WorldWideScience

Sample records for small singly charged

  1. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron system. As discussed in this paper such work has to data been carried out. Also as discussed in our previous progress report, the next step in the experimental evolution of the project will be to use lithographically-defined small dots as capacitors as outlined in our proposal. At this point we have made such microdotsdots as will be discussed. We have also continued our work with metal droplets to form single-electron tunnel systems

  2. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  3. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhev, V. B.

    2004-08-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm.

  4. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhev, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm

  5. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal for this project has been the development of a scanning tunneling instrument for the purpose of imaging individual particles and tunneling into these particles at high magnetic fields. Further progress is discussed in this report

  6. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d 5/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p and Xe 4d 5/2 -1 6p and 4d 5/2 -1 7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s -2 5p, 4s -2 6p, and 4s -1 4p -1 5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  7. Charge transport in single photochromic molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Pietsch, T.; Scheer, Elke; Hellmuth, T.; Pauly, F.; Sysoiev, D.; Huhn, T.; Exner, T.; Groth, U.; Steiner, U.; Erbe, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, photoswitchable molecules, i.e. diarylethene, gained significant interest due to their applicability in data storage media, as optical switches, and in novel logic circuits [1]. Diarylethene-derivative molecules are the most promising candidates to design electronic functional elements, because of their excellent thermal stability, high fatigue resistance, and negligible change upon switching [1]. Here, we present the preferential conductance of specifically designed sulfur-free diarylethene molecules [2] bridging the mechanically controlled break-junctions at low temperatures [3]. The molecular energy levels and electrode couplings are obtained by evaluating the current-voltage characteristics using the single-level model [4]. The charge transport mechanism of different types of diarylethene molecules is investigated, and the results are discussed within the framework of novel theoretical predictions. [4pt] [1] M. Del Valle etal., Nat Nanotechnol 2, 176 (2007) S. J. van der Molen etal., Nano. Lett. 9, 76 (2009).[0pt] [2] D. Sysoiev etal., Chem. Eur. J. 17, 6663 (2011).[0pt] [3] Y. Kim etal., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 196804 (2011).[0pt] [4] Y. Kim etal., Nano Lett. 11, 3734 (2011). L. Zotti etal., Small 6, 1529 (2010).

  8. Charge neutralization of small ion beam clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D R [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, C L; Hanson, D L [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The mega-ampere currents associated with light ion fusion (LIF) require excellent charge neutralization to prevent divergence growth. As the size and space-charge potential of a beam clump or `beamlet` become small (submillimeter size and kilovolt potentials), the neutralization becomes increasingly difficult. Linear theory predicts that plasma electrons cannot neutralize potentials < {phi}{sub crit} = (1/2)m{sub e}v{sub i}{sup 2}/e, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion beam velocity. A non-uniform beam would, therefore, have regions with potentials sufficient to add divergence to beam clumps. The neutralization of small beamlets produced on the SABLE accelerator and in numerical simulation has supported the theory, showing a plateau in divergence growths as the potential in the beamlet exceeds {phi}{sub crit}. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  9. Nuclear structure and the single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on meson-induced single-charge-exchange reactions on light nuclei is discussed within the context of the Glauber approximation. Selection rules which are expected to be approximately obeyed in elastic and inelastic pion and kaon scattering are proposed. Theoretical predictions are presented for (π + ,π 0 ) and (K + ,K 0 ) reactions on 13 C. 14 figures

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations to examine structure, energetics, and evaporation/condensation dynamics in small charged clusters of water or methanol containing a single monatomic ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Christopher D; Cann, Natalie M

    2012-11-01

    We study small clusters of water or methanol containing a single Ca(2+), Na(+), or Cl(-) ion with classical molecular dynamics simulations, using models that incorporate polarizability via the Drude oscillator framework. Evaporation and condensation of solvent from these clusters is examined in two systems, (1) for isolated clusters initially prepared at different temperatures and (2) those with a surrounding inert (Ar) gas of varying temperature. We examine these clusters over a range of sizes, from almost bare ions up to 40 solvent molecules. We report data on the evaporation and condensation of solvent from the clusters and argue that the observed temperature dependence of evaporation in the smallest clusters demonstrates that the presence of heated gas alone cannot, in most cases, solely account for bare ion production in electrospray ionization (ESI), neglecting the key contribution of the electric field. We also present our findings on the structure and energetics of the clusters as a function of size. Our data agree well with the abundant literature on hydrated ion clusters and offer some novel insight into the structure of methanol and ion clusters, especially those with a Cl(-) anion, where we observe the presence of chain-like structures of methanol molecules. Finally, we provide some data on the reparameterizations necessary to simulate ions in methanol using the separately developed Drude oscillator models for methanol and for ions in water.

  11. Cavity Cooling a Single Charged Levitated Nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, J.; Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Mavrogordatos, T.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2015-03-01

    Optomechanical cavity cooling of levitated objects offers the possibility for laboratory investigation of the macroscopic quantum behavior of systems that are largely decoupled from their environment. However, experimental progress has been hindered by particle loss mechanisms, which have prevented levitation and cavity cooling in a vacuum. We overcome this problem with a new type of hybrid electro-optical trap formed from a Paul trap within a single-mode optical cavity. We demonstrate a factor of 100 cavity cooling of 400 nm diameter silica spheres trapped in vacuum. This paves the way for ground-state cooling in a smaller, higher finesse cavity, as we show that a novel feature of the hybrid trap is that the optomechanical cooling becomes actively driven by the Paul trap, even for singly charged nanospheres.

  12. Small electrostatic storage rings; also for highly charged ions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Pedersen, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Two years ago, a small electrostatic storage ring ELISA (electrostatic ion storage ring, Aarhus) was put into operation. The design of this small 7 m circumference ring was based on electrostatic deflection plates and quadrupoles. This is in contrast to the larger ion storage rings, which are based on magnetic focusing and deflection. The result is a small, relatively inexpensive, storage ring being able to store ions of any mass and any charge at low energy ( -11 mbar resulting in storage times of several tens of seconds for singly charged ions. The maximum number of singly charged ions that can be stored is a few 10 7 . Several experiments have already been performed in ELISA. These include lifetime studies of metastable ions and studies of fullerenes and metal-cluster ions. Lasers are also used for excitation of the circulating ions. Heating/cooling of the ring is possible. Cooling of the ring leads to significantly lower pressures, and correspondingly longer lifetimes. A change of the temperature of the vacuum chambers surrounding the ion beam also leads to a change of the spectrum of the black-body radiation, which has a significant influence on weakly bound negative ions. At the time of writing, at least two other electrostatic storage rings are being built, and more are planned. In the following, the electrostatic storage ring ELISA will be described, and results from some of the initial experiments demonstrating the performance will be shown. The relative merits of such a ring, as opposed to the larger magnetic rings and the smaller ion traps will be discussed. The potential for highly charged ions will be briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  13. Quasi-free pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Cross sections for the quasi-free (QF) region for pion single charge exchange (SCX) were measured with beams of 475 MeV π - , 500 MeV π ± , and 400 MeV π - , with most data at 500 MeV π ± . The LAMPF π 0 spectrometer and a proton detector arm were placed on each side of the beam with different scattering angles. Up to twelve targets, from hydrogen to bismuth, were used. Both inclusive and coincidence measurements were performed. The extraction of peak shape and cross section for the QF peak, the effective number of nucleons involved in the reaction, mass dependence, and angular dependence were studied for the inclusive measurement. Calculations with the local random phase approximation (RPA) were used to understand the inclusive experimental results. A collection of experimental results is given for both inclusive and coincidence measurements

  14. Charge exchange between singly ionized helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.H.; Poe, R.T.; Tang, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plane-wave Born approximation was used to evaluate the charge transfer cross sections for the reaction He + + He + → He ++ + He. The charge transfer cross section is graphed as a function of incident energy and compared with experimental measurements

  15. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  16. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  17. Small angle single arm spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A study is given of an experiment described in the 1975 Summer Study to review the adequacy of the apparatus for its physics goals, equipment needs, logistic needs, vacuum chambers, compatibility with other experiments and to summarize its impacts on ISABELLE. The spectrometer is designed to study single particle inclusive spectra near x = 1 with particle identification and good momentum resolution

  18. Acoustical communications by means of small explosive charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edrington, T.S.

    1984-03-01

    An acoustical communication system that conveys information by modulating the time intervals between detonations of small (subgram) explosive charges has been designed and field-tested. In addition to an information capacity of about 20 bits per charge, the system provides a means for making inferences about sound speed and attenuation in the propagation medium

  19. Ejecta from single-charge cratering explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R H

    1970-05-15

    The objective was to obtain experimental data tracing the location of ejecta to its origin within the crater region. The experiment included ten high-explosive spherical charges weighing from 8 to 1000 pounds and detonated in a playa dry lake soil on the Tonopah Test Range. Each event included from 24 to 40 locations of distinctly different tracer material embedded in a plane in the expected crater region. Tracers consisted of glass, ceramic and bugle beads, chopped metal, and plastic wire. Results of this experiment yielded data on tracer dispersion as a function of charge weight, charge burial depth and tracer emplacement position. Tracer pattern parameters such as center-of-tracer mass, range to center-of-tracer mass, and angle to center-of-tracer mass were determined. There is a clear tendency for range (to center-of-tracer mass) and the size of the dispersion pattern to decrease as tracer emplacement depth increases. Increasing tracer emplacement depth and range tends to decrease the area over which tracers are dispersed on the ground surface. Tracers at the same scaled position relative to the charge were deposited closer to the crater (on a scaled basis) as charge weight was increased. (author)

  20. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  1. Charging and absorption characteristics of small particulates under alternative and electrostatic voltages in an electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue-Dong; Xu He; Wang Xin

    2014-01-01

    The charge quantity of small particulates such as PM2.5 plays a key role in the collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under a single electrostatic voltage, it is difficult to charge and absorb small particulates. A new method of superimposing an alternative voltage on the electrostatic voltage is provided in this paper. Characteristics of small particulates are analyzed under alternative and electrostatic voltages. It is demonstrated that an alternative voltage can significantly improve the collection efficiency in three aspects: preventing anti-corona, increasing the charge quantity of small particulates, and increasing the median particulate size by electric agglomeration. In addition, practical usage with the superposition of alternative voltage is provided, and the results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  2. The Welsh Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge and behavioural spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gregory O.; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge (SUCBC) requires bags to be sold for a small fee, instead of free of charge. SUCBCs may produce ‘spillover’ effects, where other pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours could increase or decrease. We investigate the 2011 Welsh SUCBC, and whether spillover occurs in other behaviours and attitudes. Using the Understanding Society Survey (n = 17,636), results show that use of own shopping bags increased in Wales, compared to England and Scotland. Increased use ...

  3. Single- and double-charge exchange at low pion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of pion single- and double-charge exchange reactions at incident energies of 25 to 65 MeV leading to isobaric analog states, and in the case of double-charge exchange leading to the ground state of the residual nucleus. The crucial role of the higher nuclear transparency at low pion energies for the analysis of the data in terms of single and double scattering is demonstrated. The large effects on double-charge exchange produced by the spatial correlations in nuclear wave functions are evident. The data on 1f 7/2 nuclei at 35 MeV are used to establish the general validity of a shell-model-based two-amplitude model for these transitions. Recent measurements of the energy dependence between 25 and 65 MeV of double-charge exchange cross sections at forward angles are presented and discussed. 33 refs., 19 figs

  4. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Post-Charge Off Recovery Rates by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects total post-charge off recovery rates, as a percent of the amounts charged off by charge off year, for the major loan programs and aggregate totals by charge...

  5. Charge Effects on the Efflorescence in Single Levitated Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Gunter; Zhang, Yan; Wassermann, Bernhard; Fischer, Henry; Quennet, Marcel; Rühl, Eckart

    2017-09-14

    The influence of electrical excess charges on the crystallization from supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions is reported. This is accomplished by efflorescence studies on single levitated microdroplets using optical and electrodynamic levitation. Specifically, a strong increase in efflorescence humidity is observed as a function of the droplet's negative excess charge, ranging up to -2.1 pC, with a distinct threshold behavior, increasing the relative efflorescence humidity, at which spontaneous nucleation occurs, from 44% for the neutral microparticle to 60%. These findings are interpreted by using molecular dynamics simulations for determining plausible structural patterns located near the particle surface that could serve as suitable precursors for the formation of critical clusters overcoming the nucleation barrier. These results, facilitating heterogeneous nucleation in the case of negatively charged microparticles, are compared to recent work on charge-induced nucleation of neat supercooled water, where a distinctly different nucleation behavior as a function of droplet charge has been observed.

  6. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.

    1998-07-07

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

  7. Charge collection and SEU (Single Event Upset) mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musseau, O.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the mechanisms of single event upset in microelectronic devices due to interaction with cosmic ions. Experimental and theoretical results are presented, and actual questions and problems are discussed. A brief introduction recalls the creation of the dense plasma of electron-hole pairs along the ion track. The basic processes for charge collection in a simple np junction (drift and diffusion) are presented. The funneling-field effect is discussed and experimental results are compared to numerical simulations and semi-empirical models. Charge collection in actual microelectronic structures is then presented. Single event upset of memory cells is discussed, based on numerical and experimental data. The main parameters for device characterization are presented. From the physical interpretation of charge collection mechanisms, the intrinsic sensitivity of various microelectronic technologies is determined and compared to experimental data. Scaling laws and future trends are discussed. (author)

  8. Single-charge tunneling in ambipolar silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Filipp

    2015-01-01

    Spin qubits in coupled quantum dots (QDs) are promising for future quantum information processing (QIP). A quantum bit (qubit) is the quantum mechanical analogon of a classical bit. In general, each quantum mechanical two-level system can represent a qubit. For the spin of a single charge carrier

  9. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM's), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM's). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler

  10. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [ELETTRA-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Nano S3 Institute, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  11. Three-dimensional charge transport in organic semiconductor single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Xiying; Jia, Jiong; Li, Yexin; Tao, Xutang

    2012-04-24

    Three-dimensional charge transport anisotropy in organic semiconductor single crystals - both plates and rods (above and below, respectively, in the figure) - is measured in well-performing organic field-effect transistors for the first time. The results provide an excellent model for molecular design and device preparation that leads to good performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio

  13. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoni, Luca; Cesana, Alberto; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Morbidelli, Massimo; Lupi, Monica; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D’Incalci, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells. (paper)

  14. Charge-odd and single-spin effects in two pion production in ep bar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galynskij, M.V.; Kuraev, E.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.; Ratcliffe, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We consider two-photon and Bremsstrahlung mechanisms for the production of two charged pions in high-energy electron (proton) scattering off a transversely polarised proton. Interference between the relevant amplitudes generates a charge-odd contribution to the cross section for the process. In a kinematics with a jet moving along electron spin-independent part may be used for determination of phase differences for pion-pion scattering in the states with orbital momentum 0 or 2 and 1 whereas in a kinematics with a jet moving along proton spin-dependent part may be used to explain the experimental data for single-spin correlations in the production of negatively charged pions. We also discuss the backgrounds and estimate the accuracy of the results at less than 10% level. In addition simplified formulae derived for specific kinematics, with small total transverse pion momentum, are given

  15. Temperature Dependence of Charge Localization in High-Mobility, Solution-Crystallized Small Molecule Semiconductors Studied by Charge Modulation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneau, Aurélie Y. B.; Olivier, Yoann; Backlund, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors, the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here, it is shown based on combined fi eld-effect tran......In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors, the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here, it is shown based on combined fi eld......-effect transistor and CMS measurements as a function of temperature that in certain molecular semiconductors, such as solution-processible pentacene, charge carriers become trapped at low temperatures in environments in which the charges become highly localized on individual molecules, while in some other molecules...

  16. Intrinsic Charge Carrier Mobility in Single-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, A N; Brener, S; Katsnelson, M I

    2016-06-17

    We present a theory for single- and two-phonon charge carrier scattering in anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors applied to single-layer black phosphorus (BP). We show that in contrast to graphene, where two-phonon processes due to the scattering by flexural phonons dominate at any practically relevant temperatures and are independent of the carrier concentration n, two-phonon scattering in BP is less important and can be considered negligible at n≳10^{13}  cm^{-2}. At smaller n, however, phonons enter in the essentially anharmonic regime. Compared to the hole mobility, which does not exhibit strong anisotropy between the principal directions of BP (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼1.4 at n=10^{13} cm^{-2} and T=300  K), the electron mobility is found to be significantly more anisotropic (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼6.2). Absolute values of μ_{xx} do not exceed 250 (700)  cm^{2} V^{-1} s^{-1} for holes (electrons), which can be considered as an upper limit for the mobility in BP at room temperature.

  17. Radiographer performed single contrast small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Slack, Nicola; Harvey, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the technical success and reporting sensitivity of radiographer performed small bowel enteroclysis (SBE) undertaken by a specialist radiographer according to a standard technique [Nolan DJ, Cadman PJ. The small bowel enema made easy. Clinical Radiology 1987;38(3):295-301]. Methods: Patients (1413) had 1646 SBE in 10 years from May 1992 to April 2002. The original request card and the separate radiographer and consultant radiologist reports were reviewed. Where the radiology reports were discordant or inconclusive, the clinical notes were also reviewed. Results: Patients (1022) X-ray films were available. Nine hundred and forty-three (93.3%) SBEs had been successfully completed. Radiographer and consultant radiologist reporting had a 99.3% concordance. There was a 98.4% sensitivity for Crohn's disease (181 of 184 cases where Crohn's disease was the clinical final diagnosis). Overall reporting sensitivity was 93.7% although correct 'probably normal and abnormal' reporting bias suggests a sensitivity of 96.9%. Sixty of 943 (6.4%) reports were inconclusive. Of 1022 patients, 68 (6.6%) of small bowel intubations were not achieved, or else consent was withdrawn at the time of the procedure. Conclusion: Specialist radiographers can perform small bowel enteroclysis with a reporting sensitivity equal to that of a consultant radiologist. Radiographers accustomed to providing an SBE service become skilled at passing fine bore feeding tubes into the small bowel and can provide this service also

  18. The recent single tag two photon experiments at PETRA and the issue of quark charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Pati, J.C.; Rindani, S.D.; Jayaraman, T.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1983-11-01

    The data of recent single-tag-two-photon experiments indicating noticeable excess in (R-tildesub(γγ))sup(jet) over fractionally charged quark-parton model-predictions is studied from the point of view of its implications on the gauge integer charge quark model. Focussing attention on the region of psub(T) exceeding about 3 GeV, where higher order QCD and non-perturbative effects might be expected to be small, it is noted that this excess and its Q 2 dependence can be attributed to the presence of a colour component in the electromagnetic current provided the effective mass of the gluon lies between about 150 to 350 MeV. Accurate measurements of R-tildesub(γγ) in the high psub(T) region (psub(T)>or approx.5 GeV) are crucial for an unambiguous distinction between fcq and gauge-icq models. (author)

  19. Nuclear isovector giant resonances excited by pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.H.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is an experimental study of isovector giant resonances in light nuclei excited by pion single charge exchange reactions. Giant dipole resonances in light nuclei are known to be highly structured. For the mass 9 and 13 giant dipole resonances, isospin considerations were found to be very important to understanding this structure. by comparing the excitation functions from cross section measurements of the (π + , π 0 ) and (π, π 0 ) inclusive reactions, the authors determined the dominant isospin structure of the analog IVGR's. The comparison was made after decomposing the cross section into resonant and non-resonant components. This decomposition is made in the framework of strong absorption and quasi-free scattering. Measurements in the region of the isovector giant dipole resonances (IVGDR) were made to cover the inclusive angular distributions out to the second minimum. Study of the giant resonance decay process provides further understanding of the resonances. This study was carried out by observing the (π + , π 0 p) coincident reactions involving the resonances of 9 B and 13 N excited from 9 Be and 13 C nuclei. These measurements determined the spectra of the decay protons. This method also permitted a decomposition of the giant resonances into their isospin components. The multipolarities of the resonances were revealed by the decay proton angular correlations which, for dipoles, are of the form 1 + A 2 P 2 (cos θ)

  20. Optimized Charging Scheduling with Single Mobile Charger for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of wireless charging technology, the recharging issue in wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN has been a popular research problem in the past few years. The weakness of previous work is that charging route planning is not reasonable. In this work, a dynamic optimal scheduling scheme aiming to maximize the vacation time ratio of a single mobile changer for WRSN is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the wireless sensor network is divided into several sub-networks according to the initial topology of deployed sensor networks. After comprehensive analysis of energy states, working state and constraints for different sensor nodes in WRSN, we transform the optimized charging path problem of the whole network into the local optimization problem of the sub networks. The optimized charging path with respect to dynamic network topology in each sub-network is obtained by solving an optimization problem, and the lifetime of the deployed wireless sensor network can be prolonged. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has good and reliable performance for a small wireless rechargeable sensor network.

  1. Single-Bunch Stability With Direct Space Charge

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the suppressing effect of direct space charge on impedance-driven head-tail instabilities. The present work investigates transverse stability for the HL-LHC scenario based on our macro-particle simulation tool PyHEADTAIL using realistic bunch distributions. The impact of selfconsistent modelling is briefly discussed for non-linear space charge forces. We study how space charge pushes the instability threshold for the transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI) occurring between mode 0 and -1. Next we consider finite chromaticity: in absence of space charge, the impedance model predicts head-tail instabilities. For a selected case below TMCI threshold at Q0 = 5, we demonstrate the stabilising effect of space charge. Finally, we compare simulation results to past LHC measurements.

  2. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shanlin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  3. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  4. Small gap semiconducting organic charge-transfer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakano, M.; Alves, H.; Molinari, A.S.; Ono, S.; Minder, N.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated transport properties of organic heterointerfaces formed by single-crystals of two organic donor-acceptor molecules, tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). Whereas the individual crystals have unmeasurably high resistance, the interface exhibits a

  5. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  6. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  7. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  8. Single charging events on colloidal particles in a nonpolar liquid with surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Caspar; Vandewiele, Stijn; Brans, Toon; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beunis, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Electrical charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar liquids due to surfactant additives is investigated intensively, motivated by its importance in a variety of applications. Most methods rely on average electrophoretic mobility measurements of many particles, which provide only indirect information on the charging mechanism. In the present work, we present a method that allows us to obtain direct information on the charging mechanism, by measuring the charge fluctuations on individual particles with a precision higher than the elementary charge using optical trapping electrophoresis. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by studying the influence of added surfactant OLOA 11000 on the charging of single colloidal PMMA particles in dodecane. The particle charge and the frequency of charging events are investigated both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and with or without applying a DC offset voltage. It is found that at least two separate charging mechanisms are present below the critical micelle concentration. One mechanism is a process where the particle is stripped from negatively charged ionic molecules. An increase in the charging frequency with increased surfactant concentration suggests a second mechanism that involves single surfactant molecules. Above the CMC, neutral inverse micelles can also be involved in the charging process.

  9. Electrochemical charging of the single-layer graphene membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komínková, Zuzana; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 12 (2016), s. 2331-2335 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemical charging * graphene membrane * in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  10. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Ayob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer, while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter.

  11. Control of single-electron charging of metallic nanoparticles onto amorphous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Martin; Gmucová, Katarína; Nádazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignác; Satka, Alexander; Kopáni, Martin; Cirák, Július; Majková, Eva

    2008-11-01

    Sequential single-electron charging of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in oleic acid/oleyl amine envelope and deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto Pt electrode covered with undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon film is reported. Single-electron charging (so-called quantized double-layer charging) of nanoparticles is detected by cyclic voltammetry as current peaks and the charging effect can be switched on/off by the electric field in the surface region induced by the excess of negative/positive charged defect states in the amorphous silicon layer. The particular charge states in amorphous silicon are created by the simultaneous application of a suitable bias voltage and illumination before the measurement. The influence of charged states on the electric field in the surface region is evaluated by the finite element method. The single-electron charging is analyzed by the standard quantized double layer model as well as two weak-link junctions model. Both approaches are in accordance with experiment and confirm single-electron charging by tunnelling process at room temperature. This experiment illustrates the possibility of the creation of a voltage-controlled capacitor for nanotechnology.

  12. Nested Penning Trap as a Source of Singly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the work reported, the possibility of using a nested Penning trap as a high purity source of low-charge-state ions is studied. For the configuration considered, a relatively dense ion plasma is confined by a three-dimensional electric potential well. The three-dimensional well is produced by the electric field generated by both the trap electrodes and a trapped electron plasma. The ion and electron plasmas are each considered to have Maxwellian velocity distributions. However, it is shown that the electron plasma must have a temperature that is higher than that of the ion plasma when the ions have low charge states. The work reported includes a self-consistent prediction of a possible plasma equilibrium

  13. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle {psi} about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin {psi} amplitudes are positive for {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for {pi}{sup -} consistent with zero for K{sup -}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  14. Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaj, Ladislav

    2013-09-01

    For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

  15. Charge collection measurements in single-type column 3D sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringella, M.; Polyakov, A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Bruzzi, M.; Tosi, C.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2007-01-01

    We report on charge collection studies on 3D silicon detectors of single-type column n-diffusions in p-substrate, configured either as strip or as pad detectors. The charge is generated by penetrating beta particles from a 90 Sr source which, together with a scintillation counter, serves as an electron telescope. The charge collection as a function of bias voltage is compared with the depletion thickness derived from the measured C-V characteristics

  16. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  17. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  18. Superconducting and charge density wave transition in single crystalline LaPt2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritu; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Rajeev, K. P.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of our comprehensive studies on single crystalline LaPt2Si2. Pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity and heat capacity confirms the bulk nature of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW) transition in the single crystals. While the charge density wave transition temperature is lower, the superconducting transition temperature is higher in single crystal compared to the polycrystalline sample. This result confirms the competing nature of CDW and SC. Another important finding is the anomalous temperature dependence of upper critical field H C2(T). We also report the anisotropy in the transport and magnetic measurements of the single crystal.

  19. The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem: Applications and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goertz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem (SSFCTP) consists in finding a minimum cost flow from a number of supplier nodes to a single demand node. Shipping costs comprise costs proportional to the amount shipped as well as a fixed-charge. Although the SSFCTP is an important special case...... of the well-known fixed-charge transportation problem, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. After summarising some applications of this problem arising in manufacturing and transportation, we give an overview on approximation algorithms and worst-case results...

  20. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Huang, Jinsong, E-mail: jhuang2@unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr{sub 3}) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr{sub 3} single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V.

  1. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qiang; Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei; Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan; Huang, Jinsong; Cao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr_3) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr_3 single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10"−"3 cm"2/V.

  2. Nonexistence in Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizsäcker Theory with Small Nuclear Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Phan Thành, E-mail: pnam@ist.ac.at [Institute of Science and Technology Austria (Austria); Den Bosch, Hanne Van, E-mail: hannevdbosch@fis.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Física (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We study the ionization problem in the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizsäcker theory for atoms and molecules. We prove the nonexistence of minimizers for the energy functional when the number of electrons is large and the total nuclear charge is small. This nonexistence result also applies to external potentials decaying faster than the Coulomb potential. In the case of arbitrary nuclear charges, we obtain the nonexistence of stable minimizers and radial minimizers.

  3. Electrochemical Charging of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kong, J.; Sasaki, K.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2009), s. 2320-2328 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC203/07/J067; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : single-walled carbon nanotubes * Raman spectroscopy * electrochemical gating * spectroelectrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.493, year: 2009

  4. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed

  6. Evidence for charge exchange effects in electronic excitations in Al by slow singly charged He ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, P., E-mail: Pierfrancesco.riccardi@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 31C, 87036 – Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 31C, 87036 – Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Dukes, C.A. [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report on experiments of secondary electron emission in the interaction of helium ions with aluminum surfaces. Comparison between the electron emission induced by the impact of {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} on Al illustrates similarities and differences between the two projectiles. The intensity of emission shows the same dependence on velocity for the two isotopes, showing that KEE yields for helium ions impact on Al are dominated by direct excitation of valence electrons and not by electron promotion. Electron promotion and charge transfer processes are unambiguously identified by the observation of Auger electron emission from Al, at energies below the excitation threshold of Al–Al collisions, indicating energy losses for the projectiles higher than those commonly considered.

  7. Charge transport in transparent single-wall carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Manu; Wang, Wei; Fernando, K A Shiral; Sun Yaping; Menon, Reghu

    2007-01-01

    We report the electric-field effects and magnetotransport in transparent networks of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The temperature dependence of conductance of the network indicates a 2D Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) transport mechanism. Electric field and temperature are shown to have similar effects on the carrier hops and identical exponents for the conductance of the network are obtained from the high electric field and temperature dependences. A power-law temperature dependence with an exponent 3/2 for the threshold field is obtained and explained as a result of the competing contributions from electric field and phonons to the carrier hop. A negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed at low temperatures, which arises from a forward interference scattering mechanism in the weak scattering limit, consistent with the VRH transport

  8. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  9. Effect of body biasing on single-event induced charge collection in deep N-well technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yi; Hu Jian-Guo; Tan Hong-Zhou; Qin Jun-Rui

    2015-01-01

    As the device size decreases, the soft error induced by space ions is becoming a great concern for the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs). At present, the body biasing technique is widely used in highly scaled technologies. In the paper, using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, we analyze the effect of the body biasing on the single-event charge collection in deep N-well technology. Our simulation results show that the body biasing mainly affects the behavior of the source, and the effect of body biasing on the charge collection for the nMOSFET and pMOSFET is quite different. For the nMOSFET, the RBB will increase the charge collection, while the FBB will reduce the charge collection. For the pMOSFET, the effect of RBB on the SET pulse width is small, while the FBB has an adverse effect. Moreover, the differenceof the effect of body biasing on the charge collection is compared in deep N-well and twin well. (paper)

  10. Single Photon, Spin, and Charge in Diamond Semiconductor at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki Doi

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising candidate for a qubit driven at room temperature. In order to derive potential of NV center, manipulation of their charge state is a very important topic. Here we succeeded to electrically control between single NV-/NV0 by means of current injection. This method allows us to very stable charge state control. (author)

  11. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  12. Varying the charge of small cations in liquid water: Structural, transport, and thermodynamical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Spezia, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we show how increasing the charge of small cations affects the structural, thermodynamical, and dynamical properties of these ions in liquid water. We have studied the case of lanthanoid and actinoid ions, for which we have recently developed accurate polarizable force fields, and the ionic radius is in the 0.995-1.250 Å range, and explored the valency range from 0 to 4+. We found that the ion charge strongly structures the neighboring water molecules and that, in this range of charges, the hydration enthalpies exhibit a quadratic dependence with respect to the charge, in line with the Born model. The diffusion process follows two main regimes: a hydrodynamical regime for neutral or low charges, and a dielectric friction regime for high charges in which the contraction of the ionic radius along the series of elements causes a decrease of the diffusion coefficient. This latter behavior can be qualitatively described by theoretical models, such as the Zwanzig and the solvated ion models. However, these models need be modified in order to obtain agreement with the observed behavior in the full charge range. We have thus modified the solvated ion model by introducing a dependence of the bare ion radius as a function of the ionic charge. Besides agreement between theory and simulation this modification allows one to obtain an empirical unified model. Thus, by analyzing the contributions to the drag coefficient from the viscous and the dielectric terms, we are able to explain the transition from a regime in which the effect of viscosity dominates to one in which dielectric friction governs the motion of ions with radii of ca. 1 Å.

  13. Plasmonic detection and visualization of directed adsorption of charged single nanoparticles to patterned surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherbahn, Vitali; Nizamov, Shavkat; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that surface plasmon microscopy (SPM) allows single nanoparticles (NPs) on sensor surfaces to be detected and analyzed. The authors have applied this technique to study the adsorption of single metallic and plastic NPs. Binding of gold NPs (40, 60 and 100 nm in size) and of 100 nm polystyrene NPs to gold surfaces modified by differently ω-functionalized alkyl thiols was studied first. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) with varying terminal functions including amino, carboxy, oligo(ethylene glycol), methyl, or trimethylammonium groups were deposited on gold films to form surfaces possessing different charge and hydrophobicity. The affinity of NPs to these surfaces depends strongly on the type of coating. SAMs terminated with trimethylammonium groups and carboxy group display highly different affinity and therefore were preferred when creating patterned charged surfaces. Citrate-stabilized gold NPs and sulfate-terminated polystyrene NPs were used as negatively charged NPs, while branched polyethylenimine-coated silver NPs were used as positively charged NPs. It is shown that the charged patterned areas on the gold films are capable of selectively adsorbing oppositely charged NPs that can be detected and analyzed with an ∼1 ng⋅mL −1 detection limit. (author)

  14. The recent single-tag two-photon experiments at PETRA and the issue of quark charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Pati, J.C.; Rindani, S.D.; Jayaraman, T.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of recent single-tag two-photon experiments indicating noticeable excess in (R tildesub(γγ))sup(jet) over fractionally charged quark-parton model-predictions is studied from the point of view of its implications on the gauge integer charge quark model. Focusing attention on the region of psub(T) exceeding about 3 GeV, where higher order QCD and non-perturbative effects might be expected to be small. It is noted that this excess and its Q 2 dependence can be attributed to the presence of a colour component in the electromagnetic current provided the effective mass of the gluon lies between about 150 to 350 MeV. Accurate measurements of R tildesub(γγ) in the high psub(T) region (psub(T) > or approx. 5 GeV) are crucial for an unambiguous distinction between fcq and gauge-icq models. (orig.)

  15. Emergence of charge density waves and a pseudogap in single-layer TiTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P; Pai, Woei Wu; Chan, Y-H; Takayama, A; Xu, C-Z; Karn, A; Hasegawa, S; Chou, M Y; Mo, S-K; Fedorov, A-V; Chiang, T-C

    2017-09-11

    Two-dimensional materials constitute a promising platform for developing nanoscale devices and systems. Their physical properties can be very different from those of the corresponding three-dimensional materials because of extreme quantum confinement and dimensional reduction. Here we report a study of TiTe 2 from the single-layer to the bulk limit. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observed the emergence of a (2 × 2) charge density wave order in single-layer TiTe 2 with a transition temperature of 92 ± 3 K. Also observed was a pseudogap of about 28 meV at the Fermi level at 4.2 K. Surprisingly, no charge density wave transitions were observed in two-layer and multi-layer TiTe 2 , despite the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the material in the bulk. The unique charge density wave phenomenon in the single layer raises intriguing questions that challenge the prevailing thinking about the mechanisms of charge density wave formation.Due to reduced dimensionality, the properties of 2D materials are often different from their 3D counterparts. Here, the authors identify the emergence of a unique charge density wave (CDW) order in monolayer TiTe 2 that challenges the current understanding of CDW formation.

  16. An evaluation of a pre-charging pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this test program is the performance and economic evaluation of a pre charged-pulse jet filter as the principal particulate control device for a commercial or industrial scale coal fired combustor. Performance factors that will be considered are the effects of particle charge, air/cloth ratio, fabric types, percent humidity and inlet particulate loading on fine particle collection efficiency, and pressure drop. Economic factors that will be considered are capital costs, energy and other operating costs, and maintenance costs. The program will result in a recommendation regarding the relative suitability of the pre charged pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control, as compared to other control devices. Fine particle control capability, ease of operation, and overall economics will be taken into consideration in making comparisons.

  17. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan

    important aspects of supplier selection, an important application of the SSFCTP, this does not reflect the real life situation. First, transportation costs faced by many companies are in fact piecewise linear. Secondly, when suppliers offer discounts, either incremental or all-unit discounts, such savings......The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...... are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number...

  18. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  19. Anisotropic charge transport in large single crystals of π-conjugated organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Wael; Rahimi, Khosrow; Botiz, Ioan; Koch, Felix Peter Vinzenz; Reiter, Günter; Lienerth, Peter; Heiser, Thomas; Bubendorff, Jean-Luc; Simon, Laurent

    2014-05-07

    The electronic properties of organic semiconductors depend strongly on the nature of the molecules, their conjugation and conformation, their mutual distance and the orientation between adjacent molecules. Variations of intramolecular distances and conformation disturb the conjugation and perturb the delocalization of charges. As a result, the mobility considerably decreases compared to that of a covalently well-organized crystal. Here, we present electrical characterization of large single crystals made of the regioregular octamer of 3-hexyl-thiophene (3HT)8 using a conductive-atomic force microscope (C-AFM) in air. We find a large anisotropy in the conduction with charge mobility values depending on the crystallographic orientation of the single crystal. The smaller conduction is in the direction of π-π stacking (along the long axis of the single crystal) with a mobility value in the order of 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the larger one is along the molecular axis (in the direction normal to the single crystal surface) with a mobility value in the order of 0.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The measured current-voltage (I-V) curves showed that along the molecular axis, the current followed an exponential dependence corresponding to an injection mode. In the π-π stacking direction, the current exhibits a space charge limited current (SCLC) behavior, which allows us to estimate the charge carrier mobility.

  20. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  1. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  2. Direct observation of single-charge-detection capability of nanowire field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Savelyev, I G; Blumin, M; Nair, S V; Ruda, H E

    2010-10-01

    A single localized charge can quench the luminescence of a semiconductor nanowire, but relatively little is known about the effect of single charges on the conductance of the nanowire. In one-dimensional nanostructures embedded in a material with a low dielectric permittivity, the Coulomb interaction and excitonic binding energy are much larger than the corresponding values when embedded in a material with the same dielectric permittivity. The stronger Coulomb interaction is also predicted to limit the carrier mobility in nanowires. Here, we experimentally isolate and study the effect of individual localized electrons on carrier transport in InAs nanowire field-effect transistors, and extract the equivalent charge sensitivity. In the low carrier density regime, the electrostatic potential produced by one electron can create an insulating weak link in an otherwise conducting nanowire field-effect transistor, modulating its conductance by as much as 4,200% at 31 K. The equivalent charge sensitivity, 4 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 25 K and 6 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 198 K, is orders of magnitude better than conventional field-effect transistors and nanoelectromechanical systems, and is just a factor of 20-30 away from the record sensitivity for state-of-the-art single-electron transistors operating below 4 K (ref. 8). This work demonstrates the feasibility of nanowire-based single-electron memories and illustrates a physical process of potential relevance for high performance chemical sensors. The charge-state-detection capability we demonstrate also makes the nanowire field-effect transistor a promising host system for impurities (which may be introduced intentionally or unintentionally) with potentially long spin lifetimes, because such transistors offer more sensitive spin-to-charge conversion readout than schemes based on conventional field-effect transistors.

  3. Pyramidal pits created by single highly charged ions in BaF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2010-01-01

    In various insulators, the impact of individual slow highly charged ions (eV-keV) creates surface nanostructures, whose size depends on the deposited potential energy. Here we report on the damage created on a cleaved BaF 2 (111) surface by irradiation with 4.5xq keV highly charged xenon ions from a room-temperature electron-beam ion trap. Up to charge states q=36, no surface topographic changes on the BaF 2 surface are observed by scanning force microscopy. The hidden stored damage, however, can be made visible using the technique of selective chemical etching. Each individual ion impact develops into a pyramidal etch pits, as can be concluded from a comparison of the areal density of observed etch pits with the applied ion fluence (typically 10 8 ions/cm 2 ). The dimensional analysis of the measured pits reveals the significance of the deposited potential energy in the creation of lattice distortions/defects in BaF 2 .

  4. Modulation and Control of Charge Transport Through Single-Molecule Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Bingqian

    2017-02-01

    The ability to modulate and control charge transport though single-molecule junction devices is crucial to achieving the ultimate goal of molecular electronics: constructing real-world-applicable electronic components from single molecules. This review aims to highlight the progress made in single-molecule electronics, emphasizing the development of molecular junction electronics in recent years. Among many techniques that attempt to wire a molecule to metallic electrodes, the single-molecule break junction (SMBJ) technique is one of the most reliable and tunable experimental platforms for achieving metal-molecule-metal configurations. It also provides great freedom to tune charge transport through the junction. Soon after the SMBJ technique was introduced, it was extensively used to measure the conductances of individual molecules; however, different conductances were obtained for the same molecule, and it proved difficult to interpret this wide distribution of experimental data. This phenomenon was later found to be mainly due to a lack of precise experimental control and advanced data analysis methods. In recent years, researchers have directed considerable effort into advancing the SMBJ technique by gaining a deeper physical understanding of charge transport through single molecules and thus enhancing its potential applicability in functional molecular-scale electronic devices, such as molecular diodes and molecular transistors. In parallel with that research, novel data analysis methods and approaches that enable the discovery of hidden yet important features in the data are being developed. This review discusses various aspects of molecular junction electronics, from the initial goal of molecular electronics, the development of experimental techniques for creating single-molecule junctions and determining single-molecule conductance, to the characterization of functional current-voltage features and the investigation of physical properties other than charge

  5. Influence of capture to excited states of multiply charged ion beams colliding with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, P; Monti, J M; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture by multiply charged ions impacting on small molecules is theoretically investigated. Particular attention is paid to the case of biological targets. The interest is focused on the importance of the transition to excited final states which can play a dominant role on the total capture cross sections. Projectiles at intermediate and high collision energies are considered. Comparison with existing experimental data is shown. (paper)

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopy on the charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy of molecular film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kera, Satoshi, E-mail: kera@ims.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Nanomaterial Science, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ueno, Nobuo [Department of Nanomaterial Science, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of electron-phonon coupling as well as intermolecular interaction is required to discuss the mobility of charge carrier in functional molecular solids. This article summarizes recent progress in direct measurements of valence hole-vibration coupling in ultrathin films of organic semiconductors by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The experimental study of hole-vibration coupling of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) state in ordered monolayer film by UPS is essential to comprehend hole-hopping transport and small-polaron related transport in organic semiconductors. Only careful measurements can attain the high-resolution spectra and provide key parameters in hole-transport dynamics, namely the charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy. Analyses methods of the UPS HOMO fine feature and resulting charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy are described for pentacene and perfluoropentacene films. Difference between thin-film and gas-phase results is discussed by using newly measured high-quality gas-phase spectra of pentacene. Methodology for achieving high-resolution UPS measurements for molecular films is also described.

  7. Solution-grown organic single-crystalline p-n junctions with ambipolar charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Congcheng; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Jiang, Hao; Fu, Weifei; Wu, Jiake; Yuan, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-10-25

    Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix J.; Vogelsang, Jan, E-mail: jan.vogelsang@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Lupton, John M. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-06-27

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the opposite: the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The results are of interest to developing a microscopic understanding of the intrinsic charge-exciton quenching interaction in devices.

  9. Charging of Single Micron Sized Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emission: A Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the details of a new laboratory study whose objective is to experimentally study the interaction of micron sized particles with plasmas and electromagnetic radiation. Specifically, to investigate under what conditions and to what extent do particles of various compositions and sizes become charged, or discharged, while exposed to an electron beam and ultraviolet radiation environment The emphasis is the study of the two charging mechanisms, secondary emission of electrons and photoelectric effect. The experiment uses a technique known as electrodynamic suspension of particles. With this technique, a single charged particle is electrodynamically levitated and then exposed to a controlled environment. Its charge to mass ratio is directly measured. Viscous drag measurements and the light scattering measurements characterize its size and optical characteristics. The environment to which the particle is expose may consist of room temperature and pressure or a rarefied atmosphere where only one major gaseous constituent is present, or, as in this case, a vacuum environment under electron bombardment or UV radiation . In addition, the environment can be cycled as part of the experiment. Therefore, using this technique, a single particle can be repeatedly exposed to a controlled environment and its response measured, or a single particle can be exposed to similar environments with minor differences and its response measured as a function of only the changed environmental conditions.

  10. Reorganization energy upon charging a single molecule on an insulator measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatayer, Shadi; Schuler, Bruno; Steurer, Wolfram; Scivetti, Ivan; Repp, Jascha; Gross, Leo; Persson, Mats; Meyer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Intermolecular single-electron transfer on electrically insulating films is a key process in molecular electronics1-4 and an important example of a redox reaction5,6. Electron-transfer rates in molecular systems depend on a few fundamental parameters, such as interadsorbate distance, temperature and, in particular, the Marcus reorganization energy7. This crucial parameter is the energy gain that results from the distortion of the equilibrium nuclear geometry in the molecule and its environment on charging8,9. The substrate, especially ionic films10, can have an important influence on the reorganization energy11,12. Reorganization energies are measured in electrochemistry13 as well as with optical14,15 and photoemission spectroscopies16,17, but not at the single-molecule limit and nor on insulating surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), with single-charge sensitivity18-22, atomic-scale spatial resolution20 and operable on insulating films, overcomes these challenges. Here, we investigate redox reactions of single naphthalocyanine (NPc) molecules on multilayered NaCl films. Employing the atomic force microscope as an ultralow current meter allows us to measure the differential conductance related to transitions between two charge states in both directions. Thereby, the reorganization energy of NPc on NaCl is determined as (0.8 ± 0.2) eV, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide the atomistic picture of the nuclear relaxations on charging. Our approach presents a route to perform tunnelling spectroscopy of single adsorbates on insulating substrates and provides insight into single-electron intermolecular transport.

  11. Algorithms for solving the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem is an important subproblem of the fixed-charge transportation problem. Just a few methods have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. In this paper, solution approaches based on dynamic programming and implicit enumeration...... are revisited. It is shown how the problem size as well as the search space of a recently published dynamic programming method can be reduced by exploiting reduced cost information. Additionally, a further implicit enumeration approach relying on solution concepts for the binary knapsack problem is introduced...

  12. Concerning the Charging of an Exploration Craft on and near a Small Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. L.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An object immersed in an airless plasma environment will experience a natural process of surface charging in order to acheieve current balance, or zero net electric current to the object. It has been shown in recent computer simulations that the small-body plasma environment is very complex [1], considering effects of photoemission, topography, and formation of a plasma wake. For this work we consider an exploration craft (or astronaut) immersed within a plasma environment near an asteroid, which exhibits widely varying solar wind and photoelectric particle fluxes and continuously evolving illumination conditions. Objective: We aim to determine how an explo-ration craft or astronaut suit accumulates charge while located in the "nightside" asteroid wake where the particle fluxes are reduced, and in the dayside near-surface photoelectron sheath, by combining an object charging model [2] with kinetic simulations of a near-asteroid plasma environment [1]. We consider an astronaut floating near the asteroid while not in contact with the surface, as well as an astronaut moving along the surface using their hands/gloves to crawl along. Results: The modeling results suggest that remediation of triboelectric charge via accumulation of plasma currents is an important factor to consider when designing future NEA mission infrastructure, especially if repeated and frequent contact with the surface is planned. In shadowed regions such as the location shown in Fig. 1a, the plasma currents are so low (and the effective charge-remediation timescale so long, e.g. minutes to hours) that repeated contact with the surface tribocharges the glove in an uncontrollable fashion, as shown for two representative electron temperatures in Fig. 2a. The resulting buildup of significant negative charge would eventually initiate some other "current of last resort" [4] such as transport of positively-charged dust, field-emission from the glove, or significant alteration of

  13. Charge calculation studies done on a single walled carbon nanotube using MOPAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, S.; Bhartiya, Vivek Kumar; Chaturvedi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Dipole symmetry of induced charges on DWNTs are required for their application as a nanomotor. Earlier a molecular dynamics analysis was performed for a double-walled carbon-nanotube based motor driven by an externally applied sinusoidally varying electric field. One of the ways to get such a system is chemical or end functionalization, which promises to accomplish this specific and rare configuration of the induced charges on the surface of the carbon nanotube (CNT). CNTs are also a promising system for attaching biomolecules for bio-related applications. In an earlier work, ab initio calculations were done to study the electronic and structural properties of the groups -COOH, -OH, -NH2 and -CONH2 functionalized to an (8, 0) SWNT. The systems were shown to have a very stable interaction with the CNTs. The exterior surface of the SWNT is found to be reactive to NH2 (amidogen). In this work, charge calculations are done on a CNT using MOPAC, which is a semi empirical quantum chemistry software package. As a first step, we calculate the effect of NH2 functionalization to a (5,0) SWNT of infinite length. The symmetric charge distribution of the bare SWNT is observed to be disturbed on addition of a single NH2 in the close proximity of the SWNT. A net positive and opposite charge is observed to be induced on the opposite sides of the nanotube circumference, which is, in turn, imperative for the nanomotor applications. The minimum and maximum value of the charge on any atom is observed to increase from - 0.3 to 0.6 and from - 0.3 to - 1.8 electronic charge as compared to the bare SWNT. This fluctuation of the surface charge to larger values than bare CNT, can be attributed to the coulomb repulsion between NH2 and the rest of the charge on the surface which results into minimizing the total energy of the system. No such opposite polarity of charges are observed on adding NH2 to each ring of the SWNT implying addition of a single amidogen to be the most appropriate

  14. Single-crystal charge transfer interfaces for efficient photonic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Helena; Pinto, Rui M.; Maçôas, Ermelinda M. S.; Baleizão, Carlos; Santos, Isabel C.

    2016-09-01

    Organic semiconductors have unique optical, mechanical and electronic properties that can be combined with customized chemical functionality. In the crystalline form, determinant features for electronic applications such as molecular purity, the charge mobility or the exciton diffusion length, reveal a superior performance when compared with materials in a more disordered form. Combining crystals of two different conjugated materials as even enable a new 2D electronic system. However, the use of organic single crystals in devices is still limited to a few applications, such as field-effect transistors. In 2013, we presented the first system composed of single-crystal charge transfer interfaces presenting photoconductivity behaviour. The system composed of rubrene and TCNQ has a responsivity reaching 1 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. A similar approach, with a hybrid structure of a PCBM film and rubrene single crystal also presents high responsivity and the possibility to extract excitons generated in acceptor materials. This strategy led to an extended action towards the near IR. By adequate material design and structural organisation of perylediimides, we demonstrate that is possible to improve exciton diffusion efficiency. More recently, we have successfully used the concept of charge transfer interfaces in phototransistors. These results open the possibility of using organic single-crystal interfaces in photonic applications.

  15. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  16. Ionization and single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Gou Bingcong

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar 16+ ions with He atoms in the velocity range of 1.2–1.9 a.u. The relative importance of single ionization (SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data. The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total single electron capture cross sections are also given for this collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u

  17. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kagan, H. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Kramberger, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mandić, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Phan, S.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Zavrtanik, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  18. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, L.

    2001-10-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the attraction due to the self-image potential. In a simulation that treats electronic and nuclear dynamics simultaneously, we show that the image attraction dominates over the repulsive force. Backscattering of very slow multiply charged projectiles high above the surface without touching it ('trampoline effect') does not take place. Instead, the projectile ion penetrates into the surface or is reflected due to close binary collision with surface ions. The case of a singly charged ion in front of an LiF surface is within the reach of ab-initio calculations. We use a multi-configuration self consistent field (MCSCF) and a multi-reference configuration interaction (MR-CI) method to calculate adiabatic potential energy curves for a system consisting of the projectile ion and an embedded cluster of surface ions. With increasing cluster size, the energy levels of the embedded cluster converge towards the band structure of the infinitely extended solid. Due to

  19. Surface structure modification of single crystal graphite after slow, highly charged ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, I.; Akcöltekin, S.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Manil, B.; Dey, K. R.; Been, T.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.; Schleberger, M.; Lebius, H.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystal graphite was irradiated by slow, highly charged ions. The modification of the surface structure was studied by means of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction. The observed damage cross section increases with the potential energy, i.e. the charge state of the incident ion, at a constant kinetic energy. The potential energy is more efficient for the damage production than the kinetic energy by more than a factor of twenty. Comparison with earlier results hints to a strong link between early electron creation and later target atom rearrangement. With increasing ion fluence, the initially large-scale single crystal is first transformed into μ m-sized crystals, before complete amorphisation takes place.

  20. Absolute beam-charge measurement for single-bunch electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Kazuro; Akasaka, Nobumasa

    2000-01-01

    The absolute beam charge of a single-bunch electron beam with a pulse width of 10 ps and that of a short-pulsed electron beam with a pulse width of 1 ns were measured with a Faraday cup in a beam test for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) injector linac. It is strongly desired to obtain a precise beam-injection rate to the KEKB rings, and to estimate the amount of beam loss. A wall-current monitor was also recalibrated within an error of ±2%. This report describes the new results for an absolute beam-charge measurement for single-bunch and short-pulsed electron beams, and recalibration of the wall-current monitors in detail. (author)

  1. Plasmon excitation in single wall carbon nanotubes by penetrating charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L; Arista, Néstor R; Mowbray, Duncan J; Mišković, Zoran L

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the excitation of plasmons due to the incidence of a charged particle passing through a single wall carbon nanotube. We use a quantized hydrodynamic, in which the σ and π electrons characteristic of these carbonaceous structures are depicted as two interacting 2-dimensional fluids, to calculate the average number of plasmons excited. We analyze the contribution of the different plasmon modes in a variety of configurations, and study the energy lost by the incident particle.

  2. Prototype design of singles processing unit for the small animal PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P.; Zhao, L.; Lu, J.; Li, B.; Dong, R.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-05-01

    Position Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced clinical diagnostic imaging technique for nuclear medicine. Small animal PET is increasingly used for studying the animal model of disease, new drugs and new therapies. A prototype of Singles Processing Unit (SPU) for a small animal PET system was designed to obtain the time, energy, and position information. The energy and position is actually calculated through high precison charge measurement, which is based on amplification, shaping, A/D conversion and area calculation in digital signal processing domian. Analysis and simulations were also conducted to optimize the key parameters in system design. Initial tests indicate that the charge and time precision is better than 3‰ FWHM and 350 ps FWHM respectively, while the position resolution is better than 3.5‰ FWHM. Commination tests of the SPU prototype with the PET detector indicate that the system time precision is better than 2.5 ns, while the flood map and energy spectra concored well with the expected.

  3. The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system is reviewed. These bodies include planetary, interplanetary and cometary dust as well as cometary nuclei (at large heliocentric distances), asteroids and the larger bodies in the Saturnian ring system. While this charging has both physical and dynamical consequences for the small dust grains, it has only physical consequences for the larger bodies. The main physical consequences for the small grains are electrostatic erosion (''chipping'') and disruption, whereas for the larger bodies they include electrostatic levitation and blow-off of fine loose dust from their surfaces. A large variety of solar system phenomena, recently observed by the Pioneer and Voyager deep space probes as well as the HEOS-2 earth satellite, are explained in terms of these processes. Certain peculiar features observed in the dust tails of comets as well as the spatial orientation of the zodiacal dust cloud may also be explained along these lines. The possible electrostatic erosion of the dust mantles of new comets as well as the electrostatic 'polishing' of the smaller asteroids are also discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Electromagnetic scattering by a polydispersion of small charged cosmic dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kocifaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some recent studies on extended red emissions suggest the presence of very small dust particles in the Universe. The sizes of these particles vary from 1 nm to some tens of nanometers, thus situating them deeply in the Rayleigh region if computations are made for visible or near infrared. The optical response of such particles can be a function of the surface charge. In this study we analyse the effect of surface electric potential on the total optical thickness and scattering phase function of the cosmic dust particles. The results are compared with those obtained for electrically neutral dust.

  5. Charge transfer at junctions of a single layer of graphene and a metallic single walled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Geraldine L C; Wang, Qing Hua; Ulissi, Zachary W; McNicholas, Thomas P; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Shih, Chih-Jen; Jin, Zhong; Strano, Michael S

    2013-06-10

    Junctions between a single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and a monolayer of graphene are fabricated and studied for the first time. A single layer graphene (SLG) sheet grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a SiO₂/Si wafer with aligned CVD-grown SWNTs. Raman spectroscopy is used to identify metallic-SWNT/SLG junctions, and a method for spectroscopic deconvolution of the overlapping G peaks of the SWNT and the SLG is reported, making use of the polarization dependence of the SWNT. A comparison of the Raman peak positions and intensities of the individual SWNT and graphene to those of the SWNT-graphene junction indicates an electron transfer of 1.12 × 10¹³ cm⁻² from the SWNT to the graphene. This direction of charge transfer is in agreement with the work functions of the SWNT and graphene. The compression of the SWNT by the graphene increases the broadening of the radial breathing mode (RBM) peak from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 4.6 ± 0.5 cm⁻¹ and of the G peak from 13 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 cm⁻¹, in reasonable agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. However, the RBM and G peak position shifts are primarily due to charge transfer with minimal contributions from strain. With this method, the ability to dope graphene with nanometer resolution is demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Charge transfer through amino groups-small molecules interface improving the performance of electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Kus, Mahmut; Okur, Salih; Demic, Şerafettin; Demirak, Kadir; Kurt, Mustafa; Icli, Sıddık

    2016-05-01

    A carboxylic group functioned charge transporting was synthesized and self-assembled on an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. A typical electroluminescent device [modified ITO/TPD (50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (2 nm)/(120 nm)] was fabricated to investigate the effect of the amino groups-small molecules interface on the characteristics of the device. The increase in the surface work function of ITO is expected to facilitate the hole injection from the ITO anode to the Hole Transport Layer (HTL) in electroluminescence. The modified electroluminescent device could endure a higher current and showed a much higher luminance than the nonmodified one. For the produced electroluminescent devices, the I-V characteristics, optical characterization and quantum yields were performed. The external quantum efficiency of the modified electroluminescent device is improved as the result of the presence of the amino groups-small molecules interface.

  7. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  8. Nonlocal continuum electrostatic theory predicts surprisingly small energetic penalties for charge burial in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2011-09-14

    We study the energetics of burying charges, ion pairs, and ionizable groups in a simple protein model using nonlocal continuum electrostatics. Our primary finding is that the nonlocal response leads to markedly reduced solvent screening, comparable to the use of application-specific protein dielectric constants. Employing the same parameters as used in other nonlocal studies, we find that for a sphere of radius 13.4 Å containing a single +1e charge, the nonlocal solvation free energy varies less than 18 kcal/mol as the charge moves from the surface to the center, whereas the difference in the local Poisson model is ∼35 kcal/mol. Because an ion pair (salt bridge) generates a comparatively more rapidly varying Coulomb potential, energetics for salt bridges are even more significantly reduced in the nonlocal model. By varying the central parameter in nonlocal theory, which is an effective length scale associated with correlations between solvent molecules, nonlocal-model energetics can be varied from the standard local results to essentially zero; however, the existence of the reduction in charge-burial penalties is quite robust to variations in the protein dielectric constant and the correlation length. Finally, as a simple exploratory test of the implications of nonlocal response, we calculate glutamate pK(a) shifts and find that using standard protein parameters (ε(protein) = 2-4), nonlocal results match local-model predictions with much higher dielectric constants. Nonlocality may, therefore, be one factor in resolving discrepancies between measured protein dielectric constants and the model parameters often used to match titration experiments. Nonlocal models may hold significant promise to deepen our understanding of macromolecular electrostatics without substantially increasing computational complexity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Experimental determination of electron shock excitation cross sections for a singly charged gadolinium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    The trends observed in the processes of excitation with simultaneous ionization have received little study. This is particularly so for rare-earth elements having electron shells of complex structure and optical spectra very rich in lines. Among the basic factors responsible for such a situation, we should mention two: the difficulty presented by theoretical analysis of the processes discussed and the absence of factual information about the excitation cross sections with simultaneous ionization for the majority of rare-earth elements. The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion in the collisions of monokinetic electrons with gadolinium atoms. Up to the present time, only the excitation cross sections of a gadolinium atom have been measured, where investigation of the electron shock excitation of gadolinium atoms in their free state is associated with overcoming large experimental difficulties. About 160 crosss sections for the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion were measured and for a third of the cross sections; the energy dependences were recorded for the change in energy of the elecrons from the excitation threshold up to 200 eV. Included are tables of the wavelength, transistion, internal quantum number, the energy of the lowere and upper levels, and the values of cross sections for the charged gadolinium ion. Diagrams of the transistion energy states of Gd (II) and spectroscopy are presented and explained

  10. Superconducting single electron transistor for charge sensing in Si/SiGe-based quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen

    Si-based quantum devices, including Si/SiGe quantum dots (QD), are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (quits), which are a potential platform for quantum information processing. Meanwhile, qubit readout remains a challenging task related to semiconductor-based quantum computation. This thesis describes two readout devices for Si/SiGe QDs and the techniques for developing them from a traditional single electron transistor (SET). By embedding an SET in a tank circuit and operating it in the radio-frequency (RF) regime, a superconducting RF-SET has quick response as well as ultra high charge sensitivity and can be an excellent charge sensor for the QDs. We demonstrate such RF-SETs for QDs in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Characterization of the SET in magnetic fields is studied for future exploration of advanced techniques such as spin detection and spin state manipulation. By replacing the tank circuit with a high-quality-factor microwave cavity, the embedded SET will be operated in the supercurrent regime as a single Cooper pair transistor (CPT) to further increase the charge sensitivity and reduce any dissipation. The operating principle and implementation of the cavity-embedded CPT (cCPT) will be introduced.

  11. Dielectric Losses and Charge Transfer in Antimony-Doped TlGaS2 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, S. M.; Mustafaeva, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of semimetallic antimony (0.5 mol % Sb) on the dielectric properties and ac-conductivity of TlGaS2-based single crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method has been studied. The experimental results on the frequency dispersion of dielectric coefficients and the conductivity of TlGa0.995Sb0.005S2 single crystals allowed the revealing of the dielectric loss nature, the charge transfer mechanism, and the estimation of the parameters of the states localized in the energy gap. The antimony-doping of the TlGaS2 single crystal leads to an increase in the density of states near the Fermi level and a decrease in the average time and average distance of hopes.

  12. Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus. When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.

  13. Systems Based Study of the Therapeutic Potential of Small Charged Molecules for the Inhibition of IL-1 Mediated Cartilage Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Saptarshi; Smith, David W.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are key drivers of cartilage degradation in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Cartilage degradation mediated by these inflammatory cytokines has been extensively investigated using in vitro experimental systems. Based on one such study, we have developed a computational model to quantitatively assess the impact of charged small molecules intended to inhibit IL-1 mediated cartilage degradation. We primarily focus on the simplest possible computational model of small molecular interaction with the IL-1 system—direct binding of the small molecule to the active site on the IL-1 molecule itself. We first use the model to explore the uptake and release kinetics of the small molecule inhibitor by cartilage tissue. Our results show that negatively charged small molecules are excluded from the negatively charged cartilage tissue and have uptake kinetics in the order of hours. In contrast, the positively charged small molecules are drawn into the cartilage with uptake and release timescales ranging from hours to days. Using our calibrated computational model, we subsequently explore the effect of small molecule charge and binding constant on the rate of cartilage degradation. The results from this analysis indicate that the small molecules are most effective in inhibiting cartilage degradation if they are either positively charged and/or bind strongly to IL-1α, or both. Furthermore, our results showed that the cartilage structural homeostasis can be restored by the small molecule if administered within six days following initial tissue exposure to IL-1α. We finally extended the scope of the computational model by simulating the competitive inhibition of cartilage degradation by the small molecule. Results from this model show that small molecules are more efficient in inhibiting cartilage degradation by binding directly to IL-1α rather than binding to IL-1α receptors. The results from this study can be used as a template for the design and

  14. Ultrafast electron microscopy: Instrument response from the single-electron to high bunch-charge regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Dayne A.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-09-01

    We determine the instrument response of an ultrafast electron microscope equipped with a conventional thermionic electron gun and absent modifications beyond the optical ports. Using flat, graphite-encircled LaB6 cathodes, we image space-charge effects as a function of photoelectron-packet population and find that an applied Wehnelt bias has a negligible effect on the threshold levels (>103 electrons per pulse) but does appear to suppress blurring at the upper limits (∼105 electrons). Using plasma lensing, we determine the instrument-response time for 700-fs laser pulses and find that single-electron packets are laser limited (1 ps), while broadening occurs well below the space-charge limit.

  15. Decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes in single InAs/GaAs QDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucker, Max; Seguin, Robert; Rodt, Sven; Poetschke, Konstantin; Bimberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Across the inhomogeneously broadened lineshape of a quantum dot (QD) ensemble the decay times are expected to vary since the wavefunctions and the oscillator strengths are sensitive to the actual geometry of the QD. We performed time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of 26 different single InAs/GaAs QDs to investigate the decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes. The largest decay rate was found for the XX + , followed by XX, X + and finally the X. We will show that the ratios of lifetimes of the different excitonic complexes are mainly governed by the number of involved recombination channels. There is excellent agreement between the measured and predicted values for the lifetime ratios of the neutral (X/XX) and the positively charged (X + /XX + ) complexes. Surprisingly the lifetime of the exciton (X) shows a much larger yet unexplained scatter than that of all the other complexes

  16. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1986-06-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π- meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175±25) 10-40 cm2/neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9±0.1) % of the total charged currentbar v_μ cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35±0.18) GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5 150 GeV.

  17. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π - meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175+-25) 10 -40 cm 2 /neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9+-0.1)% of the total charged current anti νsub(μ) cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35+-0.18)GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5-150 GeV. (orig.)

  18. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, K. [Morningstar Corp., Olney, MD (United States); Welsh, D. [Morningstar Corp., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  19. Investigations of solution-processed charge generation unit with low concentration of small molecule doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} for tandem OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A., E-mail: azrina_talik@hotmail.com [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yeoh, K.H. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre for Photonics and Advanced Materials Research (CPR), Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ng, C.Y.B. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, C.Y. [Centre of Advanced Manufacturing & Material Processing (AMMP), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, B.K., E-mail: kbyap@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Microelectronic and Nano Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the charge generation and injection mechanism in solution processed charge generation unit (CGU) used in our high performance tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) via capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current density–voltage (J–V) measurements. By doping 2 wt% of small molecule 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) into Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as p-type layer of the CGU, we obtained more than two folds improvement in the tandem device efficiency compared to single device. The performance improvement of the TAPC doped CGU could be attributed to low built-in potential, large vacuum level shift as well as high charge density for efficient charge generation. - Highlights: • Charge-generation and injection mechanism in CGU for tandem OLED is investigated. • Small molecule, TAPC doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} has been used for tandem OLED. • The improvement attributes to the lower V{sub bi} and larger ΔV{sub L} in doped layer. • Narrower W and high carrier density also contribute to efficiency improvement.

  20. Investigations of solution-processed charge generation unit with low concentration of small molecule doped in p-type/HAT-CN6 for tandem OLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B.; Tan, C.Y.; Yap, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the charge generation and injection mechanism in solution processed charge generation unit (CGU) used in our high performance tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) via capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current density–voltage (J–V) measurements. By doping 2 wt% of small molecule 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) into Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as p-type layer of the CGU, we obtained more than two folds improvement in the tandem device efficiency compared to single device. The performance improvement of the TAPC doped CGU could be attributed to low built-in potential, large vacuum level shift as well as high charge density for efficient charge generation. - Highlights: • Charge-generation and injection mechanism in CGU for tandem OLED is investigated. • Small molecule, TAPC doped in p-type/HAT-CN 6 has been used for tandem OLED. • The improvement attributes to the lower V bi and larger ΔV L in doped layer. • Narrower W and high carrier density also contribute to efficiency improvement.

  1. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  2. Inclusive photoproduction of single charged particles at high pT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Flower, P.S.; Hallewell, G.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Paterson, C.N.; Sharp, P.H.; Atkinson, M.; Brook, N.; Coyle, P.; Dickinson, B.; Donnachie, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Ellison, R.J.; Foster, J.M.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Ibbotson, M.; Kolya, S.D.; Lafferty, G.D.; McCann, H.; McManus, C.; Mercer, D.; Ottewell, P.J.; Reid, D.; Thompson, R.J.; Waterhouse, J.; Barberis, D.; Davenport, M.; Eades, J.; McClatchey, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Charity, T.; Clegg, A.B.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hickman, M.T.; Keemer, N.R.; Newton, D.; O'Connor, A.; Wilson, G.W.; Danaher, S.; Galbraith, W.; Thacker, N.A.; Thompson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Single charged-particle inclusive cross sections for photon, pion and kaon beams on hydrogen at the CERN-SPS are presented as functions of p T and x F . Data cover the range 0.0 T F T < 1.6 GeV/c for the photon-induced data. Using the hadron-induced data to estimate the hadronic behaviour of the photon, the difference distributions and ratios of cross sections are a measure of the contribution of the point-like photon interactions. The data are compared with QCD calculations and show broadly similar features. (orig.)

  3. On the charge transfer between single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Rahul; Pierce, Neal; Dasgupta, Archi

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the electronic interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene in order to use them efficiently in multifunctional hybrid devices. Here, we deposited SWNT bundles on graphene-covered copper and SiO 2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition and investigated the charge transfer between them by Raman spectroscopy. Our results revealed that, on both copper and SiO 2 substrates, graphene donates electrons to the SWNTs, resulting in p-type doped graphene and n-type doped SWNTs.

  4. Charging a Capacitor from an External Fluctuating Potential using a Single Conical Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Vicente; Ramirez, Patricio; Cervera, Javier; Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Mafe, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electrical rectification of large amplitude fluctuating signals by an asymmetric nanostructure operating in aqueous solution. We show experimentally and theoretically that a load capacitor can be charged to voltages close to 1 V within a few minutes by converting zero time-average potentials of amplitudes in the range 0.5–3 V into average net currents using a single conical nanopore. This process suggests that significant energy conversion and storage from an electrically fluctuating environment is feasible with a nanoscale pore immersed in a liquid electrolyte solution, a system characteristic of bioelectronics interfaces, electrochemical cells, and nanoporous membranes. PMID:25830563

  5. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  6. Mode locking of electron spin coherences in singly charged quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilich, A; Yakovlev, D R; Shabaev, A; Efros, Al L; Yugova, I A; Oulton, R; Stavarache, V; Reuter, D; Wieck, A; Bayer, M

    2006-07-21

    The fast dephasing of electron spins in an ensemble of quantum dots is detrimental for applications in quantum information processing. We show here that dephasing can be overcome by using a periodic train of light pulses to synchronize the phases of the precessing spins, and we demonstrate this effect in an ensemble of singly charged (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. This mode locking leads to constructive interference of contributions to Faraday rotation and presents potential applications based on robust quantum coherence within an ensemble of dots.

  7. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

  8. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments

  9. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into a fuel holds promise to provide a significant part of the future renewable energy demand of our societies. Solar energy technologies today generate heat or electricity, while the large majority of our energy is used in the form of fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel would satisfy our needs for storable energy on a large scale. Solar fuels can be generated by absorbing light and converting its energy to chemical energy by electron transfer leading to separation of electrons and holes. The electrons are used in the catalytic reduction of a cheap substrate with low energy content into a high-energy fuel. The holes are filled by oxidation of water, which is the only electron source available for large scale solar fuel production. Absorption of a single photon typically leads to separation of a single electron-hole pair. In contrast, fuel production and water oxidation are multielectron, multiproton reactions. Therefore, a system for direct solar fuel production must be able to accumulate the electrons and holes provided by the sequential absorption of several photons in order to complete the catalytic reactions. In this Account, the process is termed accumulative charge separation. This is considerably more complicated than charge separation on a single electron level and needs particular attention. Semiconductor materials and molecular dyes have for a long time been optimized for use in photovoltaic devices. Efforts are made to develop new systems for light harvesting and charge separation that are better optimized for solar fuel production than those used in the early devices presented so far. Significant progress has recently been made in the discovery and design of better homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for solar fuels and water oxidation. While the heterogeneous ones perform better today, molecular catalysts based on transition metal complexes offer much greater tunability of electronic and

  10. Electronic transport in single-helical protein molecules: Effects of multiple charge conduction pathways and helical symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.kunduphy@gmail.com; Karmakar, S.N.

    2016-07-15

    We propose a tight-binding model to investigate electronic transport properties of single helical protein molecules incorporating both the helical symmetry and the possibility of multiple charge transfer pathways. Our study reveals that due to existence of both the multiple charge transfer pathways and helical symmetry, the transport properties are quite rigid under influence of environmental fluctuations which indicates that these biomolecules can serve as better alternatives in nanoelectronic devices than its other biological counterparts e.g., single-stranded DNA.

  11. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  12. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....

  13. The effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic wave beams on single electron acoustic charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhong; Guo Huazhong; Song Li; Zhang Wei; Gao Jie; Lu Chuan

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic waves on the acoustoelectric current of single electron transport devices. A significant improvement in the accuracy of current quantization is achieved as a result of an additional surface acoustic wave beam. The experiments reveal the sinusoidally periodical modulation in the acoustoelectric current characteristic as a function of the relative phase of the two surface acoustic wave beams. Besides, by using standing surface acoustic waves, the acoustoelectric current is detected which we consider as the so-called anomalous acoustoelectric current produced by acoustic wave mechanical deformations. This kind current is contributed to one component of the acoustoelectric current in surface acoustic wave device, which could enable us to establish a more adequate description of acoustoelectric effects on single-electron acoustic charge transport.

  14. Persistent Charge-Density-Wave Order in Single-Layer TaSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Chen, Yi; Kim, Heejung; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Tang, Shujie; Jiang, Juan; Liou, Franklin; Kahn, Salman; Jia, Caihong; Omrani, Arash A; Shim, Ji Hoon; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Hwang, Choongyu; Crommie, Michael F; Mo, Sung-Kwan

    2018-02-14

    We present the electronic characterization of single-layer 1H-TaSe 2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that 3 × 3 charge-density-wave (CDW) order persists despite distinct changes in the low energy electronic structure highlighted by the reduction in the number of bands crossing the Fermi energy and the corresponding modification of Fermi surface topology. Enhanced spin-orbit coupling and lattice distortion in the single-layer play a crucial role in the formation of CDW order. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the nature of CDW order in the two-dimensional limit.

  15. CDW-EIS theoretical calculations of projectile deflection for single ionization in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    We present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) theoretical calculations for the projectile deflection in single ionization of helium by heavy-ion impact as a function of ionized electron energies. These calculations account for the helium passive electron shielding in the internuclear interaction improving standard CDW-EIS theory. The results are compared with recent experimental results by impact of 100 MeV/amu C 6+ and 3.6 MeV/amu Au 53+ . For highly charged projectiles there is a poor quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. However, this refined calculation does share some qualitative features with the data. In particular the variation of the effective charge of the residual He + ion from Z eff =1 to Z eff =2 when going from small to large projectile scattering angles is able to represent a shoulder observed in the double differential cross sections. Important qualitative differences are observed at the level of triple differential cross sections

  16. Photoelectron diffraction studies of small adsorbates on single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    The structural determination of small molecules adsorbed on single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanned energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD). The experimental PhD data were compared to theoretical models using a simulation program based on multiple scattering calculations. Three adsorption systems have been examined on Ag(110), Cu(110) and Cu(111) crystals. The structure of the (2x1)-O adsorption phase on Ag(110) revealed that the O atoms occupied the long bridge site and are almost co-planar with the top layer of Ag atoms. The best agreement between multiple scattering theory and experiment has been obtained for a missing-row (or equivalently an 'added- row') reconstruction. Alternative buckled-row and unreconstructed surface models can be excluded. The adsorption of the benzoate species on Cu(110) has been found to occur via the carboxylate group. The molecules occupy short bridge sites with the O atoms being slightly displaced from atop sites and are aligned along the close-packed azimuth. The tilt of the molecule with respect to the surface and the degree to which the surface is relaxed have also been investigated. The adsorption of methyl on Cu(111) was studied using either azomethane or methyl iodide to prepare the surface layers. At saturation coverage the preferred adsorption site is the fcc threefold hollow site, whereas at half saturation coverage ∼ 30 % of the methyl species occupy the hop threefold hollow sites. Best agreement between theory and experiment corresponded to a methyl group adsorbed with C 3v symmetry. The height of the C above the surface in a pure methyl layer was 1.66 ± 0.02 A, but was reduced to 1.62 ± 0.02 A in the presence of co-adsorbed iodine, suggesting that iodine increases the strength of adsorption. Iodine was also found to occupy the fee threefold hollow sites with a Cu-l bondlength of 2.61 ± 0.02 A. (author)

  17. Spiro-OMeTAD single crystals: Remarkably enhanced charge-carrier transport via mesoscale ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Dong

    2016-04-15

    We report the crystal structure and hole-transport mechanism in spiro-OMeTAD [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spirobifluorene], the dominant hole-transporting material in perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Despite spiro-OMeTAD’s paramount role in such devices, its crystal structure was unknown because of highly disordered solution-processed films; the hole-transport pathways remained ill-defined and the charge carrier mobilities were low, posing a major bottleneck for advancing cell efficiencies. We devised an antisolvent crystallization strategy to grow single crystals of spiro-OMeTAD, which allowed us to experimentally elucidate its molecular packing and transport properties. Electronic structure calculations enabled us to map spiro-OMeTAD’s intermolecular charge-hopping pathways. Promisingly, single-crystal mobilities were found to exceed their thin-film counterparts by three orders of magnitude. Our findings underscore mesoscale ordering as a key strategy to achieving breakthroughs in hole-transport material engineering of solar cells.

  18. The dual role of multiple-transistor charge sharing collection in single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Chen Jian-Jun; He Yi-Bai; Liang Bin; Liu Bi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As technologies scale down in size, multiple-transistors being affected by a single ion has become a universal phenomenon, and some new effects are present in single event transients (SETs) due to the charge sharing collection of the adjacent multiple-transistors. In this paper, not only the off-state p-channel metal—oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOS FET), but also the on-state PMOS is struck by a heavy-ion in the two-transistor inverter chain, due to the charge sharing collection and the electrical interaction. The SET induced by striking the off-state PMOS is efficiently mitigated by the pulse quenching effect, but the SET induced by striking the on-state PMOS becomes dominant. It is indicated in this study that in the advanced technologies, the SET will no longer just be induced by an ion striking the off-state transistor, and the SET sensitive region will no longer just surround the off-state transistor either, as it is in the older technologies. We also discuss this issue in a three-transistor inverter in depth, and the study illustrates that the three-transistor inverter is still a better replacement for spaceborne integrated circuit design in advanced technologies. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  19. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term “fate” of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability. PMID:22966418

  20. Charge transfer effects, thermo and photochromism in single crystal CVD synthetic diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R U A; Martineau, P M; Cann, B L; Newton, M E; Twitchen, D J

    2009-09-09

    We report on the effects of thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on the point defect concentrations and optical absorption profiles of single crystal CVD synthetic diamond. All thermal treatments were below 850 K, which is lower than the growth temperature and unlikely to result in any structural change. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements showed that upon thermal treatment (823 K), various broad absorption features diminished: an absorption band at 270 nm (used to deduce neutral single substitutional nitrogen (N(S)(0)) concentrations) and also two broad features centred at approximately 360 and 520 nm. Point defect centre concentrations as a function of temperature were also deduced using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Above ∼500 K, we observed a decrease in the concentration of N(S)(0) centres and a concomitant increase in the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH) complex (NVH(-)) concentration. Both transitions exhibited an activation energy between 0.6 and 1.2 eV, which is lower than that for the N(S)(0) donor (∼1.7 eV). Finally, it was found that illuminating samples with intense short-wave ultraviolet light recovered the N(S)(0) concentration and also the 270, 360 and 520 nm absorption features. From these results, we postulate a valence band mediated charge transfer process between NVH and single nitrogen centres with an acceptor trap depth for NVH of 0.6-1.2 eV. Because the loss of N(S)(0) concentration is greater than the increase in NVH(-) concentration we also suggest the presence of another unknown acceptor existing at a similar energy to NVH. The extent to which the colour in CVD synthetic diamond is dependent on prior history is discussed.

  1. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  2. Quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikata, Nami; Yoshida, Shijun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole both with analytical and numerical approaches. In the analytical approach, by using the small black hole approximation (r + + /L→0, where r + and L stand for the black hole event horizon radius and the AdS scale, respectively. We then show that the small RN-AdS black hole is unstable if its quasinormal modes satisfy the superradiance condition and that the instability condition of the RN-AdS black hole in the limit of r + /L→0 is given by Q>(3/eL)Q c , where Q, Q c , and e are the charge of the black hole, the critical (maximum) charge of the black hole, and the charge of the scalar field, respectively. In the numerical approach, we calculate the quasinormal modes for the small RN-AdS black holes with r + + =0.2L, 0.1L, and 0.01L become unstable against scalar perturbations with eL=4 when the charge of the black hole satisfies Q > or approx. 0.8Q c , 0.78Q c , and 0.76Q c , respectively.

  3. Experimental investigations of single-electron detachment processes from H- ions colliding with MeV/u, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Imai, T.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Single electron detachment processes from negative hydrogen ions under collisions with MeV/u highly charged ions have been investigated using the so-called crossed-beams technique. The preliminary results of the single-electron detachment cross sections obtained is found to be in crude agreement with some empirical and theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  4. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan, E-mail: r.ramakrishnan@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Nest, Mathias [Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • We model electron dynamics across cyano alkanethiolates attached to gold cluster. • We present electron transfer time scales from TD-DFT and TD-CI based simulations. • Both DFT and CI methods qualitatively predict the trend in time scales. • TD-CI predicts the experimental relative time scale very accurately. - Abstract: We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual π{sup ∗} molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  5. Propensity rules for orientation in singly-charged ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.E.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Orientation effects for electron capture and excitation in singly-charged ion-atom collisions are analysed using the atomic basis impact parameter method with full inclusion of electron translational factors. We find that the orientation preferences previously predicted for excitation in terms of propensity rules may still be observed when capture is present in ion-atom collisions. Furthermore, in spite of intricate behaviour of the direct capture couplings during the collision, we draw some parallel conclusions for the orientation of the capture states. We illustrate these perturbative predictions by close-coupling calculations for H + -Na(3s) collisions where clear propensity for orientation of the H(2p) capture state is demonstrated in impact parameter and velocity dependences. Finally we predict pronounced orientation effects for H(2s) and H(2p) capture in collisions of H + with initially oriented Na(3p) states. (author)

  6. Single and double charge transfer in Be/sup 4+/+He collisions: A molecular (Feshbach) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1986-01-01

    In recent articles, we pointed out the fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of processes involving a multicharged ion and hydrogen or helium atoms, which is the (formal) autoionizing character of the molecular channels, and we reported a (new) implementation of the Feshbach method to calculate the molecular energies and couplings. In the present work we use the wave functions calculated with this Feshbach method for the BeHe/sup 4+/ quasimolecule, introduce a common translation factor in the formalism, and calculate the single and double charge-exchange cross sections in Be/sup 4+/+He(1s 2 ) collisions for impact energies 0.2--20 keV/amu. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed in detail

  7. Effect of quenched disorder on charge-orbital-spin ordering in single-layer manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masaya; Mathieu, Roland; He, Jinping; Kaneko, Yoshio; Tokura, Yoshinori; Asamitsu, Atsushi; Kumai, Reiji; Tomioka, Yasuhide; Matsui, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties have been investigated for half-doped single-layer manganites RE 0.5 Sr 1.5 MnO 4 [RE=La, (La, Pr), Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu]. Analyses of electron diffraction and ac susceptibility measurements have revealed that the long-range charge-orbital ordering (CO-OO) state as observed in La 0.5 Sr 1.5 MnO 4 is suppressed for the other materials: the CO-OO transition temperature, as well as the correlation length decreases with a decrease in the cation size of RE. Such a short-range CO-OO state shows a spin-glass behavior at low temperatures. A new electronic phase diagram is established with quenched disorder as the control parameter. (author)

  8. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  9. Single and double charge transfer in Be/sup 4+/+He collisions: A molecular (Feshbach) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1986-12-01

    In recent articles, we pointed out the fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of processes involving a multicharged ion and hydrogen or helium atoms, which is the (formal) autoionizing character of the molecular channels, and we reported a (new) implementation of the Feshbach method to calculate the molecular energies and couplings. In the present work we use the wave functions calculated with this Feshbach method for the BeHe/sup 4+/ quasimolecule, introduce a common translation factor in the formalism, and calculate the single and double charge-exchange cross sections in Be/sup 4+/+He(1s/sup 2/) collisions for impact energies 0.2--20 keV/amu. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed in detail.

  10. Features of produced flows of multiply charged ions at interaction of laser radiation with single-component solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M.R.; Bedilov, R.M.; Beysembaeva, H.B.; Sabitov, M.S.; Kamalova, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The results of study features of formation multiply charged ions spectra of single-component solids depending on a target element composition in an interval of laser radiation power density q = 10 7 / 10 12 W/cm 2 with using of the laser multiply charged mass spectrometer [1] are given in this work. As single-component targets are used Be, B, C, Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au as tablets in diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 3-5 mm. Analysis of the obtained mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions depending on a target element composition has allowed us to find features of formation spectra and escape multiply charged ions of a single-component targets. These features consist in characteristic changes: a threshold produced of ions; formation of mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions; nonlinear dependence of maximal charge number (Z max ) of ions from power density (q) of the laser; etc. Experimentally it was found that, with target atomic weight increase, threshold power of ions occurrence, nonlinearity ionization target structure, and intensity of ions, and energy spectra of ions increase. Let's note that, in case of targets Be, B, C, Al by laser radiation it is completely ionized and multiply charged ions and nuclei Be 4+ , B 5+ , C 6+ , Al 13+ are formed. The major level of ionization is attained in case of targets from Ti (Ti 17+ ) and Co (Co 18+ ). It is peculiar that structure formation and escape of multiply charged ion flows with Z max and nuclei depending on target element composition corresponds to various maximal values q of the laser. Increase of the maximal charge number of ions (atoms) observed with increase q of the laser for all investigated targets has nonlinear dependence in various levels that is especially shown beginning from q≥ 10 11 W/cm 2 . It is found that depending on target element composition multiply charged ions have a wide energy range with a maximum of allocation. With increase

  11. Equations of motion in general relativity of a small charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Hogan, P. A.; Itoh, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details of a model in general relativity of a small charged black hole moving in an external gravitational and electromagnetic field. The importance of our model lies in the fact that we can derive the equations of motion of the black hole from the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations without encountering infinities. The key assumptions which we base our results upon are that (a) the black hole is isolated and (b) near the black hole the wave fronts of the radiation generated by its motion are smoothly deformed spheres. The equations of motion which emerge fit the pattern of the original DeWitt and Brehme equations of motion (after they 'renormalize'). Our calculations are carried out in a coordinate system in which the null hypersurface histories of the wave fronts can be specified in a simple way, with the result that we obtain a new explicit form, particular to our model, for the well-known ''tail term'' in the equations of motion.

  12. Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Quinta, Goncalo [Universidade de Lisboa, UL, Departamento de Fisica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one finds that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme, valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive, aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse. (orig.)

  13. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  14. Small Molecules Facilitate Single Factor-Mediated Hepatic Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Tae Lim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that defined factors could lead to the direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps. However, reported conversion efficiencies are very low, and the underlying mechanism of the direct hepatic reprogramming is largely unknown. Here, we report that direct conversion into iHeps is a stepwise transition involving the erasure of somatic memory, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, and induction of hepatic cell fate in a sequential manner. Through screening for additional factors that could potentially enhance the conversion kinetics, we have found that c-Myc and Klf4 (CK dramatically accelerate conversion kinetics, resulting in remarkably improved iHep generation. Furthermore, we identified small molecules that could lead to the robust generation of iHeps without CK. Finally, we show that Hnf1α supported by small molecules is sufficient to efficiently induce direct hepatic reprogramming. This approach might help to fully elucidate the direct conversion process and also facilitate the translation of iHep into the clinic.

  15. A Single Global Small-User Nuclear Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.L.; Wright, J.

    2009-01-01

    Global energy partnerships in nuclear power, proposed by France, Russia, U.S. and England, seek to address the proliferation issue by controlling fuel production and nuclear materials, removing the need for each country to develop enrichment, fabrication, recycling or disposal capabilities. Several of the large generator countries such as France, the U.S., Japan, S. Korea, Russia, the U.K., China and India, all have plans for deep geologic repositories because they anticipate sufficient waste over the next century to justify the expense of a repository. However, countries having, or planning, less than five reactors, such as Egypt, Iran, Indonesia, Brazil and about 30 other countries, will not have sufficient waste generation, or a favorable geologic site, to justify the economic and environmental issues of developing their own repository. The Salado salt formation in New Mexico, set aside for nuclear waste disposal within the 16 square-mile area by the Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, is the most optimal geologic formation for the permanent disposal of any nuclear waste and is easily able to host all of the commercial nuclear waste that will be generated in the next thousand years. The U.S. commercial nuclear waste needs presently surpass all others, and will for the foreseeable future. Hosting the relatively small amount of waste from these small-user nations will add little to U.S. waste stream while the cost/benefit analysis from the standpoint of operations, safety, geology, cost and proliferation is overwhelmingly positive for developing such a global repository. Oceanic and overland transportation, high-level disposal logistics and costs from several programs, including WIPP, have demonstrated that the operation would pay for itself from international user fees with no U.S. taxpayer dollars required and still save the world about $400 billion over 100 years. The ethical considerations alone are compelling. (authors)

  16. Testing multistage gain and offset trimming in a single photon counting IC with a charge sharing elimination algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyżanowska, A.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Maj, P.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a hybrid pixel detector readout electronics operating in a single photon counting mode is a very challenging process, where many main parameters are optimized in parallel (e.g. gain, noise, and threshold dispersion). Additional requirements for a smaller pixel size with extended functionality push designers to use new deep sub-micron technologies. Minimizing the channel size is possible, however, with a decreased pixel size, the charge sharing effect becomes a more important issue. To overcome this problem, we designed an integrated circuit prototype produced in CMOS 40 nm technology, which has an extended functionality of a single pixel. A C8P1 algorithm for the charge sharing effect compensation was implemented. In the algorithm's first stage the charge is rebuilt in a signal rebuilt hub fed by the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) outputs from four neighbouring pixels. Then, the pixel with the biggest amount of charge is chosen, after a comparison with all the adjacent ones. In order to process the data in such a complicated way, a certain architecture of a single channel was proposed, which allows for: ⋅ processing the signal with the possibility of total charge reconstruction (by connecting with the adjacent pixels), ⋅ a comparison of certain pixel amplitude to its 8 neighbours, ⋅ the extended testability of each block inside the channel to measure CSA gain dispersion, shaper gain dispersion, threshold dispersion (including the simultaneous generation of different pulse amplitudes from different pixels), ⋅ trimming all the necessary blocks for proper operation. We present a solution for multistage gain and offset trimming implemented in the IC prototype. It allows for minimization of the total charge extraction errors, minimization of threshold dispersion in the pixel matrix and minimization of errors of comparison of certain pixel pulse amplitudes with all its neighbours. The detailed architecture of a single channel is presented

  17. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  18. X-Ray Beam Studies of Charge Sharing in Small Pixel, Spectroscopic, CdZnTe Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwork, Christopher; Kitou, Dimitris; Chaudhuri, Sandeep; Sellin, Paul J.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Tartoni, Nicola; Veeramani, Perumal

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in the growth of CdZnTe material have allowed the development of small pixel, spectroscopic, X-ray imaging detectors. These detectors have applications in a diverse range of fields such as medical, security and industrial sectors. As the size of the pixels decreases relative to the detector thickness, the probability that charge is shared between multiple pixels increases due to the non zero width of the charge clouds drifting through the detector. These charge sharing events will result in a degradation of the spectroscopic performance of detectors and must be considered when analyzing the detector response. In this paper charge sharing and charge loss in a 250 μm pitch CdZnTe pixel detector has been investigated using a mono-chromatic X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, U.K. Using a 20 μm beam diameter the detector response has been mapped for X-ray energies both above (40 keV) and below (26 keV) the material K-shell absorption energies to study charge sharing and the role of fluorescence X-rays in these events.

  19. Single-electron charging effects and implications for tunneling measurements of the high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.B.; Honkanen, M.J.; Ruggiero, S.T.; Mullen, K.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Pelton, A.R.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a theory for the dynamics of two voltage-biased, ultra-small-capacitance tunnel junctions connected in series when one or more electrodes are superconducting and experiments performed on parallel arrays of such junctions. Using the semiclassical model, they find that the I-V characteristics display steps and therefore multiple peaks in dI/dV, corresponding to the time-average occupation of the interjunction region by integral numbers of electrons. The voltage at which the first step is located depends on the superconducting gap, Δ(T), and the capacitances of the junctions. The spacing between subsequent steps depends solely on the capacitances. They discuss electron tunneling results performed on metal/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//2-10 nm-diameter metal particles/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//metal junctions where this multiple-peak structure is observed. They present preliminary tunneling results in junctions employing Pb-particles, where they observe a shift of the peaks when the sample is cooled below T/sub c/ of Pb consistent with theory. Taken together, these results indicate that the multiple-peak structure commonly observed in tunneling data of high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors can be explained in terms of charging effects in a material with a single superconducting gap. Finally, they discuss possible applications in a new type of transistor element

  20. The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: The relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the author derives expressions for the ratio of double to single ionization of helium from its ground state, by both single photons, and charged particle impact. He shows that in the limit of large reduced incident energy T of a charged particle, that the ratio of the double to single ionization cross sections at some energy transfer ΔE is equal to the ratio of photoionization cross sections for a photon of energy hν = ΔE, independent of T. He then goes on to find a relationship for this ionization ratio which is not restricted to some specific energy transfer, and shows that the double to single ionization cross section ratio approaches an asymtotic limit for large enough T

  1. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Sand

    Full Text Available Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  2. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators’ primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves’ choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population. PMID:28030549

  3. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  4. Single-crystal study of the charge density wave metal LuNiC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S.; Michor, H.; Sologub, O.; Hinterleitner, B.; Höfenstock, F.; Waas, M.; Bauer, E.; Stöger, B.; Babizhetskyy, V.; Levytskyy, V.; Kotur, B.

    2018-05-01

    We report on single-crystal growth, single-crystal x-ray diffraction, physical properties, and density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure as well as Fermi surface calculations for two ternary carbides, LuCoC2 and LuNiC2. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal for LuNiC2 a charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW≃450 K and, for T >TCDW , a significant anisotropy of the electrical resistivity, which is lowest along the orthorhombic a axis. The analysis of x-ray superstructure reflections suggest a commensurate CDW state with a Peierls-type distortion of the Ni atom periodicity along the orthorhombic a axis. DFT calculations based on the CDW modulated monoclinic structure model of LuNiC2 as compared to results of the orthorhombic parent type reveal the formation of a partial CDW gap at the Fermi level which reduces the electronic density of states from N (EF)=1.03 states/eV f.u. without CDW to N (EF)=0.46 states/eV f.u. in the CDW state. The corresponding bare DFT Sommerfeld value of the latter, γDFTCDW=0.90 mJ/mol K2, reaches reasonable agreement with the experimental value γ =0.83 (5 ) mJ/mol K2 of LuNiC2. LuCoC2 displays a simple metallic behavior with neither CDW ordering nor superconductivity above 0.4 K. Its experimental Sommerfeld coefficient, γ =5.9 (1) mJ/mol K2, is in realistic correspondence with the calculated, bare Sommerfeld coefficient, γDFT=3.82 mJ/mol K2, of orthorhombic LuCoC2.

  5. Collisions of singly and doubly charged ions with oxygen molecules in the energy range 1 - 1800 (3600) eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, I.; Howorka, F.

    1983-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for the excitation of optically emitting states in collisions of He + , Ne + , Ar + , Kr + , B + , He ++ , Ne ++ and Ar ++ with oxygen molecules are measured, the energy range of the ion being1 - 1800 eV Lab for the singly charged and 1 - 3600 eV for the doubly charged ions. Seven important processes can be distinguished: charge exchange excitation of O 2 + band, O I, O II, X I and X II lines (X + , X ++ being the primary ion), direct excitation of X II and double charge exchange excitations. The energy dependences of the excitation cross sections are remarkably different for different processes but similar for one process with different ions. The sum total of all cross sections together for excitations which lead to light emission is on the order of a few square angstroms at 1000 eV c.m. energy. The results are of interest for surface investigations, plasma diagnostics and laser work. (Author)

  6. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  7. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.

    1984-06-01

    When electrons or positrons in a bunch pass through the periodic structure of a linear accelerator, they leave behind them energy in the form of longitudinal wake fields. The longitudinal fields left behind by early particles in a bunch decrease the energy of later particles. For a linear collider, the energy spread introduced within the bunches by this beam loading effect must be minimized because it limits the degree to which the particles can be focused to a small spot due to chromatic effects in the final focus system. For example, for the SLC, the allowable energy spread is +-0.5%. It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this report shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave

  8. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Charge Off Rates as a Percent of Unpaid Principal Balance (UPB) Amount by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects charge off rates, as a percent of the UPB amounts, at the end of the fiscal year for the major loan programs and aggregate totals for the small direct and...

  9. Charge Enhancement of Single-Stranded DNA in Negative Electrospray Ionization Using the Supercharging Reagent Meta-nitrobenzyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Bessem; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2013-12-01

    Charge enhancement of single-stranded oligonucleotide ions in negative ESI mode is investigated. The employed reagent, meta-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA), was found to improve total signal intensity (Itot), increase the highest observed charge states (zhigh), and raise the average charge states (zavg) of all tested oligonucleotides analyzed in negative ESI. To quantify these increases, signal enhancement ratios (SER1%) and charge enhancement coefficients (CEC1%) were introduced. The SER1%, (defined as the quotient of total oligonucleotide ion abundances with 1 % m-NBA divided by total oligonucleotide abundance without m-NBA) was found to be greater than unity for every oligonucleotide tested. The CEC1% values (defined as the average charge state in the presence of 1 % m-NBA minus the average charge state in the absence of m-NBA) were found to be uniformly positive. Upon close inspection, the degree of charge enhancement for longer oligonucleotides was found to be dependent upon thymine density (i.e., the number and the location of phospho-thymidine units). A correlation between the charge enhancement induced by the presence of m-NBA and the apparent gas-phase acidity (largely determined by the sequence of thymine units but also by the presence of protons on other nucleobases) of multiply deprotonated oligonucleotide species, was thus established. Ammonium cations appeared to be directly involved in the m-NBA supercharging mechanism, and their role seems to be consistent with previously postulated ESI mechanisms describing desorption/ionization of single-stranded DNA into the gas phase.

  10. Single photon emission up to liquid nitrogen temperature from charged excitons confined in GaAs-based epitaxial nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusanowski, L.; Syperek, M.; Marynski, A.; Li, L.H.; Misiewicz, J.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Fiore, A.; Sek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-classical photon emitter at near infrared wavelength based on a single (In,Ga)As/GaAs epitaxially grown columnar quantum dot. Charged exciton complexes have been identified in magneto-photoluminescence. Photon auto-correlation histograms from the recombination of a trion

  11. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Single-Particle Subcellular Irradiations at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube

  12. Non-Covalent Interactions and Impact of Charge Penetration Effects in Linear Oligoacene Dimers and Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    of charge penetration, which is shown to account for up to 50% of the total interaction energy in dimers extracted from the experimental single crystals; in the case of the most stable co-facial model dimers, this contribution is even larger than the total

  13. Single-event phenomena on recent semiconductor devices. Charge-type multiple-bit upsets in high integrated memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Akiko; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Norio; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sumio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2001-01-01

    High integrated memories are used in solid state data recorder (SSDR) of the satellite for accumulating observation data. Single event upset phenomena which turn over an accumulated data in the memory cells are caused by heavy ion incidence. Studies on single-bit upset and multiple-bit upset phenomena in the high integrated memory cells are in progress recently. 16 Mbit DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories) and 64 Mbit DRAM are irradiated by heavy ion species, such as iodine, bromine and nickel, in comparison with the irradiation damage in the cosmic environment. Data written on the memory devices are read out after the irradiation. The memory cells in three kinds of states, all of charged state, all of discharged state, and an alternative state of charge and discharge, are irradiated for sorting out error modes caused by heavy ion incidence. The soft error in a single memory cells is known as a turn over from charged state to discharged state. Electrons in electron-hole pair generated by heavy ion incidence are captured in a diffusion region between capacitor electrodes of semiconductor. The charged states in the capacitor electrodes before the irradiation are neutralized and changed to the discharged states. According to high integration of the memories, many of the cells are affected by a single ion incidence. The multiple-bit upsets, however, are generated in the memory cells of discharged state before the irradiation, also. The charge-type multiple-bit upsets is considered as that error data are written on the DRAM during refresh cycle of a sense-up circuit and a pre-charge circuit which control the DRAM. (M. Suetake)

  14. Simple supercapacitor charging scheme of an electric vehicle on small-scale hardware simulator: a prototype development for education purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle’s powertrain on small-scale configuration. Main components of this device are two direct current motors (DCMs with a linked axis of rotation. Therefore one of them will be able to act as a generator. The supercapacitor charging scheme is employed by controlling the relays. The hardware experimental result shows that the averages of charging current are proportional to the maximum slope angle of the road profiles. This scheme is simple due to the EVS utility and it is useful for education purpose.

  15. Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Alqahtani, Obaid

    2018-03-25

    The interplay between nanomorphology and efficiency of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been the subject of intense research, but the generality of these concepts for small-molecule (SM) BHJs remains unclear. Here, the relation between performance; charge generation, recombination, and extraction dynamics; and nanomorphology achievable with two SM donors benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-pyrido[3,4-b]-pyrazine BDT(PPTh), namely SM1 and SM2, differing by their side-chains, are examined as a function of solution additive composition. The results show that the additive 1,8-diiodooctane acts as a plasticizer in the blends, increases domain size, and promotes ordering/crystallinity. Surprisingly, the system with high domain purity (SM1) exhibits both poor exciton harvesting and severe charge trapping, alleviated only slightly with increased crystallinity. In contrast, the system consisting of mixed domains and lower crystallinity (SM2) shows both excellent exciton harvesting and low charge recombination losses. Importantly, the onset of large, pure crystallites in the latter (SM2) system reduces efficiency, pointing to possible differences in the ideal morphologies for SM-based BHJ solar cells compared with polymer-fullerene devices. In polymer-based systems, tie chains between pure polymer crystals establish a continuous charge transport network, whereas SM-based active layers may in some cases require mixed domains that enable both aggregation and charge percolation to the electrodes.

  16. Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Alqahtani, Obaid; Babics, Maxime; Gorenflot, Julien; Savikhin, Victoria; Ferron, Thomas; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Paulke, Andreas; Kan, Zhipeng; Pope, Michael; Clulow, Andrew J.; Wolf, Jannic Sebastian; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Neher, Dieter; Toney, Michael F.; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Beaujuge, Pierre; Collins, Brian A.

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between nanomorphology and efficiency of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been the subject of intense research, but the generality of these concepts for small-molecule (SM) BHJs remains unclear. Here, the relation between performance; charge generation, recombination, and extraction dynamics; and nanomorphology achievable with two SM donors benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-pyrido[3,4-b]-pyrazine BDT(PPTh), namely SM1 and SM2, differing by their side-chains, are examined as a function of solution additive composition. The results show that the additive 1,8-diiodooctane acts as a plasticizer in the blends, increases domain size, and promotes ordering/crystallinity. Surprisingly, the system with high domain purity (SM1) exhibits both poor exciton harvesting and severe charge trapping, alleviated only slightly with increased crystallinity. In contrast, the system consisting of mixed domains and lower crystallinity (SM2) shows both excellent exciton harvesting and low charge recombination losses. Importantly, the onset of large, pure crystallites in the latter (SM2) system reduces efficiency, pointing to possible differences in the ideal morphologies for SM-based BHJ solar cells compared with polymer-fullerene devices. In polymer-based systems, tie chains between pure polymer crystals establish a continuous charge transport network, whereas SM-based active layers may in some cases require mixed domains that enable both aggregation and charge percolation to the electrodes.

  17. Counterion Association and Structural Conformation Change of Charged PAMAM Dendrimer in Aqueous Solutions Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ren

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study of the structure change of poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 5 (G5) have demonstrated that although the overall molecular size is practically unaffected by increasing DCl concentration, a configurational transformation, from a diffusive density profile to a more uniform density distribution, is clearly observed. In the current paper, the focus is placed on understanding the effect of counterion identity on the inter-molecular structure and the conformational properties by studying the effect due to DBr using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and integral equation theory. While the overall molecular size is found to be essentially unaffected by the change in the pD of solutions, it is surprising that the intra-molecular configurational transformation is not observed when DBr is used. The overall effective charge of a dendrimer is nearly the same for 1, the effect of counterion identity becomes significant, the effective charge carried by a charged G5 PAPAM protonated by DBr becomes smaller than that of solutions with DCl. As a consequence, a counterion identity dependence of counterion association is revealed: Under the same level of molecular protonation, the specific counterion association, which is defined as the ratio of bound chloride anions to positively charged amines per molecule, is larger for the G5 PAMAM dendrimer charged by DBr than the one by DCl.

  18. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  19. Study of single pion production in antineutrino induced charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese, Teresa.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive charged current antineutrino production of one pion using the data of the Gargamelle propane experiment at CERN PS. The isospin structure of the charged weak current is studied as well as the energy dependence of the total cross section for π - antineutrino production, which is compared with the prediction of Adler's model [fr

  20. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 1017 at cm-3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 1018 at cm-3. The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  1. Measurement of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single $\\pi^0$ Production on Hydrocarbon using MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Ozgur [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A sample of charged-current single pion production events for the semi- exclusive channel νµ + CH → µ-π0 + nucleon(s) has been obtained using neutrino exposures of the MINERvA detector. Differential cross sections for muon momentum, muon production angle, pion momentum, pion production angle, and four-momentum transfer square Q2 are reported and are compared to a GENIE-based simulation. The cross section versus neutrino energy is also re- ported. The effects of pion final-state interactions on these cross sections are investigated. The effect of baryon resonance suppression at low Q2 is examined and an event re-weight used by two previous experiments is shown to improve the data versus simulation agreement. The differential cross sections for Q2 for Eν < 4.0 GeV and Eν ≥ 4.0 GeV are examined and the shapes of these distributions are compared to those from the experiment’s $\\bar{v}$µ-CC (π0) measurement. The polarization of the pπ0 system is measured and compared to the simulation predictions. The hadronic invariant mass W distribution is examined for evidence of resonance content, and a search is reported for evidence of a two-particle two-hole (2p2h) contribution. All of the differential cross-section measurements of this Thesis are compared with published MINERvA measurements for νµ-CC (π+) and \\bar{v}$µ-CC (π0) processes.

  2. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-05

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  3. Twisted intra-molecular charge transfer investigations of semiorganic triglycine phosphate single crystal for non linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M. R.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Rayar, S. L.; Bena Jothy, V.

    2017-09-01

    NLO materials are gaining importance in technologies such as optical communication, optical computing and dynamic image processing. Many NLO crystals grown by mixing amino acids with various organic and inorganic acids have been reported in the literature. Hence, glycine mixed semi-organic material will be of special interest as a fundamental building block to develop many complex crystals with improved NLO properties. A semi organic Single crystal of Triglycine Phosphate (TGP) which was grown and spectral analysis have been using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. Natural Bond Orbital Analysis and the atomic natural charges are also predicted. HOMO LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule.

  4. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2017-06-08

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  5. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Alshammari, Fwzah H.; Salama, Khaled N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  6. Air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for urethral pressure measurement: a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Burkhard, Fiona C; Kessler, Thomas M

    2008-09-01

    We determined and compared urethral pressure measurements using air charged and microtip catheters in a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial. A consecutive series of 64 women referred for urodynamic investigation underwent sequential urethral pressure measurements using an air charged and a microtip catheter in randomized order. Patients were blinded to the type and sequence of catheter used. Agreement between the 2 catheter systems was assessed using the Bland and Altman 95% limits of agreement method. Intraclass correlation coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest were 0.97 and 0.93, and for functional profile length they were 0.9 and 0.78, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Lin's concordance coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters were r = 0.82 and rho = 0.79 for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest, and r = 0.73 and rho = 0.7 for functional profile length, respectively. When applying the Bland and Altman method, air charged catheters gave higher readings than microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (mean difference 7.5 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (mean difference 1.8 mm). There were wide 95% limits of agreement for differences in maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (-24.1 to 39 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (-7.7 to 11.3 mm). For urethral pressure measurement the air charged catheter is at least as reliable as the microtip catheter and it generally gives higher readings. However, air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for clinical purposes because of insufficient agreement. Hence, clinicians should be aware that air charged and microtip catheters may yield completely different results, and these differences should be acknowledged during clinical decision making.

  7. Charge division in a small proportional chamber constructed with aluminized mylar tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biino, C.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pastrone, N.; Pesando, L.

    1988-01-01

    A tracking detector composed of aluminized mylar drift tubes is under development for the Fermilab experiment 760. A prototype chamber has been constructed. Results on the longitudinal coordinate determined by charge division are given. Spatial resolution values below 2 mm (rms) were found, corresponding to <1% of the chamber length. Results on chamber ageing are also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Charge division in a small proportional chamber constructed with aluminized mylar tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, C.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pastrone, N.; Pesando, L.

    1988-09-01

    A tracking detector composed of aluminized mylar drift tubes is under development for the Fermilab experiment 760. A prototype chamber has been constructed. Results on the longitudinal coordinate determined by charge division are given. Spatial resolution values below 2 mm (rms) were found, corresponding to <1% of the chamber length. Results on chamber ageing are also discussed.

  9. Influence of charge on encapsulation and release behavior of small molecules in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen K; Labala, Suman; Vanamala, Deekshith; Koranglekar, Manali P; Sakimalla, Lakshmi A; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of charge of model small molecules on their encapsulation and release behavior in layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC). Poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(ethylene imine) were sequentially adsorbed on calcium carbonate sacrificial templates to prepare LbL-MC. Model molecules with varying charge, anionic - ascorbic acid, cationic - imatinib mesylate (IM) and neutral - 5-fluorouracil were encapsulated in LbL-MC. Free and encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using zetasizer, FTIR spectroscope and differential scanning calorimeter. The influence of IM-loaded LbL-MC on cell viability was studied in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, biodistribution of IM-loaded LbL-MC with and without PEGylation was studied in BALB/c mice. Results showed spherical LbL-MC of 3.0 ± 0.4 μm diameter. Encapsulation efficiency of LbL-MC increased linearly (R(2 )= 0.89-0.99) with the increase in solute concentration. Increase in pH from 2 to 6 increased the encapsulation of charged molecules in LbL-MC. Charged molecules showed greater encapsulation efficiency in LbL-MC compared with neutral molecule. In vitro release kinetics showed Fickian and non-Fickian diffusion of small molecules, depending on the nature of molecular interactions with LbL-MC. At 50 μM concentration, free IM showed significantly (p < 0.05) more cytotoxicity compared with IM-loaded LbL-MC. Biodistribution studies showed that PEGylation of LbL-MC decreased the liver and spleen uptake of IM-encapsulated LbL-MC. In conclusion, LbL-MC can be developed as a potential carrier for small molecules depending on their physical and chemical properties.

  10. STM studies of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Daughton, David; Gupta, Jay

    2009-03-01

    Electric-field control of spin-spin interactions at the atomic level is desirable for the realization of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Here we demonstrate the realization of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy on the GaAs(110) surface[1]. We can position these vacancies with atomic precision using the tip of a home-built, low temperature STM. Tunneling spectroscopy of single Mn acceptors is used to quantify the electrostatic field as a function of distance from the vacancy. Single Mn acceptors are formed by substituting Mn adatoms for Ga atoms in the first layer of the p-GaAs(110) surface[2]. Depending on the distance, the in-gap resonance of single Mn acceptors can shift as much as 200meV. Our data indicate that the electrostatic field decays according to a screened Coulomb potential. The charge state of the vacancy can be switched to neutral, as evidenced by the Mn resonance returning to its unperturbed position. Reversible control of the local electric field as well as charged states of defects in semiconductors can open new insights such as realizing an atomic-scale gate control and studying spin-spin interactions in semiconductors. http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/sim jgupta [1] D. Lee and J.A. Gupta (in preparation) [2] D. Kitchen et al., Nature 442, 436-439 (2006)

  11. Optical Pumping of the Electronic and Nuclear Spin of Single Charge-Tunable Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Ware, M. E.; Tischler, J. G.; Shabaev, A.; Efros, Al. L.; Park, D.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Merkulov, I. A.

    2005-02-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of optical pumping of spins in individual GaAs quantum dots as we change the net charge from positive to neutral to negative with a charge-tunable heterostructure. Negative photoluminescence polarization memory is enhanced by optical pumping of ground state electron spins, which we prove with the first measurements of the Hanle effect on an individual quantum dot. We use the Overhauser effect in a high longitudinal magnetic field to demonstrate efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins for all three charge states of the quantum dot.

  12. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Nordborg, Magnus; Lark, K. Gordon; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a selective sweep spanning a single gene (IGF1), encoding insulin-like growth factor 1. A single IGF1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype is common to all small breeds and nearly absent from giant breeds, suggesting that the same causal sequence variant is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs. PMID:17412960

  13. Stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p-2. The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation.

  14. Image charge effects in single-molecule junctions: Breaking of symmetries and negative-differential resistance in a benzene single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Flensberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    and molecular symmetries remain unclear. Using a theoretical framework developed for semiconductor-nanostructure-based single-electron transistors (SETs), we demonstrate that the image charge interaction breaks the molecular symmetries in a benzene-based single-molecule transistor operating in the Coulomb...... blockade regime. This results in the appearance of a so-called blocking state, which gives rise to negative-differential resistance (NDR). We show that the appearance of NDR and its magnitude in the symmetry-broken benzene SET depends in a complicated way on the interplay between the many-body matrix...

  15. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Frisbie, Daniel [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering.

  16. Ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization: singly charged molecular ions are the lucky survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, M; Glückmann, M; Schäfer, J

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the ionization processes in UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) which accounts for the major phenomena observed is presented and discussed. The model retains elements of earlier approaches, such as photoionization and photochemical reactions, but it redefines these in the light of new working questions, most importantly why only singly charged ions are detected. Based on experimental evidence, the formation of singly and multiply charged clusters by a deficiency/excess of ions and also by photoionization and subsequent photochemical processes is pointed out to be the major ionization processes, which typically occur in parallel. The generation of electrons and their partial loss into the surrounding vacuum and solid, on the one hand, results in a positively charged ion-neutral plume facilitating a high overall ionization yield. On the other hand, these electrons, and also the large excess of protonated matrix ions in the negative ion mode, induce effective ion reneutralization in the plume. These neutralization processes are most effective for the highly charged cluster ions initially formed. Their fragmentation behaviour is evidenced in fast metastable fragmentation characteristics and agrees well with an electron capture dissociation mechanism and the enthalpy transfer upon neutralization forms the rationale for the prominent fragmentation and intense chemical noise accompanying successful MALDI. Within the course of the paper, cross-correlations with other desorption/ionization techniques and with earlier discussions on their mechanisms are drawn. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Radiation-reaction force on a small charged body to second order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Éanna

    2018-05-01

    In classical electrodynamics, an accelerating charged body emits radiation and experiences a corresponding radiation-reaction force, or self-force. We extend to higher order in the total charge a previous rigorous derivation of the electromagnetic self-force in flat spacetime by Gralla, Harte, and Wald. The method introduced by Gralla, Harte, and Wald computes the self-force from the Maxwell field equations and conservation of stress-energy in a limit where the charge, size, and mass of the body go to zero, and it does not require regularization of a singular self-field. For our higher-order computation, an adjustment of the definition of the mass of the body is necessary to avoid including self-energy from the electromagnetic field sourced by the body in the distant past. We derive the evolution equations for the mass, spin, and center-of-mass position of the body through second order. We derive, for the first time, the second-order acceleration dependence of the evolution of the spin (self-torque), as well as a mixing between the extended body effects and the acceleration-dependent effects on the overall body motion.

  18. Charge distribution of metallic single walled carbon nanotube–graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, P T; Danneau, R

    2014-01-01

    We report numeric and analytic calculations of the electrostatic properties for armchair carbon nanotube–graphene junctions. Using a semi-empirical method we first demonstrate that the equilibrium distance between a carbon nanotube and a graphene sheet varies with respect to the diameter of the carbon nanotube. We find significantly reduced values compared to AB-stacked graphene sheets in graphite, while even smaller value is found for a fullerene C 60 implying a dimensionality dependence of the equilibrium distance between graphene and the other sp 2 carbon allotropes. Then, we use conformal mapping and a charge–dipole model to study the charge distribution of the carbon nanotube–graphene junctions in various configurations. We observe that the charges are accumulated/depleted at and near the vicinity of the junctions and that capped carbon nanotubes induce a significantly smaller charge concentration at their ends than the open-end nanotubes. We demonstrate that the carbon nanotube influence on the graphene sheet is limited to only few atomic rows. Such an influence strongly depends on the distance between carbon nanotube and the graphene sheet and scales with the carbon nanotube radius, while the potential difference does not modify the length over which the charge concentration is disturbed by the presence of the tube. By studying the potential landscape of carbon nanotube–graphene junctions, our work could be used as a starting point to model the charge carrier injection in these unconventional systems. (paper)

  19. Autonomous charging to enable long-endurance missions for small aerial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest towards research involving Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The predominant reason for this is their agility and ability to perform tasks too difficult or dangerous for their human counterparts and to navigate into places where ground robots cannot reach. Among MAVs, rotary wing aircraft such as quadrotors have the ability to operate in confined spaces, hover at a given point in space and perch1 or land on a flat surface. This makes the quadrotor a very attractive aerial platform giving rise to a myriad of research opportunities. The potential of these aerial platforms is severely limited by the constraints on the flight time due to limited battery capacity. This in turn arises from limits on the payload of these rotorcraft. By automating the battery recharging process, creating autonomous MAVs that can recharge their on-board batteries without any human intervention and by employing a team of such agents, the overall mission time can be greatly increased. This paper describes the development, testing, and implementation of a system of autonomous charging stations for a team of Micro Aerial Vehicles. This system was used to perform fully autonomous long-term multi-agent aerial surveillance experiments with persistent station keeping. The scalability of the algorithm used in the experiments described in this paper was also tested by simulating a persistence surveillance scenario for 10 MAVs and charging stations. Finally, this system was successfully implemented to perform a 9½ hour multi-agent persistent flight test. Preliminary implementation of this charging system in experiments involving construction of cubic structures with quadrotors showed a three-fold increase in effective mission time.

  20. Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Large tunable image-charge effects in single-molecule junctions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrin, M.L.; Verzijl, C.J.; Martin, C.A.; Shaikh, A.J.; Eelkema, R.; Esch, J.H. van; Ruitenbeek, J.M. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Zant, H.S. van der; Dulic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Metal/organic interfaces critically determine the characteristics of molecular electronic devices, because they influence the arrangement of the orbital levels that participate in charge transport. Studies on self-assembled monolayers show molecule-dependent energy-level shifts as well as

  2. Non-abelian operations on majorana fermions via single-charge control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    similar to braiding, though not in real space. Unlike braiding operations, rotations by a continuum of angles are possible, while still being partially robust against perturbations. The quantum dots can also be used for readout of the state of the Majorana system via a charge measurement....

  3. Production of a single new charged heavy lepton in DELPHI/LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Do Vale, M A B; De Paula, L S

    1999-01-01

    The search for a new charged heavy lepton predicted by some extended models is presented. The data used were collected by the detector DELPHI/LEP at 1994 operating with a center of mass energy near the Z /sup 0/ mass and correspond to a total luminosity of 40 pb/sup -1/. (1 refs).

  4. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic charge pumping in a single-level molecular motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napitu, B.D.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a design for realizing quantum charge pump based on a recent proposal for a molecular motor (Seldenthuis J S et al 2010 ACS Nano 4 6681). Our design is based on the presence of a moiety with a permanent dipole moment which can rotate, thereby modulating the couplings to metallic contacts

  5. Long-Lived Charge Separation at Heterojunctions between Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arias, Dylan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackburn, Jeffrey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sisto, Thomas J. [Columbia University; Peurifoy, Samuel [Columbia University; Zhang, Boyuan [Columbia University; Nuckolls, Colin [Columbia University

    2018-04-13

    Nonfullerene electron acceptors have facilitated a recent surge in the efficiencies of organic solar cells, although fundamental studies of the nature of exciton dissociation at interfaces with nonfullerene electron acceptors are still relatively sparse. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs), unique one-dimensional electron donors with molecule-like absorption and highly mobile charges, provide a model system for studying interfacial exciton dissociation. Here, we investigate excited-state photodynamics at the heterojunction between (6,5) s-SWCNTs and two perylene diimide (PDI)-based electron acceptors. Each of the PDI-based acceptors, hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 and Trip-hPDI2, is deposited onto (6,5) s-SWCNT films to form a heterojunction bilayer. Transient absorption measurements demonstrate that photoinduced hole/electron transfer occurs at the photoexcited bilayer interfaces, producing long-lived separated charges with lifetimes exceeding 1.0 us. Both exciton dissociation and charge recombination occur more slowly for the hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 bilayer than for the Trip-hPDI2 bilayer. To explain such differences, we discuss the potential roles of the thermodynamic charge transfer driving force available at each interface and the different molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of PDI-based acceptors. Detailed photophysical analysis of these model systems can develop the fundamental understanding of exciton dissociation between organic electron donors and nonfullerene acceptors, which has not been systematically studied.

  6. Small-angle scattering study of mesoscopic structures in charged gel and their evolution on dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures, with length scales similar to10(2) Angstrom, were investigated by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in several N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) copolymeric hydrogels with varying [NIPA]/[SA] ratios and water contents. The SAXS experimen...

  7. Charge Separation and Recombination in Small Band Gap Oligomer-Fullerene Triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Bram P.; Bouwer, Ricardo K. M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Williams, Rene M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis and photophysics of a series of thiophene-thienopyrazine small band gap oligomers end-capped at both ends with C(60) are presented In these triads a photoinduced electron transfer reaction occurs between the oligomer as a donor and the fullerene as an acceptor Femtosecond photoinduced

  8. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Tae, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  9. A small amount of mini-charged dark matter could cool the baryons in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Julian B; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of our Universe is strongly influenced by pervasive-albeit elusive-dark matter, with a total mass about five times the mass of all the baryons 1,2 . Despite this, its origin and composition remain a mystery. All evidence for dark matter relies on its gravitational pull on baryons, and thus such evidence does not require any non-gravitational coupling between baryons and dark matter. Nonetheless, some small coupling would explain the comparable cosmic abundances of dark matter and baryons 3 , as well as solving structure-formation puzzles in the pure cold-dark-matter models 4 . A vast array of observations has been unable to find conclusive evidence for any non-gravitational interactions of baryons with dark matter 5-9 . Recent observations by the EDGES collaboration, however, suggest that during the cosmic dawn, roughly 200 million years after the Big Bang, the baryonic temperature was half of its expected value 10 . This observation is difficult to reconcile with the standard cosmological model but could be explained if baryons are cooled down by interactions with dark matter, as expected if their interaction rate grows steeply at low velocities 11 . Here we report that if a small fraction-less than one per cent-of the dark matter has a mini-charge, a million times smaller than the charge on the electron, and a mass in the range of 1-100 times the electron mass, then the data 10 from the EDGES experiment can be explained while remaining consistent with all other observations. We also show that the entirety of the dark matter cannot have a mini-charge.

  10. Visualization of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks in conductive polystyrene nanocomposites by charge contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Joachim; Alexeev, Alexander; Grossiord, Nadia; Koning, Cor E.; Regev, Oren

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of conductive nanocomposites consisting of low concentration of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and polystyrene (PS) has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, in particular, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Application of charge contrast imaging in SEM allows visualization of the overall SWNT dispersion within the polymer matrix as well as the identification of individual or bundled SWNTs at high resolution. The contrast mechanism involved will be discussed. In conductive nanocomposites the SWNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the polymer matrix and form a network. Beside fairly straight SWNTs, strongly bended SWNTs have been observed. However, for samples with SWNT concentrations below the percolation threshold, the common overall charging behavior of an insulating material is observed preventing the detailed morphological investigation of the sample

  11. Single helically folded aromatic oligoamides that mimic the charge surface of double-stranded B-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziach, Krzysztof; Chollet, Céline; Parissi, Vincent; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Marchivie, Mathieu; Corvaglia, Valentina; Bose, Partha Pratim; Laxmi-Reddy, Katta; Godde, Frédéric; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Chaignepain, Stéphane; Pourquier, Philippe; Huc, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Numerous essential biomolecular processes require the recognition of DNA surface features by proteins. Molecules mimicking these features could potentially act as decoys and interfere with pharmacologically or therapeutically relevant protein-DNA interactions. Although naturally occurring DNA-mimicking proteins have been described, synthetic tunable molecules that mimic the charge surface of double-stranded DNA are not known. Here, we report the design, synthesis and structural characterization of aromatic oligoamides that fold into single helical conformations and display a double helical array of negatively charged residues in positions that match the phosphate moieties in B-DNA. These molecules were able to inhibit several enzymes possessing non-sequence-selective DNA-binding properties, including topoisomerase 1 and HIV-1 integrase, presumably through specific foldamer-protein interactions, whereas sequence-selective enzymes were not inhibited. Such modular and synthetically accessible DNA mimics provide a versatile platform to design novel inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions.

  12. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P.; Grässler, H.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-London IC-Munich (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K -. For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π0. We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process.

  13. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.; Graessler, H.; Schulte, R.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K - . For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π 0 . We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of some greedy algorithms for the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    -charge transportation problem. Nevertheless, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, some greedy heuristic solutions methods for the SSFCTP are investigated. It is shown that two greedy approaches for the SSFCTP known from the literature can be arbitrarily bad......, whereas an approximation algorithm proposed in the literature for the binary min-knapsack problem has a guaranteed worst case bound if adapted accordingly to the case of the SSFCTP....

  15. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  16. Design of Accumulators and Liquid/Gas Charging of Single Phase Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to

  17. Optimizing plug-in electric vehicle charging in interaction with a small office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomas [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Madrid (Spain); Dallinger, David; Beer, Sebastian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in micro-grids. Extending a theoretical framework for mobile storage connection, the economic analysis here turns to the interactions of commuters and their driving behavior with office buildings. An illustrative example for a real office building is reported. The chosen system includes solar thermal, photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation as well as an array of plug-in electric vehicles with a combined aggregated capacity of 864 kWh. With the benefit-sharing mechanism proposed here and idealized circumstances, estimated cost savings of 5% are possible. Different pricing schemes were applied which include flat rates, demand charges, as well as hourly variable final customer tariffs and their effects on the operation of intermittent storage were revealed and examined in detail. Because the plug-in electric vehicle connection coincides with peak heat and electricity loads as well as solar radiation, it is possible to shift energy demand as desired in order to realize cost savings. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  19. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  20. Push-and-stick mechanism for charged and excited small cluster emission under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitensky, I.S.; Parilis, E.S.; Wojciechowski, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism for the formation, excitation and ionization of small clusters emitted under ion bombardment is discussed. It is shown that the increased degree of ionization for the transition metal dimers, trimers and tetramers can be explained by the existence of an additional effective channel for their formation, namely the associative ionization process. A simple estimate shows that the sticking together of a fast cascade atom and the pushed out surface atom is 30-40 times more effective for dimer formation, than the recombination of two fast atoms. This push-and-stick mechanism of cluster formation could also be effective for the formation of trimers and tetramers. (orig.)

  1. Spiro-OMeTAD single crystals: Remarkably enhanced charge-carrier transport via mesoscale ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Dong; Qin, X.; Li, Yuan; He, Yao; Zhong, Cheng; Pan, Jun; Dong, H.; Xu, Wei; Li, T.; Hu, W.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    bottleneck for advancing cell efficiencies. We devised an antisolvent crystallization strategy to grow single crystals of spiro-OMeTAD, which allowed us to experimentally elucidate its molecular packing and transport properties. Electronic structure

  2. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Measurements on very small single crystals of NdFeB using a vibrating reed magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.; Verhoef, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nd 2 Fe 14 B single crystals with magnetic moments ranging from 1.6 x 10 -8 Acm 2 to 9.5 x 10 -7 Acm 2 are measured using the ultra high sensitivity vibrating reed magnetometer. The hysteresis loops are compared to those of BaFe 12 O 19 single crystals. It turns out that the magnetization reversal of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B samples is similar to that of BaFe 12 O 19 single crystals if the ferrite samples are considerably bigger in size. This does not hold for bigger Nd 2 Fe 14 B particles where stronger domain wall pinning is observed. For very small grains of Nd 2 Fe 14 B there is still evidence of domain wall processes while for BaFe 12 O 19 grains of the same size true single domain behaviour can be observed

  4. Study of the Bulk Charge Carrier Dynamics in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Single Crystals by Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Partha; Mohammed, Omar F.; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Idriss, Hicham

    2018-01-01

    as the best model for fundamental studies. Their ultrafast charge carrier dynamics especially on TiO2 anatase single crystal (the most active phase) are unresolved. Here femtosecond time resolved spectroscopy (TRS) was carried out to explore the dynamics

  5. A single-supply, high rate, small size and cheap electronic chain for 3He neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, A.; Fazzi, A.; Pirovano, C.; Varoli, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a complete counting chain (charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier and threshold discriminator) devoted to 3 He neutron detectors. Since it is characterized by single supply operation, high counting rate, small size and low cost, it is well suited for high efficiency neutron well detectors where a large number (10 - 100) of counting tubes are used. Such detectors are commonly used for verification of Plutonium stocks. The preamplifier adopts an innovative circuit with the gate of the input JFET floating and a DC feedback loop that stabilizes the output voltage acting on the input cascode second transistor. Static and dynamic analysis, including the effects of the detector bias network, is reported. The shaping amplifier transfer function is a fifth order approximation of the gaussian response. All the complex pole pairs are realized with a single fourth order Voltage Controlled Voltage Source cell thus minimizing component count. Experimental signals and spectra, obtained with shaping time constants in the 1 μs - 100 ns range, are reported and discussed

  6. Charge Separation at Mixed-Dimensional Single and Multilayer MoS2/Silicon Nanowire Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Sangwan, Vinod K; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Sun, Zhiyuan; Hersam, Mark C; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2018-05-16

    Layered two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors can be combined with other low-dimensional semiconductors to form nonplanar mixed-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions whose charge transport behavior is influenced by the heterojunction geometry, providing a new degree of freedom to engineer device functions. Toward that end, we investigated the photoresponse of Si nanowire/MoS 2 heterojunction diodes with scanning photocurrent microscopy and time-resolved photocurrent measurements. Comparison of n-Si/MoS 2 isotype heterojunctions with p-Si/MoS 2 heterojunction diodes under varying biases shows that the depletion region in the p-n heterojunction promotes exciton dissociation and carrier collection. We measure an instrument-limited response time of 1 μs, which is 10 times faster than the previously reported response times for planar Si/MoS 2 devices, highlighting the advantages of the 1-D/2-D heterojunction. Finite element simulations of device models provide a detailed understanding of how the electrostatics affect charge transport in nanowire/vdW heterojunctions and inform the design of future vdW heterojunction photodetectors and transistors.

  7. Experimental investigation of small diameter two-phase closed thermosyphons charged with water, FC-84, FC-77 and FC-3283

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, Hussam; Robinson, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the performance of thermosyphons charged with water as well as the dielectric heat transfer liquids FC-84, FC-77 and FC-3283 has been carried out. The copper thermosyphon was 200 mm long with an inner diameter of 6 mm, which can be considered quite small compared with the vast majority of thermosyphons reported in the open literature. The evaporator length was 40 mm and the condenser length was 60 mm which corresponds with what might be expected in compact heat exchangers. With water as the working fluid two fluid loadings were investigated, that being 0.6 ml and 1.8 ml, corresponding to approximately half filled and overfilled evaporator section in order to ensure combined pool boiling and thin film evaporation/boiling and pool boiling only conditions, respectively. For the Fluorinert TM liquids, only the higher fill volume was tested as the aim was to investigate pool boiling opposed to thin film evaporation. Generally, the water-charged thermosyphon evaporator and condenser heat transfer characteristics compared well with available predictive correlations and theories. The thermal performance of the water-charged thermosyphon also outperformed the other three working fluids in both the effective thermal resistance as well as maximum heat transport capabilities. Even so, FC-84, the lowest saturation temperature fluid tested, shows marginal improvement in the heat transfer at low operating temperatures. All of the tested Fluorinert TM liquids offer the advantage of being dielectric fluids, which may be better suited for sensitive electronics cooling applications and were all found to provide adequate thermal performance up to approximately 30-50 W after which liquid entrainment compromised their performance.

  8. Search for the Single Production of Doubly-Charged Higgs Bosons and Constraints on their Couplings from Bhabha Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, G.W.; Wilson, D.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    A search for single production of doubly-charged Higgs bosons has been performed using 600.7 pb^-1 of e+e- collision data with sqrt(s)=189--209GeV collected by the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for the existence of H++/-- is observed. Upper limits on the Yukawa coupling of the H++/-- to like-signed electron pairs are derived. Additionally, indirect constraints on the Yukawa coupling from Bhabha scattering, where the H++/-- would contribute via t-channel exchange, are derived for M(H++/--) < 2TeV. These are the first results for both a single production search and constraints from Bhabha scattering reported from LEP.

  9. Benchmarking of small-signal dynamics of single-phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Phase-looked Loop (PLL) is a critical component for the control and grid synchronization of grid-connected power converters. This paper presents a benchmarking study on the small-signal dynamics of three commonly used PLLs for single-phase converters, including enhanced PLL, second......-order generalized integrator based PLL, and the inverse-PLL. First, a unified small-signal model of those PLLs is established for comparing their dynamics. Then, a systematic design guideline for parameters tuning of the PLLs is formulated. To confirm the validity of theoretical analysis, nonlinear time...

  10. Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauls, Mathilde M H; Clarke, Natasha; Trippier, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    vascular territories. The aim of this trial is to test the hypothesis that tadalafil increases cerebral blood flow in older people with small vessel disease. METHODS/DESIGN: Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS) is a phase II randomised double......-blind crossover trial. In two visits, 7-30 days apart, participants undergo arterial spin labelling to measure cerebral blood flow and a battery of cognitive tests, pre- and post-dosing with oral tadalafil (20 mg) or placebo. SAMPLE SIZE: 54 participants are required to detect a 15% increase in cerebral blood...

  11. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, H.; Kimura, G.; Shioya, M.

    1990-01-01

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  12. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  13. Charge transfer through single molecule contacts: How reliable are rate descriptions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kast

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The trend for the fabrication of electrical circuits with nanoscale dimensions has led to impressive progress in the field of molecular electronics in the last decade. However, a theoretical description of molecular contacts as the building blocks of future devices is challenging, as it has to combine the properties of Fermi liquids in the leads with charge and phonon degrees of freedom on the molecule. Outside of ab initio schemes for specific set-ups, generic models reveal the characteristics of transport processes. Particularly appealing are descriptions based on transfer rates successfully used in other contexts such as mesoscopic physics and intramolecular electron transfer. However, a detailed analysis of this scheme in comparison with numerically exact solutions is still elusive.Results: We show that a formulation in terms of transfer rates provides a quantitatively accurate description even in domains of parameter space where strictly it is expected to fail, e.g., at lower temperatures. Typically, intramolecular phonons are distributed according to a voltage driven steady state that can only roughly be captured by a thermal distribution with an effective elevated temperature (heating. An extension of a master equation for the charge–phonon complex, to effectively include the impact of off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix, provides very accurate solutions even for stronger electron–phonon coupling.Conclusion: Rate descriptions and master equations offer a versatile model to describe and understand charge transfer processes through molecular junctions. Such methods are computationally orders of magnitude less expensive than elaborate numerical simulations that, however, provide exact solutions as benchmarks. Adjustable parameters obtained, e.g., from ab initio calculations allow for the treatment of various realizations. Even though not as rigorously formulated as, e.g., nonequilibrium Green’s function

  14. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  15. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.

    2007-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a...

  16. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  17. Controlled assembly and single electron charging of monolayer protected Au144 clusters: an electrochemistry and scanning tunneling spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodappa, Nataraju; Fluch, Ulrike; Fu, Yongchun; Mayor, Marcel; Moreno-García, Pavel; Siegenthaler, Hans; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups exposed by the Au-MPCs enable their immobilization on Pt(111) substrates. By varying the humidity during their deposition, samples coated by stacks of compact monolayers of Au-MPCs or decorated with individual, laterally separated Au-MPCs are obtained. DPV experiments with stacked monolayers of Au144-MPCs and EC-STS experiments with laterally separated individual Au144-MPCs are performed both in aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Lower capacitance values were observed for individual clusters compared to ensemble clusters. This trend remains the same irrespective of the composition of the electrolyte surrounding the Au144-MPC. However, the resolution of the energy level spacing of the single clusters is strongly affected by the proximity of neighboring particles.Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays: structural geometry and charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Kang, Gyeongho; Park, Taiho

    2014-09-10

    We systematically investigated the charge transport properties of doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays (DNT and SNT, respectively) for their utility as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The SNT or DNT arrays were transferred in a bottom-up (B-up) or top-up (T-up) configuration onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate onto which had been deposited a 2 μm thick TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) interlayer. This process yielded four types of DSCs prepared with SNTs (B-up or T-up) or DNT (B-up or T-up). The photovoltaic performances of these DSCs were analyzed by measuring the dependence of the charge transport on the DSC geometry. High resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the electrode cross sections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer. We examined the effects of decorating the DNT or SNT arrays with small NPs (sNP@DNT and sNP@SNT, respectively) in an effort to increase the extent of dye loading. The DNT arrays decorated with small NPs performed better than the decorated SNT arrays, most likely because the Ti(OH)4 precursor solution flowed freely into the array through the open ends of the NTs in the DNT case but not in the SNT case. The sNP@DNT-based DSC exhibited a better PCE (10%) compared to the sNP@SNT-based DSCs (6.8%) because the electrolyte solution flow was not restricted, direct electron transport though the NT arrays was possible, the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer was good, and the array provided efficient light harvesting.

  19. Long-range charge transport in single G-quadruplex DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livshits, Gideon I.; Stern, Avigail; Rotem, Dvir

    2014-01-01

    DNA and DNA-based polymers are of interest in molecular electronics because of their versatile and programmable structures. However, transport measurements have produced a range of seemingly contradictory results due to differences in the measured molecules and experimental set-ups, and transport......DNA and DNA-based polymers are of interest in molecular electronics because of their versatile and programmable structures. However, transport measurements have produced a range of seemingly contradictory results due to differences in the measured molecules and experimental set......-ups, and transporting significant current through individual DNA-based molecules remains a considerable challenge. Here, we report reproducible charge transport in guanine-quadruplex (G4) DNA molecules adsorbed on a mica substrate. Currents ranging from tens of picoamperes to more than 100 pA were measured in the G4......-DNA over distances ranging from tens of nanometres to more than 100 nm. Our experimental results, combined with theoretical modelling, suggest that transport occurs via a thermally activated long-range hopping between multi-tetrad segments of DNA. These results could re-ignite interest in DNA...

  20. Possibility of measuring Adler angles in charged current single pion neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.

    2016-05-01

    Uncertainties in modeling neutrino-nucleus interactions are a major contribution to systematic errors in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Accurate modeling of neutrino interactions requires additional experimental observables such as the Adler angles which carry information about the polarization of the Δ resonance and the interference with nonresonant single pion production. The Adler angles were measured with limited statistics in bubble chamber neutrino experiments as well as in electron-proton scattering experiments. We discuss the viability of measuring these angles in neutrino interactions with nuclei.

  1. Non-Covalent Interactions and Impact of Charge Penetration Effects in Linear Oligoacene Dimers and Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-18

    Non-covalent interactions determine in large part the thermodynamic aspects of molecular packing in organic crystals. Using a combination of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and classical multipole electrostatics, we describe the interaction potential energy surfaces for dimers of the oligoacene family, from benzene to hexacene. An analysis of these surfaces and a thorough assessment of dimers extracted from the reported crystal structures underline that high-order interactions (i.e., three-body non-additive interactions) must be considered in order to rationalize the details of the crystal structures. A comparison of the SAPT electrostatic energy with the multipole interaction energy demonstrates the importance of the contribution of charge penetration, which is shown to account for up to 50% of the total interaction energy in dimers extracted from the experimental single crystals; in the case of the most stable co-facial model dimers, this contribution is even larger than the total interaction energy. Our results highlight the importance of taking account of charge penetration in studies of the larger oligoacenes.

  2. Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.

    2003-06-01

    High-efficiency single-layer-solution-processed green light-emitting diodes based on a phosphorescent dendrimer are demonstrated. A peak external quantum efficiency of 10.4% (35 cd/A) was measured for a first generation fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium cored dendrimer when blended with 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl and electron transporting 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene at 8.1 V. A maximum power efficiency of 12.8 lm/W was measured also at 8.1 V and 550 cd/m2. These results indicate that, by simple blending of bipolar and electron-transporting molecules, highly efficient light-emitting diodes can be made employing a very simple device structure.

  3. Ab initio investigation of sulfur monofluoride and its singly charged cation and anion in their ground electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Chen Shan-Jun; Chen Yan; Chen Peng

    2016-01-01

    The SF radical and its singly charged cation and anion, SF + and SF − , have been investigated on the MRCI/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5, 6) levels of theory with Davidson correction. Both the core–valence correlation and the relativistic effect are considered. The extrapolating to the complete basis set (CBS) limit is adopted to remove the basis set truncation error. Geometrical parameters, potential energy curves (PECs), vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of the ground electronic state for all these species are obtained. The information with respect to molecular characteristics of the SF n (n = −1, 0, +1) systems derived in this work will help to extend our knowledge and to guide further experimental or theoretical researches. (paper)

  4. A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Sabahi, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL...... resonant control strategy is used to control the injected current. The main benefits of the proposed inverter are: the neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the PV panel, so the leakage current is eliminated; its compact size; low cost; the used dc voltage of the proposed...... are presented. Experimental results are presented to confirm both the theoretical analysis and the concept of the proposed inverter. The obtained results clearly validate the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application in grid-tied PV systems....

  5. ORBXYZ: a 3D single-particle orbit code for following charged-particle trajectories in equilibrium magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Cohen, R.H.; Ferguson, J.R.; Johnston, B.M.; Sharp, C.B.; Willmann, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The single particle orbit code, TIBRO, has been modified extensively to improve the interpolation methods used and to allow use of vector potential fields in the simulation of charged particle orbits on a 3D domain. A 3D cubic B-spline algorithm is used to generate spline coefficients used in the interpolation. Smooth and accurate field representations are obtained. When vector potential fields are used, the 3D cubic spline interpolation formula analytically generates the magnetic field used to push the particles. This field has del.BETA = 0 to computer roundoff. When magnetic induction is used the interpolation allows del.BETA does not equal 0, which can lead to significant nonphysical results. Presently the code assumes quadrupole symmetry, but this is not an essential feature of the code and could be easily removed for other applications. Many details pertaining to this code are given on microfiche accompanying this report

  6. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  7. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias

  8. Cu-O network dependence of optical charge-transfer gaps and spin-pair excitations in single-CuO2-layer compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Koshihara, S.; Arima, T.; Takagi, H.; Ishibashi, S.; Ido, T.; Uchida, S.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of optical conductivity and magnon Raman scattering have been investigated in single crystals of a parent family of cuprate superconductors with various types of Cu-O single-layer networks. The analysis of the spectra shows the systematic dependence of the charge-transfer gaps and covalent character of Cu-O bonds on the pattern of the Cu-O network, while the spin-exchange energy is rather convergent for all the single-CuO 2 -sheet compounds

  9. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  10. Large or small angle MSW from single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F

    2000-01-01

    In this talk we discuss a natural explanation of both neutrino mass hierarchies and large neutrino mixing angles, as required by the atmospheric neutrino data, in terms of a single right-handed neutrino giving the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light effective neutrino matrix, and illustrate this mechanism in the framework of models with U(1) family symmetries. Sub-dominant contributions from other right-handed neutrinos are required to give small mass splittings appropriate to the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem. We present three explicit examples for achieving the small angle MSW solution in the framework of U(1) family symmetry models containing three right-handed neutrinos, which can naturally describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. In this talk we also extend the analysis to the large angle MSW solution

  11. The Charging Process in a High-speed, Single-cylinder, Four-stroke Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Blake; Schecter, Harry; Taylor, E S

    1939-01-01

    Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were made on an aircraft-type, single cylinder engine, in order to determine the physical nature of the inlet process, especially at high piston speeds. The engine was run at speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m. (mean piston speeds of 1,370 to 2,380 feet per minute). Measurements were made of the cylinder pressure during the inlet stroke and of the power output and volumetric efficiency. Measurements were also made, with the engine not running, to determine the resistance and mass of air in the inlet valve port at various crank angles. Results of analysis indicate that mass has an appreciable effect, but friction plays the major part in restricting flow. The observed fact that the volumetric efficiency is considerably less than 100 percent is attributed to thermal effects. An estimate was made of the magnitude of these effects in the present case, and their general nature is discussed.

  12. Nuclear-charge and positron-energy dependence of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.

    1995-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons in a number of elements having atomic numbers between 49 and 90, utilizing a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements were made of the differential cross sections for the forward direction for the K, L, and M atomic shells in targets of Th, Pb, Au, Hf, Gd, and In, having thicknesses that vary between 2.7 and 4.4 mg/cm 2 . A shielded HPGe detector of high relative photopeak efficiency was used for recording the photon spectrum. Values for the individual atomic shells were obtained in the positron kinetic-energy range 1.02--2.24 MeV. It was observed that the differential cross sections measured for the forward direction varied with energy for each major shell almost alike so that the shell ratios appeared to remain constant while the positron energy varied. The dependence of the cross section on the atomic number Z of the target element was tested for each of the major shells at various energies of measurement. It was seen that the cross sections follow a Z ν relation with ν∼5.1 as the exponent for the K shell. For the higher shells, the exponent is approximately 6.4, which is significantly larger. It was also noted that this pattern is fairly independent of the positron energy. The results on the Z dependence are seen to be clearly at variance with the most updated theoretical predictions

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  14. Ruptured Jejunal Diverticulum Due to a Single-Band Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Durai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is rare and often goes unnoticed until complications occur. The diverticula are true, acquired diverticula and often asymptomatic. Jejunal diverticulosis can be associated with diverticulosis of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Here we describe a patient with known severe diverticular disease of the large bowel, who presented acutely with abdominal pain and signs of generalised peritonitis. Laparotomy showed ruptured jejunal diverticulosis with a single band over the terminal ileum, causing small bowel obstruction. Spontaneous perforation of a jejunal diverticulum is rare and is usually an intraoperative finding. One should exclude a precipitating cause, such as coexisting distal obstruction, stricture, or a foreign body.

  15. Small cell lung cancer presenting as dermatomyositis: mistaken for single connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Guanqun; Fang, Lizheng; Lu, Chongrong; Chen, Zhouwen

    2012-06-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is well-known to be associated with several types of malignancy. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough examination for an underlying cancer, in patients with the symptoms of dermatomyositis. We report the case of a 62-year-old Chinese man who presented with a two-month history of edema of face and neck, together with erythema of the eyelids diagnosed of small cell lung cancer. Initially, it was thought to be single connective tissue disease such as DM. This study highlights the importance of a thorough physical examination when visiting a patient.

  16. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The single photon emission microscope (SPEM is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD. Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  17. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E. Jr

    2013-01-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s -1 ·MBq -1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99m Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity

  18. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, M.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, A.C.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, I.R. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fu, G. [GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bressan, R.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro, E. Jr [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-06

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s{sup -1}·MBq{sup -1} were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging {sup 99m}Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  19. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate ceiling and... § 107.855 Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money... weighted average interest rate you pay on your “qualified borrowings”. “Qualified borrowings” means your...

  20. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Tziaferi, Eirini; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fantinel, Sergio; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Dattola, Domenico; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Kim, Jae Yool; Moon, Dong Ho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Scarborough, Tara; Wu, Zhenbin; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; 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Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bierwagen, Katharina; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}}$ threshold starting at $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}} = $ 0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV. The particles and the jets are measured for absolute pseudorapidities lower than 2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  1. Diamond turning of small Fresnel lens array in single crystal InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinevicius, R G; Duduch, J G; Cirino, G A; Pizani, P S

    2013-01-01

    A small Fresnel lens array was diamond turned in a single crystal (0 0 1) InSb wafer using a half-radius negative rake angle (−25°) single-point diamond tool. The machined array consisted of three concave Fresnel lenses cut under different machining sequences. The Fresnel lens profiles were designed to operate in the paraxial domain having a quadratic phase distribution. The sample was examined by scanning electron microscopy and an optical profilometer. Optical profilometry was also used to measure the surface roughness of the machined surface. Ductile ribbon-like chips were observed on the cutting tool rake face. No signs of cutting edge wear was observed on the diamond tool. The machined surface presented an amorphous phase probed by micro Raman spectroscopy. A successful heat treatment of annealing was carried out to recover the crystalline phase on the machined surface. The results indicated that it is possible to perform a ‘mechanical lithography’ process in single crystal semiconductors. (paper)

  2. Transition from many domain to single domain martensite morphology in small-scale shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the martensitic transformation during a superelastic cycle is studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy deformation experiments in microwires of Cu–Zn–Al. The diameters of the wires studied (21–136 μm) span the range in which significant size effects upon transformation hysteresis have been observed. In larger wires the transformation is accommodated by the continual nucleation of many new martensite plates that grow and eventually coalesce with their neighbors. In small wires a single martensite plate nucleates at the start of transformation and then proceeds to grow in a monolithic fashion; the wire transforms by smooth axial propagation of a single interface. The transition from many domain to single domain transformation is gradual with wire diameter, and is based upon scaling of the domain density with sample size. We attribute it to a crossover from bulk to surface obstacle control of transformation front propagation. This observation also sheds light on reported size effects in energy dissipation in shape memory alloys

  3. Study of CP-violating charge asymmetries of single muons and like-sign dimuons in p pbar collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), "012002-1"-"012002-31" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : D0 * Fermilab * charge asymmetry * CP violation * same sign * charge: asymmetry * dimuon * charge * muon * charge * meson * mixing * width difference Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  4. Exclusion of exotic top-like quarks with -4/3 electric charge using jet-charge tagging in single-lepton ttbar events at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernandez Ramos, J.P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S.R.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Luca, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martinez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S.Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernandez, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W.C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-08-05

    We report on a measurement of the top-quark electric charge in ttbar events in which one W boson originating from the top-quark pair decays into leptons and the other into hadrons. The event sample was collected by the CDF II detector in sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions and corresponds to 5.6 fb^(-1). We find the data to be consistent with the standard model and exclude the existence of an exotic quark with -4/3 electric charge and mass of the conventional top quark at the 99% confidence level.

  5. Study of the Bulk Charge Carrier Dynamics in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Single Crystals by Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Partha

    2018-04-02

    Understanding of the fundamentals behind charge carriers of photo-catalytic materials are still illusive hindering progress in our quest for renewable energy. TiO2 anatase and rutile are the most understood phases in photo-catalysis and serve as the best model for fundamental studies. Their ultrafast charge carrier dynamics especially on TiO2 anatase single crystal (the most active phase) are unresolved. Here femtosecond time resolved spectroscopy (TRS) was carried out to explore the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers’ recombination in anatase single crystal, for the first time using pump fluence effects, and compares it to that of the rutile single crystal. A significant difference in charge carrier recombination rates between both crystals is observed. We found that the time constants for carrier recombination are two orders of magnitude slower for anatase (101) when compared to those of rutile (110). Moreover, bulk defects introduced by reduction of the samples via annealing in ultra-high vacuum resulted in faster recombination rates for both polymorphs. Both states (fresh and reduced) probed by pump fluence dependence measurements revealed that the major recombination channel in fresh and reduced anatase and reduced rutile is the first-order Shockley–Reed mediated. However, for fresh rutile, third-body Auger recombination was observed, attributed to the presence of higher density of intrinsic charge carriers. At all excitation wavelengths and fluence investigated, anatase (101) single crystal show longer charge carrier lifetime when compared to rutile (110) single. This may explain the superiority of the anatase phase for the electron transfer H+ reduction to molecular hydrogen.

  6. Effect of multiple plasmon excitation on single, double and multiple ionizations of C{sub 60} in collisions with fast highly charged Si ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Kumar, A; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai -5 (India)

    2007-06-28

    We have investigated the single and multiple ionizations of the C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast Si{sup q+} projectiles for various projectile charge states (q) between q = 6 and 14. The q-dependence of the ionization cross sections and their ratios is compared with the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR) model. The excellent qualitative agreement with the model in case of single and double ionizations and also a reasonable agreement with the triple (and to some extent with quadruple) ionization (without evaporation) yields signify dominant contributions of the single-, double- and triple-plasmon excitations on the single- and multiple-ionization process.

  7. Osculum dynamics and filtration activity in small single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2017-01-01

    the clearance method. Osculum dynamics, as expressed by temporal variation of the OSA, including osculum contraction and expansion, correlated with variability in the explant filtration rate, and no water pumping was observed during periods of osculum closure. A linear relationship between filtration rate (FR......Contraction-inflation behavior, including the closure and opening of the exhalant opening (osculum), is common among sponges. This behavior may temporally affect filtration activity, making it difficult to study and understand sponge feeding biology. To examine the interplay between osculum...... dynamics and filtration activity, small (18 mm3) single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea were studied. Time-lapse video stereo-microscope recordings of the osculum cross-sectional area (OSA) were made simultaneously with measurements of the filtration rate (∼15°C, ∼20 PSU) using...

  8. Siting analysis and risk assessment for small single-purpose heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, R.

    1979-04-01

    Two alternative sites both 10km away from the centre of Helsinki are considered for reactor unit sizes of 400mw and 800mw. The risks associated with a small single-purpose heating reactor is evaluated for normal operation and accident conditions. The evaluation for accident condition is performed for three characteristics accidents. Three pathways are considered in the calculation of the radiation exposure: direct external gamma dose from the release plume, direct gamma radiation from deposited activity on the ground and dose due to inhalation. The risks are compared with the risks from alternative conventional fossil fuelled district heat production methods. The results show that the heating reactor alternative causes an unsignificant risk, which is far less than the risk caused by the fossil-fuelled alternatives

  9. Techniques and processes for the measurement of the resonances of small single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, A.; Stekel, A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Visscher, W.M.; Bell, T.; Lei, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical resonances of small oriented single crystals of materials of interest to basic science and engineering can be used to determine all the elastic moduli and the ultrasonic attenuation of these materials. To measure the resonances of the samples without introducing the resonances of the measuring system requires that the transducers be non-resonant at the frequencies of interest, and that they be well isolated from their mounts. However, for samples near 1 mm in the largest dimension, the transducer design problem becomes sever, and the signals become weak. In addition, no resonances can be missed, and, often, the symmetry class of the resonances must be known. We outline here appropriate transducer, electronics, and system designs to circumvent these problems. 10 refs., 4 figs

  10. Site-resolved neutralization of slow singly and multiply charged ions during large-angle backscattering collisions with RbI(1 0 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, F W; Vane, C R

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of projectile neutralization during 120 deg. backscattering from RbI[1 0 0] of singly and multiply charged incident ions in the keV energy range. Scattered charge fractions are reported for 4.4 keV Ne sup 8 sup + and 4.2 keV F sup + normally incident on the ionic crystal. Collisions associated with scattering from a Rb or I site can be clearly distinguished for each scattered final charge state. Significant differences are observed in the intensities of the higher scattered charge states resulting from collisions with Rb and I sites. In contrast, at the target azimuth orientation of the present measurement, only minor differences in F sup - yield are observed for hard scattering from the two lattice sites.

  11. Measurement and Calculation of Absolute Single- and Multiple-Charge-Exchange Cross Sections for Feq+ Ions Impacting CO and CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simcic, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Mawhorter, R. J. [Pomona College; Cadez, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Greenwood, J. B. [Queen' s University, Belfast; Chutjian, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Smith, S. J. [Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Absolute cross sections are reported for single, double, and triple charge exchange of Feq+ (q=5- 13) ions with CO and CO2. The highly-charged Fe ions are generated in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Absolute data are derived from knowledge of the target gas pressure, target path length, and incident and charge-exchanged ion currents. Experimental results are compared with new calculations of these cross sections in the n-electron classical trajectory Monte-Carlo approximation, in which the ensuing radiative and non-radiative cascades are approximated with scaled hydrogenic transition probabilities and scaled Auger rates. The present data are needed in astrophysical applications of solar- and stellar-wind charge-exchange with comets, planetary atmospheres, and circumstellar clouds.

  12. Single charged-particle damage to living cells: a new method based on track-etch detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G.F.; Pugliese, M.; Manti, L.; Nappo, M.; Gialanella, G.

    1994-01-01

    Biological effects of ionizing radiation are usually expressed as a function of the absorbed dose. Low doses of high-LET radiation correspond to one or few particle traversals through the cell. In order to study the biological effectiveness of single charged particles, we have developed a new method based on solid state nuclear track detectors. Cells are seeded on mylar and a LR-115 film is stuck below the mylar base. After irradiation, the LR-115 film is etched and cells observed at a phase contrast microscope connected to a video camera and an image analyzer. In this way, it is possible to measure the number of traversals through the cell nucleus or cytoplasm. Coordinates of each cell on the microscope bench are saved. After incubation for about one week, cells are fixed and stained and the colonies observed at the microscope. The fate of each irradiated cell is therefore correlated to the number of traversals. We have tested this method with two different rodent embryo fibroblast cell lines, C3H 10T1/2 and V79, exposed to 3.2 MeV accelerated α-particles (LET =124 keV/μm). The studied endpoint was cell killing. Preliminary biological results suggest that few α-particle tracks in V79 hamster cells are sufficient to reduce surviving fraction. ((orig.))

  13. Ion-atom collisions with laser-prepared target: High resolution study of single charge exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leredde, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Single charge transfer in low-energy Na"++"8"7Rb(5s,5p) collisions is investigated using magneto-optically trapped Rb atoms and high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the recoil-ion momentum provides accurate relative cross-sections for the active channels and the projectile scattering angle distributions. Thanks to the high experimental resolution, scattering structures such as diffraction-like oscillations in angular distributions are clearly observed. The measurements are compared with molecular close-coupling calculations and an excellent agreement is found. To go further in the test of the theory, the target is prepared in an oriented state. It is the first time that such collision experiments with oriented target is performed with such a high resolution. The right-left asymmetry expected for the scattering angle distribution is evidenced. The agreement between MOCC calculations and experiments is very good. Simple models developed for collisions with oriented target are also discussed. (author) [fr

  14. Ab initio investigation of sulfur monofluoride and its singly charged cation and anion in their ground electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Shan-Jun, Chen; Yan, Chen; Peng, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The SF radical and its singly charged cation and anion, SF+ and SF-, have been investigated on the MRCI/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5, 6) levels of theory with Davidson correction. Both the core-valence correlation and the relativistic effect are considered. The extrapolating to the complete basis set (CBS) limit is adopted to remove the basis set truncation error. Geometrical parameters, potential energy curves (PECs), vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of the ground electronic state for all these species are obtained. The information with respect to molecular characteristics of the SFn (n = -1, 0, +1) systems derived in this work will help to extend our knowledge and to guide further experimental or theoretical researches. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304023 and 11447172), the Young and Middle-Aged Talent of Education Burea of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. Q20151307), and the Yangtze Youth Talents Fund of Yangtze University, China (Grant No. 2015cqr21).

  15. Use of a single-zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry to study a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junnian; Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Auto-ignition characteristics of a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► Engine speed had the greatest effect on the auto-ignition process. ► Increases of C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 improved the auto-ignition process. ► Engine performance was not sensitive to small changes in C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 . ► Nitric oxides concentrations decreased as engine speed or EGR level was increased. - Abstract: A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. This simulation was used to complete analyses for a modified 0.4 L single cylinder engine. The engine possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the minimal initial temperature, engine performance, and nitric oxide emissions of HCCI engine operation. The results show significant changes in combustion characteristics with varying engine operating conditions. Effects of varying equivalence ratios (0.3–1.0), engine speeds (1000–4000 RPM), EGR (0–40%), and fuel compositions were determined and analyzed in detail. In particular, every 0.1 increase in equivalence ratio or 500 rpm increase in engine speed requires about a 5 K higher initial temperature for complete combustion, and leads to around 0.7 bar increase in IMEP.

  16. Anisotropic small-polaron hopping in W:BiVO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettie, Alexander J. E.; Chemelewski, William D.; Zhou, Jianshi; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S.; Marshall, Luke G.; Emin, David; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2015-01-01

    DC electrical conductivity, Seebeck and Hall coefficients are measured between 300 and 450 K on single crystals of monoclinic bismuth vanadate that are doped n-type with 0.3% tungsten donors (W:BiVO 4 ). Strongly activated small-polaron hopping is implied by the activation energies of the Arrhenius conductivities (about 300 meV) greatly exceeding the energies characterizing the falls of the Seebeck coefficients' magnitudes with increasing temperature (about 50 meV). Small-polaron hopping is further evidenced by the measured Hall mobility in the ab-plane (10 −1  cm 2  V −1  s −1 at 300 K) being larger and much less strongly activated than the deduced drift mobility (about 5 × 10 −5  cm 2  V −1  s −1 at 300 K). The conductivity and n-type Seebeck coefficient is found to be anisotropic with the conductivity larger and the Seebeck coefficient's magnitude smaller and less temperature dependent for motion within the ab-plane than that in the c-direction. These anisotropies are addressed by considering highly anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor (≈5 Å) transfers in addition to the somewhat shorter (≈4 Å), nearly isotropic nearest-neighbor transfers

  17. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  18. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, S.P.; Lancaster, R.J.; Garcia, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k SP method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results

  19. Single-balloon enteroscopy following videocapsule endoscopy for diagnosis of small bowel tumors: preliminary experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, A; Singeap, A M; Cojocariu, C; Sfarti, C; Tarcoveanu, E; Georgescu, S

    2010-01-01

    Small bowel tumors (SBTs), either benign or malignant, are rare, accounting for 3-6% of all digestive neoplasms. Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with small bowel diseases, including SBTs. A novel method using the single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) has recently been developed. The aim of present study was to present our preliminary experience with SBE in patients with suspected SBTs on VCE examination. Patients in whom VCE showed one or more lesions suggesting SBTs underwent SBE. Three patients (2 males, 1 female; mean age 52 +/- 11 years) underwent SBE, and then surgery. There were two gastrointestinal stromal tumors and one adenocarcinoma. Clinically, all patients had iron-deficiency anemia and abdominal pain, and one patient had episodes of nausea/ vomiting. SBE was well tolerated without adverse events. SBE is a safe procedure and overcomes the limitations of VCE. Both procedures are complimentary in patients with suspected SBTs. VCE should be used first for initial diagnosis, followed by SBE for histopathological confrmation of the diagnosis and, if necessary, endoscopic therapy.

  20. Active and fast charge-state switching of single NV centres in diamond by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schreyvogel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate an active and fast control of the charge state and hence of the optical and electronic properties of single and near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centres (NV centres in diamond. This active manipulation is achieved by using a two-dimensional Schottky-diode structure from diamond, i.e., by using aluminium as Schottky contact on a hydrogen terminated diamond surface. By changing the applied potential on the Schottky contact, we are able to actively switch single NV centres between all three charge states NV+, NV0 and NV− on a timescale of 10 to 100 ns, corresponding to a switching frequency of 10–100 MHz. This switching frequency is much higher than the hyperfine interaction frequency between an electron spin (of NV− and a nuclear spin (of 15N or 13C for example of 2.66 kHz. This high-frequency charge state switching with a planar diode structure would open the door for many quantum optical applications such as a quantum computer with single NVs for quantum information processing as well as single 13C atoms for long-lifetime storage of quantum information. Furthermore, a control of spectral emission properties of single NVs as a single photon emitters – embedded in photonic structures for example – can be realized which would be vital for quantum communication and cryptography.

  1. Single fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, A.E.; Hopwood, P.; Stout, R.; Burt, P.A.; Thatcher, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of a single 8-Gy fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation regime was assessed in 106 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. All patients had limited stage disease and received combination chemotherapy consisting of either cisplatin or carboplatin with ifosfamide, etoposide, and vincristine (VICE). Cranial irradiation was administered 48 h after the first cycle of chemotherapy and was well tolerated. Actual 2-year survival was 35% and cranial relapse occurred in 22% of those patients who achieved complete remission. This compares favourably with a cranial relapse rate of 45% incomplete remitters previously reported with the same chemotherapy regime after a minimum follow-up of 2 years where PCI was not used. Formal psychometric testing was performed retrospectively on a series of 25 long-term survivors of whom 14 were taken from this reported series. Whilst 75% of patients were impaired on at least one test with 68% performing badly in the most complex task, this was not associated with clinically detectable neurological damage and the patients did not complain of memory or concentration difficulties. In conclusion, single fraction PCI, when used with platinum based combination chemotherapy, appears to be equally effective but may be less neurotoxic than the more standard fractionated regimes

  2. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  3. Thermal radiation analysis for small satellites with single-node model using techniques of equivalent linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, N.D.; Hieu, N.N.; Chung, P.N.; Anh, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Linearization criteria are presented for a single-node model of satellite thermal. • A nonlinear algebraic system for linearization coefficients is obtained. • The temperature evolutions obtained from different methods are explored. • The temperature mean and amplitudes versus the heat capacity are discussed. • The dual criterion approach yields smaller errors than other approximate methods. - Abstract: In this paper, the method of equivalent linearization is extended to the thermal analysis of satellite using both conventional and dual criteria of linearization. These criteria are applied to a differential nonlinear equation of single-node model of the heat transfer of a small satellite in the Low Earth Orbit. A system of nonlinear algebraic equations for linearization coefficients is obtained in the closed form and then solved by the iteration method. The temperature evolution, average values and amplitudes versus the heat capacity obtained by various approaches including Runge–Kutta algorithm, conventional and dual criteria of equivalent linearization, and Grande's approach are compared together. Numerical results reveal that temperature responses obtained from the method of linearization and Grande's approach are quite close to those obtained from the Runge–Kutta method. The dual criterion yields smaller errors than those of the remaining methods when the nonlinearity of the system increases, namely, when the heat capacity varies in the range [1.0, 3.0] × 10 4  J K −1 .

  4. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  5. An evaluation of a pre-charging pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control. Project quarterly report, December 1, 1989--February 28, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this test program is the performance and economic evaluation of a pre charged-pulse jet filter as the principal particulate control device for a commercial or industrial scale coal fired combustor. Performance factors that will be considered are the effects of particle charge, air/cloth ratio, fabric types, percent humidity and inlet particulate loading on fine particle collection efficiency, and pressure drop. Economic factors that will be considered are capital costs, energy and other operating costs, and maintenance costs. The program will result in a recommendation regarding the relative suitability of the pre charged pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control, as compared to other control devices. Fine particle control capability, ease of operation, and overall economics will be taken into consideration in making comparisons.

  6. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  7. Investigation of the charge-orbital ordering mechanism in single-layered Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkuti, C. N.; Majidi, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the experimental study of half-doped single-layered Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4 showing charge, orbital, and spin orderings [1], we propose a model to theoretically study the system to explain such ordering phenomena. The ground state electron configuration reveals that the charges form a checkerboard pattern with alternating Mn3+/Mn4+ sites, while the orbitals are aligned in zigzag chains [1, 2]. We calculate the ground state energy of this system to find the most preferable configuration by comparing three types of configurations (charge-unordered, charge-ordered, and charge-orbital-ordered states). The calculations are based on a tight-binding model representing effective electron hoppings among Mn ions in MnO2-plane. We take into account the horizontally- and vertically-oriented orbital and spin degrees of freedom at Mn sites. We assume that the hopping integral values depend on the relative orientation between the corresponding orbitals of adjacent Mn ions. The interaction terms we incorporate into our effective Hamiltonian include inter-orbital, intra-orbital Hubbard repulsions, and Jahn-Teller distortion [2]. We absorb the exchange interaction between spins into local self-energy that we calculate within dynamical mean field algorithm [2]. Within our model we show a circumstance in which the charge-orbital ordered configuration has the lowest energy, consistent with the ground state ordering revealed by the experimental data.

  8. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Voltage Dependent Charging Strategies for Single-Phase Electric Vehicles in an Unbalanced Danish Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, Jorge Nájera; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies four voltage dependent solutions for modulating the charging of multiple Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a real Danish network. Uncontrolled EV charging, especially in grid with high EV penetration, can result in overloaded lines and transformers, low-voltages and other performance...

  10. Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Aryl Diazonium Modified Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Enhanced Direct Electron Transfer through a Positively Charged Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in the field of biosensors and biofuel cells is to establish a highly efficient electron transfer rate between the active site of redox enzymes and electrodes to fully access the catalytic potential of the biocatalyst and achieve high current densities. We report on very efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete sordida (PsCDH) and surface modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Sonicated SWCNTs were adsorbed on the top of glassy carbon electrodes and modified with aryl diazonium salts generated in situ from p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, thus featuring at acidic pH (3.5 and 4.5) negative or positive surface charges. After adsorption of PsCDH, both electrode types showed excellent long-term stability and very efficient DET. The modified electrode presenting p-aminophenyl groups produced a DET current density of 500 μA cm−2 at 200 mV vs normal hydrogen reference electrode (NHE) in a 5 mM lactose solution buffered at pH 3.5. This is the highest reported DET value so far using a CDH modified electrode and comes close to electrodes using mediated electron transfer. Moreover, the onset of the electrocatalytic current for lactose oxidation started at 70 mV vs NHE, a potential which is 50 mV lower compared to when unmodified SWCNTs were used. This effect potentially reduces the interference by oxidizable matrix components in biosensors and increases the open circuit potential in biofuel cells. The stability of the electrode was greatly increased compared with unmodified but cross-linked SWCNTs electrodes and lost only 15% of the initial current after 50 h of constant potential scanning. PMID:21417322

  11. Study of Charge-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Peptide-Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos and Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unusually high surface area-to-volume ratios, and surface-determined physicochemical properties. It is essential to understand their surface-dependent toxicity in order to rationally design biocompatible nanomaterials for a wide variety of applications. In this study, we have functionalized the surfaces of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 11.7 ± 2.7 nm in diameters) with three biocompatible peptides (CALNNK, CALNNS, CALNNE) to prepare positively (Ag-CALNNK NPs+ζ), negatively (Ag-CALNNS NPs−2ζ), and more negatively charged NPs (Ag-CALNNE NPs−4ζ), respectively. Each peptide differs in a single amino acid at its C-terminus, which minimizes the effects of peptide sequences and serves as a model molecule to create positive, neutral and negative charges on the surface of the NPs at pH 4–10. We have studied their charge-dependent transport into early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos and their effects on embryonic development using dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). We found that all three Ag-peptide NPs passively diffused into the embryos via their chorionic pore canals, and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 h), showing charge-independent diffusion modes and charge-dependent diffusion coefficients. Notably, the NPs create charge-dependent toxic effects on embryonic development, showing that the Ag-CALNNK NPs+ζ (positively charged) are the most biocompatible while the Ag-CALNNE NPs–4ζ (more negatively charged) are the most toxic. By comparing with our previous studies of the same sized citrated Ag and Au NPs, the Ag-peptide NPs are much more biocompatible than the citrated Ag NPs, and nearly as biocompatible as the Au NPs, showing the dependence of nanotoxicity upon the surface charges, surface functional groups and chemical compositions of the NPs. This study also demonstrates powerful applications of single NP plasmonic spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of single NPs

  12. A method for multiple sequential analyses of macrophage functions using a small single cell sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.F. Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG induce the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages can be characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites, generated via NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, and by the increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II. Multiple microassays have been developed to measure these parameters. Usually each assay requires 2-5 x 10(5 cells per well. In some experimental conditions the number of cells is the limiting factor for the phenotypic characterization of macrophages. Here we describe a method whereby this limitation can be circumvented. Using a single 96-well microassay and a very small number of peritoneal cells obtained from C3H/HePas mice, containing as little as <=2 x 10(5 macrophages per well, we determined sequentially the oxidative burst (H2O2, nitric oxide production and MHC II (IAk expression of BCG-activated macrophages. More specifically, with 100 µl of cell suspension it was possible to quantify H2O2 release and nitric oxide production after 1 and 48 h, respectively, and IAk expression after 48 h of cell culture. In addition, this microassay is easy to perform, highly reproducible and more economical.

  13. Design of Single Stage Axial Turbine with Constant Nozzle Angle Blading for Small Turbojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra Adnan, F.; Hartono, Firman

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an aerodynamic design of a single stage gas generator axial turbine for small turbojet engine is explained. As per design requirement, the turbine should be able to deliver power output of 155 kW at 0.8139 kg/s gas mass flow, inlet total temperature of 1200 K and inlet total pressure of 335330 Pa. The design phase consist of several steps, i.e.: determination of velocity triangles in 2D plane, 2D blading design and 3D flow analysis at design point using Computational Fluid Dynamics method. In the determination of velocity triangles, two conditions are applied: zero inlet swirl (i.e. the gas flow enter the turbine at axial direction) and constant nozzle angle design (i.e. the inlet and outlet angle of the nozzle blade are constant from root to tip). The 2D approach in cascade plane is used to specify airfoil type at root, mean and tip of the blade based on inlet and outlet flow conditions. The 3D approach is done by simulating the turbine in full configuration to evaluate the overall performance of the turbine. The observed parameters including axial gap, stagger angle, and tip clearance affect its output power. Based on analysis results, axial gap and stagger angle are positively correlated with output power up to a certain point at which the power decreases. Tip clearance, however, gives inversely correlation with output power.

  14. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Bayesian pedigree inference with small numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms via a factor-graph representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric C; Ng, Thomas C

    2016-02-01

    We develop a computational framework for addressing pedigree inference problems using small numbers (80-400) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our approach relaxes the assumptions, which are commonly made, that sampling is complete with respect to the pedigree and that there is no genotyping error. It relies on representing the inferred pedigree as a factor graph and invoking the Sum-Product algorithm to compute and store quantities that allow the joint probability of the data to be rapidly computed under a large class of rearrangements of the pedigree structure. This allows efficient MCMC sampling over the space of pedigrees, and, hence, Bayesian inference of pedigree structure. In this paper we restrict ourselves to inference of pedigrees without loops using SNPs assumed to be unlinked. We present the methodology in general for multigenerational inference, and we illustrate the method by applying it to the inference of full sibling groups in a large sample (n=1157) of Chinook salmon typed at 95 SNPs. The results show that our method provides a better point estimate and estimate of uncertainty than the currently best-available maximum-likelihood sibling reconstruction method. Extensions of this work to more complex scenarios are briefly discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. THE STRATEGIC RESPONSE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISE SECTOR FIRMS TO THE SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BRICKAU, RALF ALEXANDER

    1994-01-01

    The creation of the post-1992 European Single Market represents a significant change in the business environment confronting firms throughout Europe. Although there is an extensive source of literature available on appropriate strategic responses to the Single Market, very few of these writings contain guidance specifically related to the situation facing small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs). The objectives of this study are i) to determine important veu-iables which m...

  17. Dynamics of Charged Excitons and Biexcitons in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals Revealed by Femtosecond Transient-Absorption and Single-Dot Luminescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarita, Naoki; Tahara, Hirokazu; Ihara, Toshiyuki; Kawawaki, Tokuhisa; Sato, Ryota; Saruyama, Masaki; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-04-06

    Metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising photonic materials for use in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and lasers. The optoelectronic properties of these devices are determined by the excitons and exciton complexes confined in their NCs. In this study, we determined the relaxation dynamics of charged excitons and biexcitons in CsPbBr 3 NCs using femtosecond transient-absorption (TA), time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), and single-dot second-order photon correlation spectroscopy. Decay times of ∼40 and ∼200 ps were obtained from the TA and PL decay curves for biexcitons and charged excitons, respectively, in NCs with an average edge length of 7.7 nm. The existence of charged excitons even under weak photoexcitation was confirmed by the second-order photon correlation measurements. We found that charged excitons play a dominant role in luminescence processes of CsPbBr 3 NCs. Combining different spectroscopic techniques enabled us to clarify the dynamical behaviors of excitons, charged excitons, and biexcitons.

  18. Single neutral pion production by charged-current ν¯μ interactions on hydrocarbon at 〈Eν〉=3.6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Le

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Single neutral pion production via muon antineutrino charged-current interactions in plastic scintillator (CH is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI low-energy, wideband antineutrino beam at Fermilab. Measurement of this process constrains models of neutral pion production in nuclei, which is important because the neutral-current analog is a background for ν¯e appearance oscillation experiments. The differential cross sections for π0 momentum and production angle, for events with a single observed π0 and no charged pions, are presented and compared to model predictions. These results comprise the first measurement of the π0 kinematics for this process.

  19. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with the risk of small vessel disease (SVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Wusheng; Yun, Wenwei; Wang, Qizhang; Cheng, Maogang; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Xinfeng; Zhou, Xianju; Xu, Gelin

    2015-09-15

    Maladjustment of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) results in cerebral vasculature and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, which is associated with small vessel disease (SVD). This study was to aim at evaluating correlations between matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of SVD. A total of 178 patients with SVD were enrolled into this study via Nanjing Stroke Registry Program (NSRP) from January 2010 to November 2011. SVD patients were further subtyped as isolated lacunar infarction (ILI, absent or with mild leukoaraiosis) and ischemic leukoaraiosis (ILA, with moderate or severe leukoaraiosis) according to the Fazekas scale. 100 age- and gender-matched individuals from outpatient medical examination were recruited as the control group. The genotypes of MMP-2-1306 T/C and MMP-9-1562 C/T were determined by the TaqMan method. Of 178 SVD patients, 86 and 92 patients were classified as ILI and ILA, respectively. Comparison analysis between SVD patients and controls revealed a significant correlation between SVD and hypertension, as well as a prevalence of hypertension in ILA. Further genotype analysis showed that the frequency of MMP-2-1306 CC genotype was higher in ILA patients than in controls (P=0.009, χ(2) test; P=0.027, the multiple test with Bonferroni correction). Finally, logistic regression analysis with adjustment of age, sex and vascular risk factors showed that the MMP-2-1306 T/C polymorphism was an independent predictor for ILA (OR: 2.605; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067-6.364; P=0.036). Our findings suggest that the MMP-2-1306 T/C polymorphism is a direct risk factor for ILA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of solitary small renal masses. A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, C.C.; Fischer, S.; Strunk, H.; Meyer, C.; Thomas, D.; Willinek, W.A.; Schild, H. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Hauser, S. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Nadal, J. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Inst. for Medical Biometry; Wilhelm, K. [Johanniter Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-07-15

    To analyze the outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of small renal masses (SRM) at a single center during a ten-year time period. Patient records of renal RFAs (07/2003 - 11/2013) were reviewed. Indications were SRM suspicious of malignancy on imaging and one of the following: severe comorbidity; old age; solitary kidney; impaired renal function; patient wish. Biopsy was performed at the time of RFA. Patients were excluded if no follow-up was available. Patient and procedural characteristics were recorded. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier's method and compared with log-rank or cox tests. 38 patients (16 females, mean age 70.0 years [range 52 - 87]) presenting with a solitary SRM were included in the study. Biopsy showed malignancy in 29 patients; 9 had benign tumors. 26 patients suffered from cardiovascular, respiratory or hepatic comorbidities. Technical success (complete ablation on first follow-up) was achieved in 95 % of cases. Two major complications (bowel perforation; hematothorax) occurred. The 3- and 7-year overall survival (OS) [any cause] rates were 73.4 ± 0.8 % and 50.3 ± 1.0 %, respectively (mean follow-up 54.6 months, range 1 - 127). 4 recurrences and 2 metastases were observed. The presence of comorbidities was the only independent predictor of OS. There was no difference in survival between patients with benign and malignant tumors. RFA of SRM is successful in a large percentage of cases with a low complication rate and durable local control. As RFA is typically performed in multimorbid patients, overall survival seems to depend primarily on comorbidities rather than cancer progression.

  1. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  2. Amping it up on a small budget: Transforming inexpensive, commercial audio and video components into a useful charged particle spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur

    Necessity often leads to inspiration. Such was the case when a traditional amplifier quit working during the collection of an alpha particle spectrum. I had a 15 battery-powered audio amplifier in my box of project electronics so I connected it between the preamplifier and the multichannel analyzer. The alpha particle spectrum that appeared on the computer screen matched expectations even without correcting for impedance mismatches. Encouraged by this outcome, I have begun to systematically replace each of the parts in a traditional charged particle spectrometer with audio and video components available through consumer electronics stores with the goal of producing an inexpensive charged particle spectrometer for use in education and research. Hopefully my successes, setbacks, and results to date described in this presentation will inform and inspire others.

  3. Amrubicin therapy improves patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer: A single-arm confirmatory Chinese clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengli Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate an open-label, multicenter, single-arm study to appraise whether amrubicin therapy improves patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer in Chinese clinical study. Patients (n=95 with refractory small-cell lung cancer received 3 consecutive days amrubicin therapy for 21 days. Overall response rate of response to amrubicin was 39%. Anemia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, infection, elevated serum transaminases levels were appeared, but the incidences of adverse events were very few. Our results suggest amrubicin therapy can improve patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer and may be an effective and safe treatment option.

  4. Single-molecule conductance of a chemically modified, π-extended tetrathiafulvalene and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis and single-molecule electrical transport properties of a molecular wire containing a π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF group and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ. We form single-molecule junctions using the in situ break junction technique using a homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope with a range of conductance between 10 G0 down to 10−7 G0. Within this range we do not observe a clear conductance signature of the neutral parent molecule, suggesting either that its conductance is too low or that it does not form a stable junction. Conversely, we do find a clear conductance signature in the experiments carried out on the charge-transfer complex. Due to the fact we expected this species to have a higher conductance than the neutral molecule, we believe this supports the idea that the conductance of the neutral molecule is very low, below our measurement sensitivity. This idea is further supported by theoretical calculations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported single-molecule conductance measurements on a molecular charge-transfer species.

  5. Flash propagation and inferred charge structure relative to radar-observed ice alignment signatures in a small Florida mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Zounes, Zackery; Addison Alford, A.; Carrie, Gordon D.; Pilkey, John T.; Uman, Martin A.; Jordan, Douglas M.

    2017-08-01

    A series of vertical cross sections taken through a small mesoscale convective system observed over Florida by the dual-polarimetric SMART radar were combined with VHF radiation source locations from a lightning mapping array (LMA) to examine the lightning channel propagation paths relative to the radar-observed ice alignment signatures associated with regions of negative specific differential phase (KDP). Additionally, charge layers inferred from analysis of LMA sources were related to the ice alignment signature. It was found that intracloud flashes initiated near the upper zero-KDP boundary surrounding the negative KDP region. The zero-KDP boundary also delineated the propagation path of the lightning channel with the negative leaders following the upper boundary and positive leaders following the lower boundary. Very few LMA sources were found in the negative KDP region. We conclude that rapid dual-polarimetric radar observations can diagnose strong electric fields and may help identify surrounding regions of charge.

  6. Study of CP -violating charge asymmetries of single muons and like-sign dimuons in pp¯ collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the inclusive single muon charge asymmetry and the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in $p \\bar{p}$ collisions using the full data set of 10.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The standard model predictions of the charge asymmetries induced by CP violation are small in magnitude compared to the current experimental precision, so non-zero measurements could indicate new sources of CP violation. The measurements differ from the standard model predictions of CP violation in these asymmetries with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations. These results are interpreted in a framework of $B$ meson mixing within the CKM formalism to measure the relative width difference $\\dgg$ between the mass eigenstates of the $\\Bd$ meson system, and the semileptonic charge asymmetries $\\asld$ and $\\asls$ of $\\Bd$ and $\\Bs$ mesons respectively.

  7. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  8. Single-step solution processing of small-molecule organic semiconductor field-effect transistors at high yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Liyang; Li, X.; Pavlica, E.; Loth, M.A.; Anthony, J.E.; Bratina, G.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Gelinck, G.H.; Stutzmann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a simple, alternative route towards high-mobility structures of the small-molecular semiconductor 5,11-bis(triethyl silylethynyl) anthradithiophene that requires one single processing step without the need for any post-deposition processing. The method relies on careful control of

  9. Fully automated microchip system for the detection of quantal exocytosis from single and small ensembles of cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spégel, Christer; Heiskanen, Arto; Pedersen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip device that enables positioning of single or small ensembles of cells on an aperture in close proximity to a mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) modified sensing electrode has been developed and characterized. The microchip was used for the detection of Ca2+-dependent quantal catecholamine...

  10. Microdissection and molecular manipulation of single chromosomes in woody fruit trees with small chromosomes using pomelo (Citrus grandis) as a model. I. Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Wu, W; Zhou, Y; Hu, Z; Lu, L

    2004-05-01

    Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries by means of chromosome microdissection and microcloning will be useful for genomic research, especially for those species that have not been extensively studied genetically. Application of the technology of microdissection and microcloning to woody fruit plants has not been reported hitherto, largely due to the generally small sizes of metaphase chromosomes and the difficulty of chromosome preparation. The present study was performed to establish a method for single chromosome microdissection and microcloning in woody fruit species using pomelo as a model. The standard karyotype of a pomelo cultivar ( Citrus grandis cv. Guanxi) was established based on 20 prometaphase photomicrographs. According to the standard karyotype, chromosome 1 was identified and isolated with fine glass microneedles controlled by a micromanipulator. DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 kb to 2 kb were acquired from the isolated single chromosome 1 via two rounds of PCR mediated by Sau3A linker adaptors and then cloned into T-easy vectors to generate a DNA library of chromosome 1. Approximately 30,000 recombinant clones were obtained. Evaluation based on 108 randomly selected clones showed that the sizes of the cloned inserts varied from 0.5 kb to 1.5 kb with an average of 860 bp. Our research suggests that microdissection and microcloning of single small chromosomes in woody plants is feasible.

  11. Single center experience with percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation of small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, John B; Berry, Tristan T; Williams, Michael B; Logan, Joshua E; Given, Robert W; Lance, Raymond S; Barone, Bethany; Shaves, Sarah; Vingan, Harlan; Fabrizio, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    While partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard for the management of most small renal masses, increasing experience with renal cryoablation has suggested a viable alternative with a favorable morbidity profile and good efficacy. We report intermediate-term oncologic outcomes from a single-center experience with laparoscopic and percutaneous renal cryoablation. We performed a retrospective review of our laparoscopic renal cryoablation (LRC) and percutaneous renal cryoablation (PRC) experience between January 2003 and April 2007. Patients with at least 12 months of follow-up were included in the analysis. Follow-up consisted of imaging and laboratory studies at regular intervals. Persistent mass enhancement or interval tumor growth was considered a treatment failure. Sixty-six patients (44% women/56% men; 42% African-American/58% Caucasian/other; mean body mass index, 29.7) with 72 tumors underwent either LRC (n = 52) or PRC (n = 20) with a mean follow-up of 30 months (median 25.1 mos; range 13-63 mos). Average patient age was 66.5 years (range 34-82 yrs). Mean tumor size was 2.33 cm (range 1-4.6 cm). Comorbid conditions were prevalent: 76% hypertension, 36% hyperlipidemia, 24% chronic kidney disease, 29% diabetes mellitus, 36% tobacco use, and 32% heart disease. RESULTS of pretreatment biopsy were 62% renal-cell carcinoma and 38% benign or nondiagnostic. Overall cancer-specific and cancer-free survival were 100% and 97%, respectively. There were two treatment failures (3.8%) in the LRC group and five primary failures in the PRC group (25%) (P = 0.015), four of which were salvaged with repeated PRC with no evidence of recurrence at 6 to 36 months of follow-up. There has been no significant local or metastatic progression. LRC and PRC achieved good oncologic control with minimal morbidity at a mean follow-up of 30 months in a patient cohort characterized by numerous comorbid conditions. PRC had a significantly higher primary treatment failure rate than LRC, but

  12. Quantum-Size Dependence of the Energy for Vacancy Formation in Charged Small Metal Clusters. Drop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, V. V.; Reva, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Self-consistent computations of the monovacancy formation energy are performed for Na N , Mg N , and Al N (12 < N ≤ 168) spherical clusters in the drop model for stable jelly. Scenarios of the Schottky vacancy formation and "bubble vacancy blowing" are considered. It is shown that the asymptotic behavior of the size dependences of the energy for the vacancy formation by these two mechanisms is different and the difference between the characteristics of a charged and neutral cluster is entirely determined by the difference between the ionization potentials of clusters and the energies of electron attachment to them.

  13. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part I: performance estimation and design considerations unique to small dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Research and development activities pertaining to the development of a 10 W, homogeneous charge compression ignition free-piston engine-compressor are presented. Emphasis is place upon the miniature engine concept and design rationale. Also, a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine performance estimation method (slider-crank piston motion) is developed and used to explore the influence of engine operating conditions and geometric parameters on power density and establish plausible design conditions. The minimization of small-scale effects such as enhanced heat transfer, is also explored. (author)

  14. Doubly versus Singly Positively Charged Oxygen Ions Back-Scattering from a Silicon Surface under Dynamic O2+ Bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003

  15. Theoretical analysis of the effect of charge-sharing on the Detective Quantum Efficiency of single-photon counting segmented silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, J [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: julien.marchal@diamond.ac.uk

    2010-01-15

    A detector cascaded model is proposed to describe charge-sharing effect in single-photon counting segmented silicon detectors. Linear system theory is applied to this cascaded model in order to derive detector performance parameters such as large-area gain, presampling Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) as a function of energy detection threshold. This theory is used to model one-dimensional detectors (i.e. strip detectors) where X-ray-generated charge can be shared between two sampling elements, but the concepts developed in this article can be generalized to two-dimensional arrays of detecting elements (i.e. pixels detectors). The zero-frequency DQE derived from this model is consistent with expressions reported in the literature using a different method. The ability of this model to simulate the effect of charge sharing on image quality in the spatial frequency domain is demonstrated by applying it to a hypothetical one-dimensional single-photon counting detector illuminated with a typical mammography spectrum.

  16. Mass-charge-heat coupled transfers in a single cell of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Transferts couples masse-charge-chaleur dans une cellule de pile a combustible a membrane polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramousse, J

    2005-11-15

    Understanding and modelling of coupled mass, charges and heat transfers phenomena are fundamental to analyze the electrical behaviour of the system. The aim of the present model is to describe electrical performances of a PEFMC according to the fluidic and thermal operating conditions. The water content of the membrane and the water distribution in the single cell are estimated according to the coupled simulations of mass transport in the thickness of the single cell and in the feeding channels of the bipolar plates. A microscopic model of a Gas Diffusion Electrode is built up to describe charges transfer phenomena occurring at the electrodes. Completed by a study of heat transfer in the Membrane Electrode Assembly, conditions and preferential sites of water vapor condensation can be highlighted. A set of measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of carbon felts used in fuel cells as porous backing layers have also been performed. Although the value of this parameter is essential for the study of heat transfer, it is still under investigation because of the strong thermal anisotropy of the medium. (author)

  17. Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy Trajectories of a Single Protein and Its Polyproteins Are Equivalent: A Direct Experimental Validation Based on A Small Protein NuG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hai; He, Chengzhi; Hu, Chunguang; Li, Jinliang; Hu, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaotang; Li, Hongbin

    2017-05-22

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) has become a powerful tool in investigating the mechanical unfolding/folding of proteins at the single-molecule level. Polyproteins made of tandem identical repeats have been widely used in atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS studies, where polyproteins not only serve as fingerprints to identify single-molecule stretching events, but may also improve statistics of data collection. However, the inherent assumption of such experiments is that all the domains in the polyprotein are equivalent and one SMFS trajectory of stretching a polyprotein made of n domains is equivalent to n trajectories of stretching a single domain. Such an assumption has not been validated experimentally. Using a small protein NuG2 and its polyprotein (NuG2) 4 as model systems, here we use optical trapping (OT) to directly validate this assumption. Our results show that OT experiments on NuG2 and (NuG2) 4 lead to identical parameters describing the unfolding and folding kinetics of NuG2, demonstrating that indeed stretching a polyprotein of NuG2 is equivalent to stretching single NuG2 in force spectroscopy experiments and thus validating the use of polyproteins in SMFS experiments. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. "3"1P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Charge-Density-Wave Transition in a Single Crystal of RuP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guo-Zhi; Luo Jian-Lin; Chen Rong-Yan; Wang Nan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    We perform "3"1P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on a single crystal of RuP. The anomalies in resistivity at about T_A = 270 K and T_B = 330 K indicate that two phase transitions occur. The line shape of "3"1P NMR spectra in different temperature ranges is attributed to the charge density distribution. The Knight shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T_1T are measured from 10 K to 300 K. At about T_A = 270 K, they both decrease abruptly with the temperature reduction, which reveals the gap-opening behavior. Well below T_A, they act like the case of normal metal. Charge-density-wave phase transition is proposed to interpret the transition occurring at about T_A. (paper)

  19. Electron Spin Resonance study of charge trapping in α-ZnMoO.sub.4./sub. single crystal scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryi, Maksym; Spassky, D.A.; Hybler, Jiří; Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, Sep (2015), 244-250 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Electron Spin Resonance * scintillator * charge traps * zinc molybdate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  20. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single Pion Production Cross Section on Water with the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2017-01-26

    The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross section measurements of muon neutrino charged current single positive pion production on a water target at energies ${\\sim}0.8$~GeV. The differential measurements are presented as a function of muon and pion kinematics, in the restricted phase-space defined by $p_{\\pi^+}>200$MeV/c, $p_{\\mu^-}>200$MeV/c, $\\cos \\theta_{\\pi^+}>0.3$ and $\\cos \\theta_{\\mu^-}>0.3$. The total flux integrated $\

  1. Calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the alumina/electrolyte interface from the ph dependence of the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Skvortsova, I. V.

    2011-05-01

    A procedure was proposed for the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface from experimental data on the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-) at various pH values. The calculated constants (p K {1/0}= 4.1, p K {2/0}= 11.9, p K {3/0}= 8.3, and p K {4/0}= 7.7) are shown to agree with the values obtained from an experimental pH dependence of the electrokinetic potential and the results of potentiometric titration of Al2O3 suspensions.

  2. Controlling Chain Conformations of High-k Fluoropolymer Dielectrics to Enhance Charge Mobilities in Rubrene Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Jwala M; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Sun, Kaige G; Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A; Iagodkine, Elissei; Briseno, Alejandro L; Jackson, Thomas N; Wang, Qing; Gomez, Enrique D

    2016-12-01

    A novel photopatternable high-k fluoropolymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride-bromotrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-BTFE), with a dielectric constant (k) between 8 and 11 is demonstrated in thin-film transistors. Crosslinking P(VDF-BTFE) reduces energetic disorder at the dielectric-semiconductor interface by controlling the chain conformations of P(VDF-BTFE), thereby leading to approximately a threefold enhancement in the charge mobility of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Scanning-tunneling microscope imaging of single-electron solitons in a material with incommensurate charge-density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazovskii, Serguei; Brun, Christophe; Wang, Zhao-Zhong; Monceau, Pierre

    2012-03-02

    We report on scanning-tunneling microscopy experiments in a charge-density wave (CDW) system allowing visually capturing and studying in detail the individual solitons corresponding to the self-trapping of just one electron. This "Amplitude Soliton" is marked by vanishing of the CDW amplitude and by the π shift of its phase. It might be the realization of the spinon--the long-sought particle (along with the holon) in the study of science of strongly correlated electronic systems. As a distinct feature we also observe one-dimensional Friedel oscillations superimposed on the CDW which develop independently of solitons.

  4. Radiation from autoionising levels correlated with single excited states of highly charged ions in dense cold plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Lazzaro, P.D.; Letardi, T.; Vigli-Papadaki, K.; Notolla, N. [ENEA, Dipt. Innovazione, Settore Fisica Applicata, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Grilli, A. [INFN Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palladino, L.; Reale, A. [Dipt. di Fisica e INFN g.s. INGS, Univ. de L. Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Scafati, A.; Reale, L. [Inst. Sup. Di Sanita, Roma e INFN sez Sanita, Rome (Italy); Auguste, T.; D' Olivera, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P. [Commissariat A L' Energie Atomique - Centre D' Etudes de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Zigler, A.; Fraenkel, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The interaction of heavy ion beams and laser light with matter is of central importance for the inertial fusion and X-ray laser research. Recently developed techniques in X-ray spectroscopy have provided extremely unusual emission spectra near the target even in traditional experiments. It will be shown that reasonable interpretation and diagnostic can be achieved only incorporating new concepts in the dielectronic satellite line formation. Theoretical models are developed which provide good agreement with experimental results. Charge exchange processes are proposed for the formation of hollow atoms. (orig.)

  5. SINGLE AGENT DOCETAXEL AS SECOND- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PRETREATED PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT NON- SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan N. Davidov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Single agent Docetaxel is a standard therapy for patients with non- small cell lung cancer after the failure of platinum- containing regimens. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of Docetaxel monotherapy as second- line chemotherapy in pretreated patient with inoperable non- small cell lung cancer. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2008 thirty- six consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic morphologically proven stage IIIB/ IV non- small cell lung cancer entered the study after failure of previous platinum- based regimens. Treatment schedule consist of Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 administered every three weeks with repetition after 21 days with Dexamethasone premedication. Results: Overall response rate, median time to progression and median survival was 16,6 %, 4,5 months and 5,6 months respectively. The main hematological toxicity was neutropenia. Conclusions: That data suggest that single agent Docetaxel remain reasonable choices for the chemotherapy in pretreated patients with non- small cell lung cancer.

  6. MediSPECT: Single photon emission computed tomography system for small field of view small animal imaging based on a CdTe hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorsi, R.; Autiero, M.; Celentano, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe MediSPECT, a new scanner developed at University and INFN Napoli, for SPECT studies on small animals with a small field of view (FOV) and high spatial resolution. The CdTe pixel detector (a 256x256 matrix of 55 μm square pixels) operating in single photon counting for detection of gamma-rays with low and medium energy (e.g. 125 I, 27-35 keV, 99m Tc, 140 keV), is bump bonded to the Medipix2 readout chip. The FOV of the MediSPECT scanner with a coded aperture mask collimator ranges from 6.3 mm (system spatial resolution 110 μm at 27-35 keV) to 24.3 mm. With a 0.30 mm pinhole the FOV ranges from 2.4 to 29 mm (where the system spatial resolution is 1.0 mm at 27-35 keV and 2.0 mm at 140 keV). MediSPECT will be used for in vivo imaging of small organs or tissue structures in mouse, e.g., brain, thyroid, heart or tumor

  7. Outcome and prognostic factors in single brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Denise; Koenig, Laila [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Adeberg, Sebastian; Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Bozorgmehr, Farastuk; Thomas, Michael; Steins, Martin [Heidelberg University, Department of Thoracic Oncology, Thoraxklinik, Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany); Opfermann, Nils; Hoerner-Rieber, Juliane; Rieken, Stefan [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Kappes, Jutta [Heidelberg University, Department of Pneumology, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Unterberg, Andreas [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Neurosurgery, INF 400, Heidelberg (Germany); Herth, Felix [Heidelberg University, Department of Pneumology, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus Peter [German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Warth, Arne [German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (DE); Heidelberg University, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg (DE)

    2018-02-15

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is historically the standard of care for patients with brain metastases (BM) from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), although locally ablative treatments are the standard of care for patients with 1-4 BM from other solid tumors. The objective of this analysis was to find prognostic factors influencing overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS) in SCLC patients with single BM (SBM) treated with WBRT. A total of 52 patients were identified in the authors' cancer center database with histologically confirmed SCLC and contrast-enhanced magnet resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), which confirmed SBM between 2006 and 2015 and were therefore treated with WBRT. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for OS analyses. The log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test was used to compare survival curves. Univariate Cox proportional-hazards ratios (HRs) were used to assess the influence of cofactors on OS and iPFS. The median OS after WBRT was 5 months and the median iPFS after WBRT 16 months. Patients that received surgery prior to WBRT had a significantly longer median OS of 19 months compared to 5 months in the group receiving only WBRT (p = 0.03; HR 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-4.73). Patients with synchronous disease had a significantly longer OS compared to patients with metachronous BM (6 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.005; HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-0.68). Univariate analysis for OS revealed a statistically significant effect for metachronous disease (HR 2.25; 95% CI 1.14-4.46; p = 0.019), initial response to first-line chemotherapy (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35-0.97; p = 0.04), and surgical resection (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.15-0.88; p = 0.026). OS was significantly affected by metachronous disease in multivariate analysis (HR 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.45; p = 0.028). Univariate analysis revealed that surgery followed by WBRT can improve OS in patients with SBM in SCLC. Furthermore, synchronous disease and response

  8. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad A.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  9. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  10. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  11. Threshold voltage variation depending on single grain boundary and stored charges in an adjacent cell for vertical silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeongwan; Kim, Jiwon; Baek, Rock-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2018-04-01

    The effects of single grain boundary (SGB) position and stored electron charges in an adjacent cell in silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon (SONOS) structures on the variations of threshold voltage (V th) were investigated using technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. As the bit line voltage increases, the SGB position causing the maximum V th variation was shifted from the center to the source side in the channel, owing to the drain-induced grain barrier lowering effect. When the SGB is located in the spacer region, the potential interaction from both the SGB and the stored electron charges in the adjacent cell becomes significant and thus resulting in larger V th variation. In contrast, when the SGB is located at the center of the channel, the peak position of potential barrier is shifted to the center, so that the influence of the adjacent cell is diminished. As the gate length is scaled down to 20 nm, the influence of stored charges in adjacent cells becomes significant, resulting in larger V th variations.

  12. Thermal transfer and apparent-dose distributions in poorly bleached mortar samples: results from single grains and small aliquots of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Thomsen, K.J.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Urray, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the assessment of doses received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of heated materials such as bricks and tiles. quartz extracted from these artefacts was heated during manufacture; this process releases all the prior trapped charge and simultaneously sensitises he quartz. Unfortunately unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are ore common in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials are usually exposed to daylight during quarrying and construction, but in general this exposure is insufficient to completely empty (bleach) any geological trapped charge. This leads to a distribution of apparent doses in the sample at the time of construction with only some (if ny) grains exposed to sufficient light to be considered well bleached for SL dosimetry. The challenge in using such materials as retrospective dosemeters is in identifying these well-bleached grains when an accident dose as been superimposed on the original dose distribution. We investigate here, sing OSL, the background dose in three different mortar samples: render, whitewash and inner wall plaster from a building built in 1964. These samples re found to be both poorly bleached and weakly sensitive (only 0.3% of rains giving a detectable dose response). We study thermal transfer in ingle grains of quartz, investigate the grain-size dependence of bleaching n the size range 90-300 μm and compare the dose-distributions obtained rom small aliquots and single-grain procedures. A comparison of three different methods viz. (a) first 5%, (b) probability plot and (c) comparison f internal and external uncertainties, is made for equivalent dose estimation. The results have implications for accident dosimetry, archaeological studies and dating of poorly bleached sediments

  13. Prognostic factors in primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine: 13-year single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is a relatively rare malignancy as compared to the other malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Nonspecific presentation and infrequent occurrence often leads to a delay in diagnosis and consequent poor prognosis. Various other factors are of prognostic importance while managing these tumors. Methods The medical records of a total of 27 patients treated for adenocarcinoma of the small bowel at Providence Hospital and Medical Centers from year 1990 through 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 10.0; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL. Survival analyses were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method with the log rank test to assess the statistical significance. The socio-demographics (age, gender were calculated using frequency analyses. Results The patients included nine males and eighteen females with a median age at diagnosis of 62 years. Only 48% of the patients had an accurate preoperative diagnosis while another 33% had a diagnosis suspicious of small bowel malignancy. None of the patients presented in stage 1. The cumulative five-year survival was 30% while the median survival was 3.3 years. There was no 30-day mortality in the postoperative period in our series. Conclusion The univariate analysis demonstrated that tumor grade, stage at presentation, lymph nodal metastasis and resection margins were significant predictors of survival.

  14. DFT calculations of the charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 single molecule magnets investigated in tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossa, Javier; Islam, Fhokrul; Canali, Carlo; Pederson, Mark

    2012-02-01

    For device applications of single molecule magnets (SMMs) in high-density information storage and quantum-state control it is essential that the magnetic properties of the molecules remain stable under the influence of metallic contacts or surface environment. Recent tunneling experiments [1, 2] on N@C60 and Fe4 SMM have shown that these molecules preserve their magnetic characteristics when they are used as the central island of single-electron transistors. Although quantum spin models have been used extensively to study theoretically tunneling spectroscopy of SMMs, it has been shown recently that the orbital degrees of freedom, which is absent in spin models, can significantly affect the tunneling conductance [3]. In this work we present first-principles calculations of the neutral and charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 SMMs, and discuss a strategy to include their properties into a theory of quantum transport. We also present results of the magnetic anisotropy for the different charge states of Fe4 and discuss their relevance for experiments [2] in the sequential tunneling and cotunnelling regimes. [4pt] [1]. N. Roch et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 081407 (2011). [0pt] [2]. A.S. Zyazin et al., Nano Lett. 10, 3307 (2010). [0pt] [3]. L. Michalak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 017202 (2010).

  15. Spin properties of charged Mn-doped quantum dota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besombes, L.; Léger, Y.; Maingault, L.; Mariette, H.

    2007-04-01

    The optical properties of individual quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom and charged with a single carrier are analyzed. The emission of the neutral, negatively and positively charged excitons coupled with a single magnetic atom (Mn) are observed in the same individual quantum dot. The spectrum of the charged excitons in interaction with the Mn atom shows a rich pattern attributed to a strong anisotropy of the hole-Mn exchange interaction slightly perturbed by a small valence-band mixing. The anisotropy in the exchange interaction between a single magnetic atom and a single hole is revealed by comparing the emission of a charged Mn-doped quantum dot in longitudinal and transverse magnetic field.

  16. Single-row versus double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in small- to medium-sized tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nuri; Kocaoglu, Baris; Guven, Osman

    2010-07-01

    Double-row rotator cuff repair leads to superior cuff integrity and clinical results compared with single-row repair. The study enrolled 68 patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear who were divided into 2 groups of 34 patients according to repair technique. The patients were followed-up for at least 2 years. The results were evaluated by Constant score. Despite the biomechanical studies and cadaver studies that proved the superiority of double-row fixation over single-row fixation, our clinical results show no difference in functional outcome between the two methods. It is evident that double-row repair is more technically demanding, expensive, and time-consuming than single-row repair, without providing a significant improvement in clinical results. Comparison between groups did not show significant differences. At the final follow-up, the Constant score was 82.2 in the single-row group and 78.8 in the double-row group. Functional outcome was improved in both groups after surgery, but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant. At long-term follow-up, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the double-row technique showed no significant difference in clinical outcome compared with single-row repair in small to medium tears. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Molecular p-Doping on Charge Transport in High-Mobility Small-Molecule/Polymer Blend Organic Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, Alexandra F.

    2017-12-27

    Molecular doping is a powerful tool with the potential to resolve many of the issues currently preventing organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) commercialization. However, the addition of dopant molecules into organic semiconductors often disrupts the host lattice, introducing defects and harming electrical transport. New dopant-based systems that overcome practical utilization issues, while still reaping the electrical performance benefits, would therefore be extremely valuable. Here, the impact of p-doping on the charge transport in blends consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT), the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (C16IDT-BT), and the molecular dopant C60F48 is investigated. Electrical field-effect measurements indicate that p-doping not only enhances the average saturation mobility from 1.4 to 7.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 over 50 devices (maximum values from around 4 to 13 cm2 V−1 s−1), but also improves bias–stress stability, contact resistance, threshold voltage, and the overall device-to-device performance variation. Importantly, materials characterization using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, combined with charge transport modeling, reveal that effective doping is achieved without perturbing the microstructure of the polycrystalline semiconductor film. This work highlights the remarkable potential of ternary organic blends as a simple platform for OTFTs to achieve all the benefits of doping, with none of the drawbacks.

  18. Novel use of positively charged nylon transfer membranes for trapping indoleacetic acid or other small anions during efflux from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Positively charged nylon blotting membranes were used as an anion binding medium to trap [14C]indoleactic acid (IAA) as it exited cells at the basal ends of Coleus blumei L. stem and Zea mays L. coleoptile segments. Autoradiography was used to visualize where the [14C] that moved out of the cut ends was localized on the nylon membrane. Diffusion of [14C]IAA from the initial point of contact with the nylon membrane was minimal. Comparison of the autoradiograms with anatomical tissue prints of the cut ends of the segments was used to determine what tissues participate in IAA movement. The results of these initial studies were consistent with other reports suggesting that [14C]IAA movement was primarily associated with vascular tissues in both C. blumei stems and corn coleoptiles, but the resolution was not sufficient to identify which vascular tissues were involved in IAA transport. With further refinements, this technique could also be used for studying the movement of other small charged molecules through plant tissues.

  19. The Impact of Molecular p-Doping on Charge Transport in High-Mobility Small-Molecule/Polymer Blend Organic Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, Alexandra F.; Lin, Yen-Hung; Mottram, Alexander D.; Fei, Zhuping; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram; Solomeshch, Olga; Tessler, Nir; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular doping is a powerful tool with the potential to resolve many of the issues currently preventing organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) commercialization. However, the addition of dopant molecules into organic semiconductors often disrupts the host lattice, introducing defects and harming electrical transport. New dopant-based systems that overcome practical utilization issues, while still reaping the electrical performance benefits, would therefore be extremely valuable. Here, the impact of p-doping on the charge transport in blends consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT), the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (C16IDT-BT), and the molecular dopant C60F48 is investigated. Electrical field-effect measurements indicate that p-doping not only enhances the average saturation mobility from 1.4 to 7.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 over 50 devices (maximum values from around 4 to 13 cm2 V−1 s−1), but also improves bias–stress stability, contact resistance, threshold voltage, and the overall device-to-device performance variation. Importantly, materials characterization using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, combined with charge transport modeling, reveal that effective doping is achieved without perturbing the microstructure of the polycrystalline semiconductor film. This work highlights the remarkable potential of ternary organic blends as a simple platform for OTFTs to achieve all the benefits of doping, with none of the drawbacks.

  20. Two-Stage Battery Energy Storage System (BESS in AC Microgrids with Balanced State-of-Charge and Guaranteed Small-Signal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage battery energy storage system (BESS is implemented to enhance the operation condition of conventional battery storage systems in a microgrid. Particularly, the designed BESS is composed of two stages, i.e., Stage I: integration of dispersed energy storage units (ESUs using parallel DC/DC converters, and Stage II: aggregated ESUs in grid-connected operation. Different from a conventional BESS consisting of a battery management system (BMS and power conditioning system (PCS, the developed two-stage architecture enables additional operation and control flexibility in balancing the state-of-charge (SoC of each ESU and ensures the guaranteed small-signal stability, especially in extremely weak grid conditions. The above benefits are achieved by separating the control functions between the two stages. In Stage I, a localized power sharing scheme based on the SoC of each particular ESU is developed to manage the SoC and avoid over-charge or over-discharge issues; on the other hand, in Stage II, an additional virtual impedance loop is implemented in the grid-interactive DC/AC inverters to enhance the stability margin with multiple parallel-connected inverters integrating at the point of common coupling (PCC simultaneously. A simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is established, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed BESS architecture and the corresponding control diagram.

  1. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of the Counterion Effects on the Molecular Conformation and Structure of Charged G4 PAMAM Dendrimers in Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ren

    2007-01-01

    The structural properties of generation 4 (G4) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers (PAMAM) with an ethylenediamine ne (EDA) central core in D O 2 solutions have been studied by small angle neutron scattering. Upon the addition of DCl , SANS patterns show a pronounced inter-particle 2 correlation peaks due to the strong repulsion introduced by the protonation of the amino groups of the dendrimers. By solving the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation (OZ) with hypernetted chain closure (HNC), the dendrimer-dendrimer er structure factor S(Q) is determined and used to fit the experimental data. Quantitative information such as the effective charge per dendrimer and its conformational change at different conditions can be obtained. The results obtained show clear evidence that significant counterion association occurs, strongly mediating the inter-dendrimer interaction. The influence of interplay between counterions and molecular protonation of dendrimers has strong effect on the dendrimer conformation and effective interaction.

  2. Bianthrone in a Single-Molecule Junction: Conductance Switching with a Bistable Molecule Facilitated by Image Charge Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Bianthrone is a sterically hindered compound that exists in the form of two nonplanar isomers. Our experimental study of single-molecule junctions with bianthrone reveals persistent switching of electric conductance at low temperatures, which can be reasonably associated with molecular isomerizat...

  3. Conformation-related exciton localization and charge-pair formation in polythiophenes: ensemble and single-molecule study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Habuchi, Satoshi; Ogino, Kenji; Vacha, Martin

    2009-09-10

    We study conformation-dependent photophysical properties of polythiophene (PT) by molecular dynamics simulations and by ensemble and single-molecule optical experiments. We use a graft copolymer consisting of a polythiophene backbone and long polystyrene branches and compare its properties with those obtained on the same polythiophene derivative without the side chains. Coarse-grain molecular dynamics simulations show that in a poor solvent, the PT without the side chains (PT-R) forms a globulelike conformation in which distances between any two conjugated segments on the chain are within the Forster radius for efficient energy transfer. In the PT with the polystyrene branches (PT-PS), the polymer main PT chain retains an extended coillike conformation, even in a poor solvent, and the calculated distances between conjugated segments favor energy transfer only between a few neighboring chromophores. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence blinking of the polymers' single chains. High anisotropy ratios and two-state blinking in PT-R are due to localization of the exciton on a single conjugated segment. These signatures of exciton localization are absent in single chains of PT-PS. Electric-field-induced quenching measured as a function of concentration of PT dispersed in an inert matrix showed that in well-isolated chains of PT-PS, the exciton dissociation is an intrachain process and that aggregation of the PT-R chains causes an increase in quenching due to the onset of interchain interactions. Measurements of the field-induced quenching on single chains indicate that in PT-R, the exciton dissociation is a slower process that takes place only after the exciton is localized on one conjugated segment.

  4. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C{sub 60} by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si{sup q+} (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O{sup q+} (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C{sub 60} are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  6. Effect of small-molecule modification on single-cell pharmacokinetics of PARP inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Reiner, Thomas; Yang, Katherine S; Kohler, Rainer H; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    The heterogeneous delivery of drugs in tumors is an established process contributing to variability in treatment outcome. Despite the general acceptance of variable delivery, the study of the underlying causes is challenging, given the complex tumor microenvironment including intra- and intertumor heterogeneity. The difficulty in studying this distribution is even more significant for small-molecule drugs where radiolabeled compounds or mass spectrometry detection lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to quantify the kinetics of drug distribution in vivo. In this work, we take advantage of the synthesis of fluorescent drug conjugates that retain their target binding but are designed with different physiochemical and thus pharmacokinetic properties. Using these probes, we followed the drug distribution in cell culture and tumor xenografts with temporal resolution of seconds and subcellular spatial resolution. These measurements, including in vivo permeability of small-molecule drugs, can be used directly in predictive pharmacokinetic models for the design of therapeutics and companion imaging agents as demonstrated by a finite element model.

  7. Effect of Small Molecule Modification on Single Cell Pharmacokinetics of PARP Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Reiner, Thomas; Yang, Katherine S; Kohler, Rainer; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous delivery of drugs in tumors is an established process contributing to variability in treatment outcome. Despite the general acceptance of variable delivery, the study of the underlying causes is challenging given the complex tumor microenvironment including intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. The difficulty in studying this distribution is even more significant for small molecule drugs where radiolabeled compounds or mass spectrometry detection lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to quantify the kinetics of drug distribution in vivo. In this work, we take advantage of the synthesis of fluorescent drug conjugates that retain their target binding but are designed with different physiochemical and thus pharmacokinetic properties. Using these probes, we followed the drug distribution in cell culture and tumor xenografts with temporal resolution of seconds and subcellular spatial resolution. These measurements, including in vivo permeability of small molecule drugs, can be used directly in predictive pharmacokinetic models for the design of therapeutics and companion imaging agents as demonstrated by a finite element model. PMID:24552776

  8. Charged residues in the H-NS linker drive DNA binding and gene silencing in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunfeng; Foo, Yong Hwee; Winardhi, Ricksen S; Tang, Qingnan; Yan, Jie; Kenney, Linda J

    2017-11-21

    Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) facilitate chromosome organization in bacteria, but the precise mechanism remains elusive. H-NS is a NAP that also plays a major role in silencing pathogen genes. We used genetics, single-particle tracking in live cells, superresolution microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to examine H-NS/DNA interactions in single cells. We discovered a role for the unstructured linker region connecting the N-terminal oligomerization and C-terminal DNA binding domains. In the present work we demonstrate that linker amino acids promote engagement with DNA. In the absence of linker contacts, H-NS binding is significantly reduced, although no change in chromosome compaction is observed. H-NS is not localized to two distinct foci; rather, it is scattered all around the nucleoid. The linker makes DNA contacts that are required for gene silencing, while chromosome compaction does not appear to be an important H-NS function.

  9. Doubly versus singly positively charged oxygen ions back-scattered from a silicon surface under dynamic O2+ bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzreb, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Loerincik, Jan; Sroubek, Zdenek

    2003-01-01

    Mass-resolved (and emission-charge-state-resolved) low-energy ion back-scattering during dynamic O 2 + bombardment of a silicon surface was applied in a Cameca IMS-3f secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument to determine the bombarding energy dependence of the ratio of back-scattered O 2+ versus O + . While the ratio of O 2+ versus O + drops significantly at reduced bombarding energies, O 2+ back-scattered from silicon was still detectable at an impact energy (in the lab frame) as low as about 1.6 keV per oxygen atom. Assuming neutralization prior to impact, O 2+ ion formation in an asymmetric 16 O→ 28 Si collision is expected to take place via 'collisional double ionization' (i.e. by promotion of two outer O 2p electrons) rather than by the production of an inner-shell (O 2s or O 1s) core hole followed by Auger-type de-excitation during or after ejection. A molecular orbital (MO) correlation diagram calculated for a binary 'head-on' O-Si collision supports this interpretation

  10. Modification of Pawlow's thermodynamical model for the melting of small single-component particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barybin, Anatoly; Shapovalov, Victor

    2011-02-01

    A new approach to the melting of small particles is proposed to modify the known Pawlow's model by taking into account the transfer of material from solid spherical particles to liquid ones through a gas phase. Thermodynamical analysis gives rise to a differential equation for the melting point Tm involving such size-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters of a material as the surface tensions σs(l ), molar heat of fusion ΔHm and molar volumes vs(l ). Solution of this equation has shown that all the limiting cases for size-independent situations coincide with results known in the literature and our analysis of size-dependent situations gives results close to the experimental data previously obtained by other authors for some metallic particles.

  11. Single-Molecule View of Small RNA-Guided Target Search and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globyte, Viktorija; Kim, Sung Hyun; Joo, Chirlmin

    2018-05-20

    Most everyday processes in life involve a necessity for an entity to locate its target. On a cellular level, many proteins have to find their target to perform their function. From gene-expression regulation to DNA repair to host defense, numerous nucleic acid-interacting proteins use distinct target search mechanisms. Several proteins achieve that with the help of short RNA strands known as guides. This review focuses on single-molecule advances studying the target search and recognition mechanism of Argonaute and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems. We discuss different steps involved in search and recognition, from the initial complex prearrangement into the target-search competent state to the final proofreading steps. We focus on target search mechanisms that range from weak interactions, to one- and three-dimensional diffusion, to conformational proofreading. We compare the mechanisms of Argonaute and CRISPR with a well-studied target search system, RecA.

  12. Experimental investigation of single small bubble motion in linear shear flow in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongchun; Zhao, Yang; Song, Xiaoming; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Shengyao; Ishii, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble motion in simple linear shear flow was experimentally investigated. • The bubble trajectories, bubble velocity and drag and lift force were obtained using image process routine. • The bubble trajectory was coupled with a zigzag motion and incline path. • The lift force was kept negative and it decreased when bubble diameter and shear flow magnitude increased. - Abstract: The motion of small bubble in a simple shear flow in water was experimental studied. Stable shear flow with low turbulence level was achieved with curved screen and measured using LDV. The bubbles were captured by high speed camera and the captured images were processed with digital image routine. The bubble was released from a capillary tube. The instantaneous bubble position, bubble velocity and forces were obtained based on the captured parameters. The quasi-steady lift coefficient was determined by the linear fitting of the bubble trajectory of several cycles. The results indicated that the lateral migration was coupled with the zigzag motion of bubble in the present experiment. The bubble migrated to the left side and its quasi-steady lift coefficient was negative. Good repeatable results were observed by measurements of 18 bubbles. The bubble motion in shear flow in water was first experimental studied and negative lift force was observed in the present study condition. The lift coefficient decreased when shear stress magnitude or bubble diameter increased in the present experiment condition.

  13. Cytokine single-nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Alnatsha, Ahmed; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Villar, Eduardo; Valdivia-Bautista, Javier; Faus-Dáder, María J; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Á

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer, particularly the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Several functional polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes, such as IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16, have been associated with the risk of NSCLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ILs gene polymorphisms and the risk of developing NSCLC. A retrospective case-control study was carried out, including 174 NSCLC cases and 298 controls of Spanish origin. IL1B (rs1143634), IL1B (rs12621220), IL1B (rs1143623), IL1B (rs16944), IL1B (rs1143627), IL12A (rs662959), IL13 (rs1881457), IL6 (rs1800795) and IL16 (rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analysed by TaqMan. The genotypic logistic regression model adjusted by smoking status showed that the IL1B rs1143634-TT genotype was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (P=0.04312; odds ratio=0.226; 95% confidence interval=0.044-0.840). No other gene polymorphisms showed an association with NSCLC in any of the models tested. In conclusion, IL1B rs1143634 was significantly associated with a higher risk of NSCLC. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, rs1143623, rs16944, rs1143627, IL12A rs662959, IL13 rs1881457 and IL16 rs7170924 on the risk of developing NSCLC was found in our study.

  14. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin; Fricke, Thomas; Stephens, Alex J; Ko, Danny; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2008-08-19

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS)) is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined clonal complexes. It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximization of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required.

  15. Comparative Performance in Single-Port Versus Multiport Minimally Invasive Surgery, and Small Versus Large Operative Working Spaces: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Seneci, Carlo A; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Nandi, Dipankar; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2016-04-01

    Surgical approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery, which utilize small operative working spaces, and are necessarily single-port, are particularly demanding with standard instruments and have not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare simultaneously surgical performance in single-port versus multiport approaches, and small versus large working spaces. Ten novice, 4 intermediate, and 1 expert surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was implemented, comparing performance under the following conditions: (1) multiport approach and large working space, (2) multiport approach and intermediate working space, (3) single-port approach and large working space, (4) single-port approach and intermediate working space, and (5) single-port approach and small working space. In each case, participants performed a peg transfer and pattern cutting tasks, and each task repetition was scored. Intermediate and expert surgeons performed significantly better than novices in all conditions (P Performance in single-port surgery was significantly worse than multiport surgery (P performance in the intermediate versus large working space. In single-port surgery, there was a converse trend; performances in the intermediate and small working spaces were significantly better than in the large working space. Single-port approaches were significantly more technically challenging than multiport approaches, possibly reflecting loss of instrument triangulation. Surprisingly, in single-port approaches, in which triangulation was no longer a factor, performance in large working spaces was worse than in intermediate and small working spaces. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Microscopic origin of the charge transfer in single crystals based on thiophene derivatives: A combined NEXAFS and density functional theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernenkaya, A., E-mail: chernenk@uni-mainz.de [Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Morherr, A.; Witt, S.; Krellner, C. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Backes, S.; Popp, W.; Jeschke, H. O.; Valentí, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kozina, X.; Nepijko, S. A.; Elmers, H. J.; Schönhense, G. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bolte, M. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Medjanik, K.; Öhrwall, G. [MAX-IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Baumgarten, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, 55021 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the charge transfer mechanism in single crystals of DTBDT-TCNQ and DTBDT-F{sub 4}TCNQ (where DTBDT is dithieno[2,3-d;2′,3′-d′] benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b′]dithiophene) using a combination of near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and density functional theory calculations (DFT) including final state effects beyond the sudden state approximation. In particular, we find that a description that considers the partial screening of the electron-hole Coulomb correlation on a static level as well as the rearrangement of electronic density shows excellent agreement with experiment and allows to uncover the details of the charge transfer mechanism in DTBDT-TCNQ and DTBDT-F{sub 4} TCNQ, as well as a reinterpretation of previous NEXAFS data on pure TCNQ. Finally, we further show that almost the same quality of agreement between theoretical results and experiment is obtained by the much faster Z+1/2 approximation, where the core hole effects are simulated by replacing N or F with atomic number Z with the neighboring atom with atomic number Z+1/2.

  17. New experimental model for single liver lobe hyperthermia in small animals using non-directional microwaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Tudorancea

    Full Text Available Our aim was to develop a new experimental model for in vivo hyperthermia using non-directional microwaves, applicable to small experimental animals. We present an affordable approach for targeted microwave heat delivery to an isolated liver lobe in rat, which allows rapid, precise and stable tissue temperature control.A new experimental model is proposed. We used a commercial available magnetron generating 2450 MHz, with 4.4V and 14A in the filament and 4500V anodic voltage. Modifications were required in order to adjust tissue heating such as to prevent overheating and to allow for fine adjustments according to real-time target temperature. The heating is controlled using a virtual instrument application implemented in LabView® and responds to 0.1° C variations in the target. Ten healthy adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-270 g were used in this study. The middle liver lobe was the target for controlled heating, while the rest of the living animal was protected.In vivo microwave delivery using our experimental setting is safe for the animals. Target tissue temperature rises from 30°C to 40°C with 3.375°C / second (R2 = 0.9551, while the increment is lower it the next two intervals (40-42°C and 42-44°C with 0.291°C/ s (R2 = 0.9337 and 0.136°C/ s (R2 = 0.7894 respectively, when testing in sequences. After reaching the desired temperature, controlled microwave delivery insures a very stable temperature during the experiments.We have developed an inexpensive and easy to manufacture system for targeted hyperthermia using non-directional microwave radiation. This system allows for fine and stable temperature adjustments within the target tissue and is ideal for experimental models testing below or above threshold hyperthermia.

  18. Safety assessment of a new single-use small-incision injector for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satanovsky, Alexandra; Ben-Eliahu, Shmuel; Apple, David J; Kleinmann, Guy

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the safety of a new injector, the Raysert R-INJ-04/18, for implantation of the C-flex intraocular lens (IOL). Ophthalmology Department, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel. Experimental study. Sixty IOLs were subdivided into 2 equally sized groups. Group A IOLs were injected using the established R-INJ-04 injector, and those in Group B were injected with the new injector. The IOLs were injected into a Petri dish. Subsequently, all IOLs and injectors were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically and then photographed under light microscopy (LM). Two IOLs in each group were randomly chosen and sent for evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray. All remaining IOLs were sent for power and modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. All Group B IOLs were successfully injected without evident signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits on LM and SEM examination. In Group A, findings were confined to a singular incidence of a small deposit detected on the periphery of the posterior optical surface of the IOL, with corresponding findings detected on the injector nozzle. No signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits were found in the rest of the IOLs or injectors. The power and MTF analyses were within the normal range for all IOLs. The new 1.8 mm external diameter soft-tipped injector for 2.4 to 2.2 mm incisions was shown to be safe for the implantation of the C-flex 21.0 diopter IOL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gwendolyn L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST-defined clonal complexes. Results It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximisation of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. Conclusion A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required.

  20. Absolute experimental cross sections for the ionization of singly charged barium ions by electron impact: Technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hooper, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the single ionization of Ba + ions by electron impact have been measured as a function of incident electron energy over the electron energy range from below threshold (10.001 eV) to approximately 1000 eV. It is found that the cross section increases from 1.94 x 10 -16 cm 2 to 3.76 x 10 -16 cm 2 between 15.5 and 18 eV actual incident electron energy. This rapid rise is interpreted as the onset of autoionization. Some evidence of structure occurring near the peak of the cross section curve such as found in the isoelectronic system of Cs is observed, but the relative magnitude of the apparent structure is of the same order as the 90% random error confidence limits and thus cannot conclusively be regarded as being present. 56 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, C.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Katich, J.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J.-C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1

  2. Enhancement of charge transport properties of small molecule semiconductors by controlling fluorine substitution and effects on photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae Hoon; Park, Sungmin; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Yoon, Seongwon; Kang, Jinback; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Wonmok; Kim, BongSoo; Ko, Min Jae; Chung, Dae Sung; Son, Hae Jung

    2016-11-01

    We prepared a series of small molecules based on 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4 H -silolo[3,2- b :4,5- b ']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[ c ][1,2,5]thiadiazole) with different fluorine substitution patterns ( 0F-4F ). Depending on symmetricity and numbers of fluorine atoms incorporated in the benzo[ c ][1,2,5]thiadiazole unit, they show very different optical and morphological properties in a film. 2F and 4F , which featured symmetric and even-numbered fluorine substitution patterns, display improved molecular packing structures and higher crystalline properties in a film compared with 1F and 3F and thus, 2F achieved the highest OTFT mobility, which is followed by 4F . In the bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated with PC 71 BM, 2F achieves the highest photovoltaic performance with an 8.14% efficiency and 0F shows the lowest efficiency of 1.28%. Moreover, the planar-type perovskite solar cell (PSC) prepared with 2F as a dopant-free hole transport material shows a high power conversion efficiency of 14.5% due to its high charge transporting properties, which were significantly improved compared with the corresponding PSC device obtained from 0F (8.5%). From the studies, it is demonstrated that low variation in the local dipole moment and the narrow distribution of 2F conformers make intermolecular interactions favorable, which may effectively drive crystal formations in the solid state and thus, higher charge transport properties compared with 1F and 3F .

  3. Single Crystals of Organolead Halide Perovskites: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Despite their outstanding charge transport characteristics, organolead halide perovskite single crystals grown by hitherto reported crystallization methods are not suitable for most optoelectronic devices due to their small aspect ratios

  4. Phase-Transfer Energetics of Small-Molecule Alcohols Across the Water-Hexane Interface: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Using Charge Equilibration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A.; Zhong, Yang; Meninger, David J.; Davis, Joseph E.; Patel, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    We study the water-hexane interface using molecular dynamics (MD) and polarizable charge equilibration (CHEQ) force fields. Bulk densities for TIP4P-FQ water and hexane, 1.0086±0.0002 g/cm3 and 0.6378±0.0001 g/cm3, demonstrate excellent agreement with experiment. Interfacial width and interfacial tension are consistent with previously reported values. The in-plane component of the dielectric permittivity (ε∥) for water is shown to decrease from 81.7±0.04 to unity, transitioning longitudinally from bulk water to bulk hexane. ε∥ for hexane reaches a maximum in the interface, but this term represents only a small contribution to the total dielectric constant (as expected for a non-polar species). Structurally, net orientations of the molecules arise in the interfacial region such that hexane lies slightly parallel to the interface and water reorients to maximize hydrogen bonding. Interfacial potentials due to contributions of the water and hexane are calculated to be -567.9±0.13mV and 198.7±0.01mV, respectively, giving rise to a total potential in agreement with the range of values reported from previous simulations of similar systems. Potentials of mean force (PMF) calculated for methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol for the transfer from water to hexane indicate an interfacial free energy minimum, corresponding to the amphiphilic nature of the molecules. The magnitudes of transfer free energies were further characterized from the solvation free energies of alcohols in water and hexane using thermodynamic integration. This analysis shows that solvation free energies for alcohols in hexane are 0.2-0.3 kcal/mol too unfavorable, whereas solvation of alcohols in water is approximately 1 kcal/mol too favorable. For the pure hexane-water interfacial simulations, we observe a monotonic decrease of the water dipole moment to near-vacuum values. This suggests that the electrostatic component of the desolvation free energy is not as severe for polarizable models than

  5. First principles analysis of the CDW instability of single-layer 1T-TiSe2 and its evolution with charge carrier density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guster, Bogdan; Canadell, Enric; Pruneda, Miguel; Ordejón, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure of single-layer TiSe2, and focus on the charge density wave (CDW) instability present on this 2D material. We explain the 2× 2 periodicity of the CDW from the phonon band structure of the undistorted crystal, which is unstable under one of the phonon modes at the M point. This can be understood in terms of a partial band gap opening at the Fermi level, which we describe on the basis of the symmetry of the involved crystal orbitals, leading to an energy gain upon the displacement of the atoms following the phonon mode in a 2  ×  1 structure. Furthermore, the combination of the corresponding phonons for the three inequivalent M points of the Brillouin zone leads to the 2  ×  2 distortion characteristic of the CDW state. This leads to a further opening of a full gap, which reduces the energy of the 2  ×  2 structure compared to the 2  ×  1 one of a single M point phonon, and makes the CDW structure the most stable one. We also analyze the effect of charge injection into the layer on the structural instability. We predict that the 2  ×  2 structure only survives for a certain range of doping levels, both for electrons and for holes, as doping reduces the energy gain due to the gap opening. We predict the transition from the commensurate 2  ×  2 distortion to an incommensurate one with increasing wavelength upon increasing the doping level, followed by the appearance of the undistorted 1  ×  1 structure for larger carrier concentrations.

  6. First-line single agent treatment with gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yong-Qian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a malignant carcinoma which has the highest morbidity and mortality in Chinese population. Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, displays anti-tumor activity. The present data regarding first-line treatment with single agent gefitinib against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in Chinese population are not sufficient. Purpose To assess the efficacy and toxicity of gefitinib in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, a study of single agent treatment with gefitinib in Chinese patients was conducted. Methods 45 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with gefitinib (250 mg daily until the disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Results Among the 45 patients, 15 patients achieved partial response (PR, 17 patients experienced stable disease (SD, and 13 patients developed progression disease (PD. None of the patients achieved complete response (CR. The tumor response rate and disease control rate was 33% and 71.1%, respectively. Symptom remission rate was 72.5%, and median remission time was 8 days. Median overall survival and median progression-free survival was 15.3 months and 6.0 months, respectively. The main induced toxicities by gefitinib were skin rash and diarrhea (53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The minor induced toxicities included dehydration and pruritus of skin (26.7% and 22.2%, respectively. In addition, hepatic toxicity and oral ulceration occurred in few patients (6.7% and 4.4%2, respectively. Conclusions Single agent treatment with gefitinib is effective and well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC.

  7. Clinical significance and predictive factors of early massive recurrence after radiofrequency ablation in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is one of the most frequently applied curative treatments in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the clinical significance of and risk factors for early massive recurrence after RFA—a dreadful event limiting further curative treatment—have not been fully evaluated. Methods In total, 438 patients with a single HCC of size ≤3 cm who underwent percutaneous RFA as an initial treatment between 2006 and 2009 were included. Baseline patient characteristics, overall survival, predictive factors, and recurrence after RFA were evaluated. In addition, the incidence, impact on survival, and predictive factors of early massive recurrence, and initial recurrence beyond the Milan criteria within 2 years were also investigated. Results During the median follow-up of 68.4 months, recurrent HCC was confirmed in 302 (68.9% patients, with early massive recurrence in 27 patients (6.2%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 95.4%, 84.7%, and 81.8%, respectively, in patients with no recurrence, 99.6%, 86.4%, and 70.1% in patients with recurrence within the Milan criteria or late recurrence, and 92.6%, 46.5%, and 0.05% in patients with early massive recurrence. Multivariable analysis identified older age, Child-Pugh score B or C, and early massive recurrence as predictive of poor overall survival. A tumor size of ≥2 cm and tumor location adjacent to the colon were independent risk factors predictive of early massive recurrence. Conclusions Early massive recurrence is independently predictive of poor overall survival after RFA in patients with a single small HCC. Tumors sized ≥2 cm and located adjacent to the colon appear to be independent risk factors for early massive recurrence.

  8. Dimensions and Global Twist of Single-Layer DNA Origami Measured by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew A B; Tuckwell, Andrew J; Berengut, Jonathan F; Bath, Jonathan; Benn, Florence; Duff, Anthony P; Whitten, Andrew E; Dunn, Katherine E; Hynson, Robert M; Turberfield, Andrew J; Lee, Lawrence K

    2018-06-04

    The rational design of complementary DNA sequences can be used to create nanostructures that self-assemble with nanometer precision. DNA nanostructures have been imaged by atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides complementary structural information on the ensemble-averaged state of DNA nanostructures in solution. Here we demonstrate that SAXS can distinguish between different single-layer DNA origami tiles that look identical when immobilized on a mica surface and imaged with atomic force microscopy. We use SAXS to quantify the magnitude of global twist of DNA origami tiles with different crossover periodicities: these measurements highlight the extreme structural sensitivity of single-layer origami to the location of strand crossovers. We also use SAXS to quantify the distance between pairs of gold nanoparticles tethered to specific locations on a DNA origami tile and use this method to measure the overall dimensions and geometry of the DNA nanostructure in solution. Finally, we use indirect Fourier methods, which have long been used for the interpretation of SAXS data from biomolecules, to measure the distance between DNA helix pairs in a DNA origami nanotube. Together, these results provide important methodological advances in the use of SAXS to analyze DNA nanostructures in solution and insights into the structures of single-layer DNA origami.

  9. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The charge-spot technique for modeling the static electric forces acting between charged fine particles entails treating electric charges on individual particles as small sets of discrete point charges, located near their surfaces. This is in contrast to existing models, which assume a single charge per particle. The charge-spot technique more accurately describes the forces, torques, and moments that act on triboelectrically charged particles, especially image-charge forces acting near conducting surfaces. The discrete element method (DEM) simulation uses a truncation range to limit the number of near-neighbor charge spots via a shifted and truncated potential Coulomb interaction. The model can be readily adapted to account for induced dipoles in uncharged particles (and thus dielectrophoretic forces) by allowing two charge spots of opposite signs to be created in response to an external electric field. To account for virtual overlap during contacts, the model can be set to automatically scale down the effective charge in proportion to the amount of virtual overlap of the charge spots. This can be accomplished by mimicking the behavior of two real overlapping spherical charge clouds, or with other approximate forms. The charge-spot method much more closely resembles real non-uniform surface charge distributions that result from tribocharging than simpler approaches, which just assign a single total charge to a particle. With the charge-spot model, a single particle may have a zero net charge, but still have both positive and negative charge spots, which could produce substantial forces on the particle when it is close to other charges, when it is in an external electric field, or when near a conducting surface. Since the charge-spot model can contain any number of charges per particle, can be used with only one or two charge spots per particle for simulating charging from solar wind bombardment, or with several charge spots for simulating triboelectric charging

  10. Contrast and Raman spectroscopy study of single- and few-layered charge density wave material: 2H-TaSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiyev, Parviz; Cong, Chunxiao; Qiu, Caiyu; Yu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the first successful preparation of single- and few-layers of tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) by mechanical exfoliation technique. Number of layers is confirmed by white light contrast spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vibrational properties of the atomically thin layers of 2H-TaSe2 are characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman measurements demonstrate MoS2-like spectral features, which are reliable for thickness determination. E1g mode, usually forbidden in backscattering Raman configuration is observed in the supported TaSe2 layers while disappears in the suspended layers, suggesting that this mode may be enabled because of the symmetry breaking induced by the interaction with the substrate. A systematic in-situ low temperature Raman study, for the first time, reveals the existence of incommensurate charge density wave phase transition in single and double-layered 2H-TaSe2 as reflected by a sudden softening of the second-order broad Raman mode resulted from the strong electron-phonon coupling (Kohn anomaly). PMID:24005335

  11. Discrete stochastic charging of aggregate grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell W.

    2018-05-01

    Dust particles immersed in a plasma environment become charged through the collection of electrons and ions at random times, causing the dust charge to fluctuate about an equilibrium value. Small grains (with radii less than 1 μm) or grains in a tenuous plasma environment are sensitive to single additions of electrons or ions. Here we present a numerical model that allows examination of discrete stochastic charge fluctuations on the surface of aggregate grains and determines the effect of these fluctuations on the dynamics of grain aggregation. We show that the mean and standard deviation of charge on aggregate grains follow the same trends as those predicted for spheres having an equivalent radius, though aggregates exhibit larger variations from the predicted values. In some plasma environments, these charge fluctuations occur on timescales which are relevant for dynamics of aggregate growth. Coupled dynamics and charging models show that charge fluctuations tend to produce aggregates which are much more linear or filamentary than aggregates formed in an environment where the charge is stationary.

  12. The relationship between the electric field induced dissociation of charge transfer (CT) excitons and the photocurrent in novel hybrid small molecular/polymeric solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inal, Sahika; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie; Sellinger, Alan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore (China)

    2010-07-01

    Complete dissociation of coulombically bound interfacial states is an ultimate step accounting for photovoltaic performance. Recent work has proposed that the emission of CT-exciton, i.e. an exciplex, is a competing process to the generation of free charges. Here, we investigated the photophysical processes in a bulk heterojunction system using a soluble poly(p-phenylenevinylene) donor and a novel small molecular electron acceptor based on Vinazene (2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole). Recent work has shown that this blend exhibits a featureless emission, prominent at long wavelengths of the spectrum, which was attributed to a CT-exciton. We monitored the field induced dissociation of these CT-excitons by means of steady state and time resolved PL spectroscopy. Shortened decay times and reduced PL emission in blend film evidence the dissociation of the emissive intermolecular pair by the external electric field. Analyzing the dependence of the photocurrent and external quantum efficiency on the external field, the fate of the separated exciplex pairs is tackled. It is suggested that the formation of free carriers involves channels other than CT-excitons in such blends.

  13. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The spin chirality in MnSi single crystal probed by small angle scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, A.I.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Chetverikov, Yu.O.; Georgii, R.; Boeni, P.; Eckerlebe, H.; Pranzas, K.; Roessli, B.

    2004-01-01

    The weak itinerant ferromagnet MnSi orders with a left-handed helical spin structure below T C =29 K. The helicity with a vector m=[S 1 xS 2 ]/S 2 along the crystallographic axis [1 1 1] is realized by an antisymmetric Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. The small angle diffraction study with polarized neutrons on a single MnSi crystal was performed within the temperature range from 10 K to T C and the magnetic field B from 1 to 350 mT. The single crystal was oriented in such a way that two axes [1 1 1] and [1 1 -1] were set in a plane perpendicular to the incident beam. Four major diffraction peaks at ±q 1 and ±q 2 along the axes and four minor peaks at q=±q 1 ±q 2 were observed. The intensity I p =I(+P 0 )+I(-P 0 ), the polarization P p =[I(+P 0 )-I(-P 0 )]/I p and the position q p of the peaks were measured as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. From intensity of the peaks the chiral critical exponent is obtained as β=0.47±0.04

  15. Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma series in a single-institution experience. With a case report of small cell carcinoma in the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hiroko; Kagoya, Ryoji; Tojima, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is clinically underrecognized and optimal management remains illusive. Although head and neck EPSCC tends to involve early widespread dissemination and poor prognosis, recently reported favorable outcomes have used concurrent chemoradiotherapy in limited-stage disease. We report an EPSCC case of arising in the hypopharynx successfully treated by induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. To clarify EPSCC clinically, we retrospectively reviewed clinical courses of all EPSCC records between 1999 and 2008 in a single-institution series. The 14 subjects identified had primary sites at the gastrointestinal tract in 5, uterine cervix in 3, genitourinary system in 2 and at the gallbladder, liver, hypopharynx, and an unidentified primary lymph node in one case each. Of the 14, 2 cases had stage I, 2 cases had stage II, 4 cases had stage III, 5 cases had stage IV in tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. Stage IV subjects usually underwent platinum-based chemotherapy, to which 25% showed partial response (PR) and 75% progressive disease (PD) with median overall survival (OS) of 114.0 days, or 16 weeks. Of stage III or lower subjects, 75% underwent surgery and 62.5% chemotherapy. OS was 1244.0 days or 3.7 years and 2-year survival rates was estimated at 87.5%. Survival duration differed significantly between those in stage III or lower and those in group IV. Age significantly affected survival time in the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Brain metastasis was uncommon in this series, despite the absence of prophylactic cranial radiation. Further studies are needed to improve and clarify the clinical EPSCC course. (author)

  16. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for a single-system ectopic ureter draining a small, dysplastic and poorly functioning kidney in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byong-Chang; Lim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Sang-Chul; Choi, Hwang; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of laparoscopic nephrectomy for a single-system ectopic ureter draining a dysplastic kidney in children. Between February 1999 and September 2005, 16 girls with a mean age of 6.2 years (range: 2-15 years) presented with urinary incontinence accompanied by regular voiding since birth (15 patients) and vaginitis (one patient). Ultrasonography, intravenous urography and a technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal scan showed the presence of only a single kidney in all cases. Computed tomography (CT) showed a dysplastic kidney definitely in nine patients, structures suspicious of dysplastic kidney in three cases, and no dysplastic kidney in four cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in the four cases with non-visualized dysplastic kidneys by CT, and showed a suspicious lesion in only one case, and no lesion in the other three patients. All patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for a dysplastic kidney. Laparoscopy identifies all dysplastic kidneys easily, even in those cases in which dystrophic kidney could not be identified by preoperative imaging. Dysplastic kidneys and ectopic ureters were removed successfully in all 16 patients. Mean operative time was 109 min (range: 40-155 min) with little intraoperative bleeding. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.6 days (range: 2-4 days). No intraoperative complication was encountered, except in one single case, in which a small bowel injury occurred during open Hasson's procedure. All patients became dry soon after the operation. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for an ectopic ureter draining into a dysplastic kidney is a safe and effective method, and can be carried out successfully, despite a failure by preoperative imaging studies to localize the dysplastic kidney. (author)

  17. Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharade, Sujay V; Sheehan, Jonathan H; Figueroa, Eric E; Meiler, Jens; Denton, Jerod S

    2017-09-01

    VU590 was the first publicly disclosed, submicromolar-affinity (IC 50 = 0.2 μ M), small-molecule inhibitor of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel and diuretic target, Kir1.1. VU590 also inhibits Kir7.1 (IC 50 ∼ 8 μ M), and has been used to reveal new roles for Kir7.1 in regulation of myometrial contractility and melanocortin signaling. Here, we employed molecular modeling, mutagenesis, and patch clamp electrophysiology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying VU590 inhibition of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1. Block of both channels is voltage- and K + -dependent, suggesting the VU590 binding site is located within the pore. Mutagenesis analysis in Kir1.1 revealed that asparagine 171 (N171) is the only pore-lining residue required for high-affinity block, and that substituting negatively charged residues (N171D, N171E) at this position dramatically weakens block. In contrast, substituting a negatively charged residue at the equivalent position in Kir7.1 enhances block by VU590, suggesting the VU590 binding mode is different. Interestingly, mutations of threonine 153 (T153) in Kir7.1 that reduce constrained polarity at this site (T153C, T153V, T153S) make wild-type and binding-site mutants (E149Q, A150S) more sensitive to block by VU590. The Kir7.1-T153C mutation enhances block by the structurally unrelated inhibitor VU714 but not by a higher-affinity analog ML418, suggesting that the polar side chain of T153 creates a barrier to low-affinity ligands that interact with E149 and A150. Reverse mutations in Kir1.1 suggest that this mechanism is conserved in other Kir channels. This study reveals a previously unappreciated role of membrane pore polarity in determination of Kir channel inhibitor pharmacology. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. The Effects of Different Electron-Phonon Couplings on the Spectral and Transport Properties of Small Molecule Single-Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Antonio Perroni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral and transport properties of small molecule single-crystal organic semiconductors have been theoretically analyzed focusing on oligoacenes, in particular on the series from naphthalene to rubrene and pentacene, aiming to show that the inclusion of different electron-phonon couplings is of paramount importance to interpret accurately the properties of prototype organic semiconductors. While in the case of rubrene, the coupling between charge carriers and low frequency inter-molecular modes is sufficient for a satisfactory description of spectral and transport properties, the inclusion of electron coupling to both low-frequency inter-molecular and high-frequency intra-molecular vibrational modes is needed to account for the temperature dependence of transport properties in smaller oligoacenes. For rubrene, a very accurate analysis in the relevant experimental configuration has allowed for the clarification of the origin of the temperature-dependent mobility observed in these organic semiconductors. With increasing temperature, the chemical potential moves into the tail of the density of states corresponding to localized states, but this is not enough to drive the system into an insulating state. The mobility along different crystallographic directions has been calculated, including vertex corrections that give rise to a transport lifetime one order of magnitude smaller than the spectral lifetime of the states involved in the transport mechanism. The mobility always exhibits a power-law behavior as a function of temperature, in agreement with experiments in rubrene. In systems gated with polarizable dielectrics, the electron coupling to interface vibrational modes of the gate has to be included in addition to the intrinsic electron-phonon interaction. While the intrinsic bulk electron-phonon interaction affects the behavior of mobility in the coherent regime below room temperature, the coupling with interface modes is dominant for the

  19. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer investigation of semi organic L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride single crystal for organic light-emitting and optical limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Lija K.; George, Merin; Alex, Javeesh; Aravind, Arun; Sajan, D.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride (LGHCl) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique and good crystalline perfection was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction studies. The complete vibrational studies of the compound were analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra combined with Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology and density functional theory (DFT). Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) occurs due to the presence of strong ionic intra-molecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding was confirmed by Hirshfeld Surface analysis. The existence of intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds due to the interaction between the lone pair of oxygen with the antibonding orbital was established by NBO analysis. The Z-scan result indicated that the title molecule exhibits saturable absorption behavior. The attractive third-order nonlinear properties suggest that LGHCl can be a promising candidate for the design and development devices for optical limiting applications. LGHCL exhibits distinct emission in the blue region of the fluorescence lifetime which proves to be a potential candidate for blue- Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabrication.

  20. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  1. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  2. Single agent and synergistic combinatorial efficacy of first-in-class small molecule imipridone ONC201 in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Varun V; Talekar, Mala K; Lulla, Amriti R; Kline, C Leah B; Zhou, Lanlan; Hall, Junior; Van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Dicker, David T; Babar, Jawad; Grupp, Stephan A; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Benes, Cyril H; Pu, Jeffrey J; Claxton, David F; Khan, Nadia; Oster, Wolfgang; Allen, Joshua E; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-01-01

    ONC201, founding member of the imipridone class of small molecules, is currently being evaluated in advancer cancer clinical trials. We explored single agent and combinatorial efficacy of ONC201 in preclinical models of hematological malignancies. ONC201 demonstrated (GI50 1-8 µM) dose- and time-dependent efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), Burkitt's lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), Hodgkin's lymphoma (nodular sclerosis) and multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines including cells resistant to standard of care (dexamethasone in MM) and primary samples. ONC201 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis that involved activation of the integrated stress response (ATF4/CHOP) pathway, inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, Foxo3a activation, downregulation of cyclin D1, IAP and Bcl-2 family members. ONC201 synergistically reduced cell viability in combination with cytarabine and 5-azacytidine in AML cells. ONC201 combined with cytarabine in a Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft model induced tumor growth inhibition that was superior to either agent alone. ONC201 synergistically combined with bortezomib in MM, MCL and ALCL cells and with ixazomib or dexamethasone in MM cells. ONC201 combined with bortezomib in a Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft model reduced tumor cell density and improved CHOP induction compared to either agent alone. These results serve as a rationale for ONC201 single-agent trials in relapsed/refractory acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, MM and combination trial with dexamethasone in MM, provide pharmacodynamic biomarkers and identify further synergistic combinatorial regimens that can be explored in the clinic.

  3. Similar mitochondrial signaling responses to a single bout of continuous or small-sided-games-based exercise in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendham, Amy E; Duffield, Rob; Coutts, Aaron J; Marino, Frank E; Boyko, Andriy; McAinch, Andrew J; Bishop, David John

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of noncontact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. In a randomized, crossover design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-day recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during each bout. Needle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were collected at rest and 30 and 240 min postexercise for analysis of protein content and phosphorylation (PGC-1α, SIRT1, p53, p53 Ser15 , AMPK, AMPK Thr172 , CAMKII, CAMKII Thr286 , p38MAPK, and p38MAPK Thr180/Tyr182 ) and mRNA expression (PGC-1α, p53, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, and cytochrome c). A main effect of time effect for both conditions was evident for HR, RPE, and blood lactate (P 0.05). Both conditions increased PGC1-α protein and mRNA expression at 240 min (P 0.05). CYC increased p53 protein content at 240 min to a greater extent than SSG (P benefit for stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Differences between conditions regarding fluctuation in exercise intensity and type of muscle contraction may explain the increase of p53 and AMPK within CYC and not SSG (noncontact, modified football). Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Small scale endemism in Brazil's Atlantic Forest: 14 new species of Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae), each known from a single locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2015-04-07

    In an ongoing mega-transect project that aims at analyzing pholcid spider diversity and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, many species appear restricted to small geographic ranges. Of the 84 species collected between 2003 and 2011 at 17 sites between Bahia and Santa Catarina, 51 species (61%) were found at only one locality. The present paper focuses on such species in the genus Mesabolivar, and compares diversity and distribution patterns of this genus within and outside the Atlantic Forest. The percentage of species known from single localities is higher in the Atlantic Forest (34 of 52 species; 65%) than outside the Atlantic Forest (10 of 25; 40%). Distribution rages of species in the Atlantic Forest are significantly smaller than of species outside the Atlantic Forest (mean maximum distances between localities: 184 versus 541 km; medians: 10 km versus 220 km). The following species are newly described (arranged from north to south), each currently known from the respective type locality only: M. caipora; M. kathrinae; M. bonita; M. pau (Bahia); M. monteverde; M. perezi (Espírito Santo); M. giupponii; M. goitaca; M. sai (Rio de Janeiro); M. tamoio; M. unicornis; M. gabettae; M. inornatus (São Paulo); M. itapoa (Santa Catarina).

  5. Charge transport and X-ray dosimetry performance of a single crystal CVD diamond device fabricated with pulsed laser deposited electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Lohstroh, A.; Bryant, P.; Jayawardena, I.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of amorphous Carbon mixed with Nickel (C/Ni) as electrodes for a diamond radiation detector using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) was demonstrated previously as a novel technique for producing near-tissue equivalent X-ray dosimeters based on polycrystalline diamond. In this study, we present the first characterisation of a single crystal CVD diamond sandwich detector (of 80 nm thickness) fabricated with this method, labelled SC-C/Ni. To examine the performance of PLD C/Ni as an electrical contact, alpha spectroscopy and x-ray induced photocurrents were studied as a function of applied bias voltage at room temperature and compared to those of polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors (PC-C/Ni); the spectroscopy data allows us to separate electron and hole contributions to the charge transport, whereas the X-ray data was investigated in terms of, linearity and dose rate dependence, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, photoconductive gain, reproducibility and time response (rise and fall-off times). In the case of electron sensitive alpha induced signals, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) higher than 90 % has been observed at a bias of -40 V and 100 % CCE at -300 V, with an energy resolution of ∼3 % for 5.49 MeV alpha particles. The hole sample showed very poor spectroscopy performance for hole sensitive signals up to 200 Volt; this inhibited a similar numerical analysis to be carried out in a meaningful way. The dosimetric characteristic show a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ∼7.3x10 3 , an approximately linear relationship between the photocurrent and the dose rate and a sensitivity of 4.87 μC/Gy.mm 3 . The photoconductive gain is estimated to around 20, this gain might be supported by hole trapping effects as indicated in the alpha spectroscopy. The observed rise and fall-off times are less than 2 and 0.56 seconds, respectively - and mainly reflect the switching time of the X-ray tube used.The reproducibility of (0.504 %) approaches the value

  6. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  7. Azimuthal transverse single-spin asymmetries of inclusive jets and charged pions within jets from polarized-proton collisions at √{s }=500 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adams, J. R.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Barish, K.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Deppner, I. M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fujita, J.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Herrmann, N.; Hirsch, A.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kapukchyan, D.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kim, C.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Krauth, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Mayes, D.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nemes, D. B.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seto, R.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stewart, D. J.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, G.; Xie, W.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, J.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We report the first measurements of transverse single-spin asymmetries for inclusive jet and jet+π± production at midrapidity from transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at √{s }=500 GeV . The data were collected in 2011 with the STAR detector sampled from 23 pb-1 integrated luminosity with an average beam polarization of 53%. Asymmetries are reported for jets with transverse momenta 6 single-spin asymmetry, sensitive to twist-3 initial-state quark-gluon correlators; the Collins asymmetry, sensitive to quark transversity coupled to the polarized Collins fragmentation function; and the first measurement of the "Collins-like" asymmetry, sensitive to linearly polarized gluons. Within the present statistical precision, inclusive-jet and Collins-like asymmetries are small, with the latter allowing the first experimental constraints on gluon linear polarization in a polarized proton. At higher values of jet transverse momenta, we observe the first nonzero Collins asymmetries in polarized-proton collisions, with a statistical significance of greater than 5 σ . The results span a range of x similar to results from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering but at much higher Q2. The Collins results enable tests of universality and factorization breaking in the transverse momentum-dependent formulation of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  8. Proposed method of producing large optical mirrors Single-point diamond crushing followed by polishing with a small-area tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G.; Bryan, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Faster production of large optical mirrors may result from combining single-point diamond crushing of the glass with polishing using a small area tool to smooth the surface and remove the damaged layer. Diamond crushing allows a surface contour accurate to 0.5 microns to be generated, and the small area computer-controlled polishing tool allows the surface roughness to be removed without destroying the initial contour. Final contours with an accuracy of 0.04 microns have been achieved.

  9. Role of molecular charge in nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Goryaynov

    Full Text Available Transport of genetic materials and proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is mediated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. A selective barrier formed by phenylalanine-glycine (FG nucleoporins (Nups with net positive charges in the NPC allows for passive diffusion of signal-independent small molecules and transport-receptor facilitated translocation of signal-dependent cargo molecules. Recently, negative surface charge was postulated to be another essential criterion for selective passage through the NPC. However, the charge-driven mechanism in determining the transport kinetics and spatial transport route for either passive diffusion or facilitated translocation remains obscure. Here we employed high-speed single-molecule fluorescence microscopy with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of 9 nm and 400 µs to uncover these mechanistic fundamentals for nuclear transport of charged substrates through native NPCs. We found that electrostatic interaction between negative surface charges on transiting molecules and the positively charged FG Nups, although enhancing their probability of binding to the NPC, never plays a dominant role in determining their nuclear transport mode or spatial transport route. A 3D reconstruction of transport routes revealed that small signal-dependent endogenous cargo protein constructs with high positive surface charges that are destined to the nucleus, rather than repelled from the NPC as suggested in previous models, passively diffused through an axial central channel of the NPC in the absence of transport receptors. Finally, we postulated a comprehensive map of interactions between transiting molecules and FG Nups during nucleocytoplasmic transport by combining the effects of molecular size, signal and surface charge.

  10. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  11. In vivo assessment of the tolerance dose of small liver volumes after single-fraction HDR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Jens; Seidensticker, Max; Luedemann, Lutz; Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Hengst, Susanne; Mohnike, Konrad; Cho, Chie Hee; Lopez Haenninen, Enrique; Al-Abadi, Hussain; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess a dose-response relationship for small volumes of liver parenchyma after single-fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five liver metastases were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day before and 3 days and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after therapy. MR sequences included T1-w gradient echo (GRE) enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted gadobenate dimeglumine. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D dosimetry data and evaluated by two radiologists. The reviewers indicated the border of hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema) or hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function). Based on the total 3D data, a dose-volume histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for either edema or function loss as the D 90 , i.e., the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results: Between 3 days and 6 weeks, the extension of the edema increased significantly from the 12.9 Gy isosurface to 9.9 Gy (standard deviation [SD], 3.3 and 2.6). No significant change was detected between 6 and 12 weeks. After 24 weeks, the edematous tissue had shrunk significantly to 14.7 Gy (SD, 4.2). Three days postbrachytherapy, the D 90 for hepatocyte function loss reached the 14.9 Gy isosurface (SD, 3.9). At 6 weeks, the respective zone had increased significantly to 9.9 Gy (SD, 2.3). After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunction volume had decreased significantly to the 11.9 Gy and 15.2 Gy isosurface, respectively (SD, 3 and 4.1). Conclusions: The 95% interval from 7.6 to 12.2 Gy found as the minimal hepatocyte tolerance after 6 weeks accounts for the radiobiologic variations found in CT-guided brachytherapy, including heterogeneous dose rates by variable catheter arrays

  12. Gas phase synthesis of non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes with near-armchair chiralities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, K.; Laiho, P.; Kaskela, A.; Zhu, Z.; Reynaud, O.; Houbenov, N.; Tian, Y.; Jiang, H.; Kauppinen, E. I., E-mail: esko.kauppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Susi, T. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nasibulin, A. G. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Nobel str. 3, 143026 (Russian Federation); Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytechniheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-06

    We present a floating catalyst synthesis route for individual, i.e., non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow chiral angle distribution peaking at high chiralities near the armchair species. An ex situ spark discharge generator was used to form iron particles with geometric number mean diameters of 3–4 nm and fed into a laminar flow chemical vapour deposition reactor for the continuous synthesis of long and high-quality SWCNTs from ambient pressure carbon monoxide. The intensity ratio of G/D peaks in Raman spectra up to 48 and mean tube lengths up to 4 μm were observed. The chiral distributions, as directly determined by electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope, clustered around the (n,m) indices (7,6), (8,6), (8,7), and (9,6), with up to 70% of tubes having chiral angles over 20°. The mean diameter of SWCNTs was reduced from 1.10 to 1.04 nm by decreasing the growth temperature from 880 to 750 °C, which simultaneously increased the fraction of semiconducting tubes from 67% to 80%. Limiting the nanotube gas phase number concentration to ∼10{sup 5 }cm{sup −3} prevented nanotube bundle formation that is due to collisions induced by Brownian diffusion. Up to 80% of 500 as-deposited tubes observed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy were individual. Transparent conducting films deposited from these SWCNTs exhibited record low sheet resistances of 63 Ω/□ at 90% transparency for 550 nm light.

  13. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in <3000 years old river sediments from South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there was an underestimation in the single-aliquot dose estimates as compared to those from the single grain-the difference between average dose estimates determined by the two methods ranged from ∼1% to 31%. Such a dose underestimation was not detectable in poorly bleached samples. Various possible reasons for the discrepancy between single-grain and small-aliquot dose estimates are discussed. Although there is no satisfactory explanation for this discrepancy, we speculate that the difference in the stimulation wavelengths, 470+/-30nm in the case of single-aliquot and 532nm in the case of single grains, could perhaps be one of the reasons; this may occur because the stimulation wavelength affects the proportion of the medium and slow components in the initial signal

  14. Characterization of an endoprotease from rat small intestinal mucosal secretory granules which generates somatostatin-28 from prosomatostatin by cleavage after a single arginine residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinfeld, M. C.; Bourdais, J.; Kuks, P.; Morel, A.; Cohen, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have extracted, characterized, and partially purified an enzyme from secretory granules from rat small intestinal mucosa which cleaves a synthetic prosomatostatin substrate on the carboxyl side of a single arginine residue. This substrate Leu-Gln-Arg-Ser-Ala-Asn-Ser-NH2 contains the monobasic

  15. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yung-Ting [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Shun-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, New Taipei, Taiwan 24301, Taiwan (China); Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 10607, Taiwan (China); Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen [Research Center for Applied Science Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11527, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Yu [Chilin Technology Co., LTD, Tainan City, Taiwan 71758, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti, E-mail: cchen@chem.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-I, E-mail: cchen@chem.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7 cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39 lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7 cd/A and 8.39 lm/W to 23 cd/A and 13.2 lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  16. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Chih-I

    2013-01-01

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7 cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39 lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7 cd/A and 8.39 lm/W to 23 cd/A and 13.2 lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts

  17. Effect of the sample annealing temperature and sample crystallographic orientation on the charge kinetics of MgO single crystals subjected to keV electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, A; Damamme, G; Kallel, A

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of sample annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the secondary electron yield of MgO during charging by a defocused electron beam irradiation. The experimental results show that there are two regimes during the charging process that are better identified by plotting the logarithm of the secondary electron emission yield, lnσ, as function of the total trapped charge in the material QT. The impact of the annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the evolution of lnσ is presented here. The slope of the asymptotic regime of the curve lnσ as function of QT, expressed in cm(2) per trapped charge, is probably linked to the elementary cross section of electron-hole recombination, σhole, which controls the trapping evolution in the reach of the stationary flow regime. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Improved film morphology reduces charge carrier recombination into the triplet excited state in a small bandgap polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nuzzo, D.; Aguirre de Miguel, A.; Shahid, M.; Gevaerts, Veronique; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of diiodooctane as processing additive for construction of PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells results in a profound change in photophysical behavior of this blend. In the improved morphology obtained with the additive, recombination of charge carriers to the lowest triplet excited state is suppressed.

  19. Safety of cardiac magnetic resonance and contrast angiography for neonates and small infants: a 10-year single-institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangamani, Sheela; Li, Ling; Harvey, Lisa; Fletcher, Scott E.; Danford, David A.; Kutty, Shelby [University of Nebraska College of Medicine/Creighton University School of Medicine, Joint Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Varghese, Joby [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Omaha, NE (United States); Hammel, James M.; Duncan, Kim F. [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2012-11-15

    With increasing applications of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD), safety of this technology in the very young is of particular interest. We report our 10-year experience with CMR in neonates and small infants with particular focus on the safety profile and incidence of adverse events (AEs). We reviewed clinical, anesthesia and nursing records of all children {<=}120 days of age who underwent CMR. We recorded variables including cardiac diagnosis, study duration, anesthesia type and agents, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) dependence and gadolinium (Gd) use. Serially recorded temperature, systemic saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and cardiac rhythm were analyzed. Primary outcome measure was any AE during or <24 h after the procedure, including minor AEs such as hypothermia (axillary temperature {<=}95 F), desaturation (SpO{sub 2} drop {>=}10% below baseline) and bradycardia (heart rate {<=}100 bpm). Secondary outcome measure was unplanned overnight hospitalization of outpatients. Children (n = 143; 74 boys, 69 girls) had a median age of 6 days (1-117), and 98 were {<=}30 days at the time of CMR. The median weight was 3.4 kg (1.4-6 kg) and body surface area 0.22 m{sup 2} (0.13-0.32 m{sup 2}). There were 118 (83%) inpatients (108 receiving intensive care) and 25 (17%) outpatients. Indications for CMR were assessment of aortic arch (n = 57), complex CHD (n = 41), pulmonary veins (n = 15), vascular ring (n = 8), intracardiac mass (n = 8), pulmonary artery (n = 7), ventricular volume (n = 4), and systemic veins (n = 3). CMR was performed using a 1.5-T scanner and a commercially available coil. CMR utilized general anesthesia (GA) in 86 children, deep sedation (DS) in 50 and comforting methods in seven. MRA was performed in 136 children. Fifty-nine children were PGE1-dependent and 39 had single-ventricle circulation. Among children on PGE1, 43 (73%) had GA and 10 (17%) had DS. Twelve children (9%) had

  20. Safety of cardiac magnetic resonance and contrast angiography for neonates and small infants: a 10-year single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangamani, Sheela; Li, Ling; Harvey, Lisa; Fletcher, Scott E.; Danford, David A.; Kutty, Shelby; Varghese, Joby; Hammel, James M.; Duncan, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing applications of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD), safety of this technology in the very young is of particular interest. We report our 10-year experience with CMR in neonates and small infants with particular focus on the safety profile and incidence of adverse events (AEs). We reviewed clinical, anesthesia and nursing records of all children ≤120 days of age who underwent CMR. We recorded variables including cardiac diagnosis, study duration, anesthesia type and agents, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) dependence and gadolinium (Gd) use. Serially recorded temperature, systemic saturation (SpO 2 ) and cardiac rhythm were analyzed. Primary outcome measure was any AE during or 2 drop ≥10% below baseline) and bradycardia (heart rate ≤100 bpm). Secondary outcome measure was unplanned overnight hospitalization of outpatients. Children (n = 143; 74 boys, 69 girls) had a median age of 6 days (1-117), and 98 were ≤30 days at the time of CMR. The median weight was 3.4 kg (1.4-6 kg) and body surface area 0.22 m 2 (0.13-0.32 m 2 ). There were 118 (83%) inpatients (108 receiving intensive care) and 25 (17%) outpatients. Indications for CMR were assessment of aortic arch (n = 57), complex CHD (n = 41), pulmonary veins (n = 15), vascular ring (n = 8), intracardiac mass (n = 8), pulmonary artery (n = 7), ventricular volume (n = 4), and systemic veins (n = 3). CMR was performed using a 1.5-T scanner and a commercially available coil. CMR utilized general anesthesia (GA) in 86 children, deep sedation (DS) in 50 and comforting methods in seven. MRA was performed in 136 children. Fifty-nine children were PGE1-dependent and 39 had single-ventricle circulation. Among children on PGE1, 43 (73%) had GA and 10 (17%) had DS. Twelve children (9%) had adverse events (AEs) - one major and 11 minor. Of those 12, nine children had GA (10%) and three had DS (6%). The single major AE was

  1. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  2. A Wims E analysis of the zero energy experiments of Dragon prior to charge IV - Part 2: Progress with single element calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A J; Dubofsky, W; Lancefield, M J; Woloch, F

    1973-09-15

    An earlier paper gave a broad outline of the proposed method of analysing the DRAGON experiments. This paper describes the progress made in collecting and processing the data and in performing the single element calculations. Thus Section 2 covers the data, Section 3 gives a general picture of the whole reactor and Sections 4 to 7 describe the element calculations. Finally, Section 8 contains some results from the element calculations and Section 9 summarises an investigation performed prior to the start of the analysis. It bears emphasising that the data collection was a very time consuming operation due mainly to the diversity of the DRAGON elements and due also to the fact that DRAGON, as an irradiation facility, is not a clean experimental core with the result that data requires careful evaluation and is often difficult to obtain. For similar reasons the element calculations represent a much longer task than in most reactors in which only a small number of element types are present. In DRAGON separate data is supplied for each of the 37 elements.

  3. An air-breathing single cell small proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with AB5-type metal hydride and an ultra-low voltage input boost converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Akihiro; Shodai, Takahisa [NTT Energy and Environment System Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for increasing the power density of an air-breathing small proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for the main energy source of portable consumer electronics is presented. The small PEMFC system is composed of a single cell. Utilizing the output voltage of the single cell, we introduce a newly designed ultra-low voltage input boost converter. The boost converter can generate 4.1 V output from input sources with low voltage ranges, such as under 1.0 V. The cathode plate is made from a thin SUS 316L stainless steel plate and has ribs that prevent the cathode from bending. The hydrogen is supplied by a metal hydride (MH) tank cartridge. The MH tank contains highly packed AB5-type MH. The MH tank cartridge has a volume of 13.2 cm{sup 3} and can absorb 6.7 L of hydrogen. The maximum power of the small PEMFC is 4.42 W at room temperature. Using 6.7 L of hydrogen, the small PEMFC can generate 11 Wh of electricity. The power density of the small PEMFC reaches 0.51 Wh cm{sup -3}. And the power density of the whole small PEMFC system, which contains the boost converter, a small Li-ion battery for a load absorber, and a case for the system, reaches 0.14 Wh cm{sup -3}. This value matches that of external Li-ion battery chargers for cell phones. We installed the small PEMFC system in a cell phone and confirmed the operations of calling, receiving, videophone, connecting to the Internet, and watching digital TV. And also confirmed that the small PEMFC system provides approximately 8.25 h of talk time, which is about three times as long as that for the original Li-ion battery. (author)

  4. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in < 3000 years old river sediments from South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.

    2005-01-01

    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there wa......We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples......, there was an underestimation in the single-aliquot dose estimates as compared to those from the single grain-the difference between average dose estimates determined by the two methods ranged from similar to 1% to 31%. Such a dose underestimation was not detectable in poorly bleached samples. Various possible reasons...... perhaps be one of the reasons; this may occur because the stimulation wavelength affects the proportion of the medium and slow components in the initial signal. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  6. Report on the Stanford/KACST/AMES UVLED small satellite mission to demonstrate charge management of an electrically isolated proof mass for drag-free operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shailendhar

    A spacecraft demonstration of ultra-violet (UV) LEDs and UV LED charge management based on research done at Stanford University is being developed jointly by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) Saudi Arabia and NASA Ames Research Center, with an expected launch date of June 2014. This paper will report on the payload design and testing, mission preparation, satellite launch and payload bring -up in space. Mission lifetime is expected to be at least one month, during which time the ability for the UV LEDs to mitigate actual space-based charging and the effects of radiation on the UV LED device performance will be studied. Precise control over the potential of an electrically isolated proof mass is necessary for the operation of devices such as a Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) and satellite missions such as LISA. The mission will demonstrate that AlGaN UV LEDs operating at 255 nm are an effective low-cost, low-power and compact substitute for Mercury vapor lamps used in previous missions. The goal of the mission is to increase the UV LED device to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7.

  7. Microelectromechanical System-Based Sensing Arrays for Comparative in Vitro Nanotoxicity Assessment at Single Cell and Small Cell-Population Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratikkumar; Zhu, Xuena; Zhang, Xueji; He, Jin; Li, Chen-zhong

    2016-03-09

    The traditional in vitro nanotoxicity assessment approaches are conducted on a monolayer of cell culture. However, to study a cell response without interference from the neighbor cells, a single cell study is necessary; especially in cases of neuronal, cancerous, and stem cells, wherein an individual cell's fate is often not explained by the whole cell population. Nonetheless, a single cell does not mimic the actual in vivo environment and lacks important information regarding cell communication with its microenvironment. Both a single cell and a cell population provide important and complementary information about cells' behaviors. In this research, we explored nanotoxicity assessment on a single cell and a small cell population using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. We demonstrated a controlled capture of PC12 cells in different-sized microwells (to capture a different number of cells) using a combined method of surface functionalization and dielectrophoresis. The present approach provides a rapid nanotoxicity response as compared to other conventional approaches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, which demonstrates a comparative response of a single cell and small cell colonies on the same MEMS platform, when exposed to metaloxide nanoparticles. We demonstrated that the microenvironment of a cell is also accountable for cells' behaviors and their responses to nanomaterials. The results of this experimental study open up a new hypothesis to be tested for identifying the role of cell communication in spreading toxicity in a cell population.

  8. The rewritable effects of bonded magnet for large starting torque and high efficiency in the small power single-phase written pole motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hak; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a single-phase written pole motor using a bonded ring magnet for the small power home application. The motor has an exciter pole structure inside the stator and hybrid characteristics of an induction motor and permanent magnet motor. The design parameters and operating characteristics of the hybrid concept motor are investigated to increase starting torque and efficiency, which is most important for the small power home application. Larger starting torque and higher efficiency than those of the conventional induction motor could be obtained by using the rewritable characteristics of bonded magnet on the starting and running conditions.

  9. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  10. A single-center audit of the indications and clinical impact of prolonged ambulatory small intestinal manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, D; Pannemans, J; Vanuytsel, T; Tack, J

    2018-05-01

    Small bowel manometry is a diagnostic test available only in a few specialized referral centers. Its exact place in the management of refractory symptoms is controversial. The records of all patients who underwent 24-hour ambulatory duodenojejunal manometry over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. We studied the clinical indications for small bowel manometry, and reviewed the impact of manometric findings on the clinical outcome. One hundred and forty-six studies were performed in 137 patients (46M, 91F) with a mean age of 44.9 ± 15.7 years. Mean follow-up duration was 15.1 ± 22.6 months. Appropriate endoscopic, radiological and gastric scintigraphy studies were performed in all patients prior to small bowel manometry. Criteria for abnormal motor activity were based on Bharucha's classification. The indications for small bowel manometry were chronic abdominal pain (n = 43), slow-transit constipation (n = 17), refractory gastroparesis (n = 16), chronic diarrhea (n = 7), recurrent episodes of subocclusion (n = 16), postsurgical evaluation (n = 36), suspicion of gut involvement in systemic disease (n = 9), and unexplained nausea (n = 2). The most common finding was a normal 24-hour ambulatory small bowel manometry (n = 113). Thirty-three studies yielded abnormal findings which included extrinsic neuropathy (n = 6), intrinsic neuropathy (n = 18), intestinal myopathy (n = 2), and subocclusion (n = 7). Ambulatory small bowel manometry excluded a generalized motility disorder in 77% and had a significant impact on the subsequent clinical course in 23%. Ambulatory small bowel manometry is a useful and safe diagnostic tool to complement traditional investigative modalities in patients with severe unexplained abdominal symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Construction of a restriction map and gene map of the lettuce chloroplast small single-copy region using Southern cross-hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, K R

    1996-01-01

    The small single-copy region (SSCR) of the chloroplast genome of many higher plants typically contain ndh genes encoding proteins that share homology with subunits of the respiratory-chain reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. A map of the lettuce chloroplast SSCR has been determined by Southern cross-hybridization, taking advantage of the high degree of homology between a tobacco small single-copy fragment and a corresponding lettuce chloroplast fragment. The gene order of the SSCR of lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts is similar. The cross-hybridization method can rapidly create a primary gene map of unknown chloroplast fragments, thus providing detailed information of the localization and arrangement of genes and conserved open reading frame regions.

  12. Single-step electron transfer on the nanometer scale: ultra-fast charge shift in strongly coupled zinc porphyrin-gold porphyrin dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortage, Jérôme; Boixel, Julien; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Becker, Hans Christian; Odobel, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, electrochemical properties, and photoinduced electron transfer processes of a series of three novel zinc(II)-gold(III) bisporphyrin dyads (ZnP--S--AuP(+)) are described. The systems studied consist of two trisaryl porphyrins connected directly in the meso position via an alkyne unit to tert-(phenylenethynylene) or penta(phenylenethynylene) spacers. In these dyads, the estimated center to center interporphyrin separation distance varies from 32 to 45 A. The absorption, emission, and electrochemical data indicate that there are strong electronic interactions between the linked elements, thanks to the direct attachment of the spacer on the porphyrin ring through the alkyne unit. At room temperature in toluene, light excitation of the zinc porphyrin results in almost quantitative formation of the charge shifted state (.+)ZnP--S--AuP(.), whose lifetime is in the order of hundreds of picoseconds. In this solvent, the charge-separated state decays to the ground state through the intermediate population of the zinc porphyrin triplet excited state. Excitation of the gold porphyrin leads instead to rapid energy transfer to the triplet ZnP. In dichloromethane the charge shift reactions are even faster, with time constants down to 2 ps, and may be induced also by excitation of the gold porphyrin. In this latter solvent, the longest charge-shifted lifetime (tau=2.3 ns) was obtained with the penta-(phenylenethynylene) spacer. The charge shift reactions are discussed in terms of bridge-mediated super-exchange mechanisms as electron or hole transfer. These new bis-porphyrin arrays, with strong electronic coupling, represent interesting molecular systems in which extremely fast and efficient long-range photoinduced charge shift occurs over a long distance. The rate constants are two to three orders of magnitude larger than for corresponding ZnP--AuP(+) dyads linked via meso-phenyl groups to oligo-phenyleneethynylene spacers. This study demonstrates the critical

  13. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  14. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1 W engines, respectively. Also, temperature-pressure trajectories and ignition delay time maps are used to explore relationships between engine operational parameters and HCCI. Lastly, effects of engine operating conditions and design on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are investigated. (author)

  15. Design, Construction, and Use of a Single Board Computer Beowulf Cluster: Application of the Small-Footprint, Low-Cost, InSignal 5420 Octa Board

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James J.; Miller, William; Laurita, Nicholas; Pitt, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    In recent years development in the area of Single Board Computing has been advancing rapidly. At Wolters Kluwer's Corporate Legal Services Division a prototyping effort was undertaken to establish the utility of such devices for practical and general computing needs. This paper presents the background of this work, the design and construction of a 64 core 96 GHz cluster, and their possibility of yielding approximately 400 GFLOPs from a set of small footprint InSignal boards created for just o...

  16. Charged particle spectra in π-p,π-d and π-C interactions at 38 GeV/c with single-particle high pT trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.; Mosienko, A.M.; Baerwolff, H.

    1987-01-01

    Angular momentum distributions of charged secondaries from 38 GeV/c π - p, π - d and π - C interactions triggered on at least one particle with p T >or approx. 1 GeV/c at an 90 deg πN c.m.s angle have been investigated with the spectrometer RISK (a streamer chamber placed into a magnet). Transversal momentum spectra of secondaries in the 0.4-2.4 GeV/c p T -range including triggering particles are quite well fitted with the exponential function for all nuclei studied and for particles of different charges. The azimuthal angle distribution of secondaries (an angle relative to the p T -tilde of the triggering particle) for both trigger-like and trigger-unlike charges is anisotropic, preferring the direction away from the triggering particle. The mean charge distribution of associated particles is discussed. A small fraction of triggering particles is due to neutral strange particle decays. Many Λ 0 -hyperons were detected among those neutral strange triggers

  17. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (chemically gated to modulate the transport. These results help advance our understanding of transport behavior in semiconducting molecular thin films, and open opportunities to engineer improved electronic functionality into molecular devices.

  18. A retrospective study comparing the outcome of horses undergoing small intestinal resection and anastomosis with a single layer (Lembert) or double layer (simple continuous and Cushing) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristyn; Epstein, Kira L; Sherlock, Ceri E

    2014-05-01

    To (1) compare postoperative complications and survival in horses after small intestinal resection and anastomosis using 2 anastomosis techniques (single layer Lembert; double layer simple continuous oversewn with Cushing), and (2) to compare outcome by anastomosis type (jejunoileostomy; jejunojejunostomy). Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 53). Medical records (July 2006-July 2010) of all horses that had small intestinal resection and anastomosis. Horses were divided into groups based on technique and type of anastomosis. Comparisons of pre- and intraoperative findings (disease severity), postoperative complications, and survival rates were made between groups. There were no differences in disease severity, postoperative complications, or survival between single layer (n = 23) or double layer (n = 31) anastomoses. There were no differences in disease severity or survival between jejunoileostomy (n = 16) or jejunojejunostomy (n = 38). There was a higher incidence of postoperative colic in hospital after jejunoileostomy (13/16) compared with jejunojejunostomy (18/38) (P = .0127). Postoperative complications and survival are comparable between horses undergoing single layer and double layer small intestinal end-to-end anastomoses. With the exception of increased postoperative colic in the hospital, postoperative complications and survival after jejunoileostomy and jejunojejunostomy are also comparable. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Modeling single-scattering properties of small cirrus particles by use of a size-shape distribution of ice spheroids and cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cairns, Brian; Carlson, Barbara E.; Travis, Larry D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we model single-scattering properties of small cirrus crystals using mixtures of polydisperse, randomly oriented spheroids and cylinders with varying aspect ratios and with a refractive index representative of water ice at a wavelength of 1.88 μm. The Stokes scattering matrix elements averaged over wide shape distributions of spheroids and cylinders are compared with those computed for polydisperse surface-equivalent spheres. The shape-averaged phase function for a mixture of oblate and prolate spheroids is smooth, featureless, and nearly flat at side-scattering angles and closely resembles those typically measured for cirrus. Compared with the ensemble-averaged phase function for spheroids, that for a shape distribution of cylinders shows a relatively deeper minimum at side-scattering angles. This may indicate that light scattering from realistic cirrus crystals can be better represented by a shape mixture of ice spheroids. Interestingly, the single-scattering properties of shape-averaged oblate and prolate cylinders are very similar to those of compact cylinders with a diameter-to-length ratio of unity. The differences in the optical cross sections, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter between the spherical and the nonspherical particles studied appear to be relatively small. This may suggest that for a given optical thickness, the influence of particle shape on the radiative forcing caused by a cloud composed of small ice crystals can be negligible

  20. Validation of a CFD model simulating charge and discharge of a small heat storage test module based on a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out to study the heating of a 302 x 302 x 55 mm test box of steel containing a sodium acetate water mixture. A thermostatic bath has been set up to control the charging and discharging of the steel box. The charging and discharging has been...... for a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD calculated temperatures are compared to measured temperatures internally in the box to validate the CFD model. Four cases are investigated; heating the test module with the sodium acetate water mixture in solid phase from ambient temperature to 52˚C; heating...... the module starting with the salt water mixture in liquid phase from 72˚C to 95˚C; heating up the module from ambient temperature with the salt water mixture in solid phase, going through melting, ending in liquid phase at 78˚C/82˚C; and discharging the test module from liquid phase at 82˚C, going through...

  1. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  2. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  3. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  4. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  5. Terahertz spectra revealing the collective excitation mode in charge-density-wave single crystal LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiumei; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Ma, Guohong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University (China); Cheng, Zhenxiang [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Balakrishnan, Geetha [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    A low-energy collective excitation mode in charge-ordered multiferroic LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is reported via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Upon cooling from 300 to 40 K, the central resonance frequency showed a pronounced hardening from 0.85 to 1.15 THz. In analogy to the well-known low-energy optical properties of LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, this emerging resonance was attributed to the charge-density-wave (CDW) collective excitations. By using the Drude-Lorentz model fitting, the CDW collective mode becomes increasingly damped with the increasing temperature. Furthermore, the kinks of the CDW collective mode at the magnetic transition temperature are analyzed, which indicate the coupling of spin order with electric polarization. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  7. Increased charge transfer of Poly (ethylene oxide) based electrolyte by addition of small molecule and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuraaman, B.; Will, Geoffrey; Wang, Hongxia; Moonie, Paul; Bell, John

    2013-01-01

    A Poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte impregnated with 2-Mercapto benzimidazole was comprehensively characterized by XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the crystallization of PEO was dramatically reduced and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte was increased 4.5 fold by addition of 2-Mercapto benzimidazole. UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopes indicated the formation of charge transfer complex between 2-Mercapto benzimidazole and iodine of the electrolyte. Dye-sensitized solar cells with the polymer electrolytes were assembled. It was found that both the photocurrent density and photovoltage were enhanced with respect to the DSC without 2-Mercapto benzimidazole, leading to a 60% increase of the performance of the cell.

  8. Development of low noise preamplifier for the detection and position determination of single electrons in a Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector by charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, E.; Coyle, P.; Williams, D

    1987-10-01

    A preamplifier having 500 electrons noise (rms) has been developed for the detection and location of single electrons in a CRID detector at the SLD. A single channel contains preamp, RC-CR shaper, gain adjustment, driver, and calibration circuitry. Noise and linearity measurements are presented

  9. Electrostatic Charging and Particle Interactions in Microscopic Insulating Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor

    In this thesis, we experimentally investigate the electrostatic charging as well as the particle interactions in microscopic insulating grains. First, by tracking individual grains accelerated in an electric field, we quantitatively demonstrate that tribocharging of same-material grains depends on particle size. Large grains tend to charge positively, and small ones tend to charge negatively. Theories based on the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this tendency but have not been validated. Here we show that the number of trapped electrons, measured independently by a thermoluminescence technique, is orders of magnitude too small to be responsible for the amount of charge transferred. This result reveals that trapped electrons are not responsible for same-material tribocharging of dielectric particles. Second, same-material tribocharging in grains can result in important long-range electrostatic interactions. However, how these electrostatic interactions contribute to particle clustering remains elusive, primarily due to the lack of direct, detailed observations. Using a high-speed camera that falls with a stream charged grains, we observe for the first time how charged grains can undergo attractive as well as repulsive Kepler-like orbits. Charged particles can be captured in their mutual electrostatic potential and form clusters via multiple bounces. Dielectric polarization effects are directly observed, which lead to additional attractive forces and stabilize "molecule-like" arrangements of charged particles. Third, we have developed a new method to study the charge transfer of microscopic particles based on acoustic levitation techniques. This method allows us to narrow the complex problem of many-particle charging down to precise charge measurements of a single sub-millimeter particle colliding with a target plate. By simply attaching nonpolar groups onto glass surfaces, we show that the contact charging of a particle is highly dependent on

  10. Determination of critical density of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1992-11-01

    In this work is given a full theoretically treatment of the problem how to determine the critical density of charge on nonconductive rectangular charged surfaces placed near a small spherical conductive and earthed surface. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs

  11. A Single Session of rTMS Enhances Small-Worldness in Writer’s Cramp: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose D. Bharath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS induces widespread changes in brain connectivity. As the network topology differences induced by a single session of rTMS are less known we undertook this study to ascertain whether the network alterations had a small-world morphology using multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.Method: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was acquired in duplicate before (R1 and after (R2 a single session of rTMS in 14 patients with Writer’s Cramp (WC. Whole brain neuronal and hemodynamic network connectivity were explored using the graph theory measures and clustering coefficient, path length and small-world index were calculated for EEG and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI. Multi-modal graph theory analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of EEG and fMRI clustering coefficients.Result: A single session of rTMS was found to increase the clustering coefficient and small-worldness significantly in both EEG and fMRI (p < 0.05. Multi-modal graph theory analysis revealed significant modulations in the fronto-parietal regions immediately after rTMS. The rsfMRI revealed additional modulations in several deep brain regions including cerebellum, insula and medial frontal lobe.Conclusion: Multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI can supplement motor physiology methods in understanding the neurobiology of rTMS in vivo. Coinciding evidence from EEG and rsfMRI reports small-world morphology for the acute phase network hyper-connectivity indicating changes ensuing low-frequency rTMS is probably not “noise”.

  12. Small-Signal Modeling, Stability Analysis and Design Optimization of Single-Phase Delay-Based PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Generally speaking, designing single-phase phaselocked loops (PLLs) is more complicated than three-phase ones, as their implementation often involves the generation of a fictitious orthogonal signal for the frame transformation. In recent years, many approaches to generate the orthogonal signal...... these issues and explore new methods to enhance their performance. The stability analysis, control design guidelines and performance comparison with the state-of-the-art PLLs are presented as well....

  13. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Lateral manipulation of small clusters on the Cu and Ag(1 1 1) surfaces with the single-atom and trimer-apex tips: Reliability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Liu Fen; Huang Lei

    2010-01-01

    We study the reliability of the lateral manipulation of small Cu clusters (dimer and trimer) on the flat Cu(1 1 1) surface with both the single-atom and trimer-apex tips and that for the Ag/Ag(1 1 1) system, and compare the results between the two systems as well as with the single-atom manipulation on these surfaces. Manipulations are simulated using molecular statics method with semi-empirical potentials. The dependence of the manipulation reliability on the tip height and tip orientation are investigated. Overall, the manipulation reliability increases with decreasing tip height although it depends obviously on the tip orientation. For the Cu/Cu(1 1 1) system, the manipulation of the dimmer and trimer can be successful with both tips. The manipulation reliability can be improved by the trimer-apex tip, and the tip-height range for the successful manipulation is also broader, as compared to the single-atom apex tip. Differently from the single-atom manipulation, the tip orientation has a noticeable influence on the manipulation reliability even for the single-atom tip due to the stronger tip-cluster and surface-adatom interactions in cluster manipulation. For the Ag/Ag(1 1 1) system, successful manipulations only be achieved with the trimer-apex tip, and the manipulation reliability is worse than that of the Cu/Cu(1 1 1) system, indicating the difference in mechanic properties between the two surfaces at the atomic level.

  16. Charge loss between contacts of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Cook, W.R.; Harrison, F.A.; Wong, A.-S.; Schindler, S.M.; Eichelberger, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The surface of Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) material has high resistivity but is not a perfect dielectric. Even a small surface conductivity can affect the electric field distribution, and therefore, the charge collection efficiency of a CZT pixel detector. The paper describes studies of this phenomenon for several contact configurations made on a single CZT detector. We have determined the maximum inter-contact separation at which the surface inter-pixel charge loss can be neglected. (author)

  17. Spectrally resolved single-molecule electrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, F.; Krishnan, M.

    2018-03-01

    Escape-time electrometry is a recently developed experimental technique that offers the ability to measure the effective electrical charge of a single biomolecule in solution with sub-elementary charge precision. The approach relies on measuring the average escape-time of a single charged macromolecule or molecular species transiently confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap. Comparing the experiments with the predictions of a mean-field model of molecular electrostatics, we have found that the measured effective charge even reports on molecular conformation, e.g., folded or disordered state, and non-uniform charge distribution in disordered proteins or polyelectrolytes. Here we demonstrate the ability to use the spectral dimension to distinguish minute differences in electrical charge between individual molecules or molecular species in a single simultaneous measurement, under identical experimental conditions. Using one spectral channel for referenced measurement, this kind of photophysical distinguishability essentially eliminates the need for accurate knowledge of key experimental parameters, otherwise obtained through intensive characterization of the experimental setup. As examples, we demonstrate the ability to detect small differences (˜5%) in the length of double-stranded DNA fragments as well as single amino acid exchange in an intrinsically disordered protein, prothymosin α.

  18. Detecting and identifying small molecules in a nanopore flux capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearden, Samuel; Zhang, Guigen; McClure, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    A new method of molecular detection in a metallic-semiconductor nanopore was developed and evaluated with experimental and computational methods. Measurements were made of the charging potential of the electrical double layer (EDL) capacitance as charge-carrying small molecules translocated the nanopore. Signals in the charging potential were found to be correlated to the physical properties of analyte molecules. From the measured signals, we were able to distinguish molecules with different valence charge or similar valence charge but different size. The relative magnitude of the signals from different analytes was consistent over a wide range of experimental conditions, suggesting that the detected signals are likely due to single molecules. Computational modeling of the nanopore system indicated that the double layer potential signal may be described in terms of disruption of the EDL structure due to the size and charge of the analyte molecule, in agreement with Huckel and Debye’s analysis of the electrical atmosphere of electrolyte solutions. (paper)

  19. Transcriptome Analysis on Single Small Yellow Follicles Reveals That Wnt4 Is Involved in Chicken Follicle Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiya Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian follicle selection is an important process impacting the laying performance and fecundity of hens, and is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH through binding to its receptor [follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR]. In laying hens, the small yellow follicle (6–8 mm in diameter with the highest expression of FSHR will be recruited into the preovulatory hierarchy during ovarian follicle development. The study of molecular mechanism of chicken follicle selection is helpful for the identification of genes underlying egg-laying traits in chicken and other poultry species. Herein, the transcriptomes of chicken small yellow follicles differing in the mRNA expression of FSHR were compared, and a total of 17,993 genes were identified in 3 pairs of small yellow follicles. The Wnt signaling pathway was significantly enriched in the follicles with the greatest fold change in FSHR expression. In this pathway, the expression level of Wnt4 mRNA was significantly upregulated with a log2(fold change of 2.12. We further investigated the expression, function, and regulation of Wnt4 during chicken follicle selection and found that Wnt4 mRNA reached its peak in small yellow follicles; Wnt4 stimulated the proliferation of follicular granulosa cells (GCs, increased the expression of StAR and CYP11A1 mRNA in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles, increased the expression of FSHR mRNA, and decreased the expression of anti-Müllerian hormone and OCLN mRNA. Treatment with FSH significantly increased Wnt4 expression in GCs. Moreover, Wnt4 facilitated the effects of FSH on the production of progesterone (P4 and the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes in the GCs of hierarchical follicles, but inhibited the effects of FSH in the GCs of prehierarchical follicles. Collectively, these data suggest that Wnt4 plays an important role in chicken follicle selection by stimulating GC proliferation and steroidogenesis. This study provides a

  20. Flavor changing effects on single charged Higgs boson production associated with a bottom-charm pair at CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sun; Ma Wengan; Zhang Renyou; Guo Lei; Han Liang; Jiang Yi

    2007-01-01

    We study flavor changing effects on the pp→bcH ± +X process at the Large Hadron Collider, which are inspired by the left-handed up-type squark mixings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We find that the SUSY QCD radiative corrections to bcH ± coupling can significantly enhance the cross sections at the tree level by a factor about 1.5∼5 with our choice of parameters. We conclude that the squark-mixing mechanism in the MSSM makes the pp→bcH ± +X process a new channel for discovering a charged Higgs boson and investigating flavor changing effects

  1. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  2. Coherent production of single pions and ρ mesons in charged-current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos on neon nuclei at the Fermilab Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocq, S.; Aderholz, M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; de Prospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, S.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1993-04-01

    The coherent production of π and ρ mesons in νμ(ν¯μ)-neon charged-current interactions has been studied using the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a heavy Ne-H2 mix and exposed to the Teva- tron quadrupole triplet (anti)neutrino beam. The νμ (ν¯μ) beam had an average energy of 80 GeV (70 GeV). From a sample corresponding to approximately 28 000 charged-current interactions, net signals of (53+/-9) μ+/-π-/+ coherent events and (19+/-7) μ+/-π-/+π0 coherent events are extracted. For E>10 GeV, the coherent pion production cross section is determined to be (3.2+/-0.7)×10-38 cm2 per neon nucleus whereas the coherent ρ production cross section is (2.1+/-0.8)×10-38 cm2 per neon nucleus. These cross sections and the kinematical characteristics of the coherent events at ||t||<0.1 GeV2 are found to be in general agreement with the predictions of a model based on the hadron dominance and, in the pion case, on the partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis. Also discussed is the coherent production of systems consisting of three pions.

  3. Charge exchange K-tau scattering in the small Vertical BartVertical Bar range at momemtum 30 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binon, F.; Gouanere, M.; Davydov, V.A.; Donskov, S.V.; Duteil, P.; Dufournaud, J.; Inayakin, A.V.; Kakauridze, D.B.; Kachanov, V.A.; Kulik, A.V.; Lagnaux, J.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Mel'nik, Y.M.; Mikhailov, Y.V.; Peigneux, J.P.; Prokoshkin, Y.D.; Rodnov, Y.V.; Roosen, R.; Startsev, A.V.; Stroot, J.P.; Khaustov, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the reaction K - p→K-bar 0 n at momentum 30 GeV/c have been measured with high angular resolution and statistical accuracy. The experiments were performed at the 70-GeV Serpukhov accelerator using a hodoscopic hadron calorimeter which recorded K 0 /sub L/ mesons. The t-dependence of the cross section shows a marked drop at small Vertical BartVertical Bar which corresponds to a dominant contribution from spin-flip in the rho- and A 2 -exchange amplitudes in the t-channel

  4. Clinical results of stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I small-cell lung cancer. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Asai, Kaori; Terashima, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Keiji; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). From April 2003 to September 2009, a total of eight patients with Stage I SCLC were treated with SBRT in our institution. In all patients, the lung tumors were proven as SCLC pathologically. The patients' ages were 58-84 years (median: 74). The T-stage of the primary tumor was T1a in two, T1b in two and T2a in four patients. Six of the patients were inoperable because of poor cardiac and/or pulmonary function, and two patients refused surgery. SBRT was given using 7-8 non-coplanar beams with 48 Gy in four fractions. Six of the eight patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy using carboplatin (CBDCA) + etoposide (VP-16) or cisplatin (CDDP) + irinotecan (CPT-11). The follow-up period for all patients was 6-60 months (median: 32). Six patients were still alive without any recurrence. One patient died from this disease and one died from another disease. The overall and disease-specific survival rate at three years was 72% and 86%, respectively. There were no patients with local progression of the lesion targeted by SBRT. Only one patient had nodal recurrence in the mediastinum at 12 months after treatment. The progression-free survival rate was 71%. No Grade 2 or higher SBRT-related toxicities were observed. SBRT plus chemotherapy could be an alternative to surgery with chemotherapy for inoperable patients with Stage I small-cell lung cancer. However, further investigation is needed using a large series of patients. (author)

  5. Single-Fraction Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Masataka; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Nakajima, Mio; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In an aging society, many senior citizens want less invasive treatment because of potential medical complications. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has started to treat stage I lung cancer with single-fraction carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) as a dose escalation prospective phase 1/2 trial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIRT for patients 80 years of age and older, undergoing single-fraction CIRT. Methods and Materials: Peripheral non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with single-fraction CIRT were prospectively followed. We analyzed the data from among these patients 80 years of age and older. Results: There were 70 patients. Median age was 83 years (range: 80-89) and median follow-up period was 42.7 months (range: 12-128 months). Three-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 88.0%, 81.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. Five-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 85.8%, 64.9%, and 39.7%, respectively. There were no adverse effects higher than grade 2 either in the acute or late phase in terms of skin and lung. Analgesic agents were necessary for only 5 patients (7.1%), to relieve muscular or rib fracture pain caused by irradiation. Conclusions: Single-fraction CIRT was low-risk and effective, even for the elderly.

  6. Efficiency of early, single-dose probiotic administration methods on performance, small intestinal morphology, blood biochemistry, and immune response of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Kazem; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Kazemifard, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of early probiotics (single dose) administered in different ways, on quails' performance, small intestine morphology, blood biochemistry, and immune response. In total, 192 day-old chicks were used in one of the following experimental groups before being transferred to a raising room: 1) Control (no probiotic administered), 2) oral gavage, 3) spray, and 4) vent lip. Four replicates of 12 chicks per cage were considered for each treatment and birds were raised up to 35 d in the same conditions. Probiotic treated birds had higher d 1 to 35 feed intake than the control group (P birds had a higher body weight gain as compared to the control (P birds compared to control (P  0.01). None of the immune-related parameters were affected by the probiotic (P > 0.05). Single dose usage of probiotics exerts its beneficial effects on quails' body weight gain, feed intake and mortality in 1 to 35 d period, regardless of the route of administration. This work generally supports the efficacy of single-dose usage of probiotics and suggests the spray of probiotics as an early, single-dose administration method. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Single-Fraction Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, Masataka, E-mail: mstk117@gmail.com [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Nakajima, Mio [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujisawa, Takehiko [Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: In an aging society, many senior citizens want less invasive treatment because of potential medical complications. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has started to treat stage I lung cancer with single-fraction carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) as a dose escalation prospective phase 1/2 trial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIRT for patients 80 years of age and older, undergoing single-fraction CIRT. Methods and Materials: Peripheral non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with single-fraction CIRT were prospectively followed. We analyzed the data from among these patients 80 years of age and older. Results: There were 70 patients. Median age was 83 years (range: 80-89) and median follow-up period was 42.7 months (range: 12-128 months). Three-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 88.0%, 81.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. Five-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 85.8%, 64.9%, and 39.7%, respectively. There were no adverse effects higher than grade 2 either in the acute or late phase in terms of skin and lung. Analgesic agents were necessary for only 5 patients (7.1%), to relieve muscular or rib fracture pain caused by irradiation. Conclusions: Single-fraction CIRT was low-risk and effective, even for the elderly.

  8. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  9. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  10. Single-particle inclusive spectra of charged particles in anti- pp-interactions at 22.4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.; Samojlov, V.V.; Takibaev, Zh.S.

    1976-01-01

    The inclusive spectra for inelastic anti-pp-interactions are investigated. Distributions of the transverse momentum squared for negative and positive particles as well as for identified protons have been obtained. The missing mass-squared distributions to the identified protons have been determined for different topologies of the experiment. The rapidity and target fragmentation cross-sections distributions have been obtained for the anti-pp → π - (π + )+X reactions in the center-of-mass-system. Average characteristics of the transverse momentum distribution show similar features as well as those obtained at higher than 22.4 GeV/c elsewhere. The upper limit of the antiproton diffraction dissociation cross section is 3.68+-0.45 mb. In the central region a charge asymmetry has been observed, the asymmetry parameter being equal to 0.15+-0.01

  11. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakowian Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR, aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser, and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally–placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  12. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Konrad; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Górniak, Aleksander; Wróbel, Radosław

    2017-11-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR), aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser), and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally-placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  13. A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn

  14. Pressure-induced spin and charge transport in La1.25Sr1.75Mn2O7 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mydeen, K.; Arumugam, S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Yu, R.C.; Jin, C.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure on resistivity and ac-magnetic susceptibility of two-dimensional layered manganite, La 1.25 Sr 1.75 Mn 2 O 7 (LSMO125) to investigate the lattice effect on magnetic and electronic properties. Asymmetric role of uniaxial pressure, || and -perpendicular to c-axis on the spin flop and charge transport has been revealed while comparing hydrostatic pressure. Uniaxial pressure along c-axis increases metal-insulator transition temperature (T MI ) and ferromagnetic ordering temperature (T C ), whereas it decreases the resistivity along ab-plane (ρ ab ). In contrast to pressure along c-axis, T MI and T C decrease, whereas the resistivity along c-axis (ρ c ) increases with pressure || to ab-plane. ρ c /ρ ab is quite large, increasing with pressure and shows a peak at around T MI . Uniaxial pressure behaviour is strongly related to the Mn-O-Mn linkage between MnO 2 layers and the spin reorientation from the apical axis to the basal plane and vice versa with pressure. Both ρ ab and ρ c decrease whereas T MI and T C increases under hydrostatic pressure. Influence of spin and charge on magnetic and electrical properties under hydrostatic pressure are explained by pressure-induced cant between the MnO 2 bilayers and variation in bond lengths. The different pressure driving rates of T MI while measuring ρ ab and ρ c confirms that there is a strong competition between the in and out plane components under hydrostatic pressure

  15. Transition density of charge-exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The transition density between parent and analogue states is studied with special reference to its role in charge-exchange nuclear reactions. The structure of the target nucleus is described in a perturbative approach, in which the Coulomb and asymmetry potentials mix the eigenstates of a charge-independent single-particle Hamiltonian. In this model formulae are derived for the transition density, the Coulomb displacement energy and the neutron-proton density difference, and their relationship is used to estimate the transition density. This estimate shows that: the largest contribution comes from the density of the excess neutrons; the weight of the Coulomb-mixing effect is small up to excess neutron number 10, and grows rapidly beyond; the weight of the core polarization term induced by the excess neutrons is modest and is the same for all nuclei. It is indicated that the Coulomb effect may explain the departure from the Lane model of nucleon charge-exchange scattering found for heavy nuclei, whereas the core polarization may account for the observed anomalous dependence of the deg 0 pion charge-exchange cross section on the number of excess neutrons. (author)

  16. Efficient non-viral reprogramming of myoblasts to stemness with a single small molecule to generate cardiac progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Pasha

    Full Text Available The current protocols for generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells involve genome integrating viral vectors which may induce tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a non-viral method without genetic manipulation for reprogramming of skeletal myoblasts (SMs using small molecules.SMs from young male Oct3/4-GFP(+ transgenic mouse were treated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT inhibitor, RG108. Two weeks later, GFP(+ colonies of SM derived iPS cells (SiPS expressing GFP and with morphological similarity of mouse embryonic stem (ESCs were formed and propagated in vitro. SiPS were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, expressed SSEA1, displayed ES cell specific pluripotency markers and formed teratoma in nude mice. Optimization of culture conditions for embryoid body (EBs formation yielded spontaneously contracting EBs having morphological, molecular, and ultra-structural similarities with cardiomyocytes and expressed early and late cardiac markers. miR profiling showed abrogation of let-7 family and upregulation of ESCs specific miR-290-295 cluster thus indicating that SiPS were similar to ESCs in miR profile. Four weeks after transplantation into the immunocompetent mice model of acute myocardial infarction (n = 12 per group, extensive myogenesis was observed in SiPS transplanted hearts as compared to DMEM controls (n = 6 per group. A significant reduction in fibrosis and improvement in global heart function in the hearts transplanted with SiPS derived cardiac progenitor cells were observed.Reprogramming of SMs by DNMT inhibitor is a simple, reproducible and efficient technique more likely to generate transgene integration-free iPS cells. Cardiac progenitors derived from iPS cells propagated extensively in the infarcted myocardium without tumorgenesis and improved cardiac function.

  17. One small step for a yeast--microevolution within macrophages renders Candida glabrata hypervirulent due to a single point mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Brunke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is one of the most common causes of candidemia, a life-threatening, systemic fungal infection, and is surpassed in frequency only by Candida albicans. Major factors contributing to the success of this opportunistic pathogen include its ability to readily acquire resistance to antifungals and to colonize and adapt to many different niches in the human body. Here we addressed the flexibility and adaptability of C. glabrata during interaction with macrophages with a serial passage approach. Continuous co-incubation of C. glabrata with a murine macrophage cell line for over six months resulted in a striking alteration in fungal morphology: The growth form changed from typical spherical yeasts to pseudohyphae-like structures - a phenotype which was stable over several generations without any selective pressure. Transmission electron microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the filamentous-like morphology was accompanied by changes in cell wall architecture. This altered growth form permitted faster escape from macrophages and increased damage of macrophages. In addition, the evolved strain (Evo showed transiently increased virulence in a systemic mouse infection model, which correlated with increased organ-specific fungal burden and inflammatory response (TNFα and IL-6 in the brain. Similarly, the Evo mutant significantly increased TNFα production in the brain on day 2, which is mirrored in macrophages confronted with the Evo mutant, but not with the parental wild type. Whole genome sequencing of the Evo strain, genetic analyses, targeted gene disruption and a reverse microevolution experiment revealed a single nucleotide exchange in the chitin synthase-encoding CHS2 gene as the sole basis for this phenotypic alteration. A targeted CHS2 mutant with the same SNP showed similar phenotypes as the Evo strain under all experimental conditions tested. These results indicate that microevolutionary processes in host-simulative conditions

  18. Small hairy black holes in AdS(5) x S-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    We study small hairy black holes in a consistent truncation of N = 8 gauged supergravity that consists of a single charged scalar field interacting with the metric and a U(1) gauge field. Small very near extremal RNAdS black holes in this system are unstable to decay by superradiant emission. The

  19. Small hairy black holes in AdS(5) x S-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    We study small hairy black holes in a consistent truncation of N = 8 gauged supergravity that consists of a single charged scalar field interacting with the metric and a U(1) gauge field. Small very near extremal RNAdS black holes in this system are unstable to decay by superradiant emission. The

  20. Theory and simulation of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, P.A.; Kondov, I.; Sutman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Charge transport in polymeric or small-molecule organic semiconductors used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) occurs by hopping of charges between sites at which the charges are localized. The energetic disorder in these semiconductors has a profound influence on the charge transport: charges

  1. Optimizing the performance of small-scale organic Rankine cycle that utilizes a single-screw expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziviani, D.; Gusev, S.; Lecompte, S.; Groll, E.A.; Braun, J.E.; Horton, W.T.; Broek, M. van den; De Paepe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A total of 102 steady-state points with R245fa and SES336 have been collected. • R245fa led to 10% higher power output despite lower expander isentropic efficiency. • The ORC running with SES36 presented a better matching between expander and cycle. • The theoretical matching between expander volume ratio and cycle efficiency is determined. • Steady-state performance maps are used to build a feed-forward controller. - Abstract: This paper deals with the operation and optimization of a down-scaled industrial organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low-grade waste heat recovery. The system is a sub-critical regenerative ORC with a nominal power output of 11 kW. The ORC unit has been assembled using off-the-shelf components including three identical plate heat exchangers, a liquid receiver, a multi-stage centrifugal pump and a single-screw compressor adapted to operate as an expander. The experimental results are used to evaluate the influence of the expander performance on the behavior of the ORC system at nominal and part-load conditions. The matching between the volumetric expander and the system operating conditions is also analyzed. Results showed that in the case of SES36, both the expander efficiency and system performance were maximized for a pressure ratio between 7 and 9. In the case of R245fa, while the system efficiency achieved values similar to SES36, but the expander maximum isentropic efficiency was 17% lower. Two analyses are carried out to optimize the operation of the ORC unit with R245fa. At first, the insights gained by analyzing the experimental data are used to evaluate the theoretical matching between volumetric expander and the system maximum efficiency in terms of the Second Law of thermodynamics. Secondly, a control-oriented steady-state cycle model based on empirical correlations calibrated on the experimental results is developed. The model is used to implement a feed-forward control strategy based on predetermined steady

  2. Luminescence and charge trapping in Cs.sub.2./sub.HfCl.sub.6./sub. single crystals: optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Robert; Babin, Vladimir; Mihóková, Eva; Buryi, Maksym; Laguta, Valentyn; Nitsch, Karel; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 22 (2017), s. 12375-12382 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA17-09933S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cs2HfCl6 * single crystal * luminescence * temperature dependence * EPR spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  3. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  4. Solid electrolytes. Extremely fast charge carriers in garnet-type Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanje, Bernhard; Breuer, Stefan; Uitz, Marlena [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Guenther [Department Chemistry and Physics of Materials, University of Salzburg (Austria); Berendts, Stefan; Lerch, Martin [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Uecker, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.), Berlin (Germany); Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Alistore-ERI European Research Institute, Amiens (France)

    2017-12-15

    The development of all-solid-state electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-ion batteries with solid electrolytes, requires stable, electronically insulating compounds with exceptionally high ionic conductivities. Considering ceramic oxides, garnet-type Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} and derivatives, see Zr-exchanged Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} (LLZTO), have attracted great attention due to its high Li{sup +} ionic conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. Despite numerous studies focussing on conductivities of powder samples, only few use time-domain NMR methods to probe Li ion diffusion parameters in single crystals. Here we report on temperature-variable NMR relaxometry measurements using both laboratory and spin-lock techniques to probe Li jump rates covering a dynamic time window spanning several decades. Both techniques revealed a consistent picture of correlated Li ion jump diffusion in the single crystal; the data perfectly mirror a modified BPP-type relaxation response being based on a Lorentzian-shaped relaxation function. The rates measured could be parameterized with a single set of diffusion parameters. Results from NMR are completely in line with ion transport parameters derived from conductivity spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t→Wb→ℓνb by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.04(-0.53)(+0.57)  pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vtb|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  6. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed

  7. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-03-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed.

  8. Screening for single nucleotide variants, small indels and exon deletions with a next-generation sequencing based gene panel approach for Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawitz, Peter M; Schiska, Daniela; Krüger, Ulrike; Appelt, Sandra; Heinrich, Verena; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Timmermann, Bernd; Millan, Jose M; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Hecht, Jochen; Gross, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized both by deafness and blindness. For the three clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome causal mutations in altogether 12 genes and a modifier gene have been identified. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, the molecular analysis is predestined for a comprehensive and parallelized analysis of all known genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We describe here the targeted enrichment and deep sequencing for exons of Usher genes and compare the costs and workload of this approach compared to Sanger sequencing. We also present a bioinformatics analysis pipeline that allows us to detect single-nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions, as well as copy number variations of one or more exons on the same sequence data. Additionally, we present a flexible in silico gene panel for the analysis of sequence variants, in which newly identified genes can easily be included. We applied this approach to a cohort of 44 Usher patients and detected biallelic pathogenic mutations in 35 individuals and monoallelic mutations in eight individuals of our cohort. Thirty-nine of the sequence variants, including two heterozygous deletions comprising several exons of USH2A, have not been reported so far. Our NGS-based approach allowed us to assess single-nucleotide variants, small indels, and whole exon deletions in a single test. The described diagnostic approach is fast and cost-effective with a high molecular diagnostic yield.

  9. Measurement of νμ charged-current single π0 production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinok, O.; Le, T.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres Vera, G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Yaeggy, B.

    2017-10-01

    The semiexclusive channel νμ+CH →μ-π0+nucleon(s ) is analyzed using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI νμ beam with spectral peak at Eν≃3 GeV . Differential cross sections for muon momentum and production angle, π0 kinetic energy and production angle, and for squared four-momentum transfer are reported, and the cross section σ (Eν) is obtained over the range 1.5 GeV ≤Eν<20 GeV . Results are compared to GENIE and NuWro predictions and to published MINERvA cross sections for charged-current π+(π0) production by νμ(ν¯μ) neutrinos. Disagreements between data and simulation are observed at very low and relatively high values for muon angle and for Q2 that may reflect shortfalls in modeling of interactions on carbon. For π0 kinematic distributions, however, the data are consistent with the simulation and provide support for generator treatments of pion intranuclear scattering. Using signal-event subsamples that have reconstructed protons as well as π0 mesons, the p π0 invariant mass distribution is obtained, and the decay polar and azimuthal angle distributions in the rest frame of the p π0 system are measured in the region of Δ (1232 )+ production, W <1.4 GeV .

  10. The role of radiative de-excitation in the neutralization process of highly charged ions interacting with a single layer of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwestka, J.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Gruber, E.; Heller, R.; Kozubek, R.; Schleberger, M.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2018-05-01

    X-ray emission of slow (graphene. To discriminate against X-ray emission originating from the graphene's support grid a coincidence technique is used. X-ray emission of 75 keV Ar17+ and Ar18+ ions with either one or two K-shell vacancies is recorded. Using a windowless Bruker XFlash detector allows us to measure additionally Ar KLL and KLM Auger electrons and determine the branching ratio of radiative vs. non-radiative decay of Ar K-shell holes. Furthermore, X-ray spectra for 100 keV Xe22+-Xe35+ ions are compared, showing a broad M-line peak for all cases, where M-shell vacancies are present. All these peaks are accompanied by emission lines at still higher energies indicating the presence of a hollow atom during X-ray decay. We report a linear shift of the main M-line peak to higher energies for increasing incident charge state, i.e. increasing number of M-shell holes.

  11. Influence of turn (or fold) and local charge in fragmentation of the peptide analogue molecule CH3CO-Gly-NH2 following single-photon VUV (118.22 nm) ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2011-10-06

    The radical cationic reactivity of the peptide analogue molecule CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) is addressed both experimentally and theoretically. The radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) is created by single-photon ionization of this molecule at 118.22 nm (~10.5 eV). The two most stable conformers (C(7) and C(5)) of this molecule exhibit different folds along the backbone: the C(7) conformer has a γ-turn structure, and the C(5) conformer has a β-strand structure. The experimental results show that the radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) dissociates and generates a fragment-ion signal at 73 amu that is observed through TOFMS. Theoretical results show how the fragment-ion signal at 73 amu is generated by only one conformer of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) (C(7)) and how local charge and specific hydrogen bonding in the molecule influence fragmentation of the radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2). The specific fold of the molecule controls fragmentation of this reactive radical cation intermediate. Whereas the radical cation of the C(7) conformer dissociates through a hydrogen-transfer mechanism followed by HNCO elimination, the radical cation of the C(5) conformer does not dissociate at all. CASSCF calculations show that positive charge in the radical cationic C(7) conformer is localized at the NH(2)CO moiety of the molecular ion. This site-specific localization of the positive charge enhances the acidity of the terminal NH(2) group, facilitating hydrogen transfer from the NH(2) to the COCH(3) end of the molecular ion. Positive charge in the C(5) conformer of the CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) radical cation is, however, localized at the COCH(3) end of the molecular ion, and this conformer does not have enough energy to surmount the energy barrier to dissociation on the ion potential energy surface. CASSCF results show that conformation-specific localization of charge in the CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) molecular ion occurs as a result of the different hydrogen

  12. Influence of the Resonant Electronic Transition on the Intensity of the Raman Radial Breathing Mode of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes during Electrochemical Charging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 37 (2009), s. 16408-16413 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC203/07/J067; GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : single-walled carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.224, year: 2009

  13. Electrostatic solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using molecular dynamics with density functional theory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Timothy T.; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Chistopher J.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the solvation free energies of single ions in water is one of the most fundamental problems in physical chemistry and yet many unresolved questions remain. In particular, the ability to decompose the solvation free energy into simple and intuitive contributions will have important implications for models of electrolyte solution. Here, we provide definitions of the various types of single ion solvation free energies based on different simulation protocols. We calculate solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using density functional theory interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation and isolate the effects of charge and cavitation, comparing to the Born (linear response) model. We show that using uncorrected Ewald summation leads to unphysical values for the single ion solvation free energy and that charging free energies for cations are approximately linear as a function of charge but that there is a small non-linearity for small anions. The charge hydration asymmetry for hard spheres, determined with quantum mechanics, is much larger than for the analogous real ions. This suggests that real ions, particularly anions, are significantly more complex than simple charged hard spheres, a commonly employed representation.

  14. Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

    2014-06-11

    Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing Based on Multimode Selectivity simultaneously Achievable in a Single Device. 11. Design and Evaluation of a Small Portable Sensor for the Determination of Ferrocyanide in Hanford Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemiller, Michael L.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Ridgway, Thomas H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Sell, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 11. Design and evaluation of a small portable sensor for the determination of ferrocyanide in Hanford waste samples

  16. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  17. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  18. Field effect of screened charges: electrical detection of peptides and proteins by a thin-film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lud, Simon Q; Nikolaides, Michael G; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus; Bausch, Andreas R

    2006-02-13

    For many biotechnological applications the label-free detection of biomolecular interactions is becoming of outstanding importance. In this Article we report the direct electrical detection of small peptides and proteins by their intrinsic charges using a biofunctionalized thin-film resistor. The label-free selective and quantitative detection of small peptides and proteins is achieved using hydrophobized silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates functionalized with lipid membranes that incorporate metal-chelating lipids. The response of the nanometer-thin conducting silicon film to electrolyte screening effects is taken into account to determine quantitatively the charges of peptides. It is even possible to detect peptides with a single charge and to distinguish single charge variations of the analytes even in physiological electrolyte solutions. As the device is based on standard semiconductor technologies, parallelization and miniaturization of the SOI-based biosensor is achievable by standard CMOS technologies and thus a promising basis for high-throughput screening or biotechnological applications.

  19. Evidence for s-channel single-top-quark production in events with one charged lepton and two jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano