastic and inelastic scattering events in small angle scattering experiments on a pulsed neutron source. The selector has a high transmittance over the wavelength range 3 A 5%. (author)

  8. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  9. Potential of small nuclear reactors for future clean and safe energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    To cope with the various kinds of energy demands expected in the 21st century, it is necessary to explore the potential of small nuclear reactors and to find a way of promoting their introduction to society. The main goal of current research activities is 'the constitution of the self-consistent nuclear energy system'. These activities can be understood by realizing that the nuclear community is facing a turning point for its survival in the 21st century. Self-consistency can be manifested by investigating and developing the potential advantages of the nuclear fission reaction and lessening the potential disadvantages. The contributions in this volume discuss concepts of small reactors, applications of small reactors, and consistency with conventional energy supply systems

  10. Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.

  11. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 1E: Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  12. Acoustic Source Localization via Subspace Based Method Using Small Aperture MEMS Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small aperture microphone arrays provide many advantages for portable devices and hearing aid equipment. In this paper, a subspace based localization method is proposed for acoustic source using small aperture arrays. The effects of array aperture on localization are analyzed by using array response (array manifold. Besides array aperture, the frequency of acoustic source and the variance of signal power are simulated to demonstrate how to optimize localization performance, which is carried out by introducing frequency error with the proposed method. The proposed method for 5 mm array aperture is validated by simulations and experiments with MEMS microphone arrays. Different types of acoustic sources can be localized with the highest precision of 6 degrees even in the presence of wind noise and other noises. Furthermore, the proposed method reduces the computational complexity compared with other methods.

  13. Size of nuclear sources from measurements of proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Noren, B.; Perrin, C.; Khelfaoui, B.; Gondrand, J.C.; Bondorf, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution will present recent measurements performed on light heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Nuclear source sizes were determined by measuring the correlation at small relative momentum, between two protons detected in the EMRIC set-up. This technique allows the determination of the extent of the emitting source by constructing a correlation function for the coincident protons and analyzing it in the framework of a final state interaction model. We found the apparent source size to be large compared to the dimension of the studied system and low sensitivity of the extracted radii as a function of the target mass and detection angle. We will show that simulations may be needed to fully estimate the correlation induced by detectors with small angular acceptance

  14. Development opportunities for small and medium scale accelerator driven neutron sources. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    Neutron applications in the life sciences will be a rapidly growing research area in the near future, as neutrons can provide unique information on the reaction dynamics of complex biomolecular systems, complementing other analytical techniques such as electron microscopy, X rays and nuclear magnetic resonance. Small and medium power spallation neutron sources will become more important, as many small neutron producing research reactors are being phased out. Recent developments in accelerator technology have made it possible to produce useful neutron fluxes at accelerator facilities suitable for universities and industrial laboratories. In addition to basic research these alternative neutron sources will be important for educational and training purposes. In a wider perspective this technology should make it possible to introduce neutron research and applications to industrial and national research centres in IAEA Member States that are unable to afford a high energy spallation neutron source and have no access to a research reactor

  15. A small-scale modular reactor for electric source for remote places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Use of a small-scale modular reactor (SMR) as an electric source for remote places is one of scenarios for actual use of SMR parallel to alternative source of present nuclear power stations and co-generation source at urban suburbs, there is not only an actual experience to construct and operate for power source for military use in U.S.A. on 1950s to 1960s, but also four nuclear reactors (LWGR, 12 MW) in Vilyvino Nuclear Power Station in far northern district in Russia are under operation. Recently, Department of Energy in U.S.A. prepared the 'Report to Congress on Small Modular Nuclear Reactors' evaluating on feasibility of SMR as a power source for remote places according to requirement of the Congress. This report evaluated a feasibility study on nine SMRs in the world with 10 to 50 MW of output as electric source for remote places on economical efficiency and so on, together with analysis of their design concepts, to conclude that 'they could perform beginning of operations on 2000s because of no large technical problems and keeping a level capable of competing with power generation cost at remote place on its present economical efficiency'. Here was introduced on outlines of this report. (G.K.)

  16. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  17. On-Chip Spyhole Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sensitive Biomarker Detection in Small Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoqin; Qiao, Liang; Stauffer, Géraldine; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H.

    2018-03-01

    A polyimide microfluidic chip with a microhole emitter (Ø 10-12 μm) created on top of a microchannel by scanning laser ablation has been designed for nanoelectrospray ionization (spyhole-nanoESI) to couple microfluidics with mass spectrometry. The spyhole-nanoESI showed higher sensitivity compared to standard ESI and microESI from the end of the microchannel. The limits of detection (LOD) for peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS reached 50 pM, which was 600 times lower than that with standard ESI. The present microchip emitter allows the analysis of small volumes of samples. As an example, a small cell lung cancer biomarker, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), was detected by monitoring the transition of its unique peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS. NSE at 0.2 nM could be well identified with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) of 50, and thereby its LOD was estimated to be 12 pM. The potential application of the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS in cancer diagnosis was further demonstrated with the successful detection of 2 nM NSE from 1 μL of human serum. Before the detection, the serum sample spiked with NSE was first depleted with immune spin column, then desalted by centrifugal filter device, and finally digested by trypsin, without any other complicated preparation steps. The concentration matched the real condition of clinical samples. In addition, the microchips can be disposable to avoid any cross contamination. The present technique provides a highly efficient way to couple microfluidics with MS, which brings additional values to various microfluidics and MS-based analysis.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  19. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure blood use and lower mortality compared to historic controls of patients refusing blood. Transfusion reductions with HBOC use have been modest. Two HBOCs (Hemopure and Polyheme) are now in new or planned large-scale multicenter prehospital trials of trauma treatment. A new implementation of small volume resuscitation is closed-loop resuscitation (CLR), which employs microprocessors to titrate just enough fluid to reach a physiologic target . Animal studies suggest less risk of rebleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhage and a reduction in fluid needs with CLR. The first clinical application of CLR was treatment of burn shock and the US Army. Conclusions: Independently sponsored civilian trauma trials and clinical evaluations in operational combat conditions of

  20. Finite volume schemes with equilibrium type discretization of source terms for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botchorishvili, Ramaz; Pironneau, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We develop here a new class of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes for scalar conservation laws with stiff source terms. The schemes are of equilibrium type, hence with uniform bounds on approximate solutions, valid in cell entropy inequalities and exact for some equilibrium states. Convergence is investigated in the framework of kinetic schemes. Numerical tests show high computational efficiency and a significant advantage over standard cell centered discretization of source terms. Equilibrium type schemes produce accurate results even on test problems for which the standard approach fails. For some numerical tests they exhibit exponential type convergence rate. In two of our numerical tests an equilibrium type scheme with 441 nodes on a triangular mesh is more accurate than a standard scheme with 5000 2 grid points

  1. Small-angle scattering at a pulsed neutron source: comparison with a steady-state reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borso, C S; Carpenter, J M; Williamson, F S; Holmblad, G L; Mueller, M H; Faber, J Jr; Epperson, J E; Danyluk, S S [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1982-08-01

    A time-of-flight small-angle diffractometer employing seven tapered collimator elements and a two-dimensional gas proportional counter was successfully utilized to collect small-angle scattering data from a solution sample of the lipid salt cetylpyridinium chloride, C/sub 21/H/sub 38/N/sup +/.Cl/sup -/, at the Argonne National Laboratory prototype pulsed spallation neutron source, ZING-P'. Comparison of the small-angle scattering observed from the same compound at the University of Missouri Research Reactor corroborated the ZING-P' results. The results are used to compare the neutron flux available from the ZING-P' source relative to the well characterized University of Missouri source. Calculations based on experimentally determined parameters indicated the time-averaged rate of detected neutrons at the ZING-P' pulsed spallation source to have been at least 33% higher than the steady-state count rate from the same sample. Differences between time-of-flight techniques and conventional steady-state techniques are discussed.

  2. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  4. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  5. Global sourcing risk management approaches: A study of small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Niemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global sourcing has increased as buyers searched for new markets that offered better pricing, quality, variety and delivery lead times than their local markets. However, the increase in global sourcing has also exposed businesses to many supply risks. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the global sourcing supply risks encountered by small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng and to determine what supply risk identification and management approaches they utilise. Method: This study utilised semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 small clothing and textile retail owners. Results: The study found that the three major supply risks encountered by these retailers were fluctuating exchange rates, communication barriers and costly and complicated logistics, which included high customs costs. Furthermore, although aware of the supply risks, none of the small clothing and textile retailers had formal identification and management approaches in place. Instead, risks are dealt with at the sole discretion of the owner as and when they occur. The study also found that informal identification and management approaches were being applied by some of the retailers. These included factoring exchange rate fluctuations into the profit margins and using translators to combat communication barriers. Contribution: The study is one of the first empirical studies conducted on global supply risks and the associated identification and management approaches in the South African small business context, specifically focused on clothing and textile retailers. Conclusion: Small clothing and textile retailers need to proactively identify and manage global sourcing risk using the identified approaches in order to reduce and mitigate potential supply disruptions.

  6. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source's first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the author shave made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ''in press' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number

  7. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study -- Volume 1: Main report. Final report, Revision 12/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology. Volume 2 of this report contains 26 appendices containing results, meeting minutes, and fuel panel presentations

  8. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, B.

    1996-01-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source's first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the authors have made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ''in press' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number

  9. Metabolically active tumour volume segmentation from dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET studies in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, Lieke L; Frings, Virginie; Hoekstra, Otto S; Kenny, Laura M; Aboagye, Eric O; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) can be used to assess tumour proliferation. A kinetic-filtering (KF) classification algorithm has been suggested for segmentation of tumours in dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate KF segmentation and its test-retest performance in [(18)F]FLT PET in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nine NSCLC patients underwent two 60-min dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET scans within 7 days prior to treatment. Dynamic scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) as well as with ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM). Twenty-eight lesions were identified by an experienced physician. Segmentation was performed using KF applied to the dynamic data set and a source-to-background corrected 50% threshold (A50%) was applied to the sum image of the last three frames (45- to 60-min p.i.). Furthermore, several adaptations of KF were tested. Both for KF and A50% test-retest (TRT) variability of metabolically active tumour volume and standard uptake value (SUV) were evaluated. KF performed better on OSEM- than on FBP-reconstructed PET images. The original KF implementation segmented 15 out of 28 lesions, whereas A50% segmented each lesion. Adapted KF versions, however, were able to segment 26 out of 28 lesions. In the best performing adapted versions, metabolically active tumour volume and SUV TRT variability was similar to those of A50%. KF misclassified certain tumour areas as vertebrae or liver tissue, which was shown to be related to heterogeneous [(18)F]FLT uptake areas within the tumour. For [(18)F]FLT PET studies in NSCLC patients, KF and A50% show comparable tumour volume segmentation performance. The KF method needs, however, a site-specific optimisation. The A50% is therefore a good alternative for tumour segmentation in NSCLC [(18)F]FLT PET studies in multicentre studies. Yet, it was observed that KF has the potential to subsegment

  10. The Dose-Volume Relationship of Small Bowel Irradiation and Acute Grade 3 Diarrhea During Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, John M.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Wallace, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has found a highly significant relationship between the irradiated small-bowel volume and development of Grade 3 small-bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. This study tested the previously defined parameters in a much larger group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 consecutive patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy for rectal cancer had treatment planning computed tomographic scans with small-bowel contrast that allowed the small bowel to be outlined with calculation of a small-bowel dose-volume histogram for the initial intended pelvic treatment to 45 Gy. Patients with at least one parameter above the previously determined dose-volume parameters were considered high risk, whereas those with all parameters below these levels were low risk. The grade of diarrhea and presence of liquid stool was determined prospectively. Results: There was a highly significant association with small-bowel dose-volume and Grade 3 diarrhea (p ≤ 0.008). The high-risk and low-risk parameters were predictive with Grade 3 diarrhea in 16 of 51 high-risk patients and in 4 of 45 low-risk patients (p = 0.01). Patients who had undergone irradiation preoperatively had a lower incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea than those treated postoperatively (18% vs. 28%; p = 0.31); however, the predictive ability of the high-risk/low-risk parameters was better for preoperatively (p = 0.03) than for postoperatively treated patients (p = 0.15). Revised risk parameters were derived that improved the overall predictive ability (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The highly significant dose-volume relationship and validity of the high-risk and low-risk parameters were confirmed in a large group of patients. The risk parameters provided better modeling for the preoperative patients than for the postoperative patients

  11. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee's final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE's two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information

  12. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  13. Usefulness of Oncoplastic Volume Replacement Techniques after Breast Conserving Surgery in Small to Moderate-sized Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korean women, many of whom have small to moderate-sized breasts, it is difficult to cover a partial breast defect using oncoplastic volume displacement techniques after removal of an adequate volume of tissue during oncologic surgery. In such cases, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques are more useful.MethodsFrom January 2007 to December 2011, 104 women underwent a total of 107 breast-conserving surgeries with various kinds of oncoplastic volume replacement techniques. We used latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g. In case with a resection mass less than 150 g, we used regional flaps such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps such as an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP flap.ResultsThe mean age was 46.1 years, and the average follow-up interval was 10.3 months. The patients underwent oncoplastic volume replacement techniques with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (n=9, thoracoepigastric flap (n=7, ICAP flap (n=25, TDAP flap (n=12, and LD flap (n=54. There was one case of congestion in an LD flap, and two cases of fat necrosis in an ICAP flap. Most of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.ConclusionsOncoplastic volume replacement techniques can be reliable and useful for the correction of breast deformity after breast-conserving surgery, especially in patients with small to moderate-sized breasts.

  14. Echocardiography underestimates stroke volume and aortic valve area: implications for patients with small-area low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Calvin W L; Khaw, Hwan J; Luo, Elton; Tan, Shuwei; White, Audrey C; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2014-09-01

    Discordance between small aortic valve area (AVA; area (LVOTarea) and stroke volume alongside inconsistencies in recommended thresholds. One hundred thirty-three patients with mild to severe AS and 33 control individuals underwent comprehensive echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stroke volume and LVOTarea were calculated using echocardiography and MRI, and the effects on AVA estimation were assessed. The relationship between AVA and MPG measurements was then modelled with nonlinear regression and consistent thresholds for these parameters calculated. Finally the effect of these modified AVA measurements and novel thresholds on the number of patients with small-area low-gradient AS was investigated. Compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea (n = 40; -0.7 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 1.3), stroke volumes (-6.5 mL/m(2); 95% CI, -28.9 to 16.0) and consequently, AVA (-0.23 cm(2); 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.59). Moreover, an AVA of 1.0 cm(2) corresponded to MPG of 24 mm Hg based on echocardiographic measurements and 37 mm Hg after correction with MRI-derived stroke volumes. Based on conventional measures, 56 patients had discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Using MRI-derived stroke volumes and the revised thresholds, a 48% reduction in discordance was observed (n = 29). Echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea, stroke volume, and therefore AVA, compared with MRI. The thresholds based on current guidelines were also inconsistent. In combination, these factors explain > 40% of patients with discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  16. BENEFITS AND SUCCESS FACTORS OF OPEN-SOURCE WEB SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS FOR SMALL SOFTWARE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter de Assis Moreno Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is usually difficult for companies to keep up with the development of new information technologies and adapt to them in face of the opportunities and threats their advances may represent. This is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SME in emerging economies, where resources tend to be scarce and markets more volatile. This paper describes an action research conducted in a small Brazilian software house that adopted an open-source Web Services development platform in order to improve its software development process. Data analysis revealed critical success factors (CSF in the adoption process, as well as specific benefits and barriers prone to be faced by small software houses in their adoption efforts. In the process of overcoming such barriers, SME may acquire intellectual capital that represents an essential resource to ensure their competitiveness and survival in emerging economies.

  17. Acoustic beam steering by light refraction: illustration with directivity patterns of a tilted volume photoacoustic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetz, Samuel; Dehoux, Thomas; Perton, Mathieu; Audoin, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    The symmetry of a thermoelastic source resulting from laser absorption can be broken when the direction of light propagation in an elastic half-space is inclined relatively to the surface. This leads to an asymmetry of the directivity patterns of both compressional and shear acoustic waves. In contrast to classical surface acoustic sources, the tunable volume source allows one to take advantage of the mode conversion at the surface to control the directivity of specific modes. Physical interpretations of the evolution of the directivity patterns with the increasing light angle of incidence and of the relations between the preferential directions of compressional- and shear-wave emission are proposed. In order to compare calculated directivity patterns with measurements of normal displacement amplitudes performed on plates, a procedure is proposed to transform the directivity patterns into pseudo-directivity patterns representative of the experimental conditions. The comparison of the theoretical with measured pseudo-directivity patterns demonstrates the ability to enhance bulk-wave amplitudes and to steer specific bulk acoustic modes by adequately tuning light refraction.

  18. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  19. Environmental Toxicology: A Guide to Information Sources. Volume 7 in the "Man and the Environment Information Guide" Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert L.

    This annotated bibliography on environmental toxicology brings together a diverse set of information sources from the physical, social, and natural sciences. These sources include periodical literature, government documents, scientific journals, and teaching materials. The volume is divided into sixteen sections organized into four parts: (1)…

  20. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  1. Hepatic transplantation outcomes for carefully selected cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: experience at a small- to medium-volume centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic transplantation outcomes for cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a small- to medium-volume centre are not fully known due to relative novelty of patient selection criteria. AIM: To determine hepatic transplantation outcomes for HCC at a small- to medium-volume centre. Patients and methods Hepatocellular carcinoma patients were listed for transplantation according to the International Guideline and further categorized as those fulfilling or exceeding Milan or University of San Francisco (UCSF) criteria on explanted liver morphology. Outcomes including mortality, retransplantation, and tumour recurrence rate were analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients had HCC and on explanted liver morphology, Milan and UCSF criteria met 15 and 18 patients, respectively. Patients and graft survival at 3 months, 1 and 5 years were 100, 96, 84, and 88, 84, 77%, respectively. Outcomes favoured Milan criteria but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic transplantation for HCC at a small-to medium-volume transplant centre had comparable survival outcomes to high-volume centres.

  2. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  3. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad [University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  4. 40 CFR 80.250 - How is the small refiner sulfur baseline and volume determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...=Baseline volume. VI=Volume of gasoline batch i. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced from....245(a)(3); or, for a foreign refinery, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported... gasoline produced and imported into the U.S. pursuant to § 80.245(c)(2)). i = Individual batch of gasoline...

  5. Measurement of disintegration rates of 60Co volume sources by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to the determination of the disintegration rates of 60 Co volume sources (1.05 x 10 4 Bq, 1.05 x 10 3 Bq and 1.05 x 10 2 Bq, in 100-ml polyethylene bottles) by using a NaI(Tl) detector of a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 50 mm. The experimental results showed that decreasing the disintegration rates resulted in enlarged underestimation in comparison with the true disintegration rates. It was presumed that the underestimations of the disintegration rates determined by the sum-peak method resulted from the overestimations of the areas under the sum peaks caused by the overlap of the area under the Compton scattering of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from a naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl under the sum peaks. (author)

  6. Two-dimensional particle simulation of negative ion extraction from a volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Fukumasa, O.; Sakachou, K.; Mutou, K.

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulation was done to study the extraction of negative ions from a volume plasma source. The simulation model is a rectangular system which consists of an extraction grid, a plasma grid, and a grounded wall. Full dynamics of electrons, ions, and negative ions are followed. Negative ions are extracted from the plasma region to the extraction grid through a slit in the plasma grid. For the lower value of extraction grid potential, the simulation results agree with the Child-Langumuir law, where the extracted negative ion current is proportional to the three-halves power of the potential of the extraction grid. For the higher value of extraction grid potential, the space charge effect of negative ions, which enter into the beamline at the top of the concavity of the positive ion boundary, reduces the negative ion current from the prediction of the Child-Langumuir law. ((orig.))

  7. Documentation for grants equal to tax model: Volume 3, Source code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The GETT model is capable of forecasting the amount of tax liability associated with all property owned and all activities undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in site characterization and repository development. The GETT program is a user-friendly, menu-driven model developed using dBASE III/trademark/, a relational data base management system. The data base for GETT consists primarily of eight separate dBASE III/trademark/ files corresponding to each of the eight taxes (real property, personal property, corporate income, franchise, sales, use, severance, and excise) levied by State and local jurisdictions on business property and activity. Additional smaller files help to control model inputs and reporting options. Volume 3 of the GETT model documentation is the source code. The code is arranged primarily by the eight tax types. Other code files include those for JURISDICTION, SIMULATION, VALIDATION, TAXES, CHANGES, REPORTS, GILOT, and GETT. The code has been verified through hand calculations

  8. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Effects of cesium vapor injection of H{sup -} production in a tandem negative ion source are studied numerically as a function of plasma parameters. Model calculation is done by solving a set of particle balance equations in a steady-state hydrogen discharge plasmas. Here, the results which focus on gas pressure and electron temperature dependences of H{sup -} volume production are presented and discussed. With including H{sup -} surface production processes caused by both H atoms and positive hydrogen ions, enhancement of H{sup -} production and pressure dependence of H{sup -} production observed experimentally are well reproduced in the model. To enhance H{sup -} production, however, so-called electron cooling is not so effective if plasma parameters are initially optimized with the use of magnetic filter. (author)

  9. Cesium-enhanced D sup - beam characteristics from a high-brightness volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiak, T.W. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the H{sup -} beam extracted from a volume ion source may increase by a factor of 4 or more when cesium vapor is introduced into the arc discharge chamber. We have extended these experiments to cesiated D{sup -} beams transported with and without space-charge neutralization by xenon gas. The D{sup -} results show qualitatively similar characteristics to those obtained with H{sup -}. In particular, a factor of almost 7 in current enhancement was obtained compared with noncesiated beams accompanied by a dramatic reduction in electron current. A study of the beam divergence as a function of extracted equivalent current showed that the divergence of the cesiated beams was larger than the uncesiated beams at the same equivalent current. Introduction of xenon gas at a partial pressure of 2.5x10{sup -5} Torr reduced the divergence of the cesiated beams to the value obtained for the uncesiated beams. (orig.).

  10. Optimization and control of a small angle ion source using an adaptive neural network controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Mead, W.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    This project developed an automated controller based on an artificial neural network and evaluated its applicability in a real-time environment. This capability was developed within the context of a small angle negative ion source on the Discharge Test Stand at Los Alamos. The controller processes information obtained from the beam current waveform, developing a figure of merit (fom) to determine the ion source operating conditions. The fom is composed of the magnitude of the beam current, the stability of operation, and the quietness of the beam. Using no knowledge of operating conditions, the controller begins by making of rough scan of the four-dimensional operating surface. This surface uses as independent variables the anode and cathode temperatures, the hydrogen flow rate, and the arc voltage. `Me dependent variable is the fom described above. Once the rough approximation of the surface has been determined, the network formulates a model from which it determines the best operating point. The controller takes the ion source to that operating point for a reality check. As real data is fed in, the model of the operating surface is updated until the neural network`s model agrees with reality. The controller then uses a gradient ascent method to optimize the operation of the ion source. Initial tests of the controller indicate that it is remarkably capable. It has optimized the operation of the ion source on six different occasions bringing the beam to excellent quality and stability.

  11. Distributions, Sources, and Backward Trajectories of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Lake Small Baiyangdian, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air samples were collected seasonally at Lake Small Baiyangdian, a shallow lake in northern China, between October 2007 and September 2008. Gas phase, particulate phase and dust fall concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were measured using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The distribution and partitioning of atmospheric PAHs were studied, and the major sources were identified; the backward trajectories of air masses starting from the center of Lake Small Baiyangdian were calculated for the entire year. The following results were obtained: (1 The total concentration of 16 priority controlled PAHs (PAH16 in the gas phase was 417.2±299.8 ng·m−3, in the particulate phase was 150.9±99.2 ng·m−3, and in dust fall was 6930.2±3206.5 ng·g−1. (2 Vehicle emission, coal combustion, and biomass combustion were the major sources in the Small Baiyangdian atmosphere and accounted for 28.9%, 45.1% and 26.0% of the total PAHs, respectively. (3 Winter was dominated by relatively greater PAHs polluted northwesterly air mass pathways. Summer showed a dominant relatively clean southern pathway, whereas the trajectories in autumn and spring might be associated with high pollution from Shanxi or Henan province.

  12. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Status of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) toroidal volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.

    1990-01-01

    A volume H - source having a toroidal discharge chamber and conical filter field has been developed. Parametric studies of this source have been in progress for two years. Extraction apertures from 0.5 cm 2 to 1.87 cm 2 have been tried, and an H - current of up to 48 mA has been extracted. The electron-to-H - current ratio in the extracted beam can be as low as 10 for ∼ 25 mA beam was 0.44πmm mrad. When operating with deuterium, the D - output wads 50--60% of the H - current under the same discharge conditions. The addition of cesium to the discharge increased the H - output and decreased the electron current so that at 30 mA of H - , one obtained an electron-to-H - ratio of 1. Using a two gap extractor, with a dipole field in the intermediate electrode, approximately 80% of the extracted electrons could be removed from the primary beam

  14. Distinguishing spatiotemporal variability of sediment sources in small urbanized catchment as a response to urban expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Feoktistov, Artem; Huygens, Dries; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Golosov, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    for distinguishing contributions of different sediment sources into catchment sediment budgets on a reliable quantitative basis. In combination with microstratigraphic differentiation and dating of sediment in continuous deposition zones by 137Cs depth distribution curves and available land use records, spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources and sinks can be reconstructed for the last several decades. That is especially important for catchments which experienced profound land use changes such as transition from pristine or agriculture-dominated to urbanized environment. The example presented here describes the results of reconstruction of changing sediment source types, contributions and spatial patterns for small reservoir catchment within the city of Kursk (Sredenerusskaya Upland, Central European Russia). Combination of compound specific stable isotopes, 137Cs, sediment grain size composition, land use information for several time intervals and daily rainfall record for the Kursk meteorological station (conveniently located within the study catchment) have been employed in order to evaluate major sediment sources within the catchment, their spatial pattern and temporal changes and compare those to history of reservoir sedimentation. The reservoir is situated on the Kur River - small river which gave its name to the city itself. The dam and reservoir were constructed and put into operation in 1969, thus the beginning of its infill is located stratigraphically later than the main peak of the global 137Cs fallout. It has been found that transition from dominantly agricultural land use to urbanized conditions caused decrease of contribution of soil erosion from cultivated land and increase of that of the active gullies into reservoir sedimentation. However, it is important to note that during extreme runoff events contribution of sediment originated from soil erosion on arable land still remains dominant, even though its area within the catchment recently

  15. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  16. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  17. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures

  18. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. (For abstracts of Vols. II and III, see ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Vol. 2, Absts. 5764 and 5670, respectively) Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures.

  19. Time-of-flight small-angle scattering spectrometers on pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1987-01-01

    The operation principles, constructions, advantages and shortcomings of known time-of-flight small angle neutron scattering (TOF SANS) spectrometers built up with pulsed neutron sources are reviewed. The most important characteristics of TOF SANS apparatuses are rather a high luminosity and the possibility for the measurement in an extremely wide range of scattering vector at a single exposure. This is achieved by simultaneous employment of white beam, TOF technique for wave length-scan and the commonly known angle-scan. However, the electronic equipment, data-matching programs, and the measurement procedure, necessary for accurate normalization of experimental data and their transformation into absolute cross-section scale, they all become more complex, as compared with those for SANS apparatuses operating on steady-state neutron sources, where only angle-scan is used

  20. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  1. Multiple Spectral Ratio Analyses Reveal Earthquake Source Spectra of Small Earthquakes and Moment Magnitudes of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral studies for macroscopic earthquake source parameters are helpful for characterizing earthquake rupture process and hence understanding earthquake source physics and fault properties. Those studies require us mute wave propagation path and site effects in spectra of seismograms to accentuate source effect. We have recently developed the multiple spectral ratio method [Uchide and Imanishi, BSSA, 2016] employing many empirical Green's function (EGF) events to reduce errors from the choice of EGF events. This method helps us estimate source spectra more accurately as well as moment ratios among reference and EGF events, which are useful to constrain the seismic moment of microearthquakes. First, we focus on earthquake source spectra. The source spectra have generally been thought to obey the omega-square model with single corner-frequency. However recent studies imply the existence of another corner frequency for some earthquakes. We analyzed small shallow inland earthquakes (3.5 multiple spectral ratio analyses. For 20000 microearthquakes in Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture area, we found that the JMA magnitudes (Mj) based on displacement or velocity amplitude are systematically below Mw. The slope of the Mj-Mw relation is 0.5 for Mj 5. We propose a fitting curve for the obtained relationship as Mw = (1/2)Mj + (1/2)(Mjγ + Mcorγ)1/γ+ c, where Mcor is a corner magnitude, γ determines the sharpness of the corner, and c denotes an offset. We obtained Mcor = 4.1, γ = 5.6, and c = -0.47 to fit the observation. The parameters are useful for characterizing the Mj-Mw relationship. This non-linear relationship affects the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Quantitative discussions on b-values are affected by the definition of magnitude to use.

  2. Optimization of the testing volumes with respect to neutron flux levels in the two-target high flux D-Li neutron source for the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.; Varsamis, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    An economic and fusion-relevant source of high-energy neutrons is an essential element in the fusion nuclear technology and development program. This source can be generated by directing a high energy deuteron beam onto a flowing liquid lithium target, producing neutrons via the D-Lithium stripping reaction. Previous work on this type of source concentrated on a design employing one deuteron beam of modest amperage. This design was shown to have a relatively small testing volume with high flux gradients and was therefor considered somewhat unattractive from a materials testing standpoint. A design using two lithium targets and two high-amperage beams has recently been proposed. This two beam design has been examined in an effort to maximize the test volume while minimizing the flux gradients and minimizing the effect of radiation damage on one target due to the other. A spatial, energy and angle dependent neutron source modeling the D-Lithium source was developed. Using this source, a 3-dimensional map of uncollided flux within the test volume was calculated. The results showed that the target separation has little effect on the available experimental volume and that a testing volume of ∼35 liters is available with a volume averaged flux above 10 14 n/cm 2 /s. The collided flux within the test volume was then determined by coupling the source model with a Monte Carlo code. The spectral effects of the high-energy tail in the flux were examined and evaluated as to possible effects on materials response. Calculations comparing the radiation damage to materials from the D-Lithium source to that cause by a standard DT fusion first-wall neutron flux spectrum showed that the number of appm and dpa, as well as the ratio appm/dpa and dpa/MW/m 2 are within 30% for the two sources. 8 refs., 8 figs

  3. Construction of a liposome dialyzer for the preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E; Kamat, Neha P; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-06-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for the rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges (Slide-A-Lyzer cassettes), and it consists of a reactor with two 300-μl chambers and a 1.56-cm(2) dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: (i) disassembling the dialysis cartridges to obtain the required parts, (ii) assembling the dialyzer and (iii) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyzer takes ∼1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1-24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane used. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume non-enzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading and vesicle microscopy.

  4. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload oxygen from plasma hemoglobin as well as facilitate RBC

  5. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  6. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 μm could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  7. Practical guidelines for small-volume additions of uninhibited water to waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Wiersma, B.J.; Zapp, P.E.; Pike, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Allowable volumes of uninhibited water additions to waste tanks are limited to volumes in which hydroxide and nitrite inhibitors reach required concentrations by diffusion from the bulk waste within five days. This diffusion process was modeled conservatively by Fick's second law of diffusion. The solution to the model was applied to all applicable conditions which exist in the waste tanks. Plant engineers adapted and incorporated the results into a practical working procedure for controlling and monitoring the addition of uninhibited water. Research, technical support, and field engineers worked together to produce an effective solution to a potential waste tank corrosion problem

  8. Feasibility Study for Establishing a Small Business Management Course at Harper. Volume XVII, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeck, James K.; Lucas, John A.

    In 1988, a survey was conducted to determine the feasibility of offering a new degree credit program in Small Business Management at William Rainey Harper College, in Illinois. All 3,170 former students who had taken a non-credit seminar in the Small Business Department in Continuing Education were surveyed regarding their interest in small…

  9. A small-plane heat source method for measuring the thermal conductivities of anisotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yue, Kai; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-07-01

    A new small-plane heat source method was proposed in this study to simultaneously measure the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of anisotropic insulating materials. In this method the size of the heat source element is smaller than the sample size and the boundary condition is thermal insulation due to no heat flux at the edge of the sample during the experiment. A three-dimensional model in a rectangular coordinate system was established to exactly describe the heat transfer process of the measurement system. Using the Laplace transform, variable separation, and Laplace inverse transform methods, the analytical solution of the temperature rise of the sample was derived. The temperature rises calculated by the analytical solution agree well with the results of numerical calculation. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the sensitivity coefficients of the estimated thermal conductivities are high and uncorrelated to each other. At room temperature and in a high-temperature environment, experimental measurements of anisotropic silica aerogel were carried out using the traditional one-dimensional plane heat source method and the proposed method, respectively. The results demonstrate that the measurement method developed in this study is effective and feasible for simultaneously obtaining the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the anisotropic materials.

  10. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  11. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  12. MetaLIMS, a simple open-source laboratory information management system for small metagenomic labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, Cassie Elizabeth; Gaultier, Nicolas Paul Eugène; Miller, Dana; Purbojati, Rikky Wenang; Lauro, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated information technology position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency. MetaLIMS is a free and open-source web-based application available via GitHub. The focus of MetaLIMS is to store sample metadata prior to sequencing and analysis pipelines. Initially designed for environmental metagenomics labs, in addition to storing generic sample collection information and DNA/RNA processing information, the user can also add fields specific to the user's lab. MetaLIMS can also produce a basic sequencing submission form compatible with the proprietary Clarity LIMS system used by some sequencing facilities. To help ease the technical burden associated with web deployment, MetaLIMS options the use of commercial web hosting combined with MetaLIMS bash scripts for ease of setup. MetaLIMS overcomes key challenges common in LIMS by giving labs access to a low-cost and open-source tool that also has the flexibility to meet individual lab needs and an option for easy deployment. By making the web application open source and hosting it on GitHub, we hope to encourage the community to build upon MetaLIMS, making it more robust and tailored to the needs of more researchers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, Kathy L.; Frazier, Robert C.; Yan Di; Huang, Raywin R.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V 15 ) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy

  14. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  15. A new approach for calculation of volume confined by ECR surface and its area in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The volume confined by the resonance surface and its area are important parameters of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution (CSD) in the electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. A new approach for calculation of these parameters is given. This approach allows one to reduce the number of parameters in the balance equations model

  16. Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Bernardino

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km 2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse

  17. The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Bartelink, H.; Bosset, J.F.; Horiot, J.C.; Cionini, L.; Hamers, J.P.; Leer, J.W.H.; van Glabbele, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm 3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm 3 . This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm 3 ) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Propulsion and Power Supplies for Unmanned Vehicles. Volume I. Engines for Small Propeller-Driven RPVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    AVAILABILIT -K-NSA~imA ON BACK CCVERAp o 1!icrW2I Appowed ior PDitdt160 r/AGARD-AR- -A--/f Volume I 1’ NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR...fishing surveillance-type activity, and many others. These applications include operation over densely populated areas ana over water . The RPV’s for these

  19. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  20. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  1. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Switalski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic water sources (AWS are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula, had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  2. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Aaron B; Bateman, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus penicillatus ) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey's pocket mouse ( C. baileyi ) and white-throated woodrat ( Neotoma albigula) , had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  3. The BREAST-V: a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small, medium, and large breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Benedetto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ferri, Germano; Campanale, Antonella; Sorotos, Micheal; Santanelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    Breast volume assessment enhances preoperative planning of both aesthetic and reconstructive procedures, helping the surgeon in the decision-making process of shaping the breast. Numerous methods of breast size determination are currently reported but are limited by methodologic flaws and variable estimations. The authors aimed to develop a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small to large breasts based on anthropomorphic values. Ten anthropomorphic breast measurements and direct volumes of 108 mastectomy specimens from 88 women were collected prospectively. The authors performed a multivariate regression to build the optimal model for development of the predictive formula. The final model was then internally validated. A previously published formula was used as a reference. Mean (±SD) breast weight was 527.9 ± 227.6 g (range, 150 to 1250 g). After model selection, sternal notch-to-nipple, inframammary fold-to-nipple, and inframammary fold-to-fold projection distances emerged as the most important predictors. The resulting formula (the BREAST-V) showed an adjusted R of 0.73. The estimated expected absolute error on new breasts is 89.7 g (95 percent CI, 62.4 to 119.1 g) and the expected relative error is 18.4 percent (95 percent CI, 12.9 to 24.3 percent). Application of reference formula on the sample yielded worse predictions than those derived by the formula, showing an R of 0.55. The BREAST-V is a reliable tool for predicting small to large breast volumes accurately for use as a complementary device in surgeon evaluation. An app entitled BREAST-V for both iOS and Android devices is currently available for free download in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. Diagnostic, II.

  4. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  5. Noise Source Identification of Small Fan-BLDC Motor System for Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Kim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise levels in household appliances are increasingly attracting attention from manufacturers and customers. Legislation is becoming more severe on acceptable noise levels and low noise is a major marketing point for many products. The latest trend in the refrigerator manufacturing industry is to use brushless DC (BLDC motors instead of induction motors in order to reduce energy consumption and noise radiation. However, cogging torque from BLDC motor is an undesirable effect that prevents the smooth rotation of the rotor and results in noise. This paper presents a practical approach for identifying the source of excessive noise in the small fan-motor system for household refrigerators. The source is presumed to a mechanical resonance excited by torque ripple of the BLDC motor. By using finite element analysis, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating part of the system are obtained and they are compared with experimental mode shapes obtained by electronic torsional excitation test which uses BLDC motor itself as an exciter. Two experimental validations are carried out to confirm the reduction of excessive noise.

  6. Small-angle scattering instruments on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., Chemical Science and Tehcnology Div., Biosciences and Biotechnology Group, Los aalamos, NM (United States); Hjelm, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Seeger, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    We have designed and optimized two small-angle neutron scattering instruments for installation at a 1 MW long pulse spallation source. The first of these instruments measures a Q-domain from 0.002 to 0.44 A{sup -1}, and the second instrument from 0.00069-0.17 A{sup -1}, Design characteristics were determined and optimization was done using a Monte Carlo instrument simulation package under development at Los alamos. A performance comparison was made between these instruments with D11 at the ILL by evaluating the scattered intensity and rms resolution for the instrument response function at different Q values for various instrument configurations needed to spn a Q-range of 0.0007-0.44 A{sup -1}. We concluded that the first of these instruments outperforms D11 in both intensity and resolution over most of the Q-domain and that the second is comparable to D11. Comparisons were also made of the performance of the optimized long pulse instruments with different reflectors and with a short pulse source, from which we concluded that there is an optimal moderator-reflector combination, and that a short pulse does not substantially improve the instrument performance. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  7. Small-angle scattering instruments on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Seeger, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and optimized two small-angle neutron scattering instruments for installation at a 1 MW long pulse spallation source. The first of these instruments measures a Q-domain from 0.002 to 0.44 A -1 , and the second instrument from 0.00069-0.17 A -1 , Design characteristics were determined and optimization was done using a Monte Carlo instrument simulation package under development at Los alamos. A performance comparison was made between these instruments with D11 at the ILL by evaluating the scattered intensity and rms resolution for the instrument response function at different Q values for various instrument configurations needed to spn a Q-range of 0.0007-0.44 A -1 . We concluded that the first of these instruments outperforms D11 in both intensity and resolution over most of the Q-domain and that the second is comparable to D11. Comparisons were also made of the performance of the optimized long pulse instruments with different reflectors and with a short pulse source, from which we concluded that there is an optimal moderator-reflector combination, and that a short pulse does not substantially improve the instrument performance. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  8. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  9. COMPARISON OF THORACIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE DETECTION OF INDUCED SMALL VOLUME PNEUMOTHORAX IN THE HORSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, Jessica; David, Florent; Hunt, Luanne Michelle; Relave, Fabien; Blond, Laurent; Pinilla, Manuel; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Small volume pneumothorax can be challenging to diagnose in horses. The current standard method for diagnosis is standing thoracic radiography. We hypothesized that thoracic ultrasonography would be more sensitive. Objectives of this prospective, experimental study were to describe a thoracic ultrasound method for detection of small volume pneumothorax in horses and to compare results of radiography and ultrasound in a sample of horses with induced small volume pneumothorax. Six mature healthy horses were recruited for this study. For each horse, five 50 ml air boluses were sequentially introduced via a teat cannula into the pleural space. Lateral thoracic radiographs and standardized ultrasound (2D and M-mode) examinations of both hemithoraces were performed following administration of each 50 ml air bolus. Radiographs and ultrasound images/videos were analyzed for detection of pneumothorax by four independent investigators who were unaware of treatment status. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and agreement among investigators (Kappa test, κ) were calculated for radiography, 2D and M-mode ultrasound. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared exact test with significance set at P pneumothorax detection (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Specificity and positive predictive values were similar for all three imaging modalities (P = 1). Agreement between investigators for pneumothorax detection was excellent for 2D ultrasound (κ = 1), very good for M-mode ultrasound (κ = 0.87), and good for radiography (κ = 0.79). Findings from this experimental study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography as a diagnostic method for detecting pneumothorax in horses. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Megan E; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Wilkens, Ken; Dockery, Mary D; Giorgio, Todd D; Grissom, William A; Caskey, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  13. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  15. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  16. Classification of natural formations based on their optical characteristics using small volumes of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, N. S.; Kovalev, A. A.; Plyuta, V. Y.

    1986-02-01

    A computer algorithm has been developed to classify the spectral bands of natural scenes on Earth according to their optical characteristics. The algorithm is written in FORTRAN-IV and can be used in spectral data processing programs requiring small data loads. The spectral classifications of some different types of green vegetable canopies are given in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. Extracellular fluid volume expansion and third space sequestration at the site of small bowel anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S T; Kapadia, C R; Johnson, A W; Radcliffe, A G; Dudley, H A

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal surgery is usually associated with the parenteral administration of sodium and water, sometimes in amounts considerably in excess of excretory capacity. We have studied the effect of this situation on the water content of the gut at and 5 cm from a single-layer end-to-end anastomosis in the rabbit. Water content was measured by desiccation. One group of animals (group 1) did not receive intravenous therapy. The second group (group 2) received 5 ml kg-1 h-1 of Hartmann's solution during the operative period and thereafter to a total volume of 200 ml by 48 h. In group 1 there was a 5-10 per cent increase in tissue weight both at the anastomotic site and at 5 cm (P less than 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test) on the first 3 days. Thereafter, water content at the anastomosis persisted, but resolved in normal gut. In group 2 a further 5 per cent increase in weight over group 1 occurred (P less than 0.01), persistent at the anastomotic site over 5 days, though resolving elsewhere after 2 days. Extracellular fluid volume expansion exaggerates an anatomical third space present in the region of an anastomosis. At the suture line, oedema so induced is persistent and could be deleterious.

  18. Small-Volume U-Pb Zircon Geochronology by Laser Ablation-Multicollector-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Ecstall pluton in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia: Evidence for local deformation rather than large-scale transport. Journal of Geophysical...Journal of Metamorphic Geology 18, 719–735. Kalsbeek, F., Jepsen, H.F., Nutman, A.P., 2001. From source migmatites to plutons : tracking the origin of

  19. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  20. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  1. Prognostic value of intraventricular bleeding in spontaneous intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage of small volume: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes Lima, Telmo Tiburcio; Prandini, Mirto Nelso; Gallo, Pasquale; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2012-04-01

    The literature is controversial on whether intraventricular bleeding has a negative impact on the prognosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Nevertheless, an association between intraventricular bleeding and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage volumes has been consistently reported. To evaluate the prognostic value of intraventricular bleeding in deep intraparenchymal hypertensive spontaneous hemorrhage with a bleeding volume bleeding was calculated by the LeRoux scale. Clinical data, including neurological complications, were collected daily during hospitalization. Neurological outcome was evaluated 30 days after the event by using the Glasgow outcome scale. Patients were assigned to 1 of 3 groups according to intraventricular bleeding: Control, no intraventricular bleeding; LR 1, intraventricular bleeding with LeRoux scale scores of 1 to 8; or LR 2, intraventricular bleeding with LeRoux scale scores >8. There were no significant differences among groups concerning age, mean blood pressure, and time from onset to brain CT scan. Patients with greater intraventricular bleeding presented lower initial Glasgow coma scale scores, increased ventricular index and width of temporal horns, increased number of clinical and neurological complications, and longer hospitalization. Furthermore, their relative risk for unfavorable clinical outcome was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.25-2.49). Intraventricular bleeding with a LeRoux scale score >8 appears to have a negative effect on deep spontaneous intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage of small volume.

  2. ESTRO ACROP guidelines for target volume definition in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Ricardi, Umberto; Geets, Xavier; Belderbos, Jose; Pöttgen, Christoph; Dziadiuszko, Rafal; Peeters, Stephanie; Lievens, Yolande; Hurkmans, Coen; Slotman, Ben; Ramella, Sara; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; McDonald, Fiona; Manapov, Farkhad; Putora, Paul Martin; LePéchoux, Cécile; Van Houtte, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays a major role in the curative treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the ACROP committee was asked by the ESTRO to provide recommendations on target volume delineation for standard clinical scenarios in definitive (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant RT for locally advanced NSCLC. The guidelines given here are a result of the evaluation of a structured questionnaire followed by a consensus discussion, voting and writing procedure within the committee. Hence, we provide advice for methods and time-points of diagnostics and imaging before the start of treatment planning and for the mandatory and optional imaging to be used for planning itself. Concerning target volumes, recommendations are given for GTV delineation of primary tumour and lymph nodes followed by issues related to the delineation of CTVs for definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy. In the context of PTV delineation, recommendations about the management of geometric uncertainties and target motion are given. We further provide our opinions on normal tissue delineation and organisational and responsibility questions in the process of target volume delineation. This guideline intends to contribute to the standardisation and optimisation of the process of RT treatment planning for clinical practice and prospective studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tho, Lye Mun; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V 5 , V 1 , etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V 15 . Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  4. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  5. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of...

  6. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs: status and further needs - a german approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

    2000-01-01

    The main results of German studies on source term estimation for small pebble-bed HTRs with their strict safety demands are outlined. Core heat-up events are no longer dominant for modern high quality fuel, but fission product transport during water ingress accidents (steam cycle plants) and depressurization is relevant, mainly due to remobilization of fission products which were plated-out in the course of normal operation or became dust borne. An important lack of knowledge was identified as concerns data on plate-out under normal operation, as well as on the behaviour of dust borne activity as a whole. Improved knowledge in this field is also important for maintenance/repair and design/shielding. For core heat-up events the influence of burn-up on temperature induced fission product release has to be measured for future high burn-up fuel. Also, transport mechanisms out of the He circuit into the environment require further examination. For water/steam ingress events mobilization of plated-out fission products by steam or water has to be considered in detail, along with steam interaction with kernels of particles with defective coatings. For source terms of depressurization, a more detailed knowledge of the flow pattern and shear forces on the various surfaces is necessary. In order to improve the knowledge on plate-out and dust in normal operation and to generate specimens for experimental remobilization studies, planning/design of plate-out/dust examination facilities which could be added to the next generation of HTRs (HTR10,HTTR) is proposed. For severe air ingress and reactivity accidents, behaviour of future advanced fuel elements has to be experimentally tested. (authors)

  7. An open source workflow for 3D printouts of scientific data volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, P.; Klump, J. F.; Wickert, J.; Ludwig, M.; Frigeri, A.

    2013-12-01

    As the amount of scientific data continues to grow, researchers need new tools to help them visualize complex data. Immersive data-visualisations are helpful, yet fail to provide tactile feedback and sensory feedback on spatial orientation, as provided from tangible objects. The gap in sensory feedback from virtual objects leads to the development of tangible representations of geospatial information to solve real world problems. Examples are animated globes [1], interactive environments like tangible GIS [2], and on demand 3D prints. The production of a tangible representation of a scientific data set is one step in a line of scientific thinking, leading from the physical world into scientific reasoning and back: The process starts with a physical observation, or from a data stream generated by an environmental sensor. This data stream is turned into a geo-referenced data set. This data is turned into a volume representation which is converted into command sequences for the printing device, leading to the creation of a 3D printout. As a last, but crucial step, this new object has to be documented and linked to the associated metadata, and curated in long term repositories to preserve its scientific meaning and context. The workflow to produce tangible 3D data-prints from science data at the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) was implemented as a software based on the Free and Open Source Geoinformatics tools GRASS GIS and Paraview. The workflow was successfully validated in various application scenarios at GFZ using a RapMan printer to create 3D specimens of elevation models, geological underground models, ice penetrating radar soundings for planetology, and space time stacks for Tsunami model quality assessment. While these first pilot applications have demonstrated the feasibility of the overall approach [3], current research focuses on the provision of the workflow as Software as a Service (SAAS), thematic generalisation of information content and

  8. The efficient neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination with small active volume scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Van Chuan; Nguyen Duc Hoa; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Nguyen Ngoc Anh; Tuong Thi Thu Huong; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Dinh Khang

    2016-01-01

    A small detector with EJ-301 liquid scintillation was manufactured for the study on the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination. In this research, four algorithms, including Threshold crossing time (TCT), Pulse gradient analysis (PGA), Charge comparison method (CCM), and Correlation pattern recognition (CPR) were developed and compared in terms of their discrimination effectiveness between neutrons and gamma rays. The figures of merits (FOMs) obtained for 100 ÷ 2000 keVee (keV energy electron equivalent) neutron energy range show the charge comparison method was the most efficient of the four algorithms. (author)

  9. In vivo assessment of the tolerance dose of small liver volumes after single-fraction HDR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Jens; Seidensticker, Max; Luedemann, Lutz; Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Hengst, Susanne; Mohnike, Konrad; Cho, Chie Hee; Lopez Haenninen, Enrique; Al-Abadi, Hussain; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess a dose-response relationship for small volumes of liver parenchyma after single-fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five liver metastases were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day before and 3 days and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after therapy. MR sequences included T1-w gradient echo (GRE) enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted gadobenate dimeglumine. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D dosimetry data and evaluated by two radiologists. The reviewers indicated the border of hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema) or hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function). Based on the total 3D data, a dose-volume histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for either edema or function loss as the D 90 , i.e., the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results: Between 3 days and 6 weeks, the extension of the edema increased significantly from the 12.9 Gy isosurface to 9.9 Gy (standard deviation [SD], 3.3 and 2.6). No significant change was detected between 6 and 12 weeks. After 24 weeks, the edematous tissue had shrunk significantly to 14.7 Gy (SD, 4.2). Three days postbrachytherapy, the D 90 for hepatocyte function loss reached the 14.9 Gy isosurface (SD, 3.9). At 6 weeks, the respective zone had increased significantly to 9.9 Gy (SD, 2.3). After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunction volume had decreased significantly to the 11.9 Gy and 15.2 Gy isosurface, respectively (SD, 3 and 4.1). Conclusions: The 95% interval from 7.6 to 12.2 Gy found as the minimal hepatocyte tolerance after 6 weeks accounts for the radiobiologic variations found in CT-guided brachytherapy, including heterogeneous dose rates by variable catheter arrays

  10. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 2. Navy Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The results of these studies will be used to identify the most promising strategies for minimizing or eliminating the sources of damage. MUDAWAR ...NAVY Topic#: 92-097 DARPA Topic#: 92-145 NOVA MANAGFMENT, INC. MUDAWAR THERMAL SYSTEM, INC. ARMY Topic#: 92-087 NAVY Topic#: 92-136 ARMY Topic#: 92-089...TECHNOLOGIES, INC. MUDAWAR THERMAL SYSTEM. INC. NAVY Topic#: 92-120 NAVY Topic#: 92-137 FOSTER-MILLER, INC. MOUNTAIN OPTECH, INC. MSNW, INC. NAVY Topic#: 92-138

  11. Design parameters for a small storage ring optimized as an x-ray lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobman, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the design parameters for a ''compact storage ring'' which is matched well to x-ray lithographic requirements, but is as small as possible. This calculation uses a model of a lithographic system which obtains its input parameters from a technology of mask, resist and beam line based on the IBM program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory vacuum ultraviolet electron storage ring. Based on this lithographic system, we model exposure throughput as a function of storage ring parameters to understand which storage ring designs provide adequate but not excessive soft x-ray flux in the lithographically important region. Our scan of storage ring sources will cover a wide range of energies and magnetic fields, to permit consideration of superconducting as well as more standard strong- or weak-focusing designs. Furthermore, we will show that the results of the calculations presented here can be scaled in a simple way to cover a wide range of x-ray lithography system assumptions

  12. FIMTrack: An open source tracking and locomotion analysis software for small animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Risse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of small animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.

  13. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickinger, M.; Doll, K.; Roloff, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    .5±2.1 vs. 10.3±3.3cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60min, the base excess decreased from 5.5±6.9 to 4.7±6.2mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6±5.7 to 6.8±5.4mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic...... had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9±4.8 to 2.1±4.4L/100kg vs. 7.0±4.5 to 4.9±3.8L/100kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first...... 10 min of therapy from 7.3±3.5 to 10.8±3.4cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time.Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9...

  14. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Poetter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on 'Radiotherapy and Oncology'. These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted.

  15. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  16. Quantitation of mandibular symphysis volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2010-06-01

    Autogenous intramembranous bone graft present several advantages such as minimal resorption and high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins. A method for measuring the amount of bone that can be harvested from the symphysis area has not been reported in real patients. The aim of the present study was to intrasurgically quantitate the volume of the symphysis bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients and compare it with AutoCAD (version 16.0, Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) tomographic calculations. AutoCAD software program quantitated symphysis bone graft in 40 patients using computerized tomographies. Direct intrasurgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared with AutoCAD data. The bone volume was measured at the recipient sites of a subgroup of 10 patients, 6 months post sinus augmentation. The volume of bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 1.4 mL (SD 0.6 mL, range: 0.5-2.7 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intrasurgically averaged 2.3 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range 1.7-2.8 mL). The statistical difference between the two measurement methods was significant. The bone volume measured at the recipient sites 6 months post sinus augmentation averaged 1.9 mL (SD 0.3 mL, range 1.3-2.6 mL) with a mean loss of 0.4 mL. AutoCAD did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis. The use of the design software program may improve surgical treatment planning prior to sinus augmentation.

  17. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  18. Potentials and economic viability of small grain residue use as a source of energy in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekic, Vladislav; Rodic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Milenko [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    One of the numerous challenges awaiting Serbia in the process of European integration is the increase in use of renewable sources of energy. The reason for such an increase is not merely a formal acceptance of European goals but the high energy import dependence, a relatively developed agricultural sector, with insufficiently exploited potentials of biomass, accompanied by an ever-growing awareness of the need for establishing long-lasting sustainable development. Serbia has a relatively undeveloped livestock sector which can absorb a limited portion of the biomass produced. Additionally, insufficient awareness on the part of farmers and the preconception of the low cost-effectiveness of biomass utilisation for the purpose of energy production are factors which, unsurprisingly, contribute to the current practice of burning the largest portion of the biomass produced on site, which is economically and ecologically unacceptable. This paper analyses the amounts of biomass available in Serbia and the prospects of its economically viable utilisation. The cost analysis conducted indicates that the energy obtained from small rectangular straw bales (the most widespread way of utilisation), is less costly by 28%, than the energy obtained from coal, whereas the energy obtained from round bales is cheaper by 34%. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the results obtained are relatively resistant to price changes in the most important inputs. The sensitivity is higher towards the efficiency of the machinery used; therefore, insistent efforts should be made for creating conditions where the introduction of more up-to-date technical solutions, already existing in developed countries, will become feasible. (author)

  19. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging: an efficient tool to assess liver volume and intrahepatic vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Raptis, Dimitri A; Boss, Andreas; Pfammater, Thomas; Tschuor, Christoph; Tian, Yinghua; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael

    2014-04-01

    To develop a noninvasive technique to assess liver volumetry and intrahepatic portal vein anatomy in a mouse model of liver regeneration. Fifty-two C57BL/6 male mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver using a 4.7 T small animal MRI system after no treatment, 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), or selective portal vein embolization. The protocol consisted of the following sequences: three-dimensional-encoded spoiled gradient-echo sequence (repetition time per echo time 15 per 2.7 ms, flip angle 20°) for volumetry, and two-dimensional-encoded time-of-flight angiography sequence (repetition time per echo time 18 per 6.4 ms, flip angle 80°) for vessel visualization. Liver volume and portal vein segmentation was performed using a dedicated postprocessing software. In animals with portal vein embolization, portography served as reference standard. True liver volume was measured after sacrificing the animals. Measurements were carried out by two independent observers with subsequent analysis by the Cohen κ-test for interobserver agreement. MRI liver volumetry highly correlated with the true liver volume measurement using a conventional method in both the untreated liver and the liver remnant after 70% PH with a high interobserver correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98 for untreated liver [P anatomy was excellent (Cohen κ value = 0.925). This protocol may be used for noninvasive liver volumetry and visualization of portal vein anatomy in mice. It will serve the dynamic study of new strategies to enhance liver regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  1. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Neuhaus, Sibylle

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. A series of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, is described in this annual report for 1998

  2. Quantitation of mandibular ramus volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2009-10-01

    When alveolar atrophy impairs dental implant placement, ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus graft may be considered. In live patients, however, an accurate calculation of the amount of bone that can be safely harvested from the ramus has not been reported. The use of a software program to perform these calculations can aid in preventing surgical complications. The aim of the present study was to intra-surgically quantify the volume of the ramus bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients, and compare it to presurgical computerized tomographic calculations. The AutoCAD software program quantified ramus bone graft in 40 consecutive patients from computerized tomographies. Direct intra-surgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared to software data (n = 10). In these 10 patients, the bone volume was also measured at the recipient sites 6 months post-sinus augmentation. The mandibular second and third molar areas provided the thickest cortical graft averaging 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm. The thinnest bone was immediately posterior to the third molar (1.9 +/- 0.3 mm). The volume of ramus bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 0.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 mL, range: 0.4-1.2 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intra-surgically averaged 2.5 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.8-3.0 mL). The difference between the two measurement methods was significant (p AutoCAD software program did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular ramus.

  3. Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Sven; Vogel, Wouter V; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Dijkema, Tim; Terhaard, Chris H J; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2018-05-03

    Diagnostic imaging continues to evolve, and now has unprecedented accuracy for detecting small nodal metastasis. This influences the tumor load in elective target volumes and subsequently has consequences for the radiotherapy dose required to control disease in these volumes. Small metastases that used to remain subclinical and were included in elective volumes, will nowadays be detected and included in high-dose volumes. Consequentially, high-dose volumes will more often contain low-volume disease. These target volume transformations lead to changes in the tumor burden in elective and "gross" tumor volumes with implications for the radiotherapy dose prescribed to these volumes. For head and neck tumors, nodal staging has evolved from mere palpation to combinations of high-resolution imaging modalities. A traditional nodal gross tumor volume in the neck typically had a minimum diameter of 10-15 mm, while nowadays much smaller tumor deposits are detected in lymph nodes. However, the current dose levels for elective nodal irradiation were empirically determined in the 1950s, and have not changed since. In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Small-volume potentiometric titrations: EPR investigations of Fe-S cluster N2 in mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John J; Salvadori, Enrico; Bridges, Hannah R; Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-09-01

    EPR-based potentiometric titrations are a well-established method for determining the reduction potentials of cofactors in large and complex proteins with at least one EPR-active state. However, such titrations require large amounts of protein. Here, we report a new method that requires an order of magnitude less protein than previously described methods, and that provides EPR samples suitable for measurements at both X- and Q-band microwave frequencies. We demonstrate our method by determining the reduction potential of the terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster (N2) in the intramolecular electron-transfer relay in mammalian respiratory complex I. The value determined by our method, E m7 =-158mV, is precise, reproducible, and consistent with previously reported values. Our small-volume potentiometric titration method will facilitate detailed investigations of EPR-active centres in non-abundant and refractory proteins that can only be prepared in small quantities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  6. Preparation method and quality control of multigamma volume sources with different matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listkowska, A; Lech, E; Saganowski, P; Tymiński, Z; Dziel, T; Cacko, D; Ziemek, T; Kołakowska, E; Broda, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the work was to develop new radioactive standard sources based on epoxy resins. The optimal proportions of the components and the homogeneity of the matrices were determined. The activity of multigamma sources prepared in Marinelli beakers was determined with reference to the National Standard of Radionuclides Activity in Poland. The difference of radionuclides activity values determined using calibrated gamma spectrometer and the activity of standard solutions used are in most cases significantly lower than measurement uncertainty limits. Sources production method and quality control procedure have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory-Gated Helical Computed Tomography of Lung: Reproducibility of Small Volumes in an Ex Vivo Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Dinkel, Julien; Bolte, Hendrik; Welzel, Thomas; Hoffmann, Beata M.Sc.; Thierfelder, Carsten; Mende, Ulrich; Debus, Juergen; Heller, Martin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Motion-adapted radiotherapy with gated irradiation or tracking of tumor positions requires dedicated imaging techniques such as four-dimensional (4D) helical computed tomography (CT) for patient selection and treatment planning. The objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of spatial information for small objects on respiratory-gated 4D helical CT using computer-assisted volumetry of lung nodules in a ventilated ex vivo system. Methods and Materials: Five porcine lungs were inflated inside a chest phantom and prepared with 55 artificial nodules (mean diameter, 8.4 mm ± 1.8). The lungs were respirated by a flexible diaphragm and scanned with 40-row detector CT (collimation, 24 x 1.2 mm; pitch, 0.1; rotation time, 1 s; slice thickness, 1.5 mm; increment, 0.8 mm). The 4D-CT scans acquired during respiration (eight per minute) and reconstructed at 0-100% inspiration and equivalent static scans were scored for motion-related artifacts (0 or absent to 3 or relevant). The reproducibility of nodule volumetry (three readers) was assessed using the variation coefficient (VC). Results: The mean volumes from the static and dynamic inspiratory scans were equal (364.9 and 360.8 mm 3 , respectively, p = 0.24). The static and dynamic end-expiratory volumes were slightly greater (371.9 and 369.7 mm 3 , respectively, p = 0.019). The VC for volumetry (static) was 3.1%, with no significant difference between 20 apical and 20 caudal nodules (2.6% and 3.5%, p = 0.25). In dynamic scans, the VC was greater (3.9%, p = 0.004; apical and caudal, 2.6% and 4.9%; p = 0.004), with a significant difference between static and dynamic in the 20 caudal nodules (3.5% and 4.9%, p = 0.015). This was consistent with greater motion-related artifacts and image noise at the diaphragm (p <0.05). The VC for interobserver variability was 0.6%. Conclusion: Residual motion-related artifacts had only minimal influence on volumetry of small solid lesions. This indicates a high reproducibility of

  8. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  9. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phukan, Ananya; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ D )

  10. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Neuhaus, Sibylle [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. A series of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, is described in this annual report for 1998 figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Project planning workshop 6-GeV synchrotron light source: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A model 6 GeV synchrotron light source is described, and the costs, schedule, and manpower associated with producing such a synthrotron light source are summarized. A program consisting of a two-year pre-construction phase, a five-year construction phase, and a three-year post-construction phase and costing a total of $379.6 million is assumed

  12. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  13. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume H-and D- ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji; Yoshino, Kyougo

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of model calculation on H - /D - isotope effects in the tandem volume source. The model includes the surface production due to cesium injection. On the electron density n e dependence of H - /D - production, we have observed an interesting phenomena. Namely D - production, i.e D - density, is higher than H - production in low n e , but in high n e H - production is higher than D - production. The atomic density plays an important role in the density inversion between H - and D - ions. (author)

  14. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  15. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  16. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids

  17. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  18. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites

  19. Interleaved 3D-CNNs for joint segmentation of small-volume structures in head and neck CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuhua; Xiang, Lei; Nie, Dong; Shao, Yeqin; Zhang, Huan; Shen, Dinggang; Wang, Qian

    2018-02-26

    Accurate 3D image segmentation is a crucial step in radiation therapy planning of head and neck tumors. These segmentation results are currently obtained by manual outlining of tissues, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure. Automatic segmentation provides an alternative solution, which, however, is often difficult for small tissues (i.e., chiasm and optic nerves in head and neck CT images) because of their small volumes and highly diverse appearance/shape information. In this work, we propose to interleave multiple 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D-CNNs) to attain automatic segmentation of small tissues in head and neck CT images. A 3D-CNN was designed to segment each structure of interest. To make full use of the image appearance information, multiscale patches are extracted to describe the center voxel under consideration and then input to the CNN architecture. Next, as neighboring tissues are often highly related in the physiological and anatomical perspectives, we interleave the CNNs designated for the individual tissues. In this way, the tentative segmentation result of a specific tissue can contribute to refine the segmentations of other neighboring tissues. Finally, as more CNNs are interleaved and cascaded, a complex network of CNNs can be derived, such that all tissues can be jointly segmented and iteratively refined. Our method was validated on a set of 48 CT images, obtained from the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) Challenge 2015. The Dice coefficient (DC) and the 95% Hausdorff Distance (95HD) are computed to measure the accuracy of the segmentation results. The proposed method achieves higher segmentation accuracy (with the average DC: 0.58 ± 0.17 for optic chiasm, and 0.71 ± 0.08 for optic nerve; 95HD: 2.81 ± 1.56 mm for optic chiasm, and 2.23 ± 0.90 mm for optic nerve) than the MICCAI challenge winner (with the average DC: 0.38 for optic chiasm, and 0.68 for optic nerve; 95HD: 3.48 for

  20. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration. Final Report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, J. Wesley; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Doster, J. Michael; Edwards, Robert M.; Lewis, Kenneth D.; Turinsky, Paul; Coble, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  1. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume II: Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: DNA repair and mutagenesis; biological effects at low radiation doses; combined effects of radiation and other agents; epidemiological evaluation of radiation-induced cancer and exposure effects of the Chernobyl accident

  2. Feasibility of efficient room-temperature solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons using ultrasmall mode volume cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Stephen; Lauk, Nikolai; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Highly efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be very beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultrasmall mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for relevant detrimental effects, such as plasmon-induced quenching and pure dephasing. We then provide the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission and also discuss constraints due to phonon sideband emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Pérot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.

  3. An active electrode for biopotential recording from small localized bio-sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallikarakis Nicolas E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser bio-stimulation is a well-established procedure in Medical Acupuncture. Nevertheless there is still a confusion as to whether it works or the effect is just placebo. Although a plethora of scientific papers published, showing positive clinical results, there is still a lack of objective scientific proofs about the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Acupuncture. The objective of this work was to design and build a body surface electrode and an amplifier for biopotential recording from acupuncture points, considered here as small localized bio-sources (SLB. The design is aimed for studying SLB potentials provoked by laser stimulus, in search for objective proofs of the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Medical Acupuncture. Methods The active electrode presented features a new adjustable anchoring system and fractionation of the biopotential amplifier between the electrode and the cabinet's location. The new adjustable electrode anchoring system is designed to reduce the electrode-skin contact impedance, its variation and motion artifacts. That is achieved by increasing the electrode-skin tension and decreasing its relative movement. Additionally the sensing element provides local constant skin stretching thus eliminating the contribution of the skin potential artifact. The electrode is attached to the skin by a double-sided adhesive pad, where the sensing element is a stainless steel, 4 mm in diameter. The fractionation of the biopotential amplifier is done by incorporating the amplifier's front-end op-amps at the electrodes, thus avoiding the use of extra buffers. The biopotential amplifier features two selectable modes of operation: semi-AC-mode with a -3 dB bandwidth of 0.32–1000 Hz and AC-mode with a bandwidth of 0.16–1000 Hz. Results The average measured DC electrode-skin contact impedance of the proposed electrode was 450 kΩ, with electrode tension of 0.3 kg/cm2 on an unprepared skin of the inner

  4. Influence of Co-57 and CT Transmission Measurements on the Quantification Accuracy and Partial Volume Effect of a Small Animal PET Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Schmid, Andreas M; Pichler, Bernd J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) provides high detection sensitivity in the nano- to picomolar range and in addition to other advantages, the possibility to absolutely quantify the acquired data. The present study focuses on the comparison of transmission data acquired with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner or a Co-57 source for the Inveon small animal PET scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, TN, USA), as well as determines their influences on the quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE). A special focus included the impact of the performed calibration on the quantification accuracy. Phantom measurements were carried out to determine the quantification accuracy, the influence of the object size on the quantification, and the PVE for different sphere sizes, along the field of view and for different contrast ratios. An influence of the emission activity on the Co-57 transmission measurements was discovered (deviations up to 24.06 % measured to true activity), whereas no influence of the emission activity on the CT attenuation correction was identified (deviations influenced by the applied calibration factor and by the object size. The PVE demonstrated a dependency on the sphere size, the position within the field of view, the reconstruction and correction algorithms and the count statistics. Depending on the reconstruction algorithm, only ∼30-40 % of the true activity within a small sphere could be resolved. The iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms uncovered substantially increased recovery values compared to the analytical and 2D iterative reconstruction algorithms (up to 70.46 % and 80.82 % recovery for the smallest and largest sphere using iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms). The transmission measurement (CT or Co-57 source) to correct for attenuation did not severely influence the PVE. The analysis of the quantification accuracy and the PVE revealed an influence of the object size, the reconstruction

  5. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the 18F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C.; Muret, A. de; Barillot, I.

    2008-01-01

    The 18 F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV threshold = 0.307 Sub average + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I threshold = β I average +I noise with β 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had 18 F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I max 40 and I max 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using β = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using β = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle's et al. method seems to be the most accurate for tumours over 2 cm of

  6. Simulation study of a magnetocardiogram based on a virtual heart model: effect of a cardiac equivalent source and a volume conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shou Guo-Fa; Xia Ling; Dai Ling; Ma Ping; Tang Fa-Kuan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetocardiogram (MCG) simulation study using the boundary element method (BEM) and based on the virtual heart model and the realistic human volume conductor model. The different contributions of cardiac equivalent source models and volume conductor models to the MCG are deeply and comprehensively investigated. The single dipole source model, the multiple dipoles source model and the equivalent double layer (EDL) source model are analysed and compared with the cardiac equivalent source models. Meanwhile, the effect of the volume conductor model on the MCG combined with these cardiac equivalent sources is investigated. The simulation results demonstrate that the cardiac electrophysiological information will be partly missed when only the single dipole source is taken, while the EDL source is a good option for MCG simulation and the effect of the volume conductor is smallest for the EDL source. Therefore, the EDL source is suitable for the study of MCG forward and inverse problems, and more attention should be paid to it in future MCG studies. (general)

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-03: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Radiosurgery Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, AJ [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small volume proton radiosurgery targets using a triplet combination of quadrupole rare earth permanent magnet Halbach cylinder assemblies Methods: Fourteen quadrupole magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into k=3 Halbach cylinders with various field gradients (100 to 250 T/m) were designed and manufactured. Triplet combinations of the magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Unmodulated 127 MeV proton beams with initial diameters of 3 to 20 mm were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth and transverse dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and EBT3 film, respectively. This data was compared with unfocused passively collimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further investigate the potential of triplet magnetic focusing. Results: Experimental results using 150 T/m gradient magnets and 15 to 20 mm initial diameter beams show peak to entrance dose ratios that are ∼ 43 to 48 % larger compared with spot size matched 8 mm collimated beams (ie, transverse profile full-widths at 90% maximum dose match within 0.5 mm of focused beams). In addition, the focusing beams were ∼ 3 to 4.4 times more efficient per MU in dose to target delivery. Additional results using different magnet combinations will also be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that triplet magnetic focusing could reduce entrance dose and beam number while delivering dose to small (∼≤ 10 mm diameter) radiosurgery targets in less time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however other treatment sites can be also envisioned. This project was sponsored with funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1).

  8. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  9. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. The progress of the construction of pre-injector, booster and storage ring as well as some of the details of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, are described in this annual report for 1999. An overview of the concept and status of the four SLS beamlines and the related infrastructure is also given. The last chapter contains 11 contributions which report on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world.

  10. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report discusses work that has been done to upgrade the ORIGEN2 code cross sections to be compatible with the WIMS computer code data. Because of the changes in the ORIGEN2 calculations. Details on changes made to the ORIGEN2 computer code and the Radnuc code will be discussed along with additional work that should be done in the future to upgrade both ORIGEN2 and Radnuc. A detailed historical description of how source terms have been generated for N Reactor fuel stored in the K Basins has been generated. The neutron source discussed in this description was generated by the WIMS computer code (Gubbins et al. 1982) because of known shortcomings in the ORIGEN2 (Croff 1980) cross sections. Another document includes a discussion of the ORIGEN2 cross sections

  11. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. The progress of the construction of pre-injector, booster and storage ring as well as some of the details of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, are described in this annual report for 1999. An overview of the concept and status of the four SLS beamlines and the related infrastructure is also given. The last chapter contains 11 contributions which report on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world

  12. Advanced light source technologies that enable high-volume manufacturing of DUV lithography extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacouris, Theodore; Rao, Rajasekhar; Rokitski, Rostislav; Jiang, Rui; Melchior, John; Burfeindt, Bernd; O'Brien, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Deep UV (DUV) lithography is being applied to pattern increasingly finer geometries, leading to solutions like double- and multiple-patterning. Such process complexities lead to higher costs due to the increasing number of steps required to produce the desired results. One of the consequences is that the lithography equipment needs to provide higher operating efficiencies to minimize the cost increases, especially for producers of memory devices that experience a rapid decline in sales prices of these products over time. In addition to having introduced higher power 193nm light sources to enable higher throughput, we previously described technologies that also enable: higher tool availability via advanced discharge chamber gas management algorithms; improved process monitoring via enhanced on-board beam metrology; and increased depth of focus (DOF) via light source bandwidth modulation. In this paper we will report on the field performance of these technologies with data that supports the desired improvements in on-wafer performance and operational efficiencies.

  13. Proceedings of the 2000 contaminated site remediation conference. From source zones to ecosystems. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The conference theme, 'From Source Zones to Ecosystems' , indicate the recognition of the fact that once released into environment, contaminants followed a pathway from the source to the point of impact with an ecosystem or other receptors, consequently care is taken to associate remediation with reducing risk to these receptors. The papers, presented at the conference provide a guide to current practice and future direction of contaminated site remediation in Australia and internationally. Monitored natural attenuation is considered as is an increased body of evidence available to evaluate this approach when managing site contamination for Australian conditions. Remediation strategies for heavy metal contamination appear to be underdeveloped and indeed underrepresented. The phyto remediation is being developed to ameliorate the problem and there is also a focus on the bioavailability of metals and on better defining the risk they pose

  14. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  15. Reactor-building-basement radionuclide and source distribution studies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.E.; Horan, J.T.; Worku, G.

    1983-06-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor Building basement has been sampled several times since August 1979. This report compiles the analytical results and sample history for the liquid and solid samples obtained to date. In addition, basement radiation levels were also obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The data obtained will provide information to support ongoing mass balance and source term studies and will aid in characterizing the 282-ft elevation for decontamination planning and dose reduction

  16. Fiber Fabry-Perot Force Sensor with Small Volume and High Performance for Assessing Fretting Damage of Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peijian; Wang, Ning; Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Measuring the radial collision force between the steam generator tube (SGT) and the tube support plate (TSP) is essential to assess the fretting damage of the SGT. In order to measure the radial collision force, a novel miniaturized force sensor based on fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) was designed, and the principle and characteristics of the sensor were analyzed in detail. Then, the F-P force sensor was successfully fabricated and calibrated, and the overall dimensions of the encapsulated fiber F-P sensor were 17 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm (L × W × H). The sensor works well in humid, high pressure (10 MPa), high temperature (350 °C), and vibration (40 kHz) environments. Finally, the F-P force sensors were installed in a 1:1 steam generator test loop, and the radial collision force signals between the SGT and the TSP were obtained. The experiments indicated that the F-P sensor with small volume and high performance could help in assessing the fretting damage of the steam generator tubes.

  17. Credit Participation and Credit Source Selection of Vietnam Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Anh Hoang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the motivation behind the decision to participate in the credit market of SMEs from perspectives of behavioral finance and social capital theories. In addi- tion, the study also examines the effect of behavioral finance and social capital factors on the credit source selection among SMEs. This study’s design strategy involves conducting questionnaire sur- veys to SMEs owners and statistical techniques to analyze the determinants of credit participation and credit source selection of borrowers. The findings showed that personal traits of SMEs owners/ managers in terms of behavioral finance factors such as debt and risk attitudes, present biased and overconfidence and firms networking also have impacts on the firms’ credit participation and credit source selection. The research is one of the few studies that consider the influence of behavioral finance factors on firms financing decision. Furthermore, our result also contributes to explain the common use of informal credit market in developing countries.

  18. Cultivating sources of competitive advantage : Opportunities for small-scale African farmers in global value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthaar, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries often appropriate little of the value created in global value chains. The farmers typically receive only a fraction of what consumers pay for a certain product. In the current thesis we studied which resources farmers have access to that enable them to

  19. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identified the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites

  20. Mixed analytical-stochastic simulation method for the recovery of a Brownian gradient source from probability fluxes to small windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, U; Holcman, D

    2018-02-15

    Is it possible to recover the position of a source from the steady-state fluxes of Brownian particles to small absorbing windows located on the boundary of a domain? To address this question, we develop a numerical procedure to avoid tracking Brownian trajectories in the entire infinite space. Instead, we generate particles near the absorbing windows, computed from the analytical expression of the exit probability. When the Brownian particles are generated by a steady-state gradient at a single point, we compute asymptotically the fluxes to small absorbing holes distributed on the boundary of half-space and on a disk in two dimensions, which agree with stochastic simulations. We also derive an expression for the splitting probability between small windows using the matched asymptotic method. Finally, when there are more than two small absorbing windows, we show how to reconstruct the position of the source from the diffusion fluxes. The present approach provides a computational first principle for the mechanism of sensing a gradient of diffusing particles, a ubiquitous problem in cell biology.

  1. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is presently being constructed at PSI. The year 2000 was crucial for maintaining the project milestones with the start of storage ring commissioning for beginning of 2001 and first light on the probe at the four beamlines of phase I for August 2001. The major goals of 2000 were the completion of accelerator installation, the commissioning of linac and booster and the beginning of beamline assembly. In the first half of the year in parallel to the installation, major fabrication procedures were going on, that had to be thoroughly followed up in order to guarantee their completion in time. The overview and detailed description of these developments is supplemented in this annual report by 8 contributions on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  2. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is presently being constructed at PSI. The year 2000 was crucial for maintaining the project milestones with the start of storage ring commissioning for beginning of 2001 and first light on the probe at the four beamlines of phase I for August 2001. The major goals of 2000 were the completion of accelerator installation, the commissioning of linac and booster and the beginning of beamline assembly. In the first half of the year in parallel to the installation, major fabrication procedures were going on, that had to be thoroughly followed up in order to guarantee their completion in time. The overview and detailed description of these developments is supplemented in this annual report by 8 contributions on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  3. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  4. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3′SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6′SL and 3′FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3′SL and 6′SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3′FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives. PMID:29372119

  5. CoMiniGut-a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Maria; Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3'SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6'SL and 3'FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3'SL and 6'SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3'FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives.

  6. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wiese

    2018-01-01

    abundance of Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3′SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6′SL and 3′FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3′SL and 6′SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3′FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives.

  7. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): Implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm’s Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson’s source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the “cortical dipole” into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  8. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soe, Rikke; Macaulay, Nanna; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    in Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents upon swelling of the oocytes and a reduction in the current when the oocytes were shrunk. The volume-dependent changes in channel activity were not due to changes in the kinetics of the channels. These findings implicate a putative functional interaction between...... the Kir channels and aquaporins via small, fast cell volume changes in the glial cells....... channels and aquaporins is therefore debated. To test a possible volume-sensitivity of the Kir channels, the Kir4.1 or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without co-expression of aquaporins and subsequently exposed to cell volume alterations. Our results show an increase...

  9. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note

  10. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991. Volume 1, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  12. Variability of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes with quantitative gated SPECT: influence of algorithm, pixel size and reconstruction parameters in small and normal-sized hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, Anne-Sophie; Vervaet, Ann; Dobbeleir, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Several software packages are commercially available for quantification of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes from myocardial gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), all of which display a high reproducibility. However, their accuracy has been questioned in patients with a small heart. This study aimed to evaluate the performances of different software and the influence of modifications in acquisition or reconstruction parameters on LVEF and volume measurements, depending on the heart size. In 31 patients referred for gated SPECT, 64 2 and 128 2 matrix acquisitions were consecutively obtained. After reconstruction by filtered back-projection (Butterworth, 0.4, 0.5 or 0.6 cycles/cm cut-off, order 6), LVEF and volumes were computed with different software [three versions of Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS), the Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT) and the Stanford University (SU-Segami) Medical School algorithm] and processing workstations. Depending upon their end-systolic volume (ESV), patients were classified into two groups: group I (ESV>30 ml, n=14) and group II (ESV 2 to 128 2 were associated with significantly larger volumes as well as lower LVEF values. Increasing the filter cut-off frequency had the same effect. With SU-Segami, a larger matrix was associated with larger end-diastolic volumes and smaller ESVs, resulting in a highly significant increase in LVEF. Increasing the filter sharpness, on the other hand, had no influence on LVEF though the measured volumes were significantly larger. (orig.)

  13. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Iroumé, A.; Quilodrán, C.; Castillo, A.; Navas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr −1 ) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr −1 ). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137 Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226 Ra and 40 K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment

  14. Patterns of failure after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer: Implications for postoperative radiation therapy volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Light, Kim L.C.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze local-regional patterns of failure after surgical resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis included 61 patients who underwent resection of NSCLC at Duke University Medical Center. Inclusion into the study required the following: margin-negative resection, no neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), first recurrence involving a local-regional site, and imaging studies available for review. Sites of intrathoracic disease recurrence were documented. Diagrams were constructed that illustrated sites of failure on the basis of lobe of primary tumor. Failure rates were compared by application of a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: All patients had CT imaging for review, and 54% also had PET imaging. The median number of local-regional recurrent sites was two (range, 1-6). For all patients, the most common site of failure was the bronchial stump/staple line (44%), which was present more often in those who had a wedge resection than in those who had a more radical procedure (79% vs. 34%, p = 0.005). Patients with initial nodal involvement (pN1-2) were not more likely to have involvement of the mediastinum than were patients with pN0 disease (64% vs. 72%, p = 0.72), but were more likely to have involvement of the supraclavicular fossa (27% vs. 4%, p = 0.04). Mediastinal involvement, without overt evidence of hilar involvement, occurred in 59% of patients. Left-sided tumors tended to involve the contralateral mediastinum more frequently than did right-sided tumors. Patterns of failure after resection are diagrammed and follow a fairly predictable pattern on the basis of involved lobe. Conclusions: These data may help clinicians construct postoperative RT volumes that are smaller than ones traditionally utilized, which may improve the therapeutic ratio

  15. Source brightness and useful beam current of carbon nanotubes and other very small emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Bezuijen, M.; Barth, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The potential application of carbon nanotubes as electron sources in electron microscopes is analyzed. The resolution and probe current that can be obtained from a carbon nanotube emitter in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope are calculated and compared to the state of the art using Schottky electron sources. Many analytical equations for probe-size versus probe-current relations in different parameter regimes are obtained. It is shown that for most carbon nanotube emitters, the gun lens aberrations are larger than the emitters' virtual source size and thus restrict the microscope's performance. The result is that the advantages of the higher brightness of nanotube emitters are limited unless the angular emission current is increased over present day values or the gun lens aberrations are decreased. For some nanotubes with a closed cap, it is known that the emitted electron beam is coherent over the full emission cone. We argue that for such emitters the parameter ''brightness'' becomes meaningless. The influence of phase variations in the electron wave front emitted from such a nanotube emitter on the focusing of the electron beam is analyzed

  16. Cell volumes of marine phytoplankton from globally distributed coastal data sets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harrison, P.J; Zingone, A.; Mickelson, M.J; Lehtinen, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Kraberg, A.C; Sun, J; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Jakobsen, H.H.

    volumes are the single largest source of uncertainty in community phytoplankton carbon estimates and greatly exceeds the uncertainty associated with the different volume to carbon estimates. Small diatoms have 10 times more carbon density than large...

  17. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE issued the ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source'' in December 1998. This document was made available for review by federal agencies; tribal governments; the state of Tennessee, New Mexico, Illinois, and New York; local governments; and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the DEIS and any other matters pertaining to environmental review of the document. The formal review and comment period extended from December 24, 1998 until February 8, 1999. DOE considered all comments submitted after the review and comment period. This appendix to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains the 206 comments received and the DOE responses to these comments. It consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the contents of this appendix and discusses the general methodology DOE used for documenting, considering, and responding to the review comments on the DEIS. Chapter 2 summarizes the principal issues of public concern collectively reflected by the comments and presents DOE's responses to these issues. The full texts of the comments on the DEIS are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains DOE's written responses to these comments and the locations of textual changes in the FEIS that were made in response to the comments

  18. PET-CT-Based Auto-Contouring in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Correlates With Pathology and Reduces Interobserver Variability in the Delineation of the Primary Tumor and Involved Nodal Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baardwijk, Angela van; Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Buijsen, Jeroen; Wanders, Stofferinus; Hochstenbag, Monique; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Dekker, Andre; Dehing-Oberije, Cary; Houben, Ruud; Bentzen, Soren M.; Kroonenburgh, Marinus van; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare source-to-background ratio (SBR)-based PET-CT auto-delineation with pathology in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate whether auto-delineation reduces the interobserver variability compared with manual PET-CT-based gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation was compared with macroscopic tumor dimensions to assess its validity in 23 tumors. Thereafter, GTVs were delineated manually on 33 PET-CT scans by five observers for the primary tumor (GTV-1) and the involved lymph nodes (GTV-2). The delineation was repeated after 6 months with the auto-contour provided. This contour was edited by the observers. For comparison, the concordance index (CI) was calculated, defined as the ratio of intersection and the union of two volumes (A intersection B)/(A union B). Results: The maximal tumor diameter of the SBR-based auto-contour correlated strongly with the macroscopic diameter of primary tumors (correlation coefficient = 0.90) and was shown to be accurate for involved lymph nodes (sensitivity 67%, specificity 95%). The median auto-contour-based target volumes were smaller than those defined by manual delineation for GTV-1 (31.8 and 34.6 cm 3 , respectively; p = 0.001) and GTV-2 (16.3 and 21.8 cm 3 , respectively; p 0.02). The auto-contour-based method showed higher CIs than the manual method for GTV-1 (0.74 and 0.70 cm 3 , respectively; p 3 , respectively; p = 0.11). Conclusion: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation showed a good correlation with pathology, decreased the delineated volumes of the GTVs, and reduced the interobserver variability. Auto-contouring may further improve the quality of target delineation in NSCLC patients

  19. The sources of streamwater to small mountainous rivers in Taiwan during typhoon and non-typhoon seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Nien-Ming; Shih, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics and behaviors of streamwater chemistry are rarely documented for subtropical small mountainous rivers. A 1-year detailed time series of streamwater chemistry, using non-typhoon and typhoon samples, was monitored in two watersheds, with and without cultivation, in central Taiwan. Rainwater, soil leachate, and well water were supplemented to explain the streamwater chemistry. The concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulfate, magnesium, potassium, calcium, strontium, silicon, and barium of all the water samples were measured. Principal component analysis and residual analysis were applied to examine the mechanisms of solute transport and investigate possible sources contributing to the streamwater chemistry. In addition to the influence of well water and soil leachate on streamwater chemistry during non-typhoon period, overland flow and surface erosion affect streamwater chemistry during the typhoon period. The latter has not been discussed in previous studies. Surface erosion is likely to be an end member and non-conservatively mixed with other end members, resulting in a previously unobserved blank zone in the mixing space. This has a particularly great impact on small mountainous watersheds, which suffer from rapid erosion. Moreover, fertilizer contaminates agricultural soil, making soil water end members more identifiable. To our knowledge, this study is the first to clearly illustrate the dynamics and sources of streamwater chemistry of small mountainous rivers that are analogous to rivers in Oceania.

  20. US-Japan IEC Workshop on Small Plasma and Accelerator Neutron Sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The history of IEC development will be briefly described, and some speculation about future directions will be offered. The origin of IEC is due to the brilliance of Phil Farnsworth, inventor of electronic TV in the US. Early experiments were pioneered in the late 1960s by Robert Hirsch who later became head of the DOE fusion program. At that time studies of IEC physics quickly followed at the University of Illinois and at Penn State University. However, despite many successes in this early work, IEC research died as DOE funding stopped in the mid 1980s. In the early 90's, R. W. Bussard of EMC revived work with a new major project based on a magnetic assisted IEC. While doing supportive studies for that project, G. Miley proposed a grided 'STAR mode' IEC as a neutron source for NAA. This concept was later used commercially by Daimler-Benz in Germany to analysis impurities in incoming ores. This represented a first practical application of the IEC. During this period other research groups at LANL, U of Wisconsin and Kyoto University entered IEC research with innovative new concepts and approaches to IEC physics and applications. Much of this work is documented in the present and in past US-Japan Workshops. At present we stand on the threshold of a new area of IEC applications as neutron source, for isotope production, and as a plasma source. These applications provide a way to continue IEC understanding and technology development with the ultimate goal being a fusion power plant. Indeed, a distinguishing feature of the IEC vs. other fusion confinement approaches is the unique opportunity for 'spin off' applications along the way to a power producing plant.

  1. Small streams, diverse sources: Who invests in renewable energy in Finland during the financial downturn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jalas, Mikko; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Nissilä, Heli

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the investment gap in renewable energy sources identified by several authors. Examining the case of a country, Finland, which introduced policy measures to diversify its renewable energy portfolio, we analyse the development of investments in renewable heat and power in response to new policy measures and contextual factors during the downturn period 2009–2013. We investigate investor heterogeneity, i.e., the diversity of logics employed by different types of RES investors. In spite of a severe financial recession, we find an emergence of new sources of investment. Among these new investor types, we find diversity in investment drivers and available options. These include investors mobilized by the feed-in-tariff to seek profitable targets and investors such as real estate owners investing in heat pumps for their own use and benefiting from low interest rates. We find that the diversification of investors supports the diversification in RES sources, and brings in new investors undeterred by the financial downturn. Our findings imply that policy-makers should recognize that the responses to distinct incentives and pressures vary by investor types. This also means that a mix of policies is required to maximize the contribution of different sectors to filling the renewable energy investment gap. - Highlights: • Diversified policies prompt new types of investors and growth in renewable energy. • New investors have a range of motives with different expectations for returns. • New investments stem from a range of policies beyond energy policy. • Investor diversity contributes to steady overall investment across economic cycles. • A diverse mix of policy is needed to fill the renewable energy investment gap.

  2. Small Works, Big Stories. Methodological approaches to photogrammetry through crowd-sourcing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent digital public archaeology project (HeritageTogether sought to build a series of 3D ditigal models using photogrammetry from crowd-sourced images. The project saw over 13000 digital images being donated, and resulted in models of some 78 sites, providing resources for researchers, and condition surveys. The project demonstrated that digital public archaeology does not stop at the 'trowel's edge', and that collaborative post-excavation analysis and generation of research processes are as important as time in the field. We emphasise in this contribution that our methodologies, as much as our research outputs, can be fruitfully co-produced in public archaeology projects.

  3. Investigation of fingerprints for small polar molecules by using a tunable monochromatic THz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqian

    Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the generation and the application of electromagnetic waves in the Terahertz (THz) regime. Among all of the proposed applications, the THz spectroscopy is probably the most mature and promising one. According to the previous reports, the THz spectroscopy has been extensively applied into many analysis fields, including the investigation of vibrational modes for the crystalline solids, the characterization of electron transport in the condense matters and the identification of explosive materials at a standoff distance. More interestingly, since most gas phase chemicals exhibit unique transition peaks in the THz spectra, one could in principle achieve highly accurate molecular fingerprinting and chemical sensing as well. However, all of the practical THz spectroscopy applications were still greatly hampered by the lack of suitable sources and detectors. In this thesis, a unique approach to measure the THz spectrum is developed based on a novel tunable narrowband source. Unlike the previous THz systems, high power THz pulses were generated by the difference frequency generation processes between two collinearly propagated near infrared laser beams. To tune the output THz signal frequency, one can simply adjust one of the incident beam frequencies. Therefore, based on a convenient wavelength tuning scheme, the transmission spectra can be measured for a series of polar gases with either similar or distinct molecular structures. According to the measured spectra, it is found that the obtained transition frequencies, absorption intensities and molecular constants are all in good agreement with the theoretical results tabulated in the molecular spectroscopic databases, such as the HITRAN database. By further analyzing the transition frequencies, it is also discovered that one can confidently identify each polar molecule and differentiate between various isotopic variants based on their characteristic

  4. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that

  5. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  6. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  7. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  8. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community

  9. Semilogarithmic Nonuniform Vector Quantization of Two-Dimensional Laplacean Source for Small Variance Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Peric

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper high dynamic range nonuniform two-dimensional vector quantization model for Laplacean source was provided. Semilogarithmic A-law compression characteristic was used as radial scalar compression characteristic of two-dimensional vector quantization. Optimal number value of concentric quantization domains (amplitude levels is expressed in the function of parameter A. Exact distortion analysis with obtained closed form expressions is provided. It has been shown that proposed model provides high SQNR values in wide range of variances, and overachieves quality obtained by scalar A-law quantization at same bit rate, so it can be used in various switching and adaptation implementations for realization of high quality signal compression.

  10. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

  11. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  12. A Multiagent Energy Management System for a Small Microgrid Equipped with Power Sources and Energy Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska, Weronika; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    An Energy Management System (EMS) for a small microgrid is presented, with both demand and production side management. The microgrid is equipped with renewable and controllable power sources (like a micro gas turbine), energy storage units (batteries and flywheels). Energy load is partially scheduled to avoid extreme peaks of power demand and to possibly match forecasted energy supply from the renewable power sources. To balance the energy in the network on line, a multiagent system is used. Intelligent agents of each device are proactively acting towards balancing the energy in the network, and at the same time optimizing the cost of operation of the whole system. A semi-market mechanism is used to match a demand and a production of the energy. Simulations show that the time of reaching a balanced state does not exceed 1 s, which is fast enough to let execute proper balancing actions, e.g. change an operating point of a controllable energy source. Simulators of sources and consumption devices were implemented in order to carry out exhaustive tests.

  13. Proposal for the design of a small-angle neutron scattering facility at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kley, W.

    1980-01-01

    The intensity-resolution-background considerations of an optimized small angle neutron scattering facility are reviewed for the special case of a pulsed neutron source. In the present proposal we conclude that for 'true elastic scattering experiments' filters can be used instead of expensive neutron guide tubes since low background conditions can be achieved by a combined action of filters as well as a proper time gating of the twodimensional detector. The impinging neutron beam is monochromatized by phasing a disk chopper to the neutron source pulses and in the scattered beam a second disk chopper is used to eliminate the inelastically scattered neutrons. Therefore, no time of fligh analysis is necessary for the scattered neutron intensity and true-elastic conditions are obtained by simply gating the two-dimensional detector. Considering a 4 m thick shield for the pulsed neutron source and choosing for optimum conditions a detector area element of (2.5 cm) 2 and a sample area of (1.25 cm) 2 , than for a minimum sample-detector-distance of 1.5 m, a maximum neutron source diameter of 6.67 cm is required in order to maintain always the optimum intensity- and resolution requirements

  14. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd; Koelsch, Uwe; Rüdiger, Mario

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (V L ). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg −1 , and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N 2 . After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate V L . All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. V L (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL −1 versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL −1 ; P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased V L by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST. (paper)

  15. Masked volume wise principal component analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razifar, Pasha; Hennings, Joakim; Monazzam, Azita; Hellman, Per; Långström, Bengt; Sundin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In previous clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies novel approaches for application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on dynamic PET images such as Masked Volume Wise PCA (MVW-PCA) have been introduced. MVW-PCA was shown to be a feasible multivariate analysis technique, which, without modeling assumptions, could extract and separate organs and tissues with different kinetic behaviors into different principal components (MVW-PCs) and improve the image quality. In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours. MTO-PET was performed before and 3 days after starting per oral cortisone treatment. The whole dataset, reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) 0–45 minutes after the tracer injection, was used to study the tracer pharmacokinetics. Early, intermediate and late pharmacokinetic phases could be isolated in this manner. The MVW-PC1 images correlated well to the conventionally summed image data (15–45 minutes) but the image noise in the former was considerably lower. PET measurements performed by defining 'hot spot' regions of interest (ROIs) comprising 4 contiguous pixels with the highest radioactivity concentration showed a trend towards higher SUVs when the ROIs were outlined in the MVW-PC1 component than in the summed images. Time activity curves derived from '50% cut-off' ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment. In addition to the clear decrease in image noise and the improved contrast between different structures with MVW-PCA, the results indicate that the definition of ROIs may be more accurate and precise in MVW-PC1 images than in conventional summed images. This might improve the precision of PET

  16. Study of X-ray source based on a small marx generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wei; Li Junna; Chen Weiqing; Tang Junping; He Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A 600 kV Marx generator accompanied with a water compression line, an output switch and a diode component is designed to generate the X ray with low energy level and low dose rate. The diode parameters are follows: gap space of anode and cathode is 3∼5 mm; cathode with ring structure is a graphite electrode which diameter is 40 mm; the anode is a tantalum target with a thickness of l.5 mm and a diameter of 200 mm. The study results show that: when the output voltage of Marx generator reaches to 550 kV, the voltage drop of the diode is 196 kV. And a low energy level, small dose rate X ray can be obtained in front of the anode. The X ray at the distance of 30 mm before the anode surface has a half width of 20 ns. The total energy dose of the X ray on the center of anode surface is 8 rad and dose rate is 4 × lO"8 rad/s, which have been measured by the method of thermoluminescence dosimetry. (authors)

  17. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  18. Financial sources of small and medium enterprises for agribusiness and eco-tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing business growth of the SME sector and entrepreneurship, due to its characteristics, is in a specific position. The previously dominant model of financing and the lack of specific funding sources in Serbia, further complicate the possible solutions that lead to accelerated growth. In order to solve the accumulated problems of the transition process, it is essential that countries improve economic policy towards SMEs in the agribusiness and eco-tourism activities, and to facilitate the conditions for starting a business for entrepreneurs. In order for someone to invest capital he requires a guarantees from the state, since the state is not able to give them it's necessary to open agencies whose task would be to monitor the activities of these companies, to collect accounting information on the status and trends of invested capital, income and expenses, the number of employees and trends by sectors and to provide such information to entrepreneurs. Other than that, the state has to work on solving all barriers, as for domestic, so for foreign enterprises and work on the plan of safe realization of products and services, in country and outside, which will automatically increase the number of SME and the number of employed. This will increase the life standard of citizens in the long run.

  19. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  20. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  1. Small Coronal Holes Near Active Regions as Sources of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the nature of the small areas of rapidly diverging, open magnetic flux that form in the strong unipolar fields at the peripheries of active regions (ARs), according to coronal extrapolations of photospheric field measurements. Because such regions usually have dark counterparts in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, we refer to them as coronal holes, even when they appear as narrow lanes or contain sunspots. Revisiting previously identified “AR sources” of slow solar wind from 1998 and 1999, we find that they are all associated with EUV coronal holes; the absence of well-defined He i 1083.0 nm counterparts to some of these holes is attributed to the large flux of photoionizing radiation from neighboring AR loops. Examining a number of AR-associated EUV holes during the 2014 activity maximum, we confirm that they are characterized by wind speeds of ∼300–450 km s{sup −1}, O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratios of ∼0.05–0.4, and footpoint field strengths typically of order 30 G. The close spacing between ARs at sunspot maximum limits the widths of unipolar regions and their embedded holes, while the continual emergence of new flux leads to rapid changes in the hole boundaries. Because of the highly nonradial nature of AR fields, the smaller EUV holes are often masked by the overlying canopy of loops, and may be more visible toward one solar limb than at central meridian. As sunspot activity declines, the AR remnants merge to form much larger, weaker, and longer-lived unipolar regions, which harbor the “classical” coronal holes that produce recurrent high-speed streams.

  2. Development of Small-Volume, High-Precision, and Reliable Cryogenic Linear Actuators by Using Novel Intermetallic Compounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space missions often involve ultra-cold environments, and cryogenic actuators must be mechanically robust for long-term cyclic work, generate high power per volume,...

  3. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  4. Analysis of primary tumor metabolic volume during chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roengvoraphoj, Olarn; Eze, Chukwuka; Li, Minglun; Dantes, Maurice; Taugner, Julian [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Wijaya, Cherylina [Asklepios Fachkliniken Muenchen-Gauting, Department of Pulmonology, Munich (Germany); Tufman, Amanda; Huber, Rudolf Maria [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich and Thoracic Oncology Centre Munich, Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, Internal Medicine V, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany); Belka, Claus; Manapov, Farkhad [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has an established role in the initial diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. However, a prognostic value of PET/CT during multimodality treatment has not yet been fully clarified. This study evaluated the role of primary tumor metabolic volume (PT-MV) changes on PET/CT before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A total of 65 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) UICC stage IIIA/B (TNM 7th Edition) were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (sequential or concurrent setting). PET/CT was acquired before the start, at the end of the third week, and 6 weeks following CRT. Median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 16 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12-20). In all, 60 (92.3%) patients were eligible for pre-treatment (pre-PT-MV), 28 (43%) for mid-treatment (mid-PT-MV), and 53 (81.5%) for post-treatment (post-PT-MV) volume analysis. Patients with pre-PT-MV >63 cm{sup 3} had worse OS (p < 0.0001). A reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV of >15% improved OS (p = 0.001). In addition, patients with post-PT-MV > 25 cm{sup 3} had significantly worse outcome (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, performance status (p = 0.002, hazard ratio [HR] 0.007; 95% CI 0.00-0.158), pre-PT-MV1 < 63 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.027, HR 3.98; 95% CI 1.17-13.49), post-PT-MV < 25 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.013, HR 11.90; 95% CI 1.70-83.27), and a reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV > 15% (p = 0.004, HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.02-0.31) correlated with improved OS. Our results demonstrated that pre- and post-treatment PT-MV, as well as an at least 15% reduction in mid- to post-PT-MV, significantly correlates with OS in patients with inoperable locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F-2-Fluor-2-desoxy-D-Glukose und Computertomographie ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) hat sich in der initialen

  5. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  6. Changes of the liver volume and the Child-Pugh score after high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Young Yih; Kang, Sang Won; Paik, Seung Woon

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the safety of high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with small HCC who were treated with high dose hypofractionated RT between 2006 and 2009. The serial changes of the liver volumetric parameter were analyzed from pre-RT and follow-up (FU) computed tomography (CT) scans. We estimated linear time trends of whole liver volume using a linear mixed model. The serial changes of the Child-Pugh (CP) scores were also analyzed in relation to the volumetric changes. Mean pre-RT volume of entire liver was 1,192.2 mL (range, 502.6 to 1,310.2 mL) and mean clinical target volume was 14.7 mL (range, 1.56 to 70.07 mL). Fourteen (87.5%) patients had 4 FU CT sets and 2 (12.5%) patients had 3 FU CT sets. Mean interval between FU CT acquisition was 2.5 months. After considering age, gender and the irradiated liver volume as a fixed effects, the mixed model analysis confirmed that the change in liver volume is not significant throughout the time course of FU periods. Majority of patients had a CP score change less than 2 except in 1 patient who had CP score change more than 3. The high dose hypofractionated RT for small HCC is relatively safe and feasible in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.

  7. IAEA news: • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Dyck, Elisabeth; Dixit, Aabha; Gaspar, Miklos; Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development: Countries embarking on a nuclear power programme need to make sure that the development of their legal, regulatory and support infrastructure keeps pace with the construction of the power plant itself. This is the only way to ensure that the programme proceeds in a safe, secure and sustainable way, concluded participants of a workshop on nuclear power infrastructure development hosted at the IAEA last February. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators: A new generation of advanced, prefab nuclear power reactors called small modular reactors (SMRs) could be licensed and hit the market as early as 2020, and the IAEA is helping regulators prepare for their debut. In a series of workshops that began earlier this year, the IAEA is working closely with regulators on approaches to safety and licensing ahead of potential SMR deployment worldwide. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources: Successful tests of a promising technology for moving and storing low level radioactive sealed sources are paving the way for a new disposal method for dealing with small volumes of radioactive waste around the world. The method, which involves placing and covering sealed sources in a narrow hole a few hundred metres deep, would allow countries to safely and securely take charge of their own disused radioactive sources. The proof of concept for the technology was tested in Croatia late last year — without the use of actual radioactive material.

  8. The incidence of inclusion of the sigmoid colon and small bowel in the planning target volume in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerleer, G.O. de; Vakaet, L.; Neve, W.J. de; Villeirs, G.M.; Delrue, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: in radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is considered the dose-limiting organ. The incidence of overlap between the sigmoid colon and/or small bowel and the planning target volume (PTV) as well as the dose to sigmoid colon and small bowel were investigated. Patients and methods: the CT data of 75 prostate cancer patients were analyzed. The clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of prostate and seminal vesicles. The PTV was defined as a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV with a 10-mm margin in craniocaudal and a 7-mm margin in the other directions. All patients were planned to a mean CTV dose of at least 76 Gy. Minimum CTV dose was set at 70 Gy. Dose inhomogeneity within the CTV was kept between 12% and 17%. Sigmoid colon was defined upward from the level where the rectum turned in a transverse plane. Contrast-filled small bowel was contoured on all slices where it was visible. The presence of sigmoid colon and/or small bowel in close vicinity to or overlapping with the PTV was recorded. For each case, the dose to the sigmoid colon and small bowel was calculated. Results: the PTV was found to overlap with the sigmoid colon in 60% and with the small bowel in 19% of the cases. In these patients, mean maximum dose to the sigmoid colon was 76.2 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 70.0-80.7 Gy). Mean maximum dose to the small bowel was 74.9 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 68.0-80.0 Gy). Conclusion: when systematically investigating the anatomic position of sigmoid colon and small bowel in patients accepted for prostate irradiation, parts of both organs were often observed in close vicinity to the PTV. Apart from the rectum, these organs may be dose-limiting in prostate radiotherapy. (orig.)

  9. The incidence of inclusion of the sigmoid colon and small bowel in the planning target volume in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerleer, G.O. de; Vakaet, L.; Neve, W.J. de [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gent Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Villeirs, G.M.; Delrue, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Gent Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2004-09-01

    Background and purpose: in radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is considered the dose-limiting organ. The incidence of overlap between the sigmoid colon and/or small bowel and the planning target volume (PTV) as well as the dose to sigmoid colon and small bowel were investigated. Patients and methods: the CT data of 75 prostate cancer patients were analyzed. The clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of prostate and seminal vesicles. The PTV was defined as a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV with a 10-mm margin in craniocaudal and a 7-mm margin in the other directions. All patients were planned to a mean CTV dose of at least 76 Gy. Minimum CTV dose was set at 70 Gy. Dose inhomogeneity within the CTV was kept between 12% and 17%. Sigmoid colon was defined upward from the level where the rectum turned in a transverse plane. Contrast-filled small bowel was contoured on all slices where it was visible. The presence of sigmoid colon and/or small bowel in close vicinity to or overlapping with the PTV was recorded. For each case, the dose to the sigmoid colon and small bowel was calculated. Results: the PTV was found to overlap with the sigmoid colon in 60% and with the small bowel in 19% of the cases. In these patients, mean maximum dose to the sigmoid colon was 76.2 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 70.0-80.7 Gy). Mean maximum dose to the small bowel was 74.9 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 68.0-80.0 Gy). Conclusion: when systematically investigating the anatomic position of sigmoid colon and small bowel in patients accepted for prostate irradiation, parts of both organs were often observed in close vicinity to the PTV. Apart from the rectum, these organs may be dose-limiting in prostate radiotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J.; Scott, Suzanne; Mohr, Magni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training soccer group (SG, n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training vibration group (VG, n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive......%, p = 0.04), with no changes in VG or CO (timegroup effect: p = 0.03 and p = 0.03). Submaximal exercise HR was also reduced in SG after 16 weeks of training (6% ± 5% of HRmax, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes...

  11. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  12. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmly, Lloyd M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R.; Mangold, Stefanie; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m 2 vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m 2 , P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  13. Variations in the small-scale galactic magnetic field and short time-scale intensity variations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structure functions of the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic radio sources are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of approx.0.01 to 100 pc. Model structure functions derived assuming a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in n/sub e/B, are compared with those observed. The results indicate an outer angular scale for RM variations of approximately less than or equal to 5 0 and evidence for RM variations on scales as small as 1'. Differences in the variance of n/sub e/B fluctuations for various lines of sight through the Galaxy are found. Comparison of pulsar scintillations in right- and left-circular polarizations yield an upper limit to the variations in n/sub e/ on a length scale of approx.10 11 cm. RMs were determined through high-velocity molecular flows in galactic star-formation regions, with the goal of constraining magnetic fields in and near the flows. RMs of 7 extragalactic sources with a approx.20 arcmin wide area seen through Cep A, fall in two groups separated by approx.150 rad m -2 - large given our knowledge of RM variations on small angular scales and possibly a result of the anisotropy of the high-velocity material

  14. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu

    2014-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH 4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH 4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH 4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  15. The Labor-saving Kitchen: Sources for Designs of the Architects’ Small Home Service Bureau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tucker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the kitchen has received much attention from designers and design historians. Since the writings of Catharine Beecher, designers, household engineers, and others have written about the importance of the kitchen as the center of the home. This research traces the impact of the writings of theorists such as Frederick Taylor, Georgie Boynton Child, Helen Binkerd Young, and Christine Frederick on the designs produced by the architects in the first quarter of the 20th century.  Frederick’s work took the concept of an efficient kitchen to a new level applying movement studies and introducing new ideas to the kitchen layout and arrangement.  In a properly laid out and equipped kitchen, steps were saved by placing kitchen cabinets, ovens and stoves, refrigerators and sinks where they were needed in the sequence of food preparation and delivery to dining table as well as clean up after the meal.  In her books, she also provided advice on a variety of considerations, such as appliances and accessories, lighting and ventilation; materials, finishes and color; and appliances and equipment.  In 1919 a group of architects dedicated to improving the housing stock in the United States through good design banded together to form the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau (ASHSB.  Their first plan book, How to Plan Finance and Build your Home published in 1921, also encouraged labor-saving kitchen design and provided advice on kitchen design. The research reported here assesses how the influence of Frederick and Boyton’s advice as reflected in the work of and interpreted by Helen Binkerd Young is demonstrated in the kitchen designs of the ASHSB’s first plan book. A plan content analysis instrument, developed using Frederick’s writings and edited to include other variables from Young and Child, is used to analyze the 99 kitchens and two essays in the ASHSB’s plan book.  The plans and accompanying comments evidence enthusiasm for

  16. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Naruhashi, Ryutaro; Okumura, Koji; Zaiki, Masumi; Kontani, Ryoichi

    2018-02-01

    Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs) are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance-size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12-15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of 60-75 m, which is much

  17. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hayakawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM–MVS photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance–size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12–15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of

  18. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers; Comparaison de six methodes de segmentation du volume tumoral sur la {sup 18}F-FDG TEP-TDM avec le volume de reference anatomopathologique dans les cancers bronchopulmonaires non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Muret, A. de [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    The {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV{sub threshold} = 0.307 Sub{sub average} + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I{sub threshold} = {beta} I{sub average} +I{sub noise} with {beta} 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I{sub max} 40 and I{sub max} 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using {beta} = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using {beta} = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle

  19. Power sources - Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J [ed.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers from the major battery research and development centers of the world constitute the proceedings. The largest group of these papers is dedicated to the lithium systems which are becoming increasingly important in contemporary battery technology. Notable ones deal with rechargeable lithium systems and the propulsion of miniature aircraft for covert operational use using high energy density lithium systems. The lead acid battery industry has also contributed nine papers which again reflect the advancing front of technology. Fully-sealed units of high specific energy are now readily achievable. However, it is interesting to note that the classical tubular positive electrode is still considered sufficiently important to warrant the first paper of the Conference Proceedings. There are a few papers concerned with the zinc electrode in alkali. However, one paper from this group is devoted to the silver oxide electrode and one deals with separators for this cell. This underlines the search for new methods to operate with the zinc electrode commercially, that is, in addition to the primary applications. Only one paper contains the words fuel cell in the title and this reflects the disenchantment of the industry with the fuel cell concept. The amount of research in this area has been severely restricted although it is clear that spin-off applications such as a paper devoted to the storage of hydrogen using the silver-hydrogen system still continue to benefit from the technique established during what might be called the fuel-cell dream period. A final paper describes the only thermal battery contribution.

  20. Measurement of disintegration rates of small [60Co]Co sources in lead containers by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to determine the disintegration rates of two small [ 60 Co]Co sources (30 and 350 kBq) in lead containers with several thickness by using a NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental results showed that the sum-peak method was perfectly effective for the determination of the disintegration rates (unrelated to the thicknesses of the containers) of the 350 kBq source. The sum-peak method was also absolutely effective for the 30 kBq source in the case of containers with thicknesses of 15 mm and less, but in the cases of those with thicknesses of 21, 27 and 33 mm, the disintegration rates were under-estimated and the deviations from the true disintegration rate increased rapidly with increasing thicknesses of the containers. We presume that the under-estimation of the disintegration rates was the result of the over-estimation of the areas under the sum peaks, caused by the interference of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from the naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl. (author)

  1. Mangroves act as a small methane source: an investigation on 5 pathways of methane emissions from mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Peng, C.; Guan, W.; Liao, B.; Hu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The methane (CH4) source strength of mangroves is not well understood, especially for integrating all CH4 pathways. This study measured CH4 fluxes by five pathways (sediments, pneumatophores, water surface, leaves, and stems) from four typical mangrove forests in Changning River of Hainan Island, China, including Kandelia candel , Sonneratia apetala, Laguncularia racemosa and Bruguiera gymnoihiza-Bruguiera sexangula. The CH4 fluxes (mean ± SE) from sediments were 4.82 ± 1.46 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those without pneumatophores and 1.36 ± 0.17 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those with pneumatophores. Among the three communities with pneumatophores, S. apetala community had significantly greater emission rate than the other two. Pneumatophores in S. apetala were found to significantly decrease CH4 emission from sediments (P duck farming. Leaves of mangroves except for K. candel were a weak CH4 sink while stems a weak source. As a whole the 72 ha of mangroves in the Changning river basin emitted about 8.10 Gg CH4 yr-1 with a weighted emission rate of about 1.29 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, therefore only a small methane source to the atmosphere compared to other reported ones. Keywords: Greenhouse Gases; Biogeochemistry; Tropical ecosystems; Methane budget

  2. Analysis and simulation of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the design and performance of a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument for a proposed 1 MW, 60 Hz long pulsed spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). An analysis of the effects of source characteristics and chopper performance combined with instrument simulations using the LANSCE Monte Carlo instrument simulations package shows that the T 0 chopper should be no more than 5 m from the source with the frame overlap and frame definition choppers at 5.6 and greater than 7 m, respectively. The study showed that an optimal pulse structure has an exponential decaying tail with τ ∼ 750 μs. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the LPSS SANS, showing that an optimal length is 18 m. The simulations show that an instrument with variable length is best to match the needs of a given measurement. The performance of the optimized LPSS instrument was found to be comparable with present world standard instruments

  3. Study on development and actual application of scientific crime detection technique using small scale neutron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Toru; Tachikawa, Noboru; Ishikawa, Isamu.

    1997-01-01

    PGA (Prompt γ-ray Analysis) is an analytic method of γ-ray generated from atomic nuclei of elements in the specimen just after irradiation (within 10(exp-14)sec.) of neutron to it. As using neutron with excellent transmission for an exciting source, this method can be used for inspecting the matters in closed containers non-destructively, and can also detect non-destructively light elements such as boron, nitrogen and others difficult by other non-destructive analysis. Especially, it is found that this method can detect such high concentration of nitrogen, chlorine and others which are characteristic elements for the explosives. However, as there are a number of limitations at the nuclear reactor site, development of an analytical apparatus for small scale neutron radiation source was begun, at first. In this fiscal year, analysis of the light elements such as nitrogen, chlorine and others using PGA was attempted by using 252-Cf as the simplest neutron source in its operation. As the 252-Cf neutron flux was considerably lower than that of nuclear reactor, its analytical sensitivity was also investigated. (G.K.)

  4. International Infantry and Joint Services Small Arms Systems Section Symposium, Exhibition and Firing Demonstration. Held in Atlantic City, NJ on 13-16 May 2002. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-13

    going efforts to gather data Types of Sound Generation Sources • Piezo - Electric – High Performance Speakers & Ceramics – Smallest Volume Package...40-µm DRIE spring Stage 2 Devices-Fab 2 Texture of DRIE- machined surface Details of undercutting and release etch for 40-µm spring 1 Tank-automotive... PZT -5A Piezoceramic Sheets Nomenclature - Lead-Zirconate Titanate Micro-Flex Actuator* * Fundamentals of Adaptive/Smart Aerostructures Short Course

  5. Experimental investigation on a small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system driven by the low temperature heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, P.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, Z.S.

    2015-01-01

    A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system with different scroll expanders modified from compressors of the automobile air-conditioner is established, and the refrigerant R245fa is chosen as the working fluid. Different hot water temperatures of 80, 85, 90 and 95 °C are employed to drive the pumpless ORC system. Experimental results show that a maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the hot water temperature of 95 °C, whereas the average shaft power is 155.8 W. The maximum energy efficiency of 2.3% and the maximum exergy efficiency of 12.8% are obtained at the hot water temperature of 90 °C. Meanwhile a test rig for investigating the mechanical loss of the scroll expander is established. The torque caused by the internal mechanical friction of the expander is about 0.4 N m. Additionally, another scroll expander with a displacement of 86 ml/r is also employed to investigate how scroll expander displacement influences the performance of the pumpless ORC system. Finally, the performance of the pumpless ORC system is compared with that of the conventional ORC system, and experimental results show that the small pumpless ORC system has more advantages for the low-grade heat recovery. - Highlights: • A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system is established, and different scroll expanders are tested. • The maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 2.3% and 12.8% respectively. • A maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the heat source temperature of 95 °C. • The small pumpless ORC system has characteristics of the high efficiency.

  6. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkle, Joshua H.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferguson, Mark K. [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Hai-Yan [First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Chenpeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, RenJi Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Xuee [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-08-15

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub WB}) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTV{sub WB} to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTV{sub WB}, MTV{sub WB} may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTV{sub WB} in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTV{sub WB}, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTV{sub WB}. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p < 0.01), between IIIA and IIIB patients (p < 0.01), and between the stage IIIA patients with low MTV{sub WB} (below 29.2 mL) and the stage IIIA patients with high MTV{sub WB} (above 29.2 mL) (p < 0.01). There was no OS difference between the low MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA and the cohort of stage IIB patients (p = 0.485), or between the high MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA patients and the cohort of stage IIIB patients (p = 0.459). Similar risk-stratification capacity of MTV{sub WB} was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in

  7. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  8. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  9. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales; Diffusionseffekte in volumenselektiver NMR auf kleinen Laengenskalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-21

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 {mu}m could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  10. Evaluation of thermal stress in the anode chamber wall of a large volume magnetic bucket ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Ohara, Yoshihiro

    1984-02-01

    Thermal stress analysis was performed on the plasma chamber of the Large Volume Magnetic Multipole Bucket Ion Source (LVB) designed for use on the JT-60 NBI system. The energy absorbed by the walls of the plasma chambers of neutral beam injectors is of the order of 1% of the accelerator electrical drain power. A previous study indicates that a moderately high heat flux, of about 600W/cm 2 , is concentrated on the magnetic field cusp lines during normal full power operation. Abnormal arc discharges during conditioning of a stainless steel LVB produced localized melting of the stainless steel at several locations near the cusps lines. The power contained in abnormal arc discharges (arc spots) was estimated from the observed melting. Thermal stress analysis was performed numerically on representative sections of the copper LVB design for both stable and abnormal arc discharge conditions. Results show that this chamber should not fail due to thermal fatigue stesses arising from normal arc discharges. However, fatigue failure may occur after several hundred to a few thousand arc spots of 30mS duration at any one location. Limited arc discharge operation of the copper bucket was performed to partially verify the chamber's durability. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 1054.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine and equipment manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions apply as specified in this part. (b) If you are a small business (as defined by the Small Business... be expected to fulfill future regulatory obligations and administrative judgments. We may also... before you certify your engines for the next model year, we might allow you to use assigned deterioration...

  12. EEG in Silent Small Vessel Disease : sLORETA Mapping Reveals Cortical Sources of Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Default Mode Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Nagels, Guy; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    Introduction: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presof the small vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious and difficult to diagnose in the initial stage. We investigated electroencephalographic sources of subcortical

  13. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible

  14. Source of the Vrancea, Romania intermediate-depth earthquakes: variability test of the source time function using a small-aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Placinta, A.O.; Cioflan, C. O.; Grecu, B.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to investigate the possibility to detect and calibrate the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes using a small-aperture array, Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR). BURAR array was installed in 1999 in joint cooperation between Romania and USA. The array is situated in the northern part of Romania, in Eastern Carpathians, at about 250 km distance from the Vrancea epicentral area. The array consists of 10 stations (nine short period and one broad band instruments installed in boreholes). For our study we selected 30 earthquakes (3.8 iU MD iU 6.0) occurred between 2002 and 2004, including two recent Vrancea events, which are the best ever recorded earthquakes on the Romanian territory: September 27, 2004 (45.70 angle N, 26.45 angle E, h = 166 km, M w = 4.7) and October 27, 2004 (45.84 angle N, 26.63 angle E, h = 105 km, M w 6.0). Empirical Green function deconvolution and spectral ratio methods are applied for pairs of collocated events with similar focal mechanism. Stability tests are performed for the retrieved source time function using the array elements. Empirical scaling and calibration relationships are also determined. Possible variation with depth along the subducting slab, in agreement with assumed differences in the seismic and tectonic regime between the upper (h = 60 -110 km) and lower (h = 110 - 180 km) lithospheric seismic active segments, and variation in the attenuation of the seismic waves propagating toward BURAR site, are also investigated. (authors)

  15. A small electron beam ion trap/source facility for electron/neutral–ion collisional spectroscopy in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gui-Yun; Wei, Hui-Gang; Yuan, Da-Wei; Wang, Fei-Lu; Peng, Ji-Min; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Schmidt, Mike; Zschornack, Günter; Ma, Xin-Wen; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Spectra are fundamental observation data used for astronomical research, but understanding them strongly depends on theoretical models with many fundamental parameters from theoretical calculations. Different models give different insights for understanding a specific object. Hence, laboratory benchmarks for these theoretical models become necessary. An electron beam ion trap is an ideal facility for spectroscopic benchmarks due to its similar conditions of electron density and temperature compared to astrophysical plasmas in stellar coronae, supernova remnants and so on. In this paper, we will describe the performance of a small electron beam ion trap/source facility installed at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences.We present some preliminary experimental results on X-ray emission, ion production, the ionization process of trapped ions as well as the effects of charge exchange on the ionization.

  16. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  17. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Volume 4: Technical report on the findings of Task 4, Investigation of sealed source for paper mill digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benac, D.J.; Iddings, F.A.

    1995-10-01

    This report covers the Task 4 activities for the Sealed Source and Device Safety testing program. SwRI was contracted to investigate a suspected leaking radioactive source that was installed in a gauge that was on a paper mill digester. The actual source that was leaking was not available, therefore, SwRI examined another source. SwRI concluded that the encapsulated source examined by SwRI was not leaking. However, the presence of Cs-137 on the interior and exterior of the outer encapsulation and hending tube suggests that contamination probably occurred when the source was first manufactured, then installed in the handling tube

  18. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Examine the criteria for establishing the small span small pillar concept as a safe mining method in deep mines,Volume 1 of 1.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Frey, FSA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available with conventional breast panel 38 4.4 Critical evaluation of results 39 4.5 A recommended alternative method 41 4.6 Comparison criteria used as for other layouts 45 4.7 Conclusions and future research needs 47 5 MINE ECONOMICS 48 5.1 Mine economic criteria 48... stream_source_info GAP822.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 176631 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name GAP822.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee...

  20. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  1. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  2. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 μm excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) × 10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least ( –3 M ☉ of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  4. The impact of time between staging PET/CT and definitive chemo-radiation on target volumes and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Plumridge, Nikki; Herschtal, Alan; Bressel, Mathias; Ball, David; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the impact of treatment delays on radiation therapy (RT) target volumes and overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent two baseline FDG PET/CT scans. Material and methods: Patients underwent a staging (PET1) and RT planning (PET2) FDG PET/CT scan. At PET1 all patients were eligible for radical chemo-RT. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT and those treated palliatively because PET2 showed progression. RT target volumes were contoured using PET1 and PET2. Normal tissue doses were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT. Results: Eighty-two patients underwent PET2 scans between October 2004 and February 2007. Of these, 21 had a prior PET1 scan, median 23 days apart (range 8–176 days). Six patients (29%) were unsuitable for radical RT after PET2; five received palliative treatment and one received no treatment. Patients treated palliatively had significantly worse OS and PFS than patients treated radically p < 0.001. Mean RT tumour volume increased from 105cc to 198cc (p < 0.005) between scans. Conclusions: Disease progression while awaiting initiation of curative RT in NSCLC is associated with larger treatment volumes and worse survival

  5. Temperate mangrove and salt marsh sediments are a small methane and nitrous oxide source but important carbon store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, Stephen J.; Andrusiak, Sascha M.

    2012-01-01

    Tidal saline wetlands (TSW), such as mangrove and salt marsh systems, provide many valuable ecosystem services, but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Tropical mangroves perform a critical role in the exchange and storage of terrestrial-marine carbon but can function as a source of methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O). However, little is known of biogeochemical processes in temperate mangrove and salt marsh systems in the southern hemisphere. In this study, the soil/sediment exchange of CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O was measured seasonally along a natural transition from melaleuca woodland, salt marsh and into mangroves along the Mornington Peninsula edge of Westernport Bay, Victoria, Australia. Soil/sediment physiochemical properties and sediment C density were measured concurrently. The melaleuca woodland soil was a constant CH 4 sink of approximately -25 μg C m -2 h -1 but along the transect this rapidly switched to a weak CH 4 source (mangrove sediments where emissions of up to 375 μg C m -2 h -1 were measured in summer. Sediment CH 4 exchange correlated with salinity, pneumatophore number and the redox potential of sediment water at depth. All three ecosystems were a small N 2O source of ecosystem and season along with soil temperature and salinity. Sediment C density was significantly greater in the salt marsh than the mangrove. Salt marsh sediment C density was 168 Mg C ha -1 which is comparable with that measured globally, whereas the mangrove sediment C density of 145 Mg C ha -1 is among the lowest reported. Contrary to global patterns in terrestrial soil C content and salt marsh sediment C content, data from our study indicate that mangrove sediments from a cooler, drier temperate latitude may store less C than mangroves in warmer and wetter tropical latitudes. Understanding both C storage and the greenhouse gas balance of TSWs will help us to better value these vulnerable ecosystems and manage them accordingly.

  6. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...... aerial photography. To address this issue, surface elevation in low contrast areas was measured manually at point locations and interpolated using a universal kriging approach. We conclude that ground-based SfM is well suited to establish high-quality DEMs of smaller glaciers. Provided favorable...

  7. The Relationship between the Introvert and Extravert Dichotomy and Small Unit Recruiting Volume Production within the Watertown Recruiting Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-22

    RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...Unit Recruiting Volume Production Within The Watertown Recruiting Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  9. The effect of small specimen volume on the deformation of Zircaloy-4 PWR cladding under mainly convective cooling by steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakden, M.M.; Reynolds, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Creep rupture tests were performed in flowing steam on single rod specimens of 17x17 type PWR Zircaloy-4 cladding 460 mm long. They were tested at temperatures between 640 deg.C and 985 deg.C with internal pressures in the range 1.00-9.65 MPa (gauge) (145-1400 lb/in 2 ). The internal free volume was limited to 2.9 ml. Axially extended 'carrot' shaped deformations were produced, the range of temperatures and pressures over which these occurred was found to be similar to that observed in previous tests conducted with a much larger free volume. The main result of limiting the internal volume was that straining of the specimens was accompanied by a more rapid drop in the internal pressure than occurred previously, and which reduced the extent of the deformation compared with that seen in the earlier work. However, diametral strains in excess of 33% were observed which would result in mechanical interaction of neighbouring bulges if this occurred in a multi-rod array. (author)

  10. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    of ice, corresponding to roughly a quarter of its 1985 volume (148.6 ± 47.6 10 m) and a thinning rate of 0.60 ± 0.11 m a. The computations are challenged by a relatively large fraction of the 1985 DEM (∼50% of the glacier surface) being deemed unreliable owing to low contrast (snow cover) in the 1985......Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...

  11. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  12. Quantitative in vivo assessment of radiation injury of the liver using Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI: tolerance dose of small liver volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Maciej

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Hepatic radiation toxicity restricts irradiation of liver malignancies. Better knowledge of hepatic tolerance dose is favourable to gain higher safety and to optimize radiation regimes in radiotherapy of the liver. In this study we sought to determine the hepatic tolerance dose to small volume single fraction high dose rate irradiation. Materials and methods 23 liver metastases were treated by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy. MRI was performed 3 days, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after therapy. MR-sequences were conducted with T1-w GRE enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted Gd-EOB-DTPA. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D-dosimetry data. The reviewer indicated the border of hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function or hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema. Based on the volume data, a dose-volume-histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for edema or function loss as the D90, i.e. the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results At six weeks post brachytherapy, the hepatocyte function loss reached its maximum extending to the former 9.4Gy isosurface in median (i.e., ≥9.4Gy dose exposure led to hepatocyte dysfunction. After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunctional volume had decreased significantly to a median of 11.4Gy and 14Gy isosurface, respectively, as a result of repair mechanisms. Development of edema was maximal at six weeks post brachytherapy (9.2Gy isosurface in median, and regeneration led to a decrease of the isosurface to a median of 11.3Gy between 6 and 12 weeks. The dose exposure leading to hepatocyte dysfunction was not significantly different from the dose provoking edema. Conclusion Hepatic injury peaked 6 weeks after small volume irradiation. Ongoing repair was observed up to 6 months. Individual dose sensitivity may differ as demonstrated by a relatively high standard deviation of threshold values in our own as well as all other published data.

  13. Optical characterization of extremely small volumes of liquid in sub-micro-holes by simultaneous reflectivity, ellipsometry and spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, M; Casquel, R; Sánchez, B; Molpeceres, C; Morales, M; Ocaña, J L

    2007-10-01

    We have fabricated and characterized a lattice of submicron cone-shaped holes on a SiO(2)/Si wafer. Reflectivity profiles as a function of angle of incidence and polarization, phase shift and spectrometry are obtained for several fluids with different refractive indexes filling the holes. The optical setup allows measuring in the center of a single hole and collecting all data simultaneously, which can be applied for measuring extremely low volumes of fluid (in the order of 0.1 femtolitres) and label-free immunoassays, as it works as a refractive index sensor. A three layer film stack model is defined to perform theoretical calculations.

  14. The effect of consuming small volumes of beer on gastric motility and the involvement of gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Jodai, Yasutaka; Omori, Takafumi; Sumi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hirata, Ichiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakao, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing 13 C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min. The concentration peak of 13 C was measured as Tmax. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity for the marker of small intestinal function activity was also measured the day after the test. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in the group that consumed a small amount of beer, and in daily beer consumption group, and also in the ADH1B *2/*2, ALDH2 *1/*2 genotypes compared to non-beer drinking group. DAO values were not significantly changed between beer and non-beer group. The consumption of even a small amount of beer and the polymorphisms in ADH1B / ALDH2 affects gastric motility.

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  16. High-energy radiation monitoring based on radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization. I : Small volume in situ probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warman, J.M.; De Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.

    2009-01-01

    A method of radiation dosimetry is described which is based on the radiation-induced initiation of polymerization of a bulk monomer (e.g. methyl methacrylate) containing a small concentration (about 100 ppm) of a compound which is non-fluorescent but which becomes highly fluorescent when it is

  17. Sewage sludge ash (SSA) from large and small incineration plants as a potential source of phosphorus - Polish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Marzena; Kulczycka, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this research is to present the possibility of using the sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in incineration plants as a secondary source of phosphorus (P). The importance of issues related to P recovery from waste materials results from European Union (UE) legislation, which indicated phosphorus as a critical raw material (CRM). Due to the risks of a shortage of supply and its impact on the economy, which is greater than other raw materials, the proper management of phosphorus resources is required in order to achieve global P security. Based on available databases and literature, an analysis of the potential use of SSA for P-recovery in Poland was conducted. Currently, approx. 43,000 Mg/year of SSA is produced in large and small incineration plants and according to in the Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP) further steady growth is predicted. This indicates a great potential to recycle phosphorus from SSA and to reintroduce it again into the value chain as a component of fertilisers which can be applied directly on fields. The amount of SSA generated in installations, both large and small, varies and this contributes to the fact that new and different P recovery technology solutions must be developed and put into use in the years to come (e.g. mobile/stationary P recovery installations). The creation of a database focused on the collection and sharing of data about the amount of P recovered in EU and Polish installations is identified as a helpful tool in the development of an efficient P management model for Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three dimensional optimization of small-scale axial turbine for low temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Bahr Ennil, A.S.; Rahbar, Kiyarash

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional optimization of axial turbine stage is presented. • Six organic fluids suitable for low-temperature heat source are considered. • Three-dimensional optimization has been done for each working fluid. • The results showed highlight the potential of optimization technique. • The performance of optimized turbine has been improved off-design conditions. - Abstract: Advances in optimization techniques can be used to enhance the performance of turbines in various applications. However, limited work has been reported on using such optimization techniques to develop small-scale turbines for organic Rankine cycles. This paper investigates the use of multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the stage geometry of a small-axial subsonic turbine. This optimization is integrated with organic Rankine cycle analysis using wide range of high density organic working fluids like R123, R134a, R141b, R152a, R245fa and isobutane suitable for low temperature heat sources <100 °C such as solar energy to achieve the best turbine design and highest organic Rankine cycle efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine in most of the reported organic Rankine cycle studies was assumed constant, while the current work allows the turbine isentropic efficiency to change (dynamic value) with both operating conditions and working fluids. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization were performed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model in ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX and design exploration for various working fluids. The optimization was carried out using eight design parameters for the turbine stage geometry optimization including stator and rotor number of blades, rotor leading edge beta angle, trailing edge beta angle, stagger angle, throat width, trailing half wedge angle and shroud tip clearance. Results showed that

  19. Implications for dosimetric changes when introducing MR-guided brachytherapy for small volume cervix cancer: a comparison of CT and MR-based treatments in a single centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, Claire; Govindarajulu, Geetha; Sridharan, Swetha; Capp, Anne; O'Brien, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cervix brachytherapy dosimetry with the introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) based treatment planning and volumetric prescriptions and propose a method for plan evaluation in the transition period. The treatment records of 69 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Forty one patients were treated using computed tomography (CT)-based, Point A-based prescriptions and 28 patients were treated using magnetic resonance (MR)-based, volumetric prescriptions. Plans were assessed for dose to Point A and organs at risk (OAR) with additional high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) dose assessment for MR-based brachytherapy plans. ICRU-38 point doses and GEC-ESTRO recommended volumetric doses (D2 cc for OAR and D 100 , D 98 and D 90 for HR-CTV) were also considered. For patients with small HR-CTV sizes, introduction of MR-based volumetric brachytherapy produced a change in dose delivered to Point A and OAR. Point A doses fell by 4.8 Gy (p = 0.0002) and ICRU and D 2cc doses for OAR also reduced (p < 0.01). Mean Point A doses for MR-based brachytherapy treatment plans were closer to those of HR-CTV D 100 for volumes less than 20 cm 3 and HR-CTV D 98 for volumes between 20 and 35 cm 3 , with a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between Point A and HR-CTV D 90 doses in these ranges. In order to maintain brachytherapy dose consistency across varying HR-CTV sizes there must be a relationship between the volume of the HR-CTV and the prescription dose. Rather than adopting a ‘one size fits all’ approach during the transition to volume-based prescriptions, this audit has shown that separating prescription volumes into HR-CTV size categories of less than 20 cm 3 , between 20 and 35 cm 3 , and more than 35 cm 3 the HR-CTV can provide dose uniformity across all volumes and can be directly linked to traditional Point A prescriptions.

  20. A rheo-optical apparatus for real time kinetic studies on shear-induced alignment of self-assembled soft matter with small sample volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Ari; Ikkala, Olli

    2007-01-01

    In soft materials, self-assembled nanoscale structures can allow new functionalities but a general problem is to align such local structures aiming at monodomain overall order. In order to achieve shear alignment in a controlled manner, a novel type of rheo-optical apparatus has here been developed that allows small sample volumes and in situ monitoring of the alignment process during the shear. Both the amplitude and orientation angles of low level linear birefringence and dichroism are measured while the sample is subjected to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The apparatus is based on a commercial rheometer where we have constructed a flow cell that consists of two quartz teeth. The lower tooth can be set in oscillatory motion whereas the upper one is connected to the force transducers of the rheometer. A custom made cylindrical oven allows the operation of the flow cell at elevated temperatures up to 200 °C. Only a small sample volume is needed (from 9 to 25 mm3), which makes the apparatus suitable especially for studying new materials which are usually obtainable only in small quantities. Using this apparatus the flow alignment kinetics of a lamellar polystyrene-b-polyisoprene diblock copolymer is studied during shear under two different conditions which lead to parallel and perpendicular alignment of the lamellae. The open device geometry allows even combined optical/x-ray in situ characterization of the alignment process by combining small-angle x-ray scattering using concepts shown by Polushkin et al. [Macromolecules 36, 1421 (2003)].

  1. Impact of PET - CT motion correction in minimising the gross tumour volume in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Masoomi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To investigate the impact of respiratory motion on localization, and quantification lung lesions for the Gross Tumour Volume utilizing an in-house developed Auto3Dreg programme and dynamic NURBS-based cardiac-torso digitised phantom (NCAT. Methods: Respiratory motion may result in more than 30% underestimation of the SUV values of lung, liver and kidney tumour lesions. The motion correction technique adopted in this study was an image-based motion correction approach using, an in-house developed voxel-intensity-based and a multi-resolution multi-optimisation (MRMO algorithm. All the generated frames were co-registered to a reference frame using a time efficient scheme. The NCAT phantom was used to generate CT attenuation maps and activity distribution volumes for the lung regions. Quantitative assessment including Region of Interest (ROI, image fidelity and image correlation techniques, as well as semi-quantitative line profile analysis and qualitatively overlaying non-motion and motion corrected image frames were performed. Results: the largest transformation was observed in the Z-direction. The greatest translation was for the frame 3, end inspiration, and the smallest for the frame 5 which was closet frame to the reference frame at 67% expiration. Visual assessment of the lesion sizes, 20-60mm at 3 different locations, apex, mid and base of lung showed noticeable improvement for all the foci and their locations. The maximum improvements for the image fidelity were from 0.395 to 0.930 within the lesion volume of interest. The greatest improvement in activity concentration underestimation, post motion correction, was 7% below the true activity for the 20 mm lesion. The discrepancies in activity underestimation were reduced with increasing the lesion sizes. Overlay activity distribution on the attenuation map showed improved localization of the PET metabolic information to the anatomical CT images. Conclusion: The respiratory

  2. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  3. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  4. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  5. Dynamics of glucagon secretion in mice and rats revealed using a validated sandwich ELISA for small sample volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon is a metabolically important hormone, but many aspects of its physiology remain obscure, because glucagon secretion is difficult to measure in mice and rats due to methodological inadequacies. Here, we introduce and validate a low-volume, enzyme-linked immunosorbent glucagon assay...... according to current analytical guidelines, including tests of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and compare it, using the Bland-Altman algorithm and size-exclusion chromatography, with three other widely cited assays. After demonstrating adequate performance of the assay, we measured glucagon...... and returning to basal levels at 6 min (mice) and 12 min (rats). d-Mannitol (osmotic control) was without effect. Ketamine/xylazine anesthesia in mice strongly attenuated (P assay. In conclusion, dynamic analysis...

  6. Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect in dependence of the attenuation correction of a state-of-the-art small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Judenhofer, Martin S; Schmid, Andreas; Pichler, Bernd J; Tillmanns, Julia; Stiller, Detlef; Sossi, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE) of the Siemens Inveon PET scanner were evaluated. The influence of transmission source activities (40 and 160 MBq) on the quantification accuracy and the PVE were determined. Dynamic range, object size and PVE for different sphere sizes, contrast ratios and positions in the field of view (FOV) were evaluated. The acquired data were reconstructed using different algorithms and correction methods. The activity level of the transmission source and the total emission activity in the FOV strongly influenced the attenuation maps. Reconstruction algorithms, correction methods, object size and location within the FOV had a strong influence on the PVE in all configurations. All evaluated parameters potentially influence the quantification accuracy. Hence, all protocols should be kept constant during a study to allow a comparison between different scans. (paper)

  7. Comparison of different threshold 18FDG PET with computer tomography for defining gross tumor volume in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqing; Yu Jinming; Xing Ligang; Gong Heyi; Fu Zheng; Yang Guoren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Under different standard uptake value(SUV), to assess gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glueose positron emission tomography( 18 FDG PET) both under definite threshold (42 percent threshold) and various relative threshold (threshold SUV/maximum SUV) derived from the linear regressive function, threshold SUV=0.307 x (mean target SUV) + 0.588, with computer tomography(CT). Methods: Of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the CT GTV (GTV CT ), PET GTV with 42 percents threshold (GTV 42% ) and PET GTV with relative threshold (GTV relate ) were obtained and compared. Results: The mean GTV 42% , mean GTV relate and mean GTV CT was (13 812.5±13 841.4), (24 325.3±22 454.7) and (28350.9± 26 079.8) mm 3 , respectively, with the difference in mean GTV among these three methods significant (F =. 10, P 42% was smaller than the GTV relate and the GTV CT (P relate and GTV CT (P = 0.125 ). Conclusion: The relative threshold is more suitable to define the gross tumor volume than the definite threshold. (authors)

  8. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.

  9. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magro, G; Molinelli, S; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M; Ferrari, A

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo ® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus ® chamber. An EBT3 ® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification. (paper)

  10. Comparison of three approaches to delineate internal gross tumor volume based on four-dimensional CT simulation images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxiang; Li Jianbin; Zhang Yingjie; Shang Dongping; Liu Tonghai; Tian Shiyu; Xu Min; Ma Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare positional and volumetric differences of internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) delineated separately by three approaches based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) for the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NLCLC). Methods: Twenty-one patients with NLCLC underwent big bore 4DCT simulation scan of the thorax. IGTVs of the primary tumor of NSCLC were delineated using three approaches as followed: (1) the gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of the ten the respiratory phases of the 4DCT image set were delineated and the ten GTV were fused to produce IGTV 10 ; (2) the GTV delineated separately based on 0% and 50% phase were fused to produce IGTV EI+EE ; (3) the visible tumor on the MIP images were delineated to produce IGTV MIP . The position of the target center, the volume of target, the degree of inclusion (DI) and the matching index (MI) were compared reciprocally between IGTV 10 , IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP . Results: Average differences between the position of the center of IGTVs on direction of x, y and z axes were less than 1 mm, with no statistically significant difference. The volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV EI+EE , the difference was statistically significant (t=2.37, P=0.028); the volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV MIP , but the difference was not statistically significant (t=1.95, P=0.065). The ratio of IGTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP with IGTV 10 were 0.85±0.08 and 0.92±0.11, respectively. DI of IGTV EI+EE in IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP in IGTV 10 were 84.78% ± 8. 95% and 88.47% ±9.04%. MI between IGTV 10 and IGTV EI+EE , IGTV 10 and IGTV MIP were 0.85 ±0.09, 0.86±0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The center displacement of the IGTVs delineated separately by the three different techniques based on 4DCT images are not obvious; IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP can not replace IGTV 10 , however, IGTV MIP is more close to IGTV 10 comparing to IGTV EI+EE . The ratio of GTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 is correlated to the tumor motion

  11. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  12. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I.

    2006-01-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR 2 + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six 60 Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  13. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dpto. Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR{sup 2} + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six {sup 60}Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  14. Feasibility study for the assessment of biomass material flows - Final report. Volume 1: main report, Volume 2: monograph of existing data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Laurent; Forot, Virginie; Rouillon, Adrien; Rantien, Caroline; Zegers, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elaborating a method of quantification of annual inter-regional, national and international biomass flows within the French market, within a perspective of integration into the French national biomass resource observatory (ONRB). This method is based on numerous existing data which are available for all French regions. Three main data sources have been selected. After a presentation of definitions and nomenclature used within these data sources, and a discussion of ways to address the flow concept, the report presents the different studied data (regional, national and international data), and then presents the adopted method for the assessments of inter-regional flows, flows between a region and the international level, and between France and the rest of the world. Recommendations are then made for the implementation and integration of this method into existing tools

  15. Track reconstruction method in a small volume self-shunted streamer chamber - analysis of the errors for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, M.J.; Augerat, J.; Avan, M.; Ballet, M.; Vialle, M.

    1977-01-01

    A programme has been worked out to reconstruct electron tracks of low energy (from 100 keV to 2 MeV) curved by a magnetic field in a small streamer chamber (size 10x11x51 cm 3 ). Before a study of the problems involved in the experimental set-up, the geometrical programme is described and the different errors are evaluated. Finally the accuracies on kinetic energies and angles which can be obtained for low energy elctron tracks are given. (Auth.)

  16. Comparison of Tumor Volumes as Determined by Pathologic Examination and FDG-PET/CT Images of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinming; Li Xinke; Xing Ligang; Mu Dianbin; Fu Zheng; Sun Xiaorong; Sun Xiangyu; Yang Guoren; Zhang Baijiang; Sun Xindong; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cut-off standardized uptake value (SUV) on 18 F fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) images that generates the best volumetric match to pathologic gross tumor volume (GTV path ) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans followed by lobectomy were enrolled. The surgical specimen was dissected into 5-7-μm sections at approximately 4-mm intervals and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tumor-containing area was outlined slice by slice and the GTV path determined by summing over all the slices, taking into account the interslice thickness and fixation-induced volume reduction. The gross tumor volume from the PET images, GTV PET , was determined as a function of cut-off SUV. The optimal threshold or optimal absolute SUV was defined as the value at which the GTV PET was the same as the GTV path . Results: The fixation process induced a volumetric reduction to 82% ± 10% (range, 62-100%) of the original. The maximal SUV was 10.1 ± 3.6 (range, 4.2-18.7). The optimal threshold and absolute SUV were 31% ± 11% and 3.0 ± 1.6, respectively. The optimal threshold was inversely correlated with GTV path and tumor diameter (p path or tumor diameter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study evaluated the use of GTV path as a criterion for determining the optimal cut-off SUV for NSCLC target volume delineation. Confirmatory studies including more cases are being performed.

  17. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Duffy, Mary; Bressel, Mathias; McInnes, Belinda; Russell, Christine; Sevitt, Tim; Ball, David

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (r s = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (r s = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (r s = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, r s = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, r s = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, r s = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  18. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  19. Stereotactic body radiotherapy and treatment at a high volume facility is associated with improved survival in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Matthew; Malik, Renuka; Mahmood, Usama; Husain, Zain; Sher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NoTx), conventional fractionated radiotherapy (ConvRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. This population based cohort also allowed us to examine what facility level characteristics contributed to improved outcomes. Methods: We included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n = 13,036). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The median follow up was 68 months (interquartile range: 35–83 months) in surviving patients. Among the cohort, 52% received NoTx, 41% received ConvRT and 6% received SBRT. The 3-year OS was 28% for NoTx, 36% for ConvRT radiotherapy, and 48% for the SBRT cohort (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for SBRT and ConvRT were 0.67 and 0.77, respectively, as compared to NoTx (1.0 ref) (p < 0.0001). Patients treated at a high volume facility vs. low volume facility had a hazard ratio of 0.94 vs. 1.0 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with early stage inoperable lung cancer treated with SBRT and at a high volume facility had a survival benefit compared to patients treated with ConvRT or NoTx or to those treated at a low volume facility

  20. Continuous infusion of small-volume fluid resuscitation in the treatment of combined uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrettin, O.; Yagmur, Y.; Tas, A.; Topcu, S.; Orak, M.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of continuous limited fluid resuscitation on the hemodynamic response and survival in rats in a model of uncontrolled hemorrhage shock due to Massive Splenic Injury (MSI) and Head Injury (HI). Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Group 1 rats (n=10) was sham-operated. In group 2 (n=10), only Massive Splenic Injury (MSI) was performed and untreated. In group 3 (n=10), only head injury (HI) was performed and untreated. In group 4 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed and were untreated. In group 5 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed and 15 minutes later treated with 7.5% NaCl. In group 6 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed, and rats were treated with Ringer's Lactate (RL) solution. In group 7 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed, rats were treated with 0.9 % NaCl. In groups 2,4,5,6 and 7 midline incision was reopened and splenectomy was performed at 45 minutes. In group 4 rats, Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) was decreased from 104 +- 6.1 mmHg to 75 +- 19.5 mmHg at 15 minutes; heart rate decreased from 357+- 24.9 beats/min to 321 +- 62.1 beats/min and hematocrit decreased from 46 +- 1.3 % to 43 +- 2.5 % (p<0.01). Similar early changes in MAP, heart rate and hematocrit were observed in groups 5, 6, and 7, at 15 minutes. At 45,60 and 120 minutes, in fluid resuscitated rats (group 5,6,7) MAP, heart rate and hematocrit values were measured higher than group 2 and 4 (p<0.01 for all). At 120 min. in group 6, hematocrit was higher than group 4, 5 and 7, in group 6, total blood loss after splenectomy was calculated at 20 +- 2.4% of blood volume and was the best value compared to other fluid resuscitated group 5 and 7 (28% and 27% of blood volume) (p<0.01). Mortality was lower in all fluid resuscitated groups when compared to group 3 and 4 (p< 0.05). The median survival time was again higher in fluid resuscitated groups. Continuous infusion of 7.5% NaCl, RL and 0.9 % NaCl following uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock with massive splenic injury and

  1. Target volume for postoperative radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Results from a prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kępka, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Bujko, Magdalena; Matecka-Nowak, Mirosława; Salata, Andrzej; Janowski, Henryk; Rogowska, Danuta; Cieślak-Żerańska, Ewa; Komosińska, Katarzyna; Zawadzka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: A previous prospective trial reported that three-dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for pN2 NSCLC patients using a limited clinical target volume (CTV) had a late morbidity rate and pulmonary function that did not differ from those observed in pN1 patients treated with surgery without PORT. The aim of this study was to assess locoregional control and localization of failure in patients treated with PORT. Materials and methods: The pattern of locoregional failure was evaluated retrospectively in 151 of 171 patients included in the PORT arm. The CTV included the involved lymph node stations and those with a risk of invasion >10%. Competing risk analysis was used to assess the incidence of locoregional failure and its location outside the CTV. Results: Overall survival at 5 years was 27.1% with a median follow-up of 67 months for 40 living patients. The 5-year cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was 19.4% (95% CI: 18.2–20.5%) including a failure rate of 2% (95% CI: 0–17%) in locations outside or at the border of the CTV. Conclusions: The use of limited CTV was associated with acceptable risk of geographic miss. Overall locoregional control was similar to that reported by other studies using PORT for pN2 patients

  2. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengxiang Li,1 Jianbin Li,1 Zhifang Ma,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Jun Xing,1 Huanpeng Qi,1 Dongping Shang21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT, four-dimensional CT (4DCT, and cone-beam CT (CBCT images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume, internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left–right (LR, anterior–posterior (AP directions and 10 mm in cranial–caudal (CC direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated.Results: The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm

  3. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y.; Braga, J.; Correa, R.; Leite, J.P.; Simoes, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  4. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia Molecular], e-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.br; Braga, J. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica; Correa, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ciencia Espacial e Atmosferica; Leite, J.P. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia, Psiquiatria e Psicologia Medica; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2009-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  5. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multipinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target’s radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals.

  6. Project of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant with improved safety for nuclear sources of small and medium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.; Dedul, A. V.; Bolvanchikov, S. N.; Zrodnikov, A. V.; Tolhinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the joint work performed recently by FSUE OKB Gidropress, SNC RF-IPPE and other organizations the technical feasibility is shown for creation and usage in nuclear power engineering of the unified reactor plant (RP) SVBR-75/100 with fast neutron reactor core and lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) in the primary circuit. Technical design of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant is based on the following: 50-year operation experience in development and operation of RP with LBC for nuclear submarines; experience in development and operation of fast reactor with sodium coolant; experience in optimization of LBC technology at nuclear submarines and ground-based test benches; conceptual design of SVBR-75 reactor plant (for renovation of Units 2, 3 and 4 of Novovoronezh NPP). Technical solutions laid down in the basis of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant design are oriented towards the industrial basis, structural materials existing in Russia, as well as the unique LBC technology with experimental and practical support. The concept of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant safety assurance is based on the following provisions: maximum usage of inherent safety supported by physical features of fast neutron reactor, chemically inert LBC in the primary circuit, integral layout and special design solutions; maximum possible combination of normal operation and safety functions in RP systems. Small power of SVBR-75/100 RP makes it possible to manufacture the complete set of RP main equipment at the factory and delivery it to NPP site as-finished practically using any transport including railway. Possible fields of application of SVBR-75/100 reactor plants: modular NPPs of different power; renovation of NPPs with light water reactors exhausted their service life; independent nuclear power sources for different applications (ground-based nuclear water-desalinating plants, etc. )(author)

  7. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Wang

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among children in eastern China.This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR with average thyroid volume (Tvol and urinary iodine concentration (UIC in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects and salt iodine (10,184 samples using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA.TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  8. Formation of amino acid precursors in the Solar System small bodies using Aluminium-26 as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Jun; Mita, Hajime; Tachibana, Shogo; Yoda, Isao; Misawa, Shusuke

    2016-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain various organic matter including amino acids that may have played an important role for origin of life on the early Earth. The parent bodies of the chondritic meteorites likely formed from silicate dust grains containing some water ice and organic compounds. These planetesimals are known to contain short-lived radio isotopes such as ^{26}Al, and the heat generated from the decay of ^{26}Al was considered to be used for melting ice. The liquid water, for example, changed anhydrous silicates into hydrous silicates, i.e., aqueous alteration. The liquid water would act also as an ideal reaction medium for various organic chemistry. Cody et al. [1] proposed IOM formation via formose reaction starting with formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde during aqueous activity in the small bodies. Additional hydrothermal experiments showed that ammonia enhanced the yields of IOM like organic solids [2]. Formaldehyde and ammonia are ubiquitous in the Solar System and beyond, e.g., comets contain H _{2}CO : NH _{3} : H _{2}O = 0.4-4 : 0.5-1.5 : 100 [3]. Thus these molecules can be expected to have existed in some Solar System small bodies. We study the liquid phase chemistry of the formaldehyde and ammonia, including formations of amino acid precursor molecules, via hydrothermal experiments at isothermal temperatures of 90 °C to 200 °C. We also evaluate the effects of gamma-ray which is released from the decay of ^{26}Al with gamma-ray irradiation experiments using a ^{60}Co gamma-ray source at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Amino acids were detected mostly after acid hydrolysis of heated or irradiated solutions, indicating that most of the amino acids in the products exist as precursors. Some samples contained 'free' amino acids that were detected without acid hydrolysis, but much lower abundance than after acid hydrolysis. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses of High resolution mass spectra obtained using ESI-MS revealed that various CHO and CHNO

  9. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  10. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  11. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the

  12. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Joscha, E-mail: joscha.maier@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  13. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Volume 1. Theory of risk acceptance: research approaches and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 gives an introduction to the scope of this social analysis of the nuclear energy problem; it reviews the state-of-the-art of social research in this field and presents the theoretical and terminological concept and its form of operationalization.

  14. Micro-electrodeposition techniques for the preparation of small actinide counting sources for ultra-high resolution alpha spectrometry by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plionis, A.A.; Hastings, E.P.; LaMont, S.P.; Dry, D.E.; Bacrania, M.K.; Rabin, M.W.; Rim, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Special considerations and techniques are desired for the preparation of small actinide counting sources. Counting sources have been prepared on metal disk substrates (planchets) with an active area of only 0.079 mm 2 . This represents a 93.75% reduction in deposition area from standard electrodeposition methods. The actinide distribution upon the smaller planchet must remain thin and uniform to allow alpha particle emissions to escape the counting source with a minimal amount of self-attenuation. This work describes the development of micro-electrodeposition methods and optimization of the technique with respect to deposition time and current density for various planchet sizes. (author)

  15. 小企业融资缺口及来源特征分析%Analysis on Financing Gap and Financing Source in Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡真

    2012-01-01

    According to the investigation of financing gap and financing source of small businesses, we find that the business size and age are typical factors impacting financing of small business.Comparing the current financing source and willingness of small businesses with their start-up period,we can find that the problem of financing difficulty is still serious,although the choices of small businesses' financing expand with their growth age.The analysis on loan's source shows that small business get more proportions of loan from big banks than from small ones for the development of small businesses' loan technology based on "hard information". However,big banks scarcely provide long-term capital for small businesses.%根据对小企业融资缺口和来源特征的调查分析,小企业融资难存在典型的规模和年龄特征。对小企业初创和当前融资来源以及融资意愿的比较发现,尽管伴随企业成长,融资方式的选择有所扩展,但依然存在深度的融资难问题。对贷款来源的分析表明,基于"硬信息"的小企业贷款技术的发展,大银行对小企业的融资比例超过小银行,但小企业依然很难从大银行获得长期资金。

  16. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm 3 ] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm 3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm 3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm 3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×10 8 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular

  17. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  18. High order well-balanced finite volume WENO schemes and discontinuous Galerkin methods for a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yulong; Shu Chiwang

    2006-01-01

    Hyperbolic balance laws have steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are nonzero but are exactly balanced by the source term. In our earlier work [J. Comput. Phys. 208 (2005) 206-227; J. Sci. Comput., accepted], we designed a well-balanced finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, which at the same time maintains genuine high order accuracy for general solutions, to a class of hyperbolic systems with separable source terms including the shallow water equations, the elastic wave equation, the hyperbolic model for a chemosensitive movement, the nozzle flow and a two phase flow model. In this paper, we generalize high order finite volume WENO schemes and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) finite element methods to the same class of hyperbolic systems to maintain a well-balanced property. Finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes are more flexible than finite difference schemes to treat complicated geometry and adaptivity. However, because of a different computational framework, the maintenance of the well-balanced property requires different technical approaches. After the description of our well-balanced high order finite volume WENO and RKDG schemes, we perform extensive one and two dimensional simulations to verify the properties of these schemes such as the exact preservation of the balance laws for certain steady state solutions, the non-oscillatory property for general solutions with discontinuities, and the genuine high order accuracy in smooth regions

  19. Does the IMRT technique allow improvement of treatment plans (e.g. lung sparing) for lung cancer patients with small lung volume: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosinska, K.; Kepka, L.; Gizynska, M.; Zawadzka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer any advantages in comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with small lung volume (SLV). Methods: Treatment planning was performed for 10 NSCLC patients with the smallest lung volume (mean: 2241 cc) among 200 patients from our database. For each patient 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were prepared. The goal was to deliver 66 Gy/33 fractions, with dose constraints: mean lung dose (MLD) < 20 Gy, V20 < 35%; spinal cord - Dmax < 45 Gy. When the plan could not meet these criteria, total dose was reduced. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared. We investigated: prescribed dose, coverage and conformity indices, MLD, V5-V65 in the lung. Results: In 4 out of 10 plans, 3D-CRT did not allow 66 Gy to be delivered, because of predicted pulmonary toxicity. These 4 cases included 3 for which we did not reach 66 Gy with IMRT; still, for these 3 plans the total dose was increased by an average of 9 Gy with IMRT in comparison with 3D-CRT. Coverage indices were similar for both techniques. Conformity indices were better for IMRT plans. MLD was lower in five IMRT and two 3D-CRT plans if equal doses were delivered. The decrease in MLD was seen for cases with large PTV and high PTV/lung volume ratio. Lung V5 was lower for all 3D-CRT plans, 47% vs. 57% for IMRT; V15 and above were larger for 3D-CRT Conclusion: In the planning study, IMRT seems to be a promising technique for cases with SLV, especially when associated with large PT V. (authors)

  20. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V 20 values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  1. Local and national trends in general surgery residents' operative experience: do work hour limitations negatively affect case volume in small community-based programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Alexey; Sakharpe, Aniket; Kohli, Harjeet; Livert, David

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze the impact of work hour restrictions on the operative case volume at a small community-based general surgery residency training program and compare changes with the national level. Annual national resident case log data from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website and case logs of graduating Easton Hospital residents (years 2002-2009) were used for analysis. Weighted average change in total number of cases in our institution was -1.20 (P = 0.52) vs 1.78 (P = 0.07) for the national program average with statistically significant difference on comparison (P = 0.027). We also found significant difference in case volume changes at the national level compared with our institution for the following ACGME defined subcategories: alimentary tract [8.19 (P < 0.01) vs -1.08 (P = 0.54)], abdomen [8.48 (P < 0.01) vs -6.29 (P < 0.01)], breast [1.91 (P = 0.89) vs -3.6 (P = 0.02)], and vascular [4.03 (P = 0.02) vs -3.98 (P = 0.01)]. Comparing the national trend to the community hospital we see that there is total increase in cases at the national level whereas there is a decrease in case volume at the community hospital. These trends can also be followed in ACGME defined subcategories which form the major case load for a general surgical training such as alimentary tract, abdominal, breast, and vascular procedures. We hypothesize that work hour restrictions have been favorable for the larger programs, as these programs were able to better integrate the night float system, restructure their call schedule, and implement institutional modifications which are too resource demanding for smaller training programs.

  2. SACALCCYL, Calculates the average solid angle subtended by a volume; SACALC2B, Calculates the average solid angle for source-detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SACALC2B calculates the average solid angle subtended by a rectangular or circular detector window to a coaxial or non-coaxial rectangular, circular or point source, including where the source and detector planes are not parallel. SACALC C YL calculates the average solid angle subtended by a cylinder to a rectangular or circular source, plane or thick, at any location and orientation. This is needed, for example, in calculating the intrinsic gamma efficiency of a detector such as a GM tube. The program also calculates the number of hits on the cylinder side and on each end, and the average path length through the detector volume (assuming no scattering or absorption). Point sources can be modelled by using a circular source of zero radius. NEA-1688/03: Documentation has been updated (January 2006). 2 - Methods: The program uses a Monte Carlo method to calculate average solid angle for source-detector geometries that are difficult to analyse by analytical methods. The values of solid angle are calculated to accuracies of typically better than 0.1%. The calculated values from the Monte Carlo method agree closely with those produced by polygon approximation and numerical integration by Gardner and Verghese, and others. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program models a circular or rectangular detector in planes that are not necessarily coaxial, nor parallel. Point sources can be modelled by using a circular source of zero radius. The sources are assumed to be uniformly distributed. NEA-1688/04: In SACALC C YL, to avoid rounding errors, differences less than 1 E-12 are assumed to be zero

  3. Small volume acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with hiatal hernia is only detectable by pH-metry but not by multichannel intraluminal impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, J; Malfertheiner, P

    2013-07-01

    Until now, it is uncertain if the so-called pH-only reflux episodes that consist of a pH drop without evidence of retrograde bolus movement in multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) represent reflux episodes or artifacts. Hiatal hernia (HH) may allow reflux of small volumes to occur that can be detected by pH-metry but not by MII. The aim was to search for a mechanism that can explain pH-only reflux, 20 patients (12 females and 8 males, median age 52 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 40.5-60.75 years) were investigated with MII-pH off PPI. Impedance and pH-metry data were analyzed separately. The differences in detection rate of acid reflux between pH-metry and MII were correlated with the presence of HH. In an in vitro experiment, MII-pH probes were flushed with citric acid in plastic tubes of different size with capillary diameter and diameters of 2.5 mm and 4.5 mm, while recording pH values and impedance. HH was present in six patients and absent in 14 patients. In patients with HH in comparison with patients with absent HH, the difference of acid reflux detection between pH-metry and MII is significantly higher (70%, IQR: 15-88% and 3.6%, IQR: 0-31%, respectively). In vitro all simulated reflux lead to a fall in pH whereas a corresponding decrease in impedance was only recognizable in the 4.5-mm plastic tubes. Acid reflux episodes in patients with HH are more frequently detected by pH-metry than by MII. Small volume reflux that does not lead to a decrease in impedance is the likely explanation for this phenomenon. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  4. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  5. Sediment source detection by stable isotope analysis, carbon and nitrogen content and CSSI in a small river of the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchindlerWildhaber, Yael; Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Suspended sediment (SS) and organic matter in rivers can harm the fauna by affecting health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. We determined compound specific stable carbon isotopes (CSSI) in fatty acids of possible sediment source areas to the stream in addition and compared them to SS from selected high flow and low flow events. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase in sediment delivery from pasture and arable land downstream of the river. While the major sources of SS are pasture and arable land during base flow conditions, SS from forest soils increased during heavy rain events and warmer winter periods most likely due to snow melt which triggered erosion. Preliminary results of CSSI analysis of sediment source areas and comparison to SS of selected events indicate that differences in d13C values of individual fatty acids are too small to differentiate unambiguously between sediment sources.

  6. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesmann, Lukas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel; Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene; Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike; Dobiasch, Sophie; Eze, Chukwuka; Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne; Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa; Hausmann, Jan; Henkenberens, Christoph; Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H.; Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela; Maeurer, Matthias; Panje, Cedric M.; Suess, Christoph; Ziegler, Sonia; Ebert, Nadja; Medenwald, Daniel; Ostheimer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  7. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  8. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  9. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  10. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  11. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  12. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  13. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.-Y.; Sung, C.-C.; Ko, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.; Yang, Kuender D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm 3 and 489 ± 34 cm 3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm 3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  14. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesmann, Lukas [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Munich, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene [University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiotherapy, Cologne (Germany); Dobiasch, Sophie [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Eze, Chukwuka [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany); Hausmann, Jan [University Medical Center Duesseldorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Henkenberens, Christoph [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela [University Hospital Heidelberg and National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO) and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Maeurer, Matthias [University Medical Center Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Panje, Cedric M. [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Suess, Christoph [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Regensburg (Germany); Ziegler, Sonia [University Medical Center Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Ebert, Nadja [University Medical Center Dresden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medenwald, Daniel [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Ostheimer, Christian [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Halle (Saale) (Germany); Collaboration: Young DEGRO Trial Group

    2018-02-15

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  15. Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallocher, O.; Thomas, L.; Pigneux, J.; Stocke, E.; Bussieres, E.; Avril, A.; Floquet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

  16. Modeling runoff and erosion risk in a~small steep cultivated watershed using different data sources: from on-site measurements to farmers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvet, B.; Lidon, B.; Kartiwa, B.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Poussin, J.-C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to model runoff and erosion risk in a context of data scarcity, whereas the majority of available models require large quantities of physical data that are frequently not accessible. To overcome this problem, our approach uses different sources of data, particularly on agricultural practices (tillage and land cover) and farmers' perceptions of runoff and erosion. The model was developed on a small (5 ha) cultivated watershed characterized by extreme conditions (slopes of up to 55 %, extreme rainfall events) on the Merapi volcano in Indonesia. Runoff was modelled using two versions of STREAM. First, a lumped version was used to determine the global parameters of the watershed. Second, a distributed version used three parameters for the production of runoff (slope, land cover and roughness), a precise DEM, and the position of waterways for runoff distribution. This information was derived from field observations and interviews with farmers. Both surface runoff models accurately reproduced runoff at the outlet. However, the distributed model (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.94) was more accurate than the adjusted lumped model (N-S = 0.85), especially for the smallest and biggest runoff events, and produced accurate spatial distribution of runoff production and concentration. Different types of erosion processes (landslides, linear inter-ridge erosion, linear erosion in main waterways) were modelled as a combination of a hazard map (the spatial distribution of runoff/infiltration volume provided by the distributed model), and a susceptibility map combining slope, land cover and tillage, derived from in situ observations and interviews with farmers. Each erosion risk map gives a spatial representation of the different erosion processes including risk intensities and frequencies that were validated by the farmers and by in situ observations. Maps of erosion risk confirmed the impact of the concentration of runoff, the high susceptibility of long steep

  17. Statistical forensic methodology for oil spill source identification using two-tailed student's t approach. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough chemical characterization of oil must be conducted following an oil spill in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to quantitatively evaluate the extent of impact of the spill. Gas chromatography, flame ionization and mass spectrometry analysis was used in conjunction with statistical data analysis to determine the source of a spill that occurred in 2004 in a harbor in the Netherlands. Three oil samples were collected from the harbor spill, where a thick layer of oil was found between a bunker boat and the quay next to the bunker centre. The 3 samples were sent to different laboratories for a round robin test to defensively correlate the spilled oil to the suspected source candidates. The source characterization and identification was validated by quantitative evaluation of 5 petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene and chrysene), pentacyclic biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoid compounds. The use of biomarkers for identifying the source of spilled oils has also increased in recent years due to their specificity and high resistance to biodegradation. There was no strong difference among the 3 oil samples according to radar plots of diagnostic ratios of PAHs, isoprenoids, biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoids. The two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests provided strong evidence for which ship was responsible for the oil spill incident. However, it was cautioned that although two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests along with oil fingerprinting successfully identified the spill source, the method has limitations. Experimental results showed that the spilled oil and two source candidates were quite similar in both chemical fingerprints and concentration profiles for determined target hydrocarbons. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  18. AC Small Signal Modeling of PWM Y-Source Converter by Circuit Averaging and Averaged Switch Modeling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically coupled Y-source impedance network is a newly proposed structure with versatile features intended for various power converter applications e.g. in the renewable energy technologies. The voltage gain of the Y-source impedance network rises exponentially as a function of turns ratio, w...

  19. Reproducibility of 'Intelligent' Contouring of Gross Tumor Volume in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer on PET/CT Images Using a Standardized Visual Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J.; Everitt, Sarah; Fimmell, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly used for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The methodology for contouring tumor margins remains controversial. We developed a rigorous visual protocol for contouring GTV that uses all available clinical information and studied its reproducibility in patients from a prospective PET/CT planning trial. Methods and Materials: Planning PET/CT scans from 6 consecutive patients were selected. Six 'observers' (two radiation oncologists, two nuclear medicine physicians, and two radiologists) contoured GTVs for each patient using a predefined protocol and subsequently recontoured 2 patients. For the estimated GTVs and axial distances, least-squares means for each observer and for each case were calculated and compared, using the F test and pairwise t-tests. In five cases, tumor margins were also autocontoured using standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoffs of 2.5 and 3.5 and 40% SUV max . Results: The magnitude of variation between observers was small relative to the mean (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3%), and the total variation (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 3%). For estimation of superior/inferior (SI), left/right (LR), and anterior/posterior (AP) borders of the GTV, differences between observers were also small (AP, CV = 2%, ICC = 0.4%; LR, CV = 6%, ICC = 2%; SI, CV 4%, ICC = 2%). GTVs autocontoured generated using SUV 2.5, 3.5, and 40% SUV max differed widely in each case. An SUV contour of 2.5 was most closely correlated with the mean GTV defined by the human observers. Conclusions: Observer variation contributed little to total variation in the GTV and axial distances. A visual contouring protocol gave reproducible results for contouring GTV in NSCLC.

  20. The selective conservative management of small traumatic pneumothoraces following stab injuries is safe: experience from a high-volume trauma service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-02-01

    The selective conservative management of small pneumothoraces (PTXs) following stab injuries is controversial. We reviewed a cohort of patients managed conservatively in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. A retrospective review over a 2-year period identified 125 asymptomatic patients with small PTXs measuring chest radiograph who were managed conservatively. Of the 125 patients included in the study, 92% were male (115/125), and the median age for all patients was 21 years (19-24). Ninety-seven per cent (121/125) of the weapons involved were knives, and 3% (4/125) were screwdrivers. Sixty-one per cent of all injuries were on the left side. Eighty-two per cent (102/125) sustained a single stab, and 18% (23/125) had multiple stabs. Thirty-nine per cent (49/125) had a PTX <0.5 cm (Group A), 26% (32/125) were ≥ 0.5 to <1 cm (Group B), 19% (24/125) were ≥ 1 to <1.5 cm (Group C) and 15% (20/125) were ≥ 1.5 to <2 cm (Group D). Three per cent of all patients (4/125) eventually required ICDs (one in Group C, three in Group D). All four patients had ICDs in situ for 24 h. The remaining 97% (121/125) were all managed successfully by active clinical observation alone. There were no subsequent readmissions, morbidity or mortality as a direct result of our conservative approach. The selective conservative management of asymptomatic small PTXs from stab injuries is safe if undertaken in the appropriate setting.

  1. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  2. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, G. Neil [Health Physicist, HazMat CATS, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  3. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  4. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  5. Editorial: Topical Volume on Earth's Magnetic Field - Understanding Geomagnetic Sources from the Earth's Interior and its Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Richmond, Arthur D.

    2017-01-01

    (seconds to days) magnetic field variations that are caused by currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere when solar activity, and correspondingly the electric currents in Earth’s environment, are enhanced. However, for studying the internal sources of the geomagnetic field, originating in the core...

  6. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...

  7. In vivo assessment of the gastric mucosal tolerance dose after single fraction, small volume irradiation of liver malignancies by computed tomography-guided, high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, Florian; Pech, Maciej; Boehmig, Michael; Ruehl, Ricarda; Peters, Nils; Wieners, Gero; Steinberg, Johannes; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance dose of gastric mucosa for single-fraction computed tomography (CT)-guided, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of liver malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 patients treated by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy of liver malignancies in segments II and/or III were included. Dose planning was performed upon a three-dimensional CT data set acquired after percutaneous applicator positioning. All patients received gastric protection post-treatment. For further analysis, the contours of the gastric wall were defined in every CT slice using Brachyvision Software. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for each treatment and correlated with clinical data derived from questionnaires assessing Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). All patients presenting symptoms of upper GI toxicity were examined endoscopically. Results: Summarizing all patients the minimum dose applied to 1 ml of the gastric wall (D 1ml ) ranged from 6.3 to 34.2 Gy; median, 14.3 Gy. Toxicity was present in 18 patients (55%). We found nausea in 16 (69%), emesis in 9 (27%), cramping in 13 (39%), weight loss in 12 (36%), gastritis in 4 (12%), and ulceration in 5 patients (15%). We found a threshold dose D 1ml of 11 Gy for general gastric toxicity and 15.5 Gy for gastric ulceration verified by an univariate analysis (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For a single fraction, small volume irradiation we found in the upper abdomen a threshold dose D 1ml of 15.5 Gy for the clinical endpoint ulceration of the gastric mucosa. This in vivo assessment is in accordance with previously published tolerance data

  8. Correlation between [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT and volume perfusion CT in primary tumours and mediastinal lymph nodes of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W.; Spira, Daniel; Schulze, Maximilian; Pfannenberg, Christina; Claussen, Claus D.; Horger, Marius S. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Hetzel, Juergen [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Oncology, Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Pulmonology, Tuebingen (Germany); Reimold, Matthias [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between glucose metabolism as determined by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT and tumour perfusion as quantified by volume perfusion CT in primary tumours and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Enrolled in the study were 17 patients with NSCLC. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake was quantified in terms of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and flow extraction product (K{sup trans}) were determined as perfusion parameters. The correlations between the perfusion parameters and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake values were subsequently evaluated. For the primary tumours, no correlations were found between perfusion parameters and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. In MLN, there were negative correlations between BF and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.383), BV and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.406), and BV and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.377), but not between BF and SUV{sub max}, K{sup trans} and SUV{sub avg}, or K{sup trans} and SUV{sub max}. Additionally, in MLN with SUV{sub max} >2.5 there were negative correlations between BF and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.510), BV and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.390), BF and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.536), as well as BV and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.346). Perfusion and glucose metabolism seemed to be uncoupled in large primary tumours, but an inverse correlation was observed in MLN. This information may help improve therapy planning and response evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  10. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  12. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  13. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior