WorldWideScience

Sample records for small simple plasma

  1. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  2. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  3. Technology of a small plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews plasma focus technology, including the underlying dynamic and energy balance theory, scaling of the neutron yield, cost effectiveness of the design, as well as the main subsystems, e.g., capacitor bank, spark-gap switch and triggering electronics, the plasma focus tube, some simple diagnostics, and a high-voltage charger. It discusses the range of densities and temperatures available with a small plasma focus, and the type of experiments and applications that can be carried out with it. 61 refs, 21 figs

  4. A simple radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, J.; Brown, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for plasma cortisol is described which combines the advantages of (i) direct analysis of untreated plasma samples, (ii) use of solid-coupled anti-cortisol antibodies and (iii) use of a gamma-labelled radioligand. The reagents are relatively easily prepared and stable, and the analysis can be completed in 4 h. Inter-assay precision (C.V.) is 8-11%. Critical examination of specificity using high pressure liquid chromatography showed that 23-35% of the immunoassayable material in plasma was not cortisol. RIA results on samples collected under basal conditions were an average 40 nmol/l lower than fluorimetric results, while in insulin hypoglycaemia and synacthen (ACTH) stimulation tests, this difference increased to over 100 nmol/l. The RIA is technically more simple than fluorimetric, competitive-protein-binding, and many RIA methods, and can be used with advantage in the routine investigation of adrenocortical function. However, using the present antiserum, the RIA is not applicable to investigations on patients receiving metyrapone, nor in suspected cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (Auth.)

  5. Simple microwave plasma source at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a thermal plasma source operating without electrodes. One electrodeless torch is the microwave plasma-torch, which can produce plasmas in large quantities. We can generate plasma at an atmospheric pressure by marking use of the same magnetrons used as commercial microwave ovens. Most of the magnetrons are operated at the frequency of 2.45 GHz; the magnetron power microwave is about 1kW. Electromagnetic waves from the magnetrons propagate through a shorted waveguide. Plasma was generated under a resonant condition, by an auxiliary ignition system. The plasma is stabilized by vortex stabilization. Also, a high-power and high-efficiency microwave plasma-torch has been operated in air by combining two microwave plasma sources with 1kW, 2.45 GHz. They are arranged in series to generate a high-power plasma flame. The second torch adds all its power to the plasma flame of the first torch. Basically, electromagnetic waves in the waveguide were studied by a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) code and preliminary experiments were conducted

  6. Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

    2013-12-03

    A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 μL aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 μM, linear from 1 to 40 μM, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to

  7. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  8. A simple estimation of the renal plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpo, Takako

    1987-01-01

    The renal plasma flow was determined conventionally by the excretive ratio to urine using a 131 I-Hippuran renogram. In this report, we proposed the renal clearance, the product of the disappearance rate coefficient and the maximum counts of the bladder, for the simple quantitative value of renal plasma flow. The disappearance rate coefficient was calculated by approximating the exponential function of the initial slope from the disappearance curve of the heart. The renal clearances was compared with the renal plasma flow calculated by the conventional method. The results gave a high correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. The renal clearances can be calculated easily and it offers useful renogram information. (author)

  9. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, V.; Raida, Zbyněk; Tobola, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (t...

  10. Parametric studies in a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Silva, P.; Wyndham, E.

    1996-01-01

    Very high temperature and density plasmas can be produced in modest size plasma focus devices at the kJ level. Much of the scaling parameters on the plasma focus have been evaluated, though many questions still remain. The modest cost and simple construction allows easy modification to the device and the discharge parameters. In this paper the authors report on a small plasma focus device, which is set-up to investigate the effect of some of those modifications on the plasma, with detailed experimental diagnostics. Experiments have been carried out in various gases and with mixtures of different ratios. Extended operating range from below 0.5 torr upwards has been achieved with the implementation of the auxiliary discharge circuit. Despite the low voltage and low energy operation, energetic beam formation has been observed at the time of the final compression, prior to disruption. Current sheath formation and evolution has been characterized using the magnetic probes array, in correlation with beam formation and plasma emission. The relationship of the current sheath structure and that of the pinched plasma, as shown by the filtered X-ray pinhole camera, has been investigated

  11. A small spacecraft for multipoint measurement of ionospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R. E.; Weiss, J.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in situ device or remotely using cameras and radar. This article describes a small, low-resource, deployed spacecraft used as part of a local, multipoint measurement network. A B-field aligned sounding rocket ejects four of these spin-stabilized spacecraft in a cross pattern. In this application, each spacecraft carries two retarding potential analyzers which are used to determine plasma density, flow, and ion temperature. An inertial measurement unit and a light-emitting diode array are used to determine the position and orientation of the devices after deployment. The design of this spacecraft is first described, and then results from a recent test flight are discussed. This flight demonstrated the successful operation of the deployment mechanism and telemetry systems, provided some preliminary plasma measurements in a simple mid-latitude environment, and revealed several design issues.

  12. Simple radioimmunoassay for unconjugated estriol in pregnancy plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, M.; Braunstein, G.; Rasor, J.; Horton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A simple and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of plasma or serum unconjugated estriol (E 3 ) in pregnancy is described for general laboratory use. Two different antibodies utilized had low cross-reaction to estrone (E 1 ) and estradiol-17 β (E 2 ). With either of these antibody reagents, a method was designed that requires only an extraction step using a specific solvent mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane (3:2, v/v), one-hour incubation with working antibody, and separation of bound from free E 3 by ammonium sulfate. Standard curves useful in the range of 0 to 2000 pg were obtained. This assay, requiring only 0.05 ml of plasma, can be completed within 4 hours. The sensitivity of this RIA was 10 pg. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were 5.0 and 9.4 percent, respectively. When E 3 determinations by this method are compared with RIA values by a more complicated technique using Celite column chromatography, the results are not significantly different. There was a good correlation between our RIA and a standard urine E 3 determination (n = 137, r = 0.82, p less than 0.001). Using our simplified method, the mean plasma E 3 during pregnancy were 1.0 +- 0.6 ng. per milliliter at 10 weeks, 2.3 +- 0.6 ng. per milliliter at 20 weeks, 6.5 +- 1.4 ng. per millilter at 30 weeks, and 16.5 +- 5.1 ng. per milliliter at term. Since the serum RIA reflects changes in free E 3 whi []h has a shorter half-life than conjugated E 3 , this rapid and simple method is attractive as an approach to monitor fetal-placentalfunction. (auth)

  13. A Small and Non-simple Geometric Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Following notation introduced in the recent paper (Rossi Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12(5), 2015), this paper is aimed to present in detail an example of a small geometric transition which is not a simple one i.e. a deformation of a conifold transition. This is realized by means of a detailed analysis of the Kuranishi space of a Namikawa cuspidal fiber product, which in particular improves the conclusion of Y. Namikawa in Remark 2.8 and Example 1.11 of Namikawa (Topology 41(6), 1219–1237, 2002). The physical interest of this example is presenting a geometric transition which can’t be immediately explained as a massive black hole condensation to a massless one, as described by Strominger (Nucl. Phys. B451, 97–109, 1995).

  14. A Small and Non-simple Geometric Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michele, E-mail: michele.rossi@unito.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Following notation introduced in the recent paper (Rossi Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12(5), 2015), this paper is aimed to present in detail an example of a small geometric transition which is not a simple one i.e. a deformation of a conifold transition. This is realized by means of a detailed analysis of the Kuranishi space of a Namikawa cuspidal fiber product, which in particular improves the conclusion of Y. Namikawa in Remark 2.8 and Example 1.11 of Namikawa (Topology 41(6), 1219–1237, 2002). The physical interest of this example is presenting a geometric transition which can’t be immediately explained as a massive black hole condensation to a massless one, as described by Strominger (Nucl. Phys. B451, 97–109, 1995).

  15. Simple Neuron-Fuzzy Tool for Small Control Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2008-01-01

    Small control computers, running a kind of Fuzzy controller, are more and more used in many systems from household machines to large industrial systems. The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe a tool that is easy to use for implementing self learning Fuzzy systems, that can be executed...... can be described by four different kinds of membership functions. The output fuzzyfication is based on singletons. The rule base can be written in a natural language. The result of the learning is a new version of the Fuzzy system described in the FuNNy language. A simple shower control example...... is shown.  This example shows that FuNNy is able to control the shower and that the learning is able to optimize the Fuzzy system....

  16. A Small and Non-simple Geometric Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Following notation introduced in the recent paper (Rossi Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12(5), 2015), this paper is aimed to present in detail an example of a small geometric transition which is not a simple one i.e. a deformation of a conifold transition. This is realized by means of a detailed analysis of the Kuranishi space of a Namikawa cuspidal fiber product, which in particular improves the conclusion of Y. Namikawa in Remark 2.8 and Example 1.11 of Namikawa (Topology 41(6), 1219-1237, 2002). The physical interest of this example is presenting a geometric transition which can't be immediately explained as a massive black hole condensation to a massless one, as described by Strominger (Nucl. Phys. B451, 97-109, 1995).

  17. Simple emittance measurement of H- beams from a large plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guharay, S.K.; Tsumori, K.; Hamabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Kuroda, T.

    1996-03-01

    An emittance meter is developed using pepper-pot method. Kapton foils are used to detect intensity distributions of small beamlets at the 'image' plane of the pepper-pot. Emittance of H - beams from a large plasma source for the neutral beam injector of the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been measured. The normalized emittance (95%) of a 6 mA H - beam with emission current density of about 10 mA/cm 2 is ∼0.59 mm mrad. The present system is very simple, and it eliminates many complexities of the existing schemes. (author)

  18. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (the left-hand side wall and the right-hand side wall of the airplane. The layers are put into a rectangular metallic waveguide terminated by the absorber in order to simulate the illumination of the airplane by the external wave (both of the harmonic nature and pulse one. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the parametric analysis can be performed, and the results can be used in order to train an artificial neural network. The trained networks excel in further reduction of CPU-time demands of an airplane modeling.

  19. Nearly Perfect Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces Fabricated by a Simple One-Step Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Kim, Kiwoong; Park, JooYoung; Hwang, Bae Geun; Ko, YoungChul; Kim, HyunJoo; Han, JeongSu; Seo, EungRyeol; Park, YongJong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-05-16

    Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces is an area of great interest because it can be applicable to various engineering fields. A simple, safe and inexpensive fabrication process is required to fabricate applicable superhydrophobic surfaces. In this study, we developed a facile fabrication method of nearly perfect superhydrophobic surfaces through plasma treatment with argon and oxygen gases. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet was selected as a substrate material. We optimized the fabrication parameters to produce superhydrophobic surfaces of superior performance using the Taguchi method. The contact angle of the pristine PTFE surface is approximately 111.0° ± 2.4°, with a sliding angle of 12.3° ± 6.4°. After the plasma treatment, nano-sized spherical tips, which looked like crown-structures, were created. This PTFE sheet exhibits the maximum contact angle of 178.9°, with a sliding angle less than 1°. As a result, this superhydrophobic surface requires a small external force to detach water droplets dripped on the surface. The contact angle of the fabricated superhydrophobic surface is almost retained, even after performing an air-aging test for 80 days and a droplet impacting test for 6 h. This fabrication method can provide superb superhydrophobic surface using simple one-step plasma etching.

  20. A simple method for plasma total vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille, Line; Hoffer, L. John

    2016-01-01

    Background In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Methods Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chro...

  1. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  2. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la serna, J. B.; Schütz, G.; Eggeling, Ch.; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, SEP 2016 (2016), 106 ISSN 2296-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06989S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : plasma membrane * membrane organization models * heterogeneous distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  4. Simple re-instantiation of small databases using cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tin Wee; Xie, Chao; De Silva, Mark; Lim, Kuan Siong; Patro, C Pawan K; Lim, Shen Jean; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Tong, Joo Chuan; Choo, Khar Heng; Ranganathan, Shoba; Khan, Asif M

    2013-01-01

    Small bioinformatics databases, unlike institutionally funded large databases, are vulnerable to discontinuation and many reported in publications are no longer accessible. This leads to irreproducible scientific work and redundant effort, impeding the pace of scientific progress. We describe a Web-accessible system, available online at http://biodb100.apbionet.org, for archival and future on demand re-instantiation of small databases within minutes. Depositors can rebuild their databases by downloading a Linux live operating system (http://www.bioslax.com), preinstalled with bioinformatics and UNIX tools. The database and its dependencies can be compressed into an ".lzm" file for deposition. End-users can search for archived databases and activate them on dynamically re-instantiated BioSlax instances, run as virtual machines over the two popular full virtualization standard cloud-computing platforms, Xen Hypervisor or vSphere. The system is adaptable to increasing demand for disk storage or computational load and allows database developers to use the re-instantiated databases for integration and development of new databases. Herein, we demonstrate that a relatively inexpensive solution can be implemented for archival of bioinformatics databases and their rapid re-instantiation should the live databases disappear.

  5. A simple and versatile mini-arc plasma source for nanocrystal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junhong; Lu Ganhua; Zhu Liying; Flagan, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals in the lower-nanometer-size range are attracting growing interest due to their unique properties. A simple and versatile atmospheric direct current mini-arc plasma source has been developed to produce nanoparticles as small as a few nanometers. The nanoparticles are formed by direct vaporization of solid precursors followed by a rapid quenching. Both semiconductor tin oxide and metallic silver nanoparticles have been produced at rates of 1-10 mg/h using the mini-arc source. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that most nanoparticles as produced are nonagglomerated and crystalline. Size distributions of nanoparticles measured with an online scanning electrical mobility spectrometer are broader than the self-preserving distribution, suggesting that the nanoparticle growth is coagulation-dominated, and that the particles experience a range of residence times. The electrical charges carried by as-produced aerosol nanoparticles facilitate the manipulation of nanoparticles. The new mini-arc plasma source hence shows promise to accelerate the exploration of nanostructured materials

  6. A simple wish: to touch a plasma ball

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday 3 December, Plinio and Sofia, two young kids from Ticino, visited CERN accompanied by their parents. Organized by Make-A-Wish Switzerland – a foundation that grants wishes to children living with life-threatening conditions – the visit was the opportunity for Plinio to see his dream of touching a plasma ball come true.   Plinio, 6 years old, his sister Sofia, 11 years old, and their parents during their recent visit to CERN (top); back home (bottom) with Plinio's Make-A-Wish gift. (Photo credits: top: Make-A-Wish Foundation; bottom: provided by the family) Plinio, 6 years old, and Sofia, 11 years old, suffer from a rare disease known as Fanconi Anemia. On 3 December, they visited the Globe, the ATLAS visitor centre and the Microcosm. The whole family also enjoyed a special session of “Fun with Physics” presented by Dominique Bertola, from the CERN Education Group. Both kids showed their strong interest in CERN: Plinio surprised ...

  7. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those fo...

  8. Characterization of a Very Small Plasma Focus in the Limit of Low Energy (50 J)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.; Sotol, L.; Moreno, J.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Altamirano, L.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2001-01-01

    A very small plasma focus device has been designed and constructed. The plasma focus operates in the limit of low energy (160 nF capacitor bank, 65 nH, 250-40 kV, ∼32-128 J). The design of the electrode was assisted by a simple model of a Mather plasma focus. The calculations indicate that yields of 10 4 -10 5 neutrons per shot are expected when the discharge is operated with deuterium. A single frame image converter camera (5 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The umbrella-like current sheath running over the end of the coaxial electrodes and the pinch after the radial collapse can be clearly observed in the photographs. The observations are similar to the results obtained with devices operating at energies several order of magnitude higher. (author)

  9. A simple method for plasma total vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Hoffer, L John

    2016-04-21

    In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) or ultraviolet (UV) light detection. We modified existing UV-HPLC methods for plasma total vitamin C analysis (the sum of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid) to develop a simple, constant-low-pH sample reduction procedure followed by isocratic reverse-phase HPLC separation using a purely aqueous low-pH non-buffered mobile phase. Although EC-HPLC is widely recommended over UV-HPLC for plasma total vitamin C analysis, the two methods have never been directly compared. We formally compared the simplified UV-HPLC method with EC-HPLC in 80 consecutive clinical samples. The simplified UV-HPLC method was less expensive, easier to set up, required fewer reagents and no pH adjustments, and demonstrated greater sample stability than many existing methods for plasma vitamin C analysis. When compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method in 80 consecutive clinical samples exhibiting a wide range of plasma vitamin C concentrations, it performed equivalently. The easy set up, simplicity and sensitivity of the plasma vitamin C analysis method described here could make it practical in a normally equipped hospital laboratory. Unlike any prior UV-HPLC method for plasma total vitamin C analysis, it was rigorously compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method and performed equivalently. Adoption of this method could increase the availability of plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine.

  10. Plasma engineering analysis of a small torsatron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatski, J.T.; Houlberg, W.A.; Uckan, N.A.

    1985-10-01

    This study examines the plasma physics and reactor engineering feasibility of a small, medium aspect ratio, high-beta, l = 2, D-T torsatron power reactor, based on the magnetic configuration of the Advanced Toroidal Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Plasma analyses are performed to assess whether confinement in a small, average radius plasma is sufficient to yield an ignited or high-Q driven device. Much of the physics assessment focuses on an evaluation of the radial electric field created by the nonambipolar particle flux. Detailed transport simulations are done with both fixed and self-consistent evolution of the radial electric field. Basic reactor engineering considerations taken into account are neutron wall loading, maximum magnetic field at the helical coils, coil shield thickness, and tritium breeding blanket-shield thickness

  11. Erratum: A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The following describes a list of errata in our paper, "A simple, analytical model of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a pair plasma." It supersedes an earlier erratum. We recently discovered an error in the derivation of the outflow-to-inflow density ratio.

  12. A simple, analytical model of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a pair plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasiviscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasiviscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E * =0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.

  13. A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region, and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasi-viscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative, procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasi-viscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E(sup *)=0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.

  14. A simple and efficient method for isolating small RNAs from different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Folter Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Conclusion Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays.

  15. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  16. Formation of Plasma Around a Small Meteoroid: Simulation and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, G.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Dimant, Y. S.; Close, S.

    2018-05-01

    High-power large-aperture radars detect meteors by reflecting radio waves off dense plasma that surrounds a hypersonic meteoroid as it ablates in the Earth's atmosphere. If the plasma density profile around the meteoroid is known, the plasma's radar cross section can be used to estimate meteoroid properties such as mass, density, and composition. This paper presents head echo plasma density distributions obtained via two numerical simulations of a small ablating meteoroid and compares the results to an analytical solution found in Dimant and Oppenheim (2017a, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA023960, 2017b, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA023963). The first simulation allows ablated meteoroid particles to experience only a single collision to match an assumption in the analytical solution, while the second is a more realistic simulation by allowing multiple collisions. The simulation and analytical results exhibit similar plasma density distributions. At distances much less than λT, the average distance an ablated particle travels from the meteoroid before a collision with an atmospheric particle, the plasma density falls off as 1/R, where R is the distance from the meteoroid center. At distances substantially greater than λT, the plasma density profile has an angular dependence, falling off as 1/R2 directly behind the meteoroid, 1/R3 in a plane perpendicular to the meteoroid's path that contains the meteoroid center, and exp[-1.5(R/λT2/3)]/R in front of the meteoroid. When used for calculating meteoroid masses, this new plasma density model can give masses that are orders of magnitude different than masses calculated from a spherically symmetric Gaussian distribution, which has been used to calculate masses in the past.

  17. A simple microwave technique for plasma density measurement using frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; Jayakumar, R.; Vijayashankar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of determining the phase variation unambiguously during microwave interferometric measurement is described. The frequency of the Klystron source is modulated with the help of staircase voltage pulse. The height of each stair is adjusted such that the corresponding phase shift in the test branch with an additional path length is 90 0 . Signals, proportional to cosine and sine of the phase shift due to plasma, can be generated in the same channel and plasma density information can be inferred. The microwave hardware remains the same as in conventional interferometry and the cost of such a scheme is low. (author)

  18. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  19. 3-D resistive MHD calculations for tokamak plasmas: beyond the simple reduced set of equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Masden, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical studies of the resistive stability of tokamak plasmas in cylindrical geometry have been performed using: (1) the full set of resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and (2) an extended version of the reduced set of resistive MHD equations including diamagnetic and electron temperature effects. In particular, the nonlinear interaction of tearing modes of many helicities has been investigated. The numerical results confirm many of the features uncovered previously using the simple reduced equations. (author)

  20. Advection of long lived density blobs in the turbulent state of a simple magnetized torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barni, R; Riccardi, C

    2009-01-01

    The turbulent regime of a simple magnetized toroidal plasma column has been studied in the plasma device Thorello. The detection and the study of the spatio-temporal evolution of structures have been performed by means of conditional sampling techniques as well as other statistical tools. As a result the evidence of plasma blob formation and expulsion from the edge of the main plasma column has been obtained. The relation between structure phenomenology and statistical characteristics of the turbulent regime has been investigated. The motion of the density structures in the edge region of our device does not look ballistic but rather driven by the overall potential profile established in the turbulent state. Potential fluctuations are strongly anti-correlated with density structures, located in the same position and somewhat more extended. They provide a shallow potential well with a flat bottom and quite sharp edges surrounding and co-moving with the blobs. Blob lifetime exceeds the residence time associated with the overall E x B drift field. Then such persistent structures provide a means for a net convection of the charged particles to the limiter, across the magnetic field and beyond the edge region of the plasma.

  1. Simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Rao N V S; Benjamin, Biju; Ramesh, Mullangi; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2003-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, bioanalytical methods to determine rosiglitazone in human plasma reported in literature use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop a simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in plasma employing a commercially available internal standard (IS). After the addition of celecoxib (IS), plasma (0.25 mL) samples were extracted into ethyl acetate. The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 750 microL of mobile phase and 50 microL was injected on to HPLC. The separation was achieved using a Hichrom KR 100, 250 x 4.6 mm C(18) with a mobile phase composition potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.01 m, pH 6.5):acetonitrile:methanol (40:50:10, v/v/v). The flow-rate of the mobile phase was set at 1 mL/min. The column eluate was monitored by fluorescence detector set at an excitation wavelength of 247 nm and emission wavelength of 367 nm. Linear relationships (r(2) > 0.99) were observed between the peak area ratio rosiglitazone to IS vs rosiglitazone concentrations across the concentration range 5-1000 ng/mL. The intra-run precision (%RSD) and accuracy (%Dev) in the measurement of rosiglitazone were 80% for both rosiglitazone and IS from human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 5 ng/mL. In summary, the methodology for rosiglitazone measurement in plasma was simple, sensitive and employed a commercially available IS. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Flexible small size radiofrequency plasma torch for Tokamak wall cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebiu-Rosini Ionita; Luciu, I.; Dinescu, G.; Grisolia, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Tritium accumulation in walls is a limiting factor in efficient long term operation of fusion machines. A number of detritiation techniques are under study, like laser, discharge, flash lamp based cleaning. One of the encountered difficulties is the limited access of the detritiation tool in narrow spaces, as in divertor region, inter-tiles or inside castellated gaps, where in fact an enhanced co-deposition and tritium trapping were observed. This contribution addresses the problem of elaboration of plasma torch as a tool appropriate for stimulating detritiation and removal of co-deposited layers in such spaces. The requirements imposed to the plasma torch source were related to the compatibility with inside torus operation: small diameter in order to permit access in narrow spaces, reasonable power, large range of working pressures from vacuum to atmosphere, closed loop cooling, flexibility in order to allow scanning and mounting on a robotic arm. The approached design is based on a radiofrequency discharge constricted to burn in a closed space between an active radiofrequency electrode and a grounded nozzle, from where plasma expands outside as a directional beam. The found solutions have led to a flexible hand held source working stable up to 300 W injected power and consisting of a cylindrical body of 20 mm diameter including the external water jacket embracing the discharge and an inside cooling circuit. The electrical characterization of the radiofrequency discharge sustaining the expanded plasma was performed and the domain of stable source operation in terms of power, current, pressure, argon mass flow rate is presented and discussed. The plasma beam size presents a strong dependence on pressure: the plasma length decreases from 200 mm to 20 mm, when pressure increases from vacuum to atmospheric, depending on power and mass flow rate. The ionized gas temperature, as indicated by a thermocouple head inserted in expansion in the nozzle proximity fall in the

  3. Magnetic dynamics of simple collective modes in a two-sphere plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, Hanno

    2005-01-01

    A plasma blob is modeled as consisting of two homogeneous spheres of equal radius and equal but opposite charge densities that can move relative to each other. Relative translational and rotational motion are considered separately. Magnetic effects from the current density caused by the relative motion are included. Magnetic interaction is seen to cause an inductive inertia. In the relative translation case the Coulomb attraction, approximately a linear force for small amplitudes, causes an oscillation. For a large number of particles, the corresponding oscillation frequency will not be the Langmuir plasma frequency, because of the large inductive inertia. For rotation an external magnetic field is included and the energy and diamagnetism of the plasma in the model is calculated. Finally, it is noted how the neglect of resistivity is motivated by the results

  4. A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>= 10 μg) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.F.R.; Meyer, E.; Silveira, M.F. da.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>=10μg) samples is described. The apparatus is built in the form of a probe, which can be introduced directly into a liquid He storage dewar and permits the determination of the critical temperature, with an imprecision of +- 0.05 K above 4.2 K, in about 10 minutes. (Author) [pt

  5. Simple Quantification of Pentosidine in Human Urine and Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sang Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end-product (AGE and fluorescent cross-link compound. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed for the detection and quantification of pentosidine in human urine and plasma. The mobile phase used a gradient system to improve separation of pentosidine from endogenous peaks, and chromatograms were monitored by fluorescent detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 328 and 378 nm, respectively. The retention time for pentosidine was 24.3 min and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ in human urine and plasma were 1 nM. The intraday assay precisions (coefficients of variation were generally low and found to be in the range of 5.19–7.49% and 4.96–8.78% for human urine and plasma, respectively. The corresponding values of the interday assay precisions were 9.45% and 4.27%. Accuracies (relative errors ranged from 87.9% to 115%. Pentosidine was stable in a range of pH solutions, human urine, and plasma. In summary, this HPLC method can be applied in future preclinical and clinical evaluation of pentosidine in the diabetic patients.

  6. Simple collision operators for direct Vlasov simulations of laser plasma interaction and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arber, T D; Sircombe, N J

    2010-01-01

    Non-local electron transport effects have a direct influence on the compression of cryogenic targets in laser driven ICF and target heating in high energy density experiments. There is a growing need for self-consistent models of laser plasma interactions coupled to nonlocal transport. We present a direct Vlasov solver that includes multiple species and a simple collision operator. This BGK model operator - which conserves particle density, energy and momentum - is fully implicit. For collisionless plasmas it has been shown that a double layer may be formed in which an accelerated, kinetic ion population satisfies the zero current condition. Here we extend this result to collisionalities of interest to laser driven ignition to assess the validity of nonlocal electron transport models based on fluid ions.

  7. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data

  8. Lagrangian fluid description with simple applications in compressible plasma and gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The Lagrangian fluid description, in which the dynamics of fluids is formulated in terms of trajectories of fluid elements, not only presents an alternative to the more common Eulerian description but has its own merits and advantages. This aspect, which seems to be not fully explored yet, is getting increasing attention in fluid dynamics and related areas as Lagrangian codes and experimental techniques are developed utilizing the Lagrangian point of view with the ultimate goal of a deeper understanding of flow dynamics. In this tutorial review we report on recent progress made in the analysis of compressible, more or less perfect flows such as plasmas and dilute gases. The equations of motion are exploited to get further insight into the formation and evolution of coherent structures, which often exhibit a singular or collapse type behavior occurring in finite time. It is argued that this technique of solution has a broad applicability due to the simplicity and generality of equations used. The focus is on four different topics, the physics of which being governed by simple fluid equations subject to initial and/or boundary conditions. Whenever possible also experimental results are mentioned. In the expansion of a semi-infinite plasma into a vacuum the energetic ion peak propagating supersonically towards the vacuum--as seen in laboratory experiments--is interpreted by means of the Lagrangian fluid description as a relic of a wave breaking scenario of the corresponding inviscid ion dynamics. The inclusion of viscosity is shown numerically to stabilize the associated density collapse giving rise to a well defined fast ion peak reminiscent of adhesive matter. In purely convection driven flows the Lagrangian flow velocity is given by its initial value and hence the Lagrangian velocity gradient tensor can be evaluated accurately to find out the appearance of singularities in density and vorticity and the emergence of new structures such as wavelets in one

  9. Lagrangian fluid description with simple applications in compressible plasma and gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Hans

    2004-03-01

    The Lagrangian fluid description, in which the dynamics of fluids is formulated in terms of trajectories of fluid elements, not only presents an alternative to the more common Eulerian description but has its own merits and advantages. This aspect, which seems to be not fully explored yet, is getting increasing attention in fluid dynamics and related areas as Lagrangian codes and experimental techniques are developed utilizing the Lagrangian point of view with the ultimate goal of a deeper understanding of flow dynamics. In this tutorial review we report on recent progress made in the analysis of compressible, more or less perfect flows such as plasmas and dilute gases. The equations of motion are exploited to get further insight into the formation and evolution of coherent structures, which often exhibit a singular or collapse type behavior occurring in finite time. It is argued that this technique of solution has a broad applicability due to the simplicity and generality of equations used. The focus is on four different topics, the physics of which being governed by simple fluid equations subject to initial and/or boundary conditions. Whenever possible also experimental results are mentioned. In the expansion of a semi-infinite plasma into a vacuum the energetic ion peak propagating supersonically towards the vacuum-as seen in laboratory experiments-is interpreted by means of the Lagrangian fluid description as a relic of a wave breaking scenario of the corresponding inviscid ion dynamics. The inclusion of viscosity is shown numerically to stabilize the associated density collapse giving rise to a well defined fast ion peak reminiscent of adhesive matter. In purely convection driven flows the Lagrangian flow velocity is given by its initial value and hence the Lagrangian velocity gradient tensor can be evaluated accurately to find out the appearance of singularities in density and vorticity and the emergence of new structures such as wavelets in one-dimension (1D

  10. Angular velocity of a spheroid log rolling in a simple shear at small Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, Jan; Candelier, Fabien; Rosen, Tomas; Einarsson, Jonas; Lundell, Fredrik; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the angular velocity of a small neutrally buoyant spheroid log rolling in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the angular velocity ω -> equals half the fluid vorticity. We compute by singular perturbation theory how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity in an unbounded shear, and how this reduction depends upon the shape of the spheroid (on its aspect ratio). In addition we determine the angular velocity by direct numerical simulations. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory at small but not too small values of the shear Reynolds number, for all aspect ratios considered. For the special case of a sphere we find ω / s = - 1 / 2 + 0 . 0540Re 3 / 2 where s is the shear rate and Re is the shear Reynolds number. This result differs from that derived by Lin et al. who obtained a numerical coefficient roughly three times larger.

  11. Design and construction of a simple blade pitch measurement system for small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, Jonathan [Research Institute of Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    For small wind turbines to be reliable they must have in place good mechanisms to protect themselves against very high winds or sudden removal of load. One common protection method in small wind turbines is that of blade feathering. It is important that the blade feathering mechanism of a small wind turbine is tested before the turbine is installed in the field. This paper presents a simple system for monitoring the blade feathering of a turbine with an overall component cost that small wind turbine manufacturers can afford. The Blade Pitch Measurement System (BPMS) has been designed and constructed by the Research Institute of Sustainable Energy (RISE) and aids small wind turbine manufacturers in testing and optimising the settings of the blade feathering mechanisms on their machines. The results show that the BPMS was successful in recording the behaviour of the blade feathering mechanism in field trials with a 20 kW and a 30 kW wind turbine. The BPMS displays significant potential as an effective, inexpensive system for small wind turbine manufacturers to ensure the reliability of their pitch regulating over-speed protection mechanisms. (author)

  12. Advances in targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using simple bioconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Kjems, Jørgen; Sorensen, Kristine Rothaus

    2014-01-01

    with a targeting moiety, in a simple bioconjugate construct. We discuss the use of different types of targeting moieties, as well as the different conjugation strategies employed for preparing these bioconjugate constructs that deliver the siRNA to target cells. We focus especially on the in-built or passive......Introduction: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing...... literature on one type of strategy for solving the issue of cell-specific delivery of siRNA, namely delivering the siRNA as part of simple bioconjugate constructs. Areas covered: This review presents current experience from strategies aimed at targeting siRNA to specific cell types, by associating the siRNA...

  13. Plasma-potentiated small molecules—possible alternative to antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaka, Kateryna; Bazaka, Olha; Levchenko, Igor; Xu, Shuyan; Ivanova, Elena P.; Keidar, Michael; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of the existing arsenal of antibiotics is continuously compromised by their indiscriminative and often excessive use. The antibiotic arsenal can be expanded with agents that have different mechanisms of activity to conventional drugs, such as plant-derived natural antimicrobial small molecules, yet these often lack sufficient activity and selectivity to fulfill the antibiotics requirements and conventional thermochemical methods of their transient activation may not be compatible with biomedical applications. Here, non-equilibrium conditions of atmospheric-pressure plasma are used for rapid, single-step potentiation of activity of select terpenes without the use of chemicals or heating. Substantial potentiation of activity against Staphylococcus aureus cells in planktonic and biofilm states is observed in both inherently antibacterial terpenes, e.g. terpinen-4-ol, and compounds generally considered to have limited effect against S. aureus, e.g. γ-terpinene. The improved biological activity may arise, at least in part, from the changes in the physico-chemical properties of the terpenes induced by plasma-generated chemical species and physical effects, such as electric fields and UV irradiation. This activation approach is generic, and thus can potentially be applied to other molecules and their mixtures in an effort to expand the range of effective antimicrobial agents for deactivation of pathogenic organisms in hygiene, medical and food applications.

  14. A new and simple extraction technique for rectal foreign bodies: removing by cutting into small pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Aras; Mehmet Karabulut; Osman Kones; Kaplan Baha Temizgonul; Halil Alis

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of insertion and types of foreign bodies in rectum show great variation. Rectal foreign bodies need to be removed without giving damage to intestinal wall and this should be done in the easiest possible way. We have reported a new and a simple technique. It is easy to apply and safe. A patient was admitted to our clinic with a rectal foreign body (radish) which was successfully removed by cutting it into small pieces. We conclude that different kinds of rectal foreign bodies, esp...

  15. A Simple Method for Measuring the Verticality of Small-Diameter Driven Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Skov, Bent

    1994-01-01

    The presence of stones, solid waste, and other obstructions can deflect small-diameter driven wells during installation, leading to deviations of the well from its intended position. This could lead to erroneous results, especially for measurements of ground water levels by water level meters....... A simple method was developed to measure deviations from the intended positions of well screens and determine correction factors required for proper measurement of ground water levels in nonvertical wells. The method is based upon measurement of the hydrostatic pressure in the bottom of a water column...... ground water flow directions....

  16. A simple formalism for diffusion coefficient calculations in cells having a small optical thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1980-04-01

    A very simple formalism, using directionnal first flight collision probabilities, is established; it is assigned to the calculation of the diffusion coefficients in cells having a small optical thickness. This formalism can be used, at least as a first approximation, in lattices of sodium-cooled fast reactors or of light water reactors. However, due to the two assumptions -cylindricalization of the cell and restriction to the zeroth order term in B 2 (k)- this formalissm cannot be used for sodium-voided or gas-cooled fast reactor lattices [fr

  17. The localization of bleeding small bowel lesions for conservative resection: a simple radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.M.; Northover, J.M.A.; Raphael, M.J.; Slack, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Haemorrhage from the small bowel is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The value of selective superior mesenteric angiography to localize the source accurately does not require emphasizing. However, many of the lesions demonstrated are notoriously difficult to find at operation unless they are actively bleeding at the time. A simple method of intra-operative angiography is described which, because demonstration of the bleeding lesion on the operative films is not an essential requirement, does not involve the use of specialized angiographic equipment. Although only one case is offered to illustrate the method, it seems to possess sufficient versatility to be useful in most situations where intra-operative assistance in isolating a specific loop of small bowel for resection is anticipated. (author)

  18. Localization of bleeding small bowel lesions for conservative resection: a simple radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J M; Northover, J M.A.; Raphael, M J; Slack, W W [Middlesex Hospital, London (UK)

    1981-10-01

    Haemorrhage from the small bowel is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The value of selective superior mesenteric angiography to localize the source accurately does not require emphasizing. However, many of the lesions demonstrated are notoriously difficult to find at operation unless they are actively bleeding at the time. A simple method of intra-operative angiography is described which, because demonstration of the bleeding lesion on the operative films is not an essential requirement, does not involve the use of specialized angiographic equipment. Although only one case is offered to illustrate the method, it seems to possess sufficient versatility to be useful in most situations where intra-operative assistance in isolating a specific loop of small bowel for resection is anticipated.

  19. A simple Bayesian approach to quantifying confidence level of adverse event incidence proportion in small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    In both clinical development and post-marketing of a new therapy or a new treatment, incidence of an adverse event (AE) is always a concern. When sample sizes are small, large sample-based inferential approaches on an AE incidence proportion in a certain time period no longer apply. In this brief discussion, we introduce a simple Bayesian framework to quantify, in small sample studies and the rare AE case, (1) the confidence level that the incidence proportion of a particular AE p is over or below a threshold, (2) the lower or upper bounds on p with a certain level of confidence, and (3) the minimum required number of patients with an AE before we can be certain that p surpasses a specific threshold, or the maximum allowable number of patients with an AE after which we can no longer be certain that p is below a certain threshold, given a certain confidence level. The method is easy to understand and implement; the interpretation of the results is intuitive. This article also demonstrates the usefulness of simple Bayesian concepts when it comes to answering practical questions.

  20. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  1. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirras, G.; Bouvier, S.; Gubicza, J.; Hasni, B.; Szilagyi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about ε VM = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  2. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouvier, S. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Hasni, B. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Szilagyi, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2009-11-25

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about {epsilon}{sub VM} = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  3. Angular velocity of a sphere in a simple shear at small Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, J.; Candelier, F.; Rosén, T.; Einarsson, J.; Lundell, F.; Mehlig, B.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the angular velocity of a small neutrally buoyant spheroid log rolling in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the angular velocity ω equals half the fluid vorticity. We compute by singular perturbation theory how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity in an unbounded shear, and how this reduction depends upon the shape of the spheroid (on its aspect ratio). In addition we determine the angular velocity by direct numerical simulations. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory at small but not too small values of the shear Reynolds number Res, for all aspect ratios considered. For the special case of a sphere we find ω /s =-1 /2 +0.0540 Res3 /2 where s is the shear rate. The O (Res3 /2) correction differs from that derived by Lin et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 1 (1970), 10.1017/S0022112070001659], who obtained a numerical coefficient roughly three times larger.

  4. Experimental Verification of a Simple Method for Accurate Center of Gravity Determination of Small Satellite Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Modenini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determining the center of gravity (CoG of a small spacecraft. This method, which can be ascribed to the class of suspension techniques, is based on dual-axis inclinometer readings. By performing two consecutive suspensions from two different points, the CoG is determined, ideally, as the intersection between two lines which are uniquely defined by the respective rotations. We performed an experimental campaign to verify the method and assess its accuracy. Thanks to a quantitative error budget, we obtained an error distribution with simulations, which we verified through experimental tests. The retrieved experimental error distribution agrees well with the results predicted through simulations, which in turn lead to a CoG error norm smaller than 2 mm with 95% confidence level.

  5. Piezoelectric translator. A simple and inexpensive device to move microelectrodes and micropipettes small distances rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, W J

    1983-09-01

    A device is described that is capable of rapidly moving microelectrodes and micropipettes over distances up to 15 mu. This piezoelectric transLator uses the diaphragm from virtually any available piezoelectric buzzer in combination with simple physical support and drive electronics. All of the necessary details for the construction of this small device are presented. Each finished unit is about 2 cm long with a diameter of 2 cm and can be readily adapted to existing manipulators. The translator has been found useful in aiding the independent penetration by one or more microelectrodes of single cells or of more complicated multicellular preparations (including those that lie behind a connective tissue layer). This new device offers fine control of microelectrode motion that cannot be obtained by the other methods used to aid microelectrode and micropipette penetration of cell membranes (e.g. capacitance overcompensation--"ringing in"' or "tickling"--or tapping the manipulator base). Finally, the device described in this paper is extremely simple and inexpensive to build.

  6. Current density distribution during disruptions and sawteeth in a simple model of plasma current in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovskii, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that are likely to accompany discharge disruptions and sawteeth in a tokamak are considered in a simple plasma current model. The redistribution of the current density in plasma is supposed to be primarily governed by the onset of the MHD-instability-driven turbulent plasma mixing in a finite region of the current column. For different disruption conditions, the variation in the total plasma current (the appearance of a characteristic spike) is also calculated. It is found that the numerical shape and amplitude of the total current spikes during disruptions approximately coincide with those measured in some tokamak experiments. Under the assumptions adopted in the model, the physical mechanism for the formation of the spikes is determined. The mechanism is attributed to the diffusion of the negative current density at the column edge into the zero-conductivity region. The numerical current density distributions in the plasma during the sawteeth differ from the literature data.

  7. Simple tube centrifugation for processing platelet-rich plasma in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Robin L; Sink, Carolyn A; Werre, Stephen R; Weinstein, Nicole M; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the quality and bacteriologic safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) produced by 3 simple, inexpensive tube centrifugation methods and a commercial system. Citrated equine blood collected from 26 normal horses was processed by 4 methods: blood collection tubes centrifuged at 1200 and 2000 × g, 50-mL conical tube, and a commercial system. White blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and platelet counts and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined for whole blood and PRP, and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. Mean platelet concentrations ranged from 1.55- to 2.58-fold. The conical method yielded the most samples with platelet concentrations greater than 2.5-fold and within the clinically acceptable range of > 250,000 platelets/μL. White blood cell counts were lowest with the commercial system and unacceptably high with the blood collection tubes. The conical tube method may offer an economically feasible and comparatively safe alternative to commercial PRP production systems.

  8. A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Lima, Sergio; García-Contreras, Consolación; Carrara, Fabiola; Negrín-Mena, Natalia; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Porrini, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples). In the test group, CL1 overestimated CL2 by ~30%: CL2 = 245 ± 93 and CL1 = 308 ± 123 mL/min. This error was corrected by a first-order polynomial quadratic equation to CL1, which was considered the simplified method: SM = −47.909 + (1.176xCL1) − (0.00063968xCL12). The SM showed narrow limits of agreement with CL2, a concordance correlation of 0.97, and a total deviation index of 14.73%. Similar results were obtained for the validation group. This protocol is reliable, reproducible, can be performed in conscious animals, uses a single dose of the marker, and requires a reduced number of samples, and avoids urine collection. Finally, it presents a significant improvement in animal welfare conditions and handling necessities in experimental trials. PMID:29329247

  9. A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples. In the test group, CL1 overestimated CL2 by ~30%: CL2 = 245 ± 93 and CL1 = 308 ± 123 mL/min. This error was corrected by a first-order polynomial quadratic equation to CL1, which was considered the simplified method: SM = −47.909 + (1.176xCL1 − (0.00063968xCL12. The SM showed narrow limits of agreement with CL2, a concordance correlation of 0.97, and a total deviation index of 14.73%. Similar results were obtained for the validation group. This protocol is reliable, reproducible, can be performed in conscious animals, uses a single dose of the marker, and requires a reduced number of samples, and avoids urine collection. Finally, it presents a significant improvement in animal welfare conditions and handling necessities in experimental trials.

  10. Rapid and simple clean-up and derivatizaton procedure for the gas chromatographic determination of acidic drugs in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, H.; Hulshoff, A.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and simple clean-up and derivatization procedure that can be generally applied to the gas chromatographie (GC) determination of acidic drugs of various chemical and therapeutic classes is described. The drugs are extracted from acidified plasma with chloroform containing 5% of isopropanol,

  11. Electrical characteristics of a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, P.; Favre, M.; Silva, P.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E.

    1996-01-01

    Efficient plasma focus operation relies on uniform initial breakdown across the insulator surface. The basic plasma focus electric circuit is discussed in order to highlight circuit modifications that produce high voltage oscillation at the initial breakdown time. Superimposed on the main discharge voltage, such oscillating voltage has been found in real systems to enhance the initial gas breakdown by localizing the initial current path across the insulator surface. PSPICE circuit simulations are compared with electric signals from different operational plasma focus devices. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs

  12. Plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO-incompatible individuals: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, QIUHUI; HU, XINGBIN; XIA, AIJUN; YI, JING; AN, QUNXING; ZHANG, XIANQING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO blood type-incompatible patients. A small intestinal transplantation case between ABO-incompatible individuals is hereby presented and analyzed. The main treatment included plasma exchange, splenectomy and immunosuppression. The patient undergoing small intestinal transplantation exhibited stable vital signs. A mild acute rejection reaction developed ~2 weeks after the s...

  13. Use of super-safe, small, and simple LMRs to create green belts in desertification areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Handa, Norihiko.

    1989-01-01

    Lands as large as 6 million ha (Ref. 1) are devastated annually to an unrecoverable extent in the world by desertification. Most desertification is concentrated in areas with low annual precipitation. To control desertification, a grassland or green bell must be made at the front of the desertification area. It is obvious that fresh water is needed in the required quantities at the proper times. A dual-purpose plant for electric power and water is significant in this case because desalination can be made available by power production, and supplying power to desertification areas leads to preservation of forests (when energy requirements in the area are met by wood fuel), preventing desertification in a double sense. This super-safe, small, and simple (4S) liquid-metal reactor with very low maintenance can be used to create a green belt at the front of a desertification area in conjunction with a module desalination system. In the green belt, a soil environment with adequate power to grow plants will be formed along with the development of surface soils that contain a significant quantity of organic materials. Desertification will eventually cease at this location and a vast green area will result

  14. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  15. Integral design method for simple and small Mars lander system using membrane aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryo; Takahashi, Ryohei; Wachi, Akifumi; Koshiro, Yuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Yasko; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2018-03-01

    To execute Mars surface exploration missions, spacecraft need to overcome the difficulties of the Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequences. Previous landing missions overcame these challenges with complicated systems that could only be executed by organizations with mature technology and abundant financial resources. In this paper, we propose a novel integral design methodology for a small, simple Mars lander that is achievable even by organizations with limited technology and resources such as universities or emerging countries. We aim to design a lander (including its interplanetary cruise stage) whose size and mass are under 1 m3 and 150 kg, respectively. We adopted only two components for Mars EDL process: a "membrane aeroshell" for the Mars atmospheric entry and descent sequence and one additional mechanism for the landing sequence. The landing mechanism was selected from the following three candidates: (1) solid thrusters, (2) aluminum foam, and (3) a vented airbag. We present a reasonable design process, visualize dependencies among parameters, summarize sizing methods for each component, and propose the way to integrate these components into one system. To demonstrate the effectiveness, we applied this methodology to the actual Mars EDL mission led by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the University of Tokyo. As a result, an 80 kg class Mars lander with a 1.75 m radius membrane aeroshell and a vented airbag was designed, and the maximum landing shock that the lander will receive was 115 G.

  16. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Marko [Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Djordjevic, Magdalena [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways. (paper)

  17. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  18. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways. (paper)

  19. Detecting surface runoff location in a small catchment using distributed and simple observation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehotin, Judicaël; Breil, Pascal; Braud, Isabelle; de Lavenne, Alban; Lagouy, Mickaël; Sarrazin, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    Surface runoff is one of the hydrological processes involved in floods, pollution transfer, soil erosion and mudslide. Many models allow the simulation and the mapping of surface runoff and erosion hazards. Field observations of this hydrological process are not common although they are crucial to evaluate surface runoff models and to investigate or assess different kinds of hazards linked to this process. In this study, a simple field monitoring network is implemented to assess the relevance of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method. The network is based on spatially distributed observations (nine different locations in the catchment) of soil water content and rainfall events. These data are analyzed to determine if surface runoff occurs. Two surface runoff mechanisms are considered: surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon and surface runoff by infiltration excess (also called hortonian runoff). The monitoring strategy includes continuous records of soil surface water content and rainfall with a 5 min time step. Soil infiltration capacity time series are calculated using field soil water content and in situ measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity. Comparison of soil infiltration capacity and rainfall intensity time series allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by infiltration-excess. Comparison of surface soil water content with saturated water content values allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon. Automatic records were complemented with direct field observations of surface runoff in the experimental catchment after each significant rainfall event. The presented observation method allows the identification of fast and short-lived surface runoff processes at a small spatial and temporal resolution in natural conditions. The results also highlight the relationship between surface runoff and factors usually integrated in surface runoff mapping such as topography, rainfall

  20. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  1. Study on the role of active radicals on plasma sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mstsuura, Hiroto; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Okuno, Yasuki; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Takemura, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure discharge plasma has gathered attention in various fields. Among them, plasma sterilization with many types of plasma source has studied for decades and its mechanism is still an open question. If active radicals produced in plasma has main contribution of killing bacterias, direct contact of the so-called plasma flame might not be necessary. To confirm this, sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes is studied in present work. DBD type plasma jet is produce by flowing helium gas in a glass tube. A long polymeric tube is connected and plasma jet is introduced into it. Plasma flame length depends on helium gas flow rate, but limited to about 10 cm in our experimental condition. E.colis set at the exit plasma source is easily killed during 10 min irradiation. At the tube end (about 20 cm away from plasma source exit), sterilization is possible with 30 min operation. This result shows that active radical is produced with helium plasma and mist contained in sample, and it can be transferred more than 20 cm during it life time. More plasma diagnostic data will also be shown at the conference. This work was partially supported by the ''ZE Research Program, IAE(ZE27B-4).

  2. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of linezolid in human plasma and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shuuji; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yoshinari, Masami; Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Togawa, Atsushi; Takata, Tohru; Takamatsu, Yasushi

    2015-09-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-positive infections. A practical high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of linezolid in human plasma and saliva. Linezolid and an internal standard (o-ethoxybenzamide) were extracted from plasma and saliva with ethyl acetate and analyzed on a Capcell Pak C18 MG column with UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear through the range 0.5-50 µg/mL using a 200 μL sample volume. The intra- and interday precisions were all plasma and 5.60% for saliva. The accuracies ranged from 98.8 to 110% for both matrices. The mean recoveries of linezolid were 80.8% for plasma and 79.0% for saliva. This method was used to determine the plasma and saliva concentrations of linezolid in healthy volunteers who were orally administered a 600 mg dose of linezolid. Our liquid-liquid extraction procedure is easy and requires a small volume of plasma or saliva (200 μL). This small volume can be advantageous in clinical pharmacokinetic studies, especially if children participate. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. On the Equivalence between Small-Step and Big-Step Abstract Machines: A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine's machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...

  4. PTFE treatment by remote atmospheric Ar/O2 plasmas : a simple reaction scheme model proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, E.A.D.; Verhoeven, M.W.G.M.; Keuning, W.; van der Mullen, J.J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples were treated by a remote atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch and analyzed by water contact angle (WCA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of pure argon plasma a decrease of WCA is observed meanwhile an increase of hydrophobicity was

  5. A Seemingly Simple Task: Filling a Solenoid Volume in Vacuum with Dense Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Roy, Prabir; Oks, Efim

    2010-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of a pulsed, high-current ion beam is required to compress and focus the beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described attempts to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary charge-compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from four pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means and by an array of movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. Beam neutralization and compression are accomplished, though issues of density, uniformity, and pulse-to-pulse reproducibly remain to be solved.

  6. A simple model of the plasma deflagration gun including self-consistent electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enloe, C.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    At the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, interest has continued for some time in energetic plasma injectors. A possible scheme for such a device is the plasma deflagration gun. When the question arose whether it would be possible to scale a deflagration gun to the multi-megajoule energy level, it became clear that a scaling law which described the fun as a circuit element and allowed one to confidently scale gun parameters would be required. The authors sought to develop a scaling law which self-consistently described the current, magnetic field, and velocity profiles in the gun. They based this scaling law on plasma parameters exclusively, abandoning the fluid approach

  7. Determination of moxifloxacin in human plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, and cerebrospinal fluid by a rapid and simple liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, Arianna D; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Wessels, A Mireille A; Greijdanus, Ben; Uges, Donald R A

    2010-04-01

    Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a useful agent in the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). At Tuberculosis Centre Beatrixoord, a referral center for tuberculosis in the Netherlands, approximately 36% of the patients have received MFX as treatment. Based on the variability of MFX AUC, the variability of in vitro susceptibility to MFX of M. tuberculosis, and the variability of penetration into sanctuary sites, measuring the concentration of MFX in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be recommended. Therefore, a rapid and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analyzing method with a simple pretreatment procedure was developed for therapeutic drug monitoring of MFX in human plasma and CSF. Because of the potential influence of protein binding on efficacy, we decided to determine both bound and unbound (ultrafiltrate) fraction of MFX. The calibration curves were linear in the therapeutic range of 0.05 to 5.0 mg/L plasma and CSF with CV in the range of -5.4% to 9.3%. MFX ultrafiltrate samples could be determined with the same method setup for analysis of MFX in CSF. The LC-MS-MS method developed in this study is suitable for monitoring MFX in human plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, and CSF.

  8. Preliminary Results Of A 600 Joules Small Plasma Focus Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary results of a 600 J (3.7 μF, 18 kV) Mather type plasma focus device operated at low pressure will be presented. The discharge is formed between a solid anode with length of 6 cm and six symmetrically and coaxially arranged cathode rods of same lengths. The cathode base is profiled in a knife-edge design and a set of coaxial plasma gun are attached to it in order to initiate the breakdown and enhance the current sheath formation. The experiments have been performed in argon gas under a low pressure condition of several microbars. The discharge current and the voltage across the electrodes during the discharge are measured with high voltage probe and current coil. The current and voltage characteristics are used to determine the possible range of operating pressure that gives good focusing action. At a narrow pressure regime of 9.0±0.5 μbar, focusing action is observed with good reproducibility. Preliminary result of ion beam energy is presented. More work will be carried out to investigate the radiation output.

  9. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

  10. A Rapid, Simple, and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Levofloxacin in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Notario

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a bioequivalence study for a copy product of levofloxacin (LEV, a simple and validated analytical method was needed, but the previous developed methods were still too complicated. For this reason, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for LEV quantification in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed under isocratic elution on a Luna Phenomenex® C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column. The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile, methanol, and phosphate buffer 25 mM that adjusted at pH 3.0 (13:7:80 v/v/v and pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed under UV detector at wavelength of 280 nm. Samples were prepared by adding acetonitrile and followed by centrifugation to precipitate plasma protein. Then followed successively by evaporation and reconstitution step. The optimized method meets the requirements of validation parameters which included linearity (r = 0.995, sensitivity (LLOQ and LOD was 1.77 and 0.57 µg/mL respectively, accuracy (%error above LLOQ ≤ 12% and LLOQ ≤ 20%, precision (RSD ≤ 9%, and robustness in the ranges of 1.77-28.83 µg/mL. Therefore, the method can be used as a routine analysis of LEV in human plasma as well as in bioequivalence study of LEV.

  11. Composites in small and simple devices to increase mixing on detector surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L. F.; Lima, R. R.; Leite, A. R.; Fachini, E. R.; Silva, M. L. P.

    2013-03-01

    This work aims at three different applications for the betterment of plasma generated-composite thin films: pre-mixing, spray formation in miniaturized structures and an increase in the performance of detector surfaces. Miniaturized structures were projected, simulated with FEMLAB® 3.2 software and then constructed. Clustered films made from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and nonafluoro(iso)butyl ether (HFE®) precursors were deposited on silicon, acrylic and quartz substrates for different kinds of film characterization/or in the projected structures. Physical and chemical characterization guided the selection of best films previous to/after UVC exposure. The active surfaces (plasma-deposited films) in structures were modified by UVC exposure and then tested. The applications include pre-mixing of liquids and/or spray formation, best results being obtained with surface covered by derivative-HFE films, which acted as passivation layers. Preliminary results show good humidity sensing for TEOS-derivative films.

  12. Composites in small and simple devices to increase mixing on detector surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L F; Lima, R R; Leite, A R; Silva, M L P; Fachini, E R

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at three different applications for the betterment of plasma generated-composite thin films: pre-mixing, spray formation in miniaturized structures and an increase in the performance of detector surfaces. Miniaturized structures were projected, simulated with FEMLAB ® 3.2 software and then constructed. Clustered films made from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and nonafluoro(iso)butyl ether (HFE ® ) precursors were deposited on silicon, acrylic and quartz substrates for different kinds of film characterization/or in the projected structures. Physical and chemical characterization guided the selection of best films previous to/after UVC exposure. The active surfaces (plasma-deposited films) in structures were modified by UVC exposure and then tested. The applications include pre-mixing of liquids and/or spray formation, best results being obtained with surface covered by derivative-HFE films, which acted as passivation layers. Preliminary results show good humidity sensing for TEOS-derivative films.

  13. IEEE 802.11 Networks: A Simple Model Geared Towards Offloading Studies and Considerations on Future Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Catania, Davide

    2013-01-01

    WiFi is the prevalent wireless access technology in local area deployments and is expected to play a major role in a mobile operator’s data offloading strategy. As a result, having simple tools that are able to assess the offloading potential of IEEE 802.11 networks is vital. In this paper, we...... propose a simple closed-form solution to calculate down- and uplink throughput values per user under full-buffer traffic when small WiFi cells are used to offload macrocells. Extensive measurement campaigns and simulation results demonstrate that there is an excellent quantitative match between analytical...... model and data despite the simplicity of the former. Finally, in light of our observations we discuss some of the fundamental technological limitations that may have a significant impact on the future of small cells....

  14. Study on the intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a collisionless plasma of small density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the experimental studies of the intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) propagation with ν/γ approximately 0.1, and γ approximately 1.6 (γ is an electron beam relativistic factor) in a collisionless plasma of small density over the 180 cm length are presented. Plasma is generated with the incomplete discharge over dielectric surface at the residual gas pressure of P approximately 10 -5 Torr. It is shown that the transportation efficiency may be essentially high, if the electron concentration in plasma satisfies the equilibrium conditions and if it is less or equal to the electron concentration in a beam. At concentration less than optimum one, the transportation efficiency decreases due to violations of equilibrium conditions. At high concentration the transportation efficiency also decreased due to the scattering and breaking on excited small-scale and plasma oscillations. The IREB propagation occurs without essential time delay under optimum conditions

  15. Investigation of small-scale tokamak plasma turbulence by correlative UHR backscattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, E Z; Gurchenko, A D; Altukhov, A B; Bulanin, V V; Esipov, L A; Kantor, M Yu; Kouprienko, D V; Lashkul, S I; Petrov, A V; Stepanov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Fine scale turbulence is considered nowadays as a possible candidate for the explanation of anomalous ion and electron energy transport in magnetized fusion plasmas. The unique correlative upper hybrid resonance backscattering (UHR BS) technique is applied at the FT-2 tokamak for investigation of density fluctuations excited in this turbulence. The measurements are carried out in Ohmic discharge at several values of plasma current and density and during current ramp up experiment. The moveable focusing antennas set have been used in experiments allowing probing out of equatorial plane. The radial wave number spectra of the small-scale component of tokamak turbulence are determined from the correlation data with high spatial resolution. Two small-scale modes possessing substantially different phase velocities are observed in plasma under conditions when the threshold for the electron temperature gradient mode excitation is overcome. The possibility of plasma poloidal velocity profile determination using the UHR BS signal is demonstrated

  16. A simple model for the initial phase of a water plasma cloud about a large structure in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Mogstad, T.

    1988-01-01

    Large structures in the ionosphere will outgas or eject neutral water and perturb the ambient neutral environment. This water can undergo charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions and form a water plasma cloud. Additionally, water dumps or thruster firings can create a water plasma cloud. A simple model for the evolution of a water plasma cloud about a large space structure is obtained. It is shown that if the electron density around a large space structure is substantially enhanced above the ambient density then the plasma cloud will move away from the structure. As the cloud moves away, it will become unstable and will eventually break up into filaments. A true steady state will exist only if the total electron density is unperturbed from the ambient density. When the water density is taken to be consistent with shuttle-based observations, the cloud is found to slowly drift away on a time scale of many tens of milliseconds. This time is consistent with the shuttle observations

  17. Interpretive modeling of simple-as-possible-plasma discharges on DIII-D using the OEDGE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.; Boedo, J.A.; Bray, B.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Isler, R.C.; Lao, L.L.; Lisgo, S.; Porter, G.D.; Reiter, D.; Rudakov, D.L.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a number of major, unanticipated effects have been reported in tokamak edge research raising the question of whether we understand the controlling physics of the edge. This report is on the first part - here focused on the outer divertor - of a systematic study of the simplest possible edge plasma - no ELMs, no detachment, etc. - for a set of 10 repeat, highly diagnosed, single-null, divertor discharges in DIII-D. For almost the entire, extensive data set so far evaluated, the matches of experiment and model are so close as to imply that the controlling processes at the outer divertor for these simple plasma conditions have probably been correctly identified and quantitatively characterized in the model. The principal anomaly flagged so far relates to measurements of T e near the target, potentially pointing to a deficiency in our understanding of sheath physics in the tokamak environment

  18. A Simple Method to Functionalize the Surface of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Produced TiO2 Coatings for Growing Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Huan-Ping; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lin, Jia-Fu; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. • Simple pre-immersion in K 2 HPO 4 could functionalize the surfaces of the TiO 2 . • Such pre-immersion enhanced substantially the growth of hydroxyapatite in SBF. • Growth mechanisms of hydroxyapatite via the pre-immersion have been proposed. • MTT assay shows great osteoblast-like cell activity on the obtained hydroxyapatite. - Abstract: Conventionally, hydrothermal treatment was often used to modify the TiO 2 surface prior to the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) that is one of the most important implant biomaterials. In this work, a simple pre-immersion of the obtained TiO 2 in a weak base, instead of the conventionally high pressure-temperature hydrothermal pre-treatment, was conducted prior to the growth of HA. Firstly, anatase TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation with optimized processing parameters. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission microscopy reveal that the anatase TiO 2 films with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. Subsequently, the films were pre-immersed in 0.1–2 M K 2 HPO 4 solutions for only 10 min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the −OH functional groups were generated after such pre-immersion, which could enhance significantly the growth of a single phase of HA in simulated body fluid (SBF). Growth mechanisms of HA via the pre-immersion treatment and soaking in SBF have been proposed. Moreover, the proliferation rate and attachment of the MG-63 osteoblast cells were greatly enhanced on the obtained HA compared to that without the immersion pre-treatment from the MTT assay and morphology analyses. This simple immersion pre-treatment evidently provides an easy route for the growth of HA and has great potential for biomedical applications.

  19. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine G Aabye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. AIM: To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS; to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. METHOD: We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-γ. RESULTS: The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5-600 pg/ml. IFN-γ was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37 °C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r(2>0.97. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection.

  20. A Method for Measuring Fast Time Evolutions of the Plasma Potential by Means of a Simple Emissive Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1981-01-01

    potential is measured across a high resistance. During each sweep of the probe voltage, the changing of the sign of the probe current, which is sampled at a specific time, gives rise to a negative pulse, driving the pen-lift of an X-Y recorder. Since the real floating potential is measured where the probe......A method is presented for obtaining the temporal evolution of the plasma potential, which is assumed to be given by the floating potential of a simple emissive probe. The construction of the probe is also described. The method avoids the slow time response of the usual technique where the floating...

  1. A simple technique to reduce small bowel toxicity when irradiating the periaortic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.C.; Fine, B.; Herman, T.S.; Rothenberg, M.; Nicol, N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Patients receiving periaortic radiation are normally treated in the supine position. We decided to evaluate whether positioning the patient prone on a modified 'belly-board' can reduce the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields in patients receiving four field periaortic radiation. Materials and Methods: Sixteen consecutive women with gynecologic primaries underwent simulation of the periaortic area using a four-field set up (AP, PA, Lats). The fields extended from the top of the L1 vertebral body to the bottom of L5 and had a mean length of 16.2 cm. The AP and PA fields had a width of 8 cm (centered on the midline of the vertebral bodies) while the right and left lateral fields had a width of 4 cm (2 cm anterior and 2 cm posterior to the anterior margin of the vertebral bodies) and did not include the spinal cord. Following oral ingestion of small bowel contrast, simulation films were obtained in the supine position and in the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' (with the pelvic opening extended superiorly to the superior abdomen). It was hypothesized that the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' would allow the abdominal small bowel to fall by gravity away from the periaortic area. We measured the volume of small bowel irradiated through the lateral fields for both the supine and prone-in-belly-board positions using the method described by Gallagher et al. Results: The volume of small bowel included within the lateral fields in the supine position ranged from 164 to 359.5 cc 3 (mean 285 cc 3 ) while placement in the prone-in-bellyboard position reduced the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields to a range of 35-152 cc 3 (mean 86 cc 3 ), an overall reduction of approximately 70% in the volume of small bowel included within lateral fields. Conclusion: The use of lateral fields in the prone-in-bellyboard position allows for significant small bowel sparing through the lateral component of a four-field periaortic set

  2. A simple miniature device for wireless stimulation of neural circuits in small behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yisi; Langford, Bruce; Kozhevnikov, Alexay

    2011-10-30

    The use of wireless neural stimulation devices offers significant advantages for neural stimulation experiments in behaving animals. We demonstrate a simple, low-cost and extremely lightweight wireless neural stimulation device which is made from off-the-shelf components. The device has low power consumption and does not require a high-power RF preamplifier. Neural stimulation can be carried out in either a voltage source mode or a current source mode. Using the device, we carry out wireless stimulation in the premotor brain area HVC of a songbird and demonstrate that such stimulation causes rapid perturbations of the acoustic structure of the song. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Simple model for taking into account the effects of plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalybkov, D.A.; Yakovlev, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    In the Thomas-Fermi model of high-density matter analytic calculation is made of the factor by which the rate of the thermonuclear reactions is enhanced by the effects of plasma screening in a degenerate weakly non-ideal electron gas and a strongly nonideal two-component ion liquid with large charge of the ions. The regions of densities and temperatures in which screening due to compressibility of the electron gas plays an important part are found. It is noted that the screening due to this compressibility may be influenced by strong magnetic fields B /approximately/ 10 12 -10 13 G, which quantize the motion of the electrons and change the electron charge screening length in the plasma. The results can be used for the degenerate cores of white dwarfs and shells of neutron stars

  4. Leukocyte labeling in plasma made simple and efficient: Preparation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; McKenney, S.; Seifert, C.; Madsen, M.; Suntherlingam, M.; Desai, A.; Patel, J.; Park, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years the use of In-111 leukocytes (In-111-L) for abscess localization has become increasingly popular. Using less toxic Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide or its Na-salt (Merc, LD/sub 50/ 340 mg/kg b.w.) rather than oxine (LD/sub 50/ 88.8 mg/kg b.w.), In-111-L could be prepared either in salt balance media or preferably by a kit procedure in plasma. In the plasma preparation L concentrated in 0.5 ml plasma are added to 25 μg dry Merc and subsequently incubated at an ambient temperature for 20 minutes with a weak chelate of In-111 either dry or in solution. Greater than 90 0 labeling efficiency is achieved which compared favorably to 10 μg and 50 μg each of oxine and tropolone. Phagocytic ability of 10 million L exposed to up to 200 μg Merc remained unaffected. In-111-L and Ga-67 citrate were given to abscess bearing dogs and abscess/blood (24 hr.) ratios of 75 and 12 respectively were achieved. Those were similar to those obtained with In-111-oxine labeled L (75.2 vs. 75.8). Abscess/liver and abscess/spleen ratios obtained with In-111-merc labeled L (14.6 and 4.2 respectively) were more favorable than those obtained with In-111-oxine labeled L (4.2d and 1.8 respectively). These indicated that less quantity of L labeled with In-111-Merc was deposited in these organs. Furthermore, L labeled with In-111-Merc cleared more rapidly from human lungs than L labeled with In-111-oxine. Data indicate that use of Merc permits efficient L labeling in plasma, provides a kit method, and preserves L physiologic function

  5. Cold Plasma: simple tool for convenient utilitarian chemistry in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tomi Nath; Dey, Ghasi Ram

    2015-07-01

    Cold Plasma based experimental facilities have been commissioned (XI-XII Plan periods) in Radiation and Photochemistry Division, BARC to carry out free radical and excited state-induced chemistry in single- and mixed-phase milieu. In any reaction medium, Dielectric Barrier assisted Electric Discharge generates in situ non-equilibrium plasma constituting of electrons and photons (< 10 eV each) and chemically reactive ions, excited species and free radical transients near room temperature and pressure. Choice of reactants and nature of other added ingredient(s), type of interacting surface(s) and the dielectric characteristics, the rate and amount of electric energy dissipated within etc. control various reactions’ propensities and the natures of final products, following either routine or novel, atypical chemistry. A selection of results obtained from our laboratory highlight the development and the potential use of this technology. Constant improvements in Cold Plasma reactor types, and design, fabrication and assembly of a real-time measurement system, aiming to probe mechanistic chemistry, are also underway. (author)

  6. Small-scale field test of simple earthen covers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Rich, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of field tests has been conducted during the past year to provide benchmark data on the performance of simple, single-layer earthen covers at thee uranium tailings sites. The performance of the covers was evaluated in terms of their reduction of radon gas releases, although moisture profiles and other cover parameters were also monitored. The tests were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of local soils applied with minimum engineering design or compaction effort. The tests, therefore, tend to represent a lowest-cost, and perhaps a worst-case scenario for tailings reclamation. The field benchmark tests are part of a major research program being conducted by the US Department of Energy to develop technology for uranium tailings disposal. The present tests with simple earthen covers thus provide a comparative basis for evaluating the effectiveness of more highly-engineered systems and their proportionately higher costs. These tests were conducted on the inactive tailings piles at Salt Lake City; Mexican Hat, Utah; and Grand Junction, Colorado. The test covers were installed during the summer of 1981 (Ri81) and have been monitored during the following year. This report describes the experimental details of the cover tests, the data that were collected during the one-year monitoring period, and the conclusions that were drawn from the experiments. 5 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Effect of furosemide and dietary sodium on kidney and plasma big and small renin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, H.; Michelakis, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Renin was found in mouse plasma in high-molecular-weight forms (big big renin, big renin) and a low-molecular-weight form (small renin). They were measuerd by a radioimmunoassay procedure for the direct measurement of renin. In the kidney, 89% of total renin was small renin and the rest was big big and big renin. This distribution pattern of renins was not changed when the kideny tissue was homogenized in the presence of protease inhibitors. Low-sodium or high-sodium diets changed renal renin content, but not the distribution pattern of renins in the kidney. Acute stimulation of renin release by furosemide increased small renin but not big big and big renin in plasma. However, dietary sodium depletion for 2 weeks significantly increased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands. In contrast, high-sodium intake significantly decreased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands

  8. Small simple hepatic cysts causing obstructive jaundice: a case report of sclerotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    A 62-year-old man visited our hospital for a regular follow-up of a known liver cirrhosis. Laboratory tests revealed recently elevated total and direct bilirubin levels. Imaging studies showed two small hepatic cysts (2.7 and 2.9 cm in the largest diameter) compressing both central intrahepatic ducts, respectively. Obstructive jaundice caused by the cysts was diagnosed. Sclerotherapy of the cysts was performed with 100% ethanol after aspiration of the cyst contents. An follow-up CT obtained after 3 months showed decreased cyst size and improved bile duct dilatation. It is known that obstructive jaundice due to a hepatic cyst is rare, and the cysts were unusually large and centrally located. We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by very small hepatic cysts that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy

  9. Small simple hepatic cysts causing obstructive jaundice: a case report of sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    A 62-year-old man visited our hospital for a regular follow-up of a known liver cirrhosis. Laboratory tests revealed recently elevated total and direct bilirubin levels. Imaging studies showed two small hepatic cysts (2.7 and 2.9 cm in the largest diameter) compressing both central intrahepatic ducts, respectively. Obstructive jaundice caused by the cysts was diagnosed. Sclerotherapy of the cysts was performed with 100% ethanol after aspiration of the cyst contents. An follow-up CT obtained after 3 months showed decreased cyst size and improved bile duct dilatation. It is known that obstructive jaundice due to a hepatic cyst is rare, and the cysts were unusually large and centrally located. We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by very small hepatic cysts that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy.

  10. Experimental evidence of widespread regions of small-scale plasma irregularities in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, G.; Kintner, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Small-scale (≤ 1 km) plasma irregularities have previously been observed in situ from the E region to an altitude of 8,000 km. In this paper the authors report results from the Viking plasma wave experiments which extends the measurements of high-latitude irregularities in two ways: (1) they have acquired electron density fluctuation measurements up to an altitude of 13,500 km and (2) for the first time a measurement technique was used that made a phase velocity deduction possible from in situ measurements. The spacecraft was equipped with two spatially separated Langmuir probes, each with an ability to measure relative probe current fluctuations with frequencies from dc to about 400 Hz. Under certain assumptions the current fluctuations could be interpreted as relative plasma density fluctuations, δn e /n e . Data from this interferometric instrument has been used to infer the distribution and nature of plasma irregularities along Viking orbits. It is demonstrated that the interferometric technique offers great advantages compared to single point measurements in this kind of study. It is shown that the observed small-scale plasma irregularities are nondispersive and convecting with the background plasma. They exhibit a power law frequency spectrum as observed in the satellite reference frame. The spectral index varies with location. An attempt to map source regions by identifying regions of high power and shallow spectrums is made

  11. Observation of hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated plasma in a small hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail: ding-yk@vip.sina.com [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin, E-mail: yjm70018@sina.cn; Zhu, Tuo; Lin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Haiying; Yu, Ruizhen; Liu, Shenye [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In the hohlraum used in laser indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated high-Z plasma have a great effect on laser injection efficiency, radiation uniformity, and diagnosis of hohlraum radiation field from diagnostic windows (DW). To study plasma filling in the DWs, a laser-irradiated Ti disk was used to generate 2–5 keV narrow energy band X-ray as the intense backlighter source, and laser-produced X-ray in a hohlraum with low-Z foam tamper was used to heat a small hole surrounded by gold wall with 150 μm in diameter and 100 μm deep. The hydrodynamic movement of the gold plasma in the small hole was measured by an X-ray framing camera and the results are analyzed. Quantitative measurement of the plasma areal density distribution and evolution in the small hole can be used to assess the effect of plasma filling on the diagnosis from the DWs.

  12. Simulations of simple linoleic acid-containing lipid membranes and models for the soybean plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Ou, Anna; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-06-07

    The all-atom CHARMM36 lipid force field (C36FF) has been tested with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated lipids; however, it has not been validated against the 18:2 linoleoyl lipids with an unsaturated sn-1 chain. The linoleoyl lipids are common in plants and the main component of the soybean membrane. The lipid composition of soybean plasma membranes has been thoroughly characterized with experimental studies. However, there is comparatively less work done with computational modeling. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the pure linoleoyl lipids, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0/18:2) and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-18:2), agree very well with the experiments, which demonstrates the accuracy of the C36FF for the computational study of soybean membranes. Based on the experimental composition, the soybean hypocotyl and root plasma membrane models are developed with each containing seven or eight types of linoleoyl phospholipids and two types of sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol). MD simulations are performed to characterize soybean membranes, and the hydrogen bonds and clustering results demonstrate that the lipids prefer to interact with the lipids of the same/similar tail unsaturation. All the results suggest that these two soybean membrane models can be used as a basis for further research in soybean and higher plant membranes involving membrane-associated proteins.

  13. Simple fabrication of back contact heterojunction solar cells by plasma ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Hironiwa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideo; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    A back-contact amorphous-silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction is one of the most promising structures for high-efficiency solar cells. However, the patterning of back-contact electrodes causes the increase in fabrication cost. Thus, to simplify the fabrication of back-contact cells, we attempted to form p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si and n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions by the conversion of a patterned area of p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si to n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si by plasma ion implantation. It is revealed that the conversion of the conduction type can be realized by the plasma ion implantation of phosphorus (P) atoms into p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions, and also that the quality of passivation can be kept sufficiently high, the same as that before ion implantation, when the samples are annealed at around 250 °C and also when the energy and dose of ion implantation are appropriately chosen for fitting to a-Si layer thickness and bulk c-Si carrier density.

  14. A simple in chemico method for testing skin sensitizing potential of chemicals using small endogenous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Mahesh Raj; Shakya, Rajina; Kang, Mi Jeong; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2018-06-01

    Among many of the validated methods for testing skin sensitization, direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) employs no cells or animals. Although no immune cells are involved in this assay, it reliably predicts the skin sensitization potential of a chemical in chemico. Herein, a new method was developed using endogenous small-molecular-weight compounds, cysteamine and glutathione, rather than synthetic peptides, to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers with an accuracy as high as DPRA. The percent depletion of cysteamine and glutathione by test chemicals was measured by an HPLC equipped with a PDA detector. To detect small-size molecules, such as cysteamine and glutathione, a derivatization by 4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) was employed prior to the HPLC analysis. Following test method optimization, a cut-off criterion of 7.14% depletion was applied to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers in combination of the ratio of 1:25 for cysteamine:test chemical with 1:50 for glutathione:test chemical for the best predictivity among various single or combination conditions. Although overlapping HPLC peaks could not be fully resolved for some test chemicals, high levels of sensitivity (100.0%), specificity (81.8%), and accuracy (93.3%) were obtained for 30 chemicals tested, which were comparable or better than those achieved with DPRA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  16. Experimental Confirmation of Stable, Small-Debye-Length, Pure-Electron-Plasma Equilibria in a Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, J. P.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Lefrancois, R. G.; Marksteiner, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid ExB rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma

  17. Experimental confirmation of stable, small-debye-length, pure-electron-plasma equilibria in a stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J P; Pedersen, T Sunn; Lefrancois, R G; Marksteiner, Q

    2006-09-01

    The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid E x B rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma.

  18. On the equivalence between small-step and big-step abstract machines: a simple application of lightweight fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine’s machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...... syntactic correspondence), and big-step abstract machines as obtained by CPStransforming and then defunctionalizing a function implementing a big-step semantics (a functional correspondence). © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Small, simple but useful: the SSI approach to a real-time system for decision making support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.

    1993-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident or a threat of a release, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) is responsible for advising and informing the Government, other authorities and the public. The institute's experts are supported by a newly developed, small computerised system. Some components of the system are: a simple model for atmospheric dispersion and dose predictions; databases including maps, nuclides, instruments and facilities to store and handle measured values; on-line connection to nationwide system of automatic measuring stations; a number of data display facilities; and computer based handbooks. Most software for the system is written for the MS Windows environment. (author)

  20. Development of a simple photon emission computed tomography dedicated to the small animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, V.

    2006-11-01

    The development of in vivo small animal imaging becomes essential to study human pathologies. The ImaBio project of Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC) fits in the process of developing new instruments for biomedical applications with the development of a multimodality imaging platform dedicated to small animal imaging (AMISSA). This thesis presents the study, the design and the development of a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) which will be integrated to the AMISSA platform. The result of these developments is the possibility to obtain the spatial distribution of an injected molecule into the animal. The SPECT technical solutions are based on the acquired knowledge of the institute allowing the conception of a device with cameras adapted to the gamma detection produced by the radiotracers used in single photon imaging. In order to cover the entire of the transverse field of view, four gamma cameras are arranged in a ring around the volume of interest. Each camera consists of 5 individual modules based on a YAP:Ce crystal array, a multi-anode photomultiplier and a dedicated multichannel electronic device. Finally, 20 detection modules were calibrated to give the same result for an identical energy deposit. The data are acquired then process to extract the positions and the energies deposited by gamma photons in the crystals. This last information is then gathered to build the projections. The 3D reconstructed image from the projections is carried out by the sequence of two algorithms, analytical and iterative OS-EM, both modified to take into account the singular geometry of our detection system. Finally, the obtained image is fused with the anatomical information given by the micro Computed Tomography system. (author)

  1. Simple, distance-dependent formulation of the Watts-Strogatz model for directed and undirected small-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Francis; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Small-world networks—complex networks characterized by a combination of high clustering and short path lengths—are widely studied using the paradigmatic model of Watts and Strogatz (WS). Although the WS model is already quite minimal and intuitive, we describe an alternative formulation of the WS model in terms of a distance-dependent probability of connection that further simplifies, both practically and theoretically, the generation of directed and undirected WS-type small-world networks. In addition to highlighting an essential feature of the WS model that has previously been overlooked, namely the equivalence to a simple distance-dependent model, this alternative formulation makes it possible to derive exact expressions for quantities such as the degree and motif distributions and global clustering coefficient for both directed and undirected networks in terms of model parameters.

  2. A simple and robust method for connecting small-molecule drugs using gene-expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gant Timothy W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of a drug or chemical with a biological system can result in a gene-expression profile or signature characteristic of the event. Using a suitably robust algorithm these signatures can potentially be used to connect molecules with similar pharmacological or toxicological properties by gene expression profile. Lamb et al first proposed the Connectivity Map [Lamb et al (2006, Science 313, 1929–1935] to make successful connections among small molecules, genes, and diseases using genomic signatures. Results Here we have built on the principles of the Connectivity Map to present a simpler and more robust method for the construction of reference gene-expression profiles and for the connection scoring scheme, which importantly allows the valuation of statistical significance of all the connections observed. We tested the new method with two randomly generated gene signatures and three experimentally derived gene signatures (for HDAC inhibitors, estrogens, and immunosuppressive drugs, respectively. Our testing with this method indicates that it achieves a higher level of specificity and sensitivity and so advances the original method. Conclusion The method presented here not only offers more principled statistical procedures for testing connections, but more importantly it provides effective safeguard against false connections at the same time achieving increased sensitivity. With its robust performance, the method has potential use in the drug development pipeline for the early recognition of pharmacological and toxicological properties in chemicals and new drug candidates, and also more broadly in other 'omics sciences.

  3. Realization of safety culture into a reactor plant-4S (super safe, small and simple) LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, S.; Ikemoto, I.; Minato, A.

    1998-01-01

    International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) defines Safety Culture as the following; Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organization and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. While such Safety Culture is certainly a critical element of nuclear safety assurance, it is important to design nuclear power facilities as friendly to operators as possible with minimum dependence on human factors. From the viewpoint of ensuring supply in our global society, it will be necessary to have multiple approaches to further promote the use of nuclear energy worldwide despite various social and cultural restrictions. It should then be considered, as prospective options, to disperse small nuclear power plants throughout the world under technical, social and cultural conditions. Under this circumstance, we have quested for and now propose a a scheme of assuring sheer safety of nuclear power plants by implementing operator-friendly nuclear reactors virtually free from human errors. The scheme specifically includes the measures for improving reliability through fabricating more compact reactors with a continuous in-factory production system, simplify maintenance and inspection of the reactor system using passive systems and further relieving operators of burden of labors. (author)

  4. Feasibility of a Simple Small Wind Turbine with Variable-Speed Regulation Made of Commercial Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Peláez Vara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose and evaluate a very small wind turbine (VSWT that competes with commercial grid-connected VSWTs in terms of simplicity, robustness and price. Its main components are a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG driven by a frequency converter. The system has a direct-drive shaft, and may be constructed with commercial equipment. Simulation of the wind turbine effect is done with a motor. A control program regulates the variable-speed of rotation through three operational modes: (i to drive the turbine to its optimum operation point; (ii to limit its maximum rotational speed; and (iii to limit the maximum power it generates. Two tests were performed, in order to evaluate the dynamic response of this system under variable wind speeds. The tests demonstrate that the system operates at the optimum operational point of the turbine, and within the set limits of maximum rotational speed and maximum generated power. The drop in performance in relation to its nominal value is about 75%, when operating at 50% of the nominal power. In summary, this VSWT with its proposed control program is feasible and reliable for operating direct-shaft grid-connected VSWTs.

  5. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  6. Simple supercapacitor charging scheme of an electric vehicle on small-scale hardware simulator: a prototype development for education purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle’s powertrain on small-scale configuration. Main components of this device are two direct current motors (DCMs with a linked axis of rotation. Therefore one of them will be able to act as a generator. The supercapacitor charging scheme is employed by controlling the relays. The hardware experimental result shows that the averages of charging current are proportional to the maximum slope angle of the road profiles. This scheme is simple due to the EVS utility and it is useful for education purpose.

  7. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  8. Rapid, simple and highly sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamsulosin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Wishu, S; Varma, D P

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of tamsulosin (I), a highly selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analyte and internal standard, mosapride (II) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase Waters symmetry C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.03% formic acid-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 409.1 solidus in circle 228.1 and m/z 422.3 solidus in circle 198.3 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-50.0 ng/mL for tamsulosin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 100 pg/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Development of a simple chromatographic method for the determination of piracetam in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkat, K; Ahmad, M; Minhas, M U; Malik, M Z; Sohail, M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of study was to develop an accurate and reproducible HPLC method for determination of piracetam in human plasma and to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam. A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatography method has been developed and subsequently validated for determination of piracetam. This study represents the results of a randomized, single-dose and single-period in 18 healthy male volunteers to assess pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam tablets. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma for piracetam and found to be in good agreement with previous reported values. The data was analyzed by using Kinetica® version 4.4 according to non-compartment model of pharmacokinetic analysis and after comparison with previous studies, no significant differences were found in present study of tested product. The major pharmacokinetic parameters for piracetam were as follows: t1/2 was (4.40 ± 0.179) h; Tmax value was (2.33 ± 0.105) h; Cmax was (14.53 ± 0.282) µg/mL; the AUC(0-∞) was (59.19 ± 4.402) µg · h/mL. AUMC(0-∞) was (367.23 ± 38.96) µg. (h)(2)/mL; Ke was (0.16 ± 0.006) h; MRT was (5.80 ± 0.227) h; Vd was (96.36 ± 8.917 L). A rapid, accurate and precise high pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and validated before the study. It is concluded that this method is very useful for the analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters, in human plasma and assured the safety and efficacy of piracetam, can be effectively used in medical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. SCR-1: Design and construction of a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillas, L; Vargas, V I; Alpizar, A; Asenjo, J; Carranza, J M; Cerdas, F; Gutiérrez, R; Monge, J I; Mora, J; Morera, J; Peraza, H; Rojas, C; Rozen, D; Saenz, F; Sánchez, G; Sandoval, M; Trimiño, H; Umaña, J; Villegas, L F; Queral, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the design and construction of a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma, called Stellarator of Costa Rica 1, or SCR-1; developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, PlasmaTEC. The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish stellarator UST 1 , created by the engineer Vicente Queral. The SCR-1 will employ stainless steel torus-shaped vacuum vessel with a major radius of 460.33 mm and a cross section radius of 110.25 mm. A typical SCR-1 plasma will have an average radius 42.2 mm and a volume of 8 liters (0.01 m 3 ), and an aspect ratio of 5.7. The magnetic resonant field will be 0.0878 T, and a period of 2 (m=2) with a rotational transform of 0.3. The magnetic field will be provided by 12 modular coils, with 8 turns each, with an electrical current of 8704 A per coil (1088 A per turn of each coil). This current will be fed by a bank of cell batteries. The plasma will be heated by ECRH with magnetrons of a total power of 5 kW, in the first harmonic at 2.45 GHz. The expected electron temperature and density are 15 eV and 10 17 m −3 respectively with an estimated confinement time of 7.30 x 10 −4 ms. The initial diagnostics on the SCR-1 will consist of a Langmuir probe, a heterodyne microwave interferometer, and a field mapping system. The first plasma of the SCR-1 is expected at the end of 2011.

  11. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solutions of simple dual bootstrap models satisfying Lee--Veneziano relation and the smallness of cut discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hossain, M.; Tow, D.M.

    1977-07-01

    To investigate the t-dependent solutions of simple dual bootstrap models, two general formulations are discussed, one without and one with cut cancellation at the planar level. The possible corresponding production mechanisms are discussed. In contrast to Bishari's formulation, both models recover the Lee-Veneziano relation, i.e., in the peak approximation the Pomeron intercept is unity. The solutions based on an exponential form for the reduced triple-Reggeon vertex for both models are discussed in detail. Also calculated are the cut discontinuities for both models and for Bishari's and it is shown that at both the planar and cylinder levels they are small compared with the corresponding pole residues. Precocious asymptotic planarity is also found in the solutions

  13. Ultra-small platinum and gold nanoparticles by arc plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Young Eun; Ha, Heonphil; Byun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-small (<2 nm) and bigger platinum and gold nanoparticles were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD). • Size and coverage of deposited nanoparticles were easily controlled with APD parameters. • Crystalline structures of deposited nanoparticles emerged only when the particle size was bigger than ∼2 nm. - Abstract: Ultra-small (<2 nm) nanoparticles of platinum and gold were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD) in a systematic way and the deposition behavior was studied. Nanoparticles were deposited on two dimensional amorphous carbon and amorphous titania thin films and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Deposition behavior of nanoparticles by APD was studied with discharge voltage (V), discharge condenser capacitance (C), and the number of plasma pulse shots (n) as controllable parameters. The average size of intrinsic nanoparticles generated by APD process was as small as 0.9 nm and deposited nanoparticles began to have crystal structures from the particle size of about 2 nm. V was the most sensitive parameter to control the size and coverage of generated nanoparticles compared to C and n. Size of APD deposited nanoparticles was also influenced by the nature of evaporating materials and substrates

  14. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the measurement of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Rona; Kozik, Karolina; Milanowski, Maciej; Hernes, Sigrunn; Slettan, Audun; Haugen, Margaretha; Ye, Shu; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, M Azam

    2014-06-10

    Low concentration of plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and inflammation. Most methods for the measurement of plasma PLP require large specimen volume and involve the use of toxic reagents. We have developed a HPLC method for the measurement of PLP and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in plasma, which requires small specimen volume. The samples are prepared without adding any toxic reagents. Furthermore, we have examined whether intake of vitamin B6 affects the concentration of plasma PLP and 4-PA. The coefficient of variation of the method was 6% and the recovery of the added vitamin in plasma was about 100%. The concentrations of plasma PLP and 4-PA in 168 healthy subjects were 40.6 (8.4-165.0) nmol/L, median and (range) and 17.5 (3.7-114.79) nmol/L, median and (range) respectively. In the multiple regression analyses, the concentration of plasma PLP was associated with the concentration of plasma 4-PA (pplasma 4-PA was associated with plasma PLP (pplasma PLP and 4-PA. Our findings demonstrate that plasma 4-PA, BMI and sex are the major determinants of plasma PLP in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Small amplitude two dimensional electrostatic excitations in a magnetized dusty plasma with q-distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahab Ullah; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in magnetized dusty plasma with stationary negatively or positively charged dust, cold mobile ions and non-extensive electrons. Two normal modes are predicted in the linear regime, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of electrons non-extensivity, dust charge polarity, concentration of dust and magnetic field strength. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived which governs the dynamics of small-amplitude solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasma. The properties of the solitary wave structures are analyzed numerically with the system parameters i.e. electrons non-extensivity, concentration of dust, polarity of dust and magnetic field strength. Following Allen and Rowlands (J. Plasma Phys. 53:63, 1995), we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on the nonextensive parameter q for electrons, dust charge polarity and magnetic field strength. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DIA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  17. Small amplitude waves and linear firehose and mirror instabilities in rotating polytropic quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.; Dolai, B.

    2017-08-01

    The small amplitude quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) waves and linear firehose and mirror instabilities in uniformly rotating dense quantum plasma have been investigated using generalized polytropic pressure laws. The QMHD model and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) set of equations are used to formulate the basic equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis which is discussed in parallel, transverse, and oblique wave propagations. The fast, slow, and intermediate QMHD wave modes and linear firehose and mirror instabilities are analyzed for isotropic MHD and CGL quantum fluid plasmas. The firehose instability remains unaffected while the mirror instability is modified by polytropic exponents and quantum diffraction parameter. The graphical illustrations show that quantum corrections have a stabilizing influence on the mirror instability. The presence of uniform rotation stabilizes while quantum corrections destabilize the growth rate of the system. It is also observed that the growth rate stabilizes much faster in parallel wave propagation in comparison to the transverse mode of propagation. The quantum corrections and polytropic exponents also modify the pseudo-MHD and reverse-MHD modes in dense quantum plasma. The phase speed (Friedrichs) diagrams of slow, fast, and intermediate wave modes are illustrated for isotropic MHD and double adiabatic MHD or CGL quantum plasmas, where the significant role of magnetic field and quantum diffraction parameters on the phase speed is observed.

  18. Simple Hydrogen Plasma Doping Process of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide-Based Phototransistors for Visible Light Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Ha; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Lee, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-02-28

    A homojunction-structured amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) phototransistor that can detect visible light is reported. The key element of this technology is an absorption layer composed of hydrogen-doped a-IGZO. This absorption layer is fabricated by simple hydrogen plasma doping, and subgap states are induced by increasing the amount of hydrogen impurities. These subgap states, which lead to a higher number of photoexcited carriers and aggravate the instability under negative bias illumination stress, enabled the detection of a wide range of visible light (400-700 nm). The optimal condition of the hydrogen-doped absorption layer (HAL) is fabricated at a hydrogen partial pressure ratio of 2%. As a result, the optimized a-IGZO phototransistor with the HAL exhibits a high photoresponsivity of 1932.6 A/W, a photosensitivity of 3.85 × 10 6 , and a detectivity of 6.93 × 10 11 Jones under 635 nm light illumination.

  19. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  20. A small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Yukihiko

    1986-01-01

    A principle for simultaneous and real time measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is proposed. A simple, small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a dc glow discharge tube and an ion sampling electrode system for the simultaneous measurement on the basis of the proposed plinciple, has been constructed and tested. Details of the experimental setup including the geometry and the electronic hardware are described. It is shown that mass spectra of neutrals and ions from the positive column of the argon dc glow discharge are successfully observed on a single oscilloscope display. (author)

  1. Studies of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the cusp ionosphere using sounding rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Spicher, Andres; Ilyasov, Askar A.; Miloch, Wojciech J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.

    2018-04-01

    Microprocesses associated with plasma inhomogeneities are studied on the basis of data from the Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI-3) sounding rocket. The ICI-3 rocket is devoted to investigating a reverse flow event in the cusp F region ionosphere. By numerical stability analysis, it is demonstrated that inhomogeneous-energy-density-driven (IEDD) instability can be a mechanism for the excitation of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities. The Local Intermittency Measure (LIM) method also applied the rocket data to analyze irregular structures of the electric field during rocket flight in the cusp. A qualitative agreement between high values of the growth rates of the IEDD instability and the regions with enhanced LIM is observed. This suggests that IEDD instability is connected to turbulent non-Gaussian processes.

  2. The prognostic value of KRAS mutated plasma DNA in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Anneli Dowler; Garm Spindler, Karen-Lise; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. New agents targeting the epidermal growth factor system are emerging, but only a subgroup of the patients will benefit from the therapy. Cell free DNA (cf......DNA) in the blood allows for tumour specific analyses, including KRAS-mutations, and the aim of the study was to investigate the possible prognostic value of plasma mutated KRAS (pmKRAS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, advanced NSCLC eligible....... RESULTS: The study included 246 patients receiving a minimum of 1 treatment cycle, and all but four were evaluable for response according to RECIST. Forty-three patients (17.5%) presented with a KRAS mutation. OS was 8.9 months and PFS by intention to treat 5.4 months. Patients with a detectable plasma...

  3. Scattering effects of small-scale density fluctuations on reflectometric measurements in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.P.; Manso, M.E.; Serra, F.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    When a wave propagates in a non homogeneous fluctuating plasma part of the incident energy is scattered out to the nonlinear interaction between the wave and the oscillating modes perturbing the plasma. The possibility of enhanced scattering at the cutoff layer, where reflection of the incident wave occurs, has been recently suggested as the basis of a reflectometric experiment to determine the spatial location of small scale fluctuations in a fusion plasma. Here we report on the development of a theoretical model to evaluate the flux of energy scattered by fluctuations, in order to give insight about the interpretation of measurements using a microwave reflectometry diagnostic in a tokamak. The scattered field is obtained through the resolution of a (non-homogeneous) wave propagation equation where the source term is related with the nonlinear current due to the interaction between the incident wave and local fluctuations. We use a slab model for the plasma, and an ordinary (0) wave propagation along the density gradient is considered. The amplitude of the scattered wave at the border of the plasma is estimated. In order to know the contributions to the energy scattered both from the propagation region and the reflecting layer, an approach was used where perturbations are modelled by spatial step functions at several layers. The main contribution to the scattered power comes from the cutoff region, where the electric field amplitude swells as compared with the incident value. Considering the reflectometric system recently installed on the ASDEX tokamak, and using typical density profiles, expected values of the 'swelling factor' have been numerically evaluated. The role of incoherent scattering due to drift wave activity is discussed as well as the coherent scattering due to fluctuations induced by lower hybrid (LH) waves. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  4. Estimation of reference intervals from small samples: an example using canine plasma creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffré, A; Braun, J P; Trumel, C; Concordet, D

    2009-12-01

    According to international recommendations, reference intervals should be determined from at least 120 reference individuals, which often are impossible to achieve in veterinary clinical pathology, especially for wild animals. When only a small number of reference subjects is available, the possible bias cannot be known and the normality of the distribution cannot be evaluated. A comparison of reference intervals estimated by different methods could be helpful. The purpose of this study was to compare reference limits determined from a large set of canine plasma creatinine reference values, and large subsets of this data, with estimates obtained from small samples selected randomly. Twenty sets each of 120 and 27 samples were randomly selected from a set of 1439 plasma creatinine results obtained from healthy dogs in another study. Reference intervals for the whole sample and for the large samples were determined by a nonparametric method. The estimated reference limits for the small samples were minimum and maximum, mean +/- 2 SD of native and Box-Cox-transformed values, 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles by a robust method on native and Box-Cox-transformed values, and estimates from diagrams of cumulative distribution functions. The whole sample had a heavily skewed distribution, which approached Gaussian after Box-Cox transformation. The reference limits estimated from small samples were highly variable. The closest estimates to the 1439-result reference interval for 27-result subsamples were obtained by both parametric and robust methods after Box-Cox transformation but were grossly erroneous in some cases. For small samples, it is recommended that all values be reported graphically in a dot plot or histogram and that estimates of the reference limits be compared using different methods.

  5. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Simple Small Size and Low Cost Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Selective Detection of Fe(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III. DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO, having high binding affinity for Fe(III, is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III. The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  7. A simple small size and low cost sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for selective detection of Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Alberti, Giancarla; Pesavento, Maria; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Quattrini, Federico; Biesuz, Raffaela; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-03-07

    A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III). DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO), having high binding affinity for Fe(III), is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III)/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III). The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  8. High beta plasma confinement and neoclassical effects in a small aspect ratio reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, K.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.

    2003-01-01

    The high β equilibrium and stability of a reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration with a small aspect ratio are theoretically studied. The equilibrium profile, high beta limit and the bootstrap current effect on those are calculated. The Mercier stable critical β decreases with 1/A, but β∼0.2 is permissible at A=2 with help of edge current profile modification. The effect of bootstrap current is evaluated for various pressure and current profiles and cross-sectional shapes of plasma by a self-consistent neoclassical PRSM equilibrium formulation. The high bootstrap current fraction (F bs ) increases the shear stabilization effect in the core region, which enhances significantly the stability β limit compared with that for the classical equilibrium. These features of small aspect ratio RFP, high β and high F bs , and a possibly easier access to the quasi-single helicity state beside the intrinsic compact structure are attractive for the feasible economical RFP reactor concept. (author)

  9. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm. - Highlights: • We investigated a small plasma focus as pulsed x-ray source for radiography applications. • The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, LSF and MTF. • The x-ray source focal spot was obtained to be ∼0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. • The x-ray dose measurement showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. • The profiles of LSF and MTF showed that the cut-off frequency is about 1.5 cycles/mm

  10. Correction to the paper “a simple model to determine the interrelation between the integral characteristics of hall thrusters” [Plasma Physics Reports 40, 229 (2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilin, V. P.; Shumilin, A. V.; Shumilin, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to comparison of experimental data with theoretical predictions concerning the dependence of the current of accelerated ions on the operating voltage of a Hall thruster with an anode layer. The error made in the paper published by the authors in Plasma Phys. Rep. 40, 229 (2014) occurred because of a misprint in the Encyclopedia of Low-Temperature Plasma. In the present paper, this error is corrected. It is shown that the simple model proposed in the above-mentioned paper is in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results

  11. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenmüller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course. Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P endoscopy may be useful before attending an SBCE course. PMID:26512623

  12. Implementation of a simple electronic transfusion alert system decreases inappropriate ordering of packed red blood cells and plasma in a multi-hospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Triulzi, Darrell J; Yazer, Mark H; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Waters, Jonathan H; Raval, Jay S

    2014-12-01

    Prescriber adherence to institutional blood component ordering guidelines can be low. The goal of this study was to decrease red blood cell (RBC) and plasma orders that did not meet institutional transfusion guidelines by using data within the laboratory information system to trigger alerts in the computerized order entry (CPOE) system at the time of order entry. At 10 hospitals within a regional health care system, discernment rules were created for RBC and plasma orders utilizing transfusion triggers of hemoglobin 1.6, respectively, with subsequent alert generation that appears within the CPOE system when a prescriber attempts to order RBCs or plasma on a patient whose antecedent laboratory values do not suggest that a transfusion is indicated. Orders and subsequent alerts were tracked for RBCs and plasma over evaluation periods of 15 and 10 months, respectively, along with the hospital credentials of the ordering health care providers (physician or nurse). Alerts triggered which were heeded remained steady and averaged 11.3% for RBCs and 19.6% for plasma over the evaluation periods. Overall, nurses and physicians canceled statistically identical percentages of alerted RBC (10.9% vs. 11.5%; p = 0.78) and plasma (21.3% vs. 18.7%; p = 0.22) orders. Implementing a simple evidence-based transfusion alert system at the time of order entry decreased non-evidence based transfusion orders by both nurse and physician providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RADAR upper hybrid resonance scattering diagnostics of small-scale fluctuations and waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time

  14. Determination of GABA and vigabatrin in human plasma by a rapid and simple HPLC method: correlation between clinical response to vigabatrin and increase in plasma GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fassbender, C P; Gram, L; Gramer, M; Hörstermann, D; Zahner, B; Stefan, H

    1993-03-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (Sabril) acts by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increasing the GABA concentrations in the brain. Because the GABA degrading enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) is also present in peripheral tissues, including blood platelets, measurement of plasma GABA levels might be a useful indication of the pharmacological response to vigabatrin during therapeutic monitoring. However, because of the very low concentrations of GABA in plasma, the few methods available for plasma GABA analysis are time-consuming, difficult to perform and/or not selective enough because of potential interference with other plasma constituents. In the present study, a rapid, selective and sensitive amino acid analysis HPLC method has been developed for plasma GABA determination with fluorescence detection, using o-phthaldialdehyde as a precolumn derivatizing agent. By employing a 3 microns particle size reversed-phase column and a multi-step gradient system of two solvents, the very low endogenous concentration of GABA in human plasma could be reproducibly quantitated without interference of other endogenous compounds. Incubation of human plasma samples with GABA degrading enzyme(s) resulted in an almost total loss of the GABA peak, thus demonstrating the specificity of the method for GABA analysis. In addition to GABA and other endogenous amino acids, the HPLC method could be used to quantitate plasma levels of vigabatrin. Thus, this improved HPLC amino acid assay might be used to examine whether concomitant monitoring of plasma GABA and vigabatrin is useful for clinical purposes. This was examined in 20 epileptic patients undergoing chronic treatment with vigabatrin. The average plasma GABA level of these 20 patients did not differ significantly from non-epileptic controls. However, when epileptic patients were subdivided according to their clinical response to vigabatrin, vigabatrin responders

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Time Evolution of Small-Scale Irregularities in the F-Layer Ionospheric Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mingalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of magnetic field-aligned small-scale irregularities in the electron concentration, existing in the F-layer ionospheric plasma, is investigated with the help of a mathematical model. The plasma is assumed to be a rarefied compound consisting of electrons and positive ions and being in a strong, external magnetic field. In the applied model, kinetic processes in the plasma are simulated by using the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations. The system of equations is numerically solved applying a macroparticle method. The time evolution of a plasma irregularity, having initial cross-section dimension commensurable with a Debye length, is simulated during the period sufficient for the irregularity to decay completely. The results of simulation indicate that the small-scale irregularity, created initially in the F-region ionosphere, decays accomplishing periodic damped vibrations, with the process being collisionless.

  16. Dynamics of small dust clouds trapped in a magnetized anodic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, Iris; Piel, Alexander; Trottenberg, Thomas; Koepke, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Small dust clouds, which are confined in an anodic plasma, are studied with respect to their structure and their response to modulation of the anode bias. The dust cloud is displaced from the center of the discharge by a process similar to the void mechanism in radio-frequency discharges under microgravity. The top layers of the dust cloud are in a crystalline state and the cloud performs a slow rotation about the magnetic field direction. For modulation frequencies below 15 Hz, a sloshing and stretching motion in the confining potential well is found. Spontaneously excited dust density waves are observed when the dust cloud exceeds a minimum size. The waves are characterized by sickle-shaped wave fronts. No standing waves were found. The wave dispersion shows an influence of the boundedness of the system in terms of a frequency cutoff

  17. Evidence of small-scale magnetic concentrations dragged by vortex motion of solar photospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaceda, L.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Palacios, J.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2010-04-01

    Vortex-type motions have been measured by tracking bright points in high-resolution observations of the solar photosphere. These small-scale motions are thought to be determinant in the evolution of magnetic footpoints and their interaction with plasma and therefore likely to play a role in heating the upper solar atmosphere by twisting magnetic flux tubes. We report the observation of magnetic concentrations being dragged towards the center of a convective vortex motion in the solar photosphere from high-resolution ground-based and space-borne data. We describe this event by analyzing a series of images at different solar atmospheric layers. By computing horizontal proper motions, we detect a vortex whose center appears to be the draining point for the magnetic concentrations detected in magnetograms and well-correlated with the locations of bright points seen in G-band and CN images.

  18. Design and characterization of a small multipurpose capacitor bank for plasma physics and pulsed power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeno, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies essentially refer to power sources providing a huge amount of energy during very short times. These technologies have applications in several fields of science and engineering: production of transient electrical discharges and plasmas, generation of radiation and ion beams, high density matter, production of pulsed high magnetic fields and shock waves. The achievements of these fields are relevant for several economical and industrial areas: electronics, microlithography, mining, medicine, agriculture, defense, materials, among others. In the present work, the design and construction of a small capacitor bank conceived for carrying out a variety of research activities are presented. The main features of this system are 1.2 μF of capacity, 30 kV maximum charge voltage, 33 nH inductance, 500 J of energy, 180 kA at the peak of current and dI/dt∼10 11 A s -1 . The procedure and results related to the characterization of the capacitor bank are presented. Possible applications of this capacitor bank to scaling studies related to plasma focus and Z-pinch, high pulsed magnetic field generation and rock fragmentation by electrical discharges are mentioned.

  19. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  20. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  1. A simple spectroscopic method for determining the temperature in H2O-Ar thermal plasma jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sember, Viktor; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2009), s. 217-228 ISSN 1093-3611. [European High Temperature Plasma Processes (HTPP)/10th./. Patras (Patras University), 07.07.2008-11.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084; GA MPO FT-TA4/050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma jets * spectroscopic diagnostics * mole-fraction gradients Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009

  2. A simple relationship between the Voigt integral and the plasma dispersion function. Additional methods to estimate the Voigt integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Dominguez, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Cabral-Prieto, C.; Bravo-Ortega, A.

    1989-01-01

    A relationship is presented between the Lorentzian-Gaussian profile convolutions and the plasma dispersion function; thus, the methods available to calculate the latter serve also to calculate the Voigt profile. (orig.)

  3. Development of a simple image viewer designed for small X-ray field CT equipment 3DX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Toyohiro; Fukunari, Fumiko; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yamasaki, Miwako; Ichihara, Takahiro; Kihara, Yuka; Zeze, Ryousuke; Nogami, Kentaro; Yuasa, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to develop a simple image viewer that utilizes image files in general-purpose formats that are written from the original 3DX volume data. We used FLASH MX2004 for Macintosh to develop a simple image viewer. In developing the software for the simple image viewer, we decided that the viewer should provide the following features: (1) be available to both Windows OS and Mac OS, (2) allow interlocking of the 3D images, (3) display image enlargement, and (4) allow distance measurements. The accuracy of the distance measurements was evaluated. The procedure was as follows: (1) write 3D images in jpeg format to a folder on i-VIEW; (2) place the folder containing the 3D images into the directory of the simple image viewer software on a PC; (3) start the software and open the window to input the folder name containing the 3D images; and (4) display the 3D images. Our viewer had features such as image enlargement, interlocking 3D images, drawing, and distance measurements. No significant differences were shown between the measurements made by our simple viewer and the actual values of the images in any direction. Our image-viewing software for 3DX is beneficial for clinical use. (author)

  4. A particle-in-cell method for modeling small angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a computational method to self-consistently model small angle collisional effects. This method may be added to standard Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma simulations to include collisions, or as an alternative to solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation using finite difference methods. The distribution function is represented by a large number of particles. The particle velocities change due to the drag force, and the diffusion in velocity is represented by a random process. This is similar to previous Monte-Carlo methods except we calculate the drag force and diffusion tensor self- consistently. The particles are weighted to a grid in velocity space and associated ''Poisson equations'' are solved for the Rosenbluth potentials. The motivation is to avoid the very time consuming method of Coulomb scattering pair by pair. First the approximation for small angle Coulomb collisions is discussed. Next, the FP-PIC collision method is outlined. Then we show a test of the particle advance modeling an electron beam scattering off a fixed ion background. 4 refs

  5. Recycling domains in plant cell morphogenesis: small GTPase effectors, plasma membrane signalling and the exocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The Rho/Rop small GTPase regulatory module is central for initiating exocytotically ACDs (active cortical domains) in plant cell cortex, and a growing array of Rop regulators and effectors are being discovered in plants. Structural membrane phospholipids are important constituents of cells as well as signals, and phospholipid-modifying enzymes are well known effectors of small GTPases. We have shown that PLDs (phospholipases D) and their product, PA (phosphatidic acid), belong to the regulators of the secretory pathway in plants. We have also shown that specific NOXs (NADPH oxidases) producing ROS (reactive oxygen species) are involved in cell growth as exemplified by pollen tubes and root hairs. Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains (ACDs), established and maintained by endocytosis/exocytosis-driven membrane protein recycling. We proposed recently the concept of a 'recycling domain' (RD), uniting the ACD and the connected endosomal recycling compartment (endosome), as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have described a putative GTPase-effector complex exocyst involved in exocytic vesicle tethering in plants. Owing to the multiplicity of its Exo70 subunits, this complex, along with many RabA GTPases (putative recycling endosome organizers), may belong to core regulators of RD organization in plants.

  6. A simple and sensitive HPLC method for analysis of imipramine in human plasma with UV detection and liquid-liquid extraction: Application in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods employing ultraviolet (UV) detector are not sufficiently sensitive to measure the low plasma concentrations following single oral dose of imipramine. Therefore, in the present study a simple, rapid and yet sensitive HPLC method with UV detection was developed and validated for quantitation of imipramine in human plasma samples. An efficient liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of imipramine from plasma with the mixture of hexane/isoamyl alcohol (98:2) and back extraction of the drug in acidic medium concomitant with evaporation of organic phase allowed the use of UV detector to conveniently measure plasma levels of this compound as low level as 3 ng/ml. Separation was achieved on a μ-Bondapak C18 HPLC column using sodium hydrogen phosphate solution (0.01 M)/acetonitrile (60/40 v/v) at pH 3.5 ± 0.1 at 1.5 ml/min. Trimipramine was used as the internal standard for analysis of plasma samples. The retention times for imipramine and trimipramine were 4.3 and 5.2 min, respectively. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-40 ng/ml using human plasma with the average extraction recovery of 85 ± 5%. Imipramine was found to be stable in plasma samples with no evidence of degradation during three freeze-thaw cycles and three months storage at -70°C. The current validated method was finally applied in bioequivalence studies of two different imipramine products according to a standard two-way crossover design with a two weeks washout period.

  7. A Simple, Small-Scale Lego Colorimeter with a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Used as Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheim, Jonas; Kvittingen, Eivind V.; Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a simple, inexpensive, and robust colorimeter from a few Lego bricks, in which one light-emitting diode (LED) is used as a light source and a second LED as a light detector. The colorimeter is suited to various grades and curricula.

  8. Using Simple Harmonic Motion to Follow the Galilean Moons--Testing Kepler's Third Law on a Small System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, I. G.; Pereira, J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The motion of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter is studied in this work. The moons had their positions with respect to the centre of the planet measured during one week of observation by means of telescopic charge coupled device images. It is shown that their movement can be well described as a simple harmonic motion. The revolution period and…

  9. Simple and Sensitive Analysis of Blonanserin and Blonanserin C in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, simple, and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously determine blonanserin and blonanserin C in human plasma with AD-5332 as internal standard (IS was established. A simple direct protein precipitation method was used for the sample pretreatment, and chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters XBridge C8 (4.6×150 mm, 3.5 μm column. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in water (A and 0.1% formic acid in methanol (B. To quantify blonanserin, blonanserin C, and IS, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM was performed in positive ESI mode. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.012–5.78 ng·mL−1 for blonanserin and 0.023–11.57 ng·mL−1 for blonanserin C (r2>0.9990. The intra- and interday precision of three quality control (QC levels in plasma were less than 7.5%. Finally, the current simple, sensitive, and accurate LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of blonanserin and blonanserin C in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  10. Small scale structure of magnetospheric electron density through on-line tracking of plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higel, B.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma resonance phenomena observed at fsub(pe), nfsub(ce), and fsub(qn) by the GEOS-1 S-301 relaxation sounder are identified through a pattern recognition software process implemented in a mini-computer which receives on-line the compressed data. First, this processing system distributes in real time fsub(pe) and fsub(ce) measurements to the ground media. Second, it drives and controls automatically the S-301 on-board experiment by sending appropriate telecommands: the tracking of resonances is performed by shortening the frequency sweeps to a narrow range centered on the resonance location. Examples of such tracking sequences are presented, exhibiting sampling rates of the electron density measurements from once every 22s (slowest rate) to once every 86 ms (highest rate available). The results give evidence of the existence of very small scale structures in the magnetospheric density, having characteristic sizes of the order of a few 10 2 m or/and a few 10 -1 s. The relative amplitude of these density fluctuations is typically 1%. Because of satellite spinning, fixed frequency sounding sequences allow to measure in a few seconds the directivity features of the plasma resonance signals. Examples of directional patterns in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field are presented: the electrostatic nature of the waves received at fsub(pe), nfsub(ce), and fsub(qn) being consistent with these patterns, the corresponding k vector orientations become available. The Bernstein modes properties are used to interpret the nfsub(ce) and fsub(qn) results. (Auth.)

  11. Internal helical modes with m > 1 in a tokamak with a small shear and high plasma pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikha lovskij, A.B.; Aburdzhaniya, G.D.; Krymskij, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Internal helical modes with m>1 in a circular cross-section tokamak with a small shear and large value of the parameter β (β is the ratio between the mean plasma pressure and the mean pressure of the poloidal magnetic field) are investigated. The equations obtained are used to study the destabilizing effects leading to helical instabilities. The role of destabilizing effects is regarded both in local and in a nonlocal approximations on the assumption that the radial plasma pressure is distributed parabolically and that the radial current distribution is also parabolic though slightly varying. It has been established that the profiling of current may lead to the tokamak plasma stability with respect to the modes under investigation. A tokamak with a small shear has been shown to be more stable relative to these modes than that with a large shear

  12. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  13. A simple data acquisition system based on arduino platform for non-self-sustained gas discharge plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiruk, I.O.; Garkusha, I.E.; Timoshenko, O.I.; Taran, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A simple data acquisition system based on Arduino Nano platform is developed. Bluetooth wireless protocol is used for data transmission. Android OS application for data visualization and recording is developed. The system was success-fully applied for acquiring data of Langmuir probe measurements in the non-self-sustained discharge with a hollow anode.

  14. A simple and selective liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of ε-aminocaproic acid in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh S. Moorthy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the clinical pharmacology of the antifibrinolytic drug epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA is critical for rational drug administration in children. The aim of this study is to develop a reliable assay for the determination of EACA in human plasma. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS assay for EACA in human plasma. Sample preparation involved plasma dilution (1:2040, followed by reversed-phase chromatographic separation and selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry. EACA had a linear range of 1 - 250 μg/mL. The intraday precision based on the standard deviation of replicates of quality control samples ranged from 4.7 to 10.4% and the accuracy ranged from 92-106%. The interday precision ranged from 4.6 to 9.8% and the accuracy ranged from 95-103%. Stability studies showed that EACA was stable during the conditions for sample preparation and storage. The described method is robust and successfully employed for clinical studies of EACA in children

  15. Sorptive thin film microextraction followed by direct solid state spectrofluorimetry: A simple, rapid and sensitive method for determination of carvedilol in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shima; Talebpour, Zahra; Adib, Noushin

    2016-06-14

    A poly acrylate-ethylene glycol (PA-EG) thin film is introduced for the first time as a novel polar sorbent for sorptive extraction method coupled directly to solid-state spectrofluorimetry without the necessity of a desorption step. The structure, polarity, fluorescence property and extraction performance of the developed thin film were investigated systematically. Carvedilol was used as the model analyte to evaluate the proposed method. The entire procedure involved one-step extraction of carvedilol from plasma using PA-EG thin film sorptive phase without protein precipitation. Extraction variables were studied in order to establish the best experimental conditions. Optimum extraction conditions were the followings: stirring speed of 1000 rpm, pH of 6.8, extraction temperature of 60 °C, and extraction time of 60 min. Under optimal conditions, extraction of carvedilol was carried out in spiked human plasma; and the linear range of calibration curve was 15-300 ng mL(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) for the method was 4.5 ng mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated in plasma sample spiked with three concentration levels of carvedilol; yielding a recovery of 91-112% and relative standard deviation of less than 8%, respectively. The established procedure was successfully applied for quantification of carvedilol in plasma sample of a volunteer patient. The developed PA-EG thin film sorptive phase followed by solid-state spectrofluorimetric method provides a simple, rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of carvedilol in human plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental study of the performance of a very small repetitive plasma focus device in different working conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, S., E-mail: sgoudarzi@aeoi.org.ir; Babaee, H.; Esmaeli, A.; Nasiri, A. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    SORENA-1 is a very small repetitive Mather-type plasma focus device (20 J) that can operate at frequencies up to 1 Hz. This device has been designed and constructed in the Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Research School of the Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute of Iran. In this article, the structure of SORENA-1 is described and results of experiments with Ar, Ne, and D{sub 2} working gases at several discharge voltages and initial pressures are presented and analyzed.

  17. The history of re-connection and the concept of the solar wind plasma with relatively small electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    Petschek's 're-connection' model, aspiring to be universal, treated as a boundary problem meets unresolvable difficulties connected with impossibility to specify correctly boundary and initial conditions. This problem was incorrectly formulated. Hence, ineradicable logarithmic singularities occurred on the boundary surfaces. Attempts to eliminate them by incorporating the finite electrical conductivity are incorrect. This should lead to the change in the equation type, boundary condition type and in consequence to the change in solutions. Besides, the slow mode shocks cannot be driven by small internal source. As an alternative a new plasma concept is suggested. The state of fully ionized plasma in space depends completely on the entropy of the plasma heating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma should be very far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. Debye's screening is not complete. The excitation of the powerful resonant self-consistent electric fields in plasma provides low electric conductivity. The MHD problems should be treated in frameworks of dissipative theories.

  18. Evaluation of a Simple, Small-Plot Meteorological Technique for Measurement of Ammonia Emission: Feasibility, Costs, and Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Vilms; di Perta, Ester Scotto; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2018-01-01

    are regularly developed, and their efficacy needs to be tested using accurate methods. To date, a major obstacle to many available emission measurement techniques is the requirement of large plot sizes of homogeneous surface characteristics, which particularly is a challenge to the number of plot......-level replicates that can be carried out on a field providing uniform surface characteristics throughout. The objectives of this research were to test three different methods for measuring NH3 flux when applied to small plots (methods and to determine...... techniques, wind tunnels measuring gas-phase ammonia using ALPHA passive diffusion samplers and a flux chamber method using Dräger tubes for measurements of ammonia concentration (DTM) were used. As an inexpensive alternative small-plot method, we studied the feasibility of applying ALPHA passive diffusion...

  19. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenm?ller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n?=?2), Italy (n?=?2), Germany (n?=?2), Finland (n?=?1), and nationally in Germany (n?=?10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on t...

  20. Simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of the phenylalanine in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe is the most reliable indicator for the diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU. The purpose of this study is to establish a reliable and quick method for the assignment of Phe in peripheral capillary blood from newborns and children by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV. PKU is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by the inability of the body to use Phe. A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed for determination of Phe in plasma. The method uses a protein precipitation step with sulfosalicilic acid for sample preparation by separation on a Nova-pack C18 column using sodium acetate buffer and acetonitrile (94: 6 v/v adjusted to pH 6.5 with glacial acetic acid. The eluted peaks detected by a UV detector was set at wavelength of 215 nm. The method was validated in the range of Phe concentrations from 0.1 to 20 µg/ml. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 0.05 and 0.1 µg/ml, respectively. The average drug recovery from plasma was 88.60 percent throughout the linear concentration range., with the average within-run and between-run accuracy values of 103.3 and 115.350, respectively. The method is quick, easy, very steady and precise for the screen, assignment, and evaluation of Phe in human plasma by HPLC, which is particularly a useful way for screening and diagnosis of PKU and monitoring of a diet therapy.

  1. A simple tool for preliminary hazard identification and quick assessment in craftwork and small/medium enterprises (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G

    2012-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded aimed at developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" within IEA and in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO). Possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees, health and safety representatives, line supervisors; labor inspectors; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists.According to ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, a computer software ( in Excel®) was create dealing with hazard "mapping" in handicraft The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazard identification and risk estimation. Thus it makes possible to decide for which professional hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which professional consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  2. A simple toroidal shell model for the study of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, Hogun

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted on the feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in a tokamak plasma using a toroidal shell model. An analytically tractable form of the RWM dispersion relation is derived in the presence of a set of discrete feedback coil currents. A parametric study is carried out to optimize the feedback system configuration. It is shown that the total toroidal angle of a resistive wall spanned by the feedback coils and the poloidal angular extent of a feedback coil are crucial parameters to determine the efficacy of the feedback system

  3. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  4. Simple protein precipitation extraction technique followed by validated chromatographic method for linezolid analysis in real human plasma samples to study its pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Samah A; Eissa, Maya S; Ahmed, Hytham M

    2017-02-01

    Fast and sensitive HPLC method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of linezolid (LNZ) in human plasma using guaifenesin as an internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were extracted from plasma by simple protein precipitation extraction technique using methanol as the precipitating solvent. The pretreated samples were injected in a mobile phase formed of acetonitrile:water:methanol (20:70:10v/v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min with UV detection at 251nm. Separation was done using Aglient ODS C 18 . The method showed linearity in the range of 0.75-50μg/mL with correlation coefficients equals to 0.9991. Precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bio-analytical method validation. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day assays were <3.56 and 4.63%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were 94.67-98.28% and 91.25-96.18%, respectively. The mean absolute recoveries ranged from 92.56±1.78 to 95.24±2.84. According to stability results, LNZ was stable in human plasma during the storage and analysis. LNZ a pharmacokinetic behavior was studied by applying the proposed analytical method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple and efficient electrochemical sensor for folic acid determination in human blood plasma based on gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvand, Majid; Dehsaraei, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. A new chemically modified electrode was fabricated for determination of FA in human blood plasma using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon paste electrode (CPE). Gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs/CPE) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental parameters such as pH, scan rate (ν) and amount of modifier were studied by cyclic voltammetry and the optimized values were chosen. The electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient of FA (D FA ), electrode surface area (A) and electron transfer coefficient (α) were calculated. Square wave voltammetry as an accurate technique was used for quantitative calculations. A good linear relation was observed between anodic peak current (i pa ) and FA concentration (C FA ) in the range of 6 × 10 −8 to 8 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , and the detection limit (LOD) achieved 2.7 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , that is comparable with recently studies. This paper demonstrated a novel, simple, selective and rapid sensor for determining the FA in the biological samples. - Highlights: • We examine a AuNPs/CPE for direct electrooxidation behavior and determination of FA. • Characterization of the electrode showed an obvious increase in surface area and porosity after modification. • The modified electrode showed good ability to distinguish the electrochemical response of FA. • The results were attributed to the specific characteristics of AuNPs present in the AuNPs/CPE. • This paper demonstrated a simple and rapid sensor for determination of FA in plasma

  7. CANDLE reactor: an option for simple, safe, high nuclear proliferation resistant , small waste and efficient fuel use reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    The innovative nuclear energy systems have been investigated intensively for long period in COE-INES program and CRINES activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Five requirements; sustainability, safety, waste, nuclear-proliferation, and economy; are considered as inevitable requirements for nuclear energy. Characteristics of small LBE cooled CANDLE fast reactor developed in this Institute are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies clearly four requirements; safety, nonproliferation and safeguard, less wastes and sustainability. For the remaining requirement, economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown

  8. Carbon plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Zagar, D.M.; Mills, G.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A family of plasma guns supplying highly ionized carbon plasma is described. The guns are simple and inexpensive to construct and are pulsed by small capacitor banks of a few hundred joules. The output consists of 10 17 --10 18 multiply ionized carbon ions traveling at about 10 7 cm/s. Neutral output is very low and arrives well after the ionized carbon. The guns and pulsers are very reliable

  9. A Simple Method for Automated Solid Phase Extraction of Water Samples for Immunological Analysis of Small Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heub, Sarah; Tscharner, Noe; Kehl, Florian; Dittrich, Petra S; Follonier, Stéphane; Barbe, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A new method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of environmental water samples is proposed. The developed prototype is cost-efficient and user friendly, and enables to perform rapid, automated and simple SPE. The pre-concentrated solution is compatible with analysis by immunoassay, with a low organic solvent content. A method is described for the extraction and pre-concentration of natural hormone 17β-estradiol in 100 ml water samples. Reverse phase SPE is performed with octadecyl-silica sorbent and elution is done with 200 µl of methanol 50% v/v. Eluent is diluted by adding di-water to lower the amount of methanol. After preparing manually the SPE column, the overall procedure is performed automatically within 1 hr. At the end of the process, estradiol concentration is measured by using a commercial enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). 100-fold pre-concentration is achieved and the methanol content in only 10% v/v. Full recoveries of the molecule are achieved with 1 ng/L spiked de-ionized and synthetic sea water samples.

  10. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of small amounts of selenium(IV) and arsenic(V) by simple extraction using flotation columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, G A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-10-01

    A simple, rapid and selective procedure for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of Se(IV) and As(V) has been developed. It is based on the reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) and As(V) to As(III) with hydroiodic acid (KI + HCl). The liberated iodine, equivalent to each analyte, is quantitatively extracted with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant. The iodine-HOL system exhibits its maximum absorbance at 435 nm. The different analytical parameters affecting the extraction and determination processes have been examined. The calibration graphs were found to be linear over the ranges 5-120 and 0.25-20 ppm of Se(IV) and As(V), with lower detection limits of 2.5 and 0.15 ppm and molar absorptivities of 1 x 10(4) and 0.5 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. Sandell's sensitivity was calculated to be 0.0078 and 0.0149 microg/cm2 in the same order. The relative standard deviation for five replicate analyses of 40 ppm Se(IV) and 4 ppm As(V) were 1.0 and 0.9%, respectively. The proposed procedure in the presence of EDTA as a masking agent for foreign ions has been successfully applied to the determination of Se(IV) in a reference sample and As(V) in copper metal, in addition to their determination in spiked and polluted water samples.

  11. A simple method to determine evaporation and compensate for liquid losses in small-scale cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Vincent; Martinez, Cristina Bernal; Baganz, Frank

    2018-04-24

    Establish a method to indirectly measure evaporation in microwell-based cell culture systems and show that the proposed method allows compensating for liquid losses in fed-batch processes. A correlation between evaporation and the concentration of Na + was found (R 2  = 0.95) when using the 24-well-based miniature bioreactor system (micro-Matrix) for a batch culture with GS-CHO. Based on these results, a method was developed to counteract evaporation with periodic water additions based on measurements of the Na + concentration. Implementation of this method resulted in a reduction of the relative liquid loss after 15 days of a fed-batch cultivation from 36.7 ± 6.7% without volume corrections to 6.9 ± 6.5% with volume corrections. A procedure was established to indirectly measure evaporation through a correlation with the level of Na + ions in solution and deriving a simple formula to account for liquid losses.

  12. A simple graphene-based pipette tip solid-phase extraction of malondialdehyde from human plasma and its determination by spectrofluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaykhaii, Massoud; Yahyavi, Hossain; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    Determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) in human blood plasma is important because of its role as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation in biological and medical sciences. In this work, a miniaturized graphene-based pipette tip solid-phase extraction technique was developed for very efficient extraction of MDA as its dithiobarbituric acid (TBA) adduct from human plasma. Two milligrams of graphene as sorbent were placed into a pipette tip and MDA-TBA compound was extracted and preconcentrated by it, after 4 repeated aspirating/dispensing cycles, then the column was eluted with 80 μL of dimethyl sulfoxide by 4 repeated aspirating/dispensing cycles and elusion was measured spectrofluorimetrically. Various effective parameters such as type and volume of eluent solvent, temperature, sample volume, number of cycles of extraction and desorption, derivatization reaction time, and pH of the sample solution were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.5-90 μg L(-1) (r (2) = 0.991) with a detection limit of 0.3 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations for 8 replicate measurements of 10 and 40 μg L(-1) of MDA were found to be 4.51 and 3.78 % respectively. The developed protocol was successfully applied to the determination of MDA in a human blood plasma sample. Graphical Abstract A simple graphene-based pipette tip solid-phase extraction of malondialdehyde from human plasma and its determination by spectrofluorometry.

  13. Advancement of In-Flight Alumina Powder Spheroidization Process with Water Droplet Injection Using a Small Power DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Park, Sangkyu; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2012-09-01

    The correlation between plasma thermofluid characteristics and alumina powder spheroidization processes with water droplet injection using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system was experimentally clarified. Micro-sized water droplets with a low water flow rate were injected into the tail of thermal plasma flow so as not to disturb the plasma flow directly. Injected water droplets were vaporized in the thermal plasma flow and were transported upstream in the plasma flow to the torch by the backflow. After dissociation of water, the production of hydrogen was detected by the optical emission spectroscopy in the downstream RF plasma flow. The emission area of the DC plasma jet expanded and elongated in the vicinity of the RF coils. Additionally, the emission area of RF plasma flow enlarged and was visible as red emission in the downstream RF plasma flow in the vicinity below the RF coils due to hydrogen production. Therefore, the plasma flow mixed with produced hydrogen increased the plasma enthalpy and the highest spheroidization rate of 97% was obtained at a water flow rate of 15 Sm l/min and an atomizing gas flow rate of 8 S l/min using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  14. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Näslund

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90. The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90, but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79. A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth.

  15. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Bras

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  16. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Wim; Koizumi, Satoshi; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2014-11-01

    Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS) are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  17. Plasma rotation measurement in small tokamaks using an optical spectrometer and a single photomultiplier as detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, J H F; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetov, Yu K; Tsypin, V S; Galvão, R M O; Tendler, M

    2007-04-01

    The method for plasma rotation measurement in the tokamak TCABR is reported in this article. During a discharge, an optical spectrometer is used to scan sequentially spectral lines of plasma impurities and spectral lines of a calibration lamp. Knowing the scanning velocity of the diffraction grating of the spectrometer with adequate precision, the Doppler shifts of impurity lines are determined. The photomultiplier output voltage signals are recorded with adequate sampling rate. With this method the residual poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation velocities were determined, assuming that they are the same as those of the impurity ions. The results show reasonable agreement with the neoclassical theory and with results from similar tokamaks.

  18. An engineering approach to the design and construction of a small modular stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma. SCR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillas, Laura; Vargas, V. Iván; Alpízar, Asdrúval

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the design and construction of Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) from an engineering perspective. SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR). The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish Stellarator UST 1 (Ultra Small Torus 1), created by engineer Vicente Queral. Some of the characteristics of the SCR-1 are the following: it will be a 2-field period modular stellarator with an aspect ratio ≈ 6; low shear configuration with core and edge rotational transform equal to 0.32 and 0.28; it will employ stainless steel torus-shaped vacuum vessel which will hold a plasma with an average radius a ≈ 42.2 mm, a volume of 8 liters (0.008 m 3 ), and major radius R = 238 mm. This plasma will be confined by a magnetic field (B ≈ 90 mT) given by 12 modular coils with 12 turns each, carrying a current of 725 A per turn providing a total toroidal field (TF) current of 8.7 kA-turn per coil. The coils will be supplied by a bank of cell batteries of 120 V. Typical length of the plasma pulse will be between 4 s to 10 s. The plasma heating will be achieved by electron cyclotron radio-frequency (ECH) from two magnetrons providing a total power of 5 kW, at a frequency of 2.45 GHz corresponding to the first harmonic (B 0 = 87.8 mT). The expected electron temperature and density are 15 eV and 7x10 16 m -3 respectively. The initial diagnostics on the SCR-1 will consist of a Langmuir probe with a displacement system, a heterodyne microwave interferometer (frequency of 28 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of λ = 10.71 mm). The first plasma of the SCR-1 is expected at the beginning of 2012. (author)

  19. Fundamental Studies of Transient, Atmospheric-Pressure, Small-Scale Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    C. Jiang, R. Heller, J. Lane, and K. H. Schoenbach, " Ozone -free nitric oxide production using an atmospheric pressure surface discharge – a way to...Electrostatic modeling and energy-dependent studies showed that the direct and indirect electron-induced processes in the pulsed plasma jet are responsible for...Coupled sliding discharges : a scalable nonthermal plasma system utilizing positive and negative streamers on DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  20. A novel and simple method using a transanal intestinal long tube for protecting intestinal anastomosis and decompressing the small bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose I introduce the use of transanal intestinal long tube (TILT) using nasogastric tube. TILT passes from anus to the anastomosis, helping to decompress a dilated bowel loop. Methods TILT procedure was limited to those patients predicting a severe luminal size discrepancy after intestinal anastomosis, and who had postoperative prolonged ileus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 10 infants (7 male an 3 female patients) who were treated using the TILT procedure between 2012 and 2016. Results Median gestational age was 27+5 weeks and birth weight was 940 g. The first operation was done at a median of 4.5 days after birth due to necrotizing enterocolitis perforation (4 cases), isolated intestinal perforation (3 cases), meconium related ileus (1 case), congenital ileal volvulus (1 case), and ileal atresia (1 case). Nine cases of ileostomy closure were planned at a median of 130.5 days with a body weight of 3,060 g. For the ileal atresia case, TILT procedure without additional small bowel resection was performed to treat postoperative prolonged ileus. Nine out of ten were well functioned and defecation via anus was observed in a median of 4.5 days. Milk feeding began at a median of 6 days and the long intestinal tube was removed in a median of 14.5 days. Conclusion I suggested that TILT procedure could be a noninvasive operative option, predicting of size mismatched anastomosis causing prolonged ileus. Passive drainage of proximal intestinal contents might be helpful for decompress endoluminal pressure during the time of anastomosis healing with bowel movement recovery. PMID:28932729

  1. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I Team.

    1993-01-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author)

  2. Simple O2 Plasma-Processed V2O5 as an Anode Buffer Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Xichang; Zhu, Qianqian; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    A simple O2 plasma processing method for preparation of a vanadium oxide (V2O5) anode buffer layer on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass for polymer solar cells (PSCs) is reported. The V2O5 layer with high transmittance and good electrical and interfacial properties was prepared by spin coating...... the illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2). Compared to that of the control device with PBDTTT-C:PC71BM as the active layer and PEDOT:PSS (PCE of 6.52%) and thermally annealed V2O5 (PCE of 6.27%) as the anode buffer layer, the PCE was improved by 15.6 and 20.2%, respectively, after the introduction of a V2O5 (O2...... plasma) anode buffer layer. The improved PCE is ascribed to the greatly improved fill factor and enhanced short-circuit current density of the devices, which benefited from the change in the work function of V2O5, a surface with many dangling bonds for better interfacial contact, and the excellent charge...

  3. A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine plasma biotin in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ando, Itiro; Oguma, Shiro; Sato, Emiko; Imai, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Masako

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective method for determination of plasma biotin was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After single-step protein precipitation with methanol, biotin and stable isotope-labeled biotin as an internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a pentafluorophenyl stationary-phase column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm) under isocratic conditions using 10 mm ammonium formate-acetonitrile (93:7, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The total chromatographic runtime was 5 min for each injection. Detection was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode by monitoring selected ion transitions at m/z 245.1/227.0 and 249.1/231.0 for biotin and the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-2 ng/mL using 300 μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all biotin concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A sensitive, simple and rapid HPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of buprenorpine and its N-dealkylated metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ya Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of buprenorphine (BUP and its N-dealkylated metabolite norbuprenorphine (NBUP in 200μL human plasma. Human plasma samples were prepared using liquid–liquid extraction, and then separated on a Shiseido MG C18 (5μm, 2.0mm×50mm via 4.1min gradient elution. Following electrospray ionization, the analytes were quantified on a triple–quadrupole mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM positive ion mode. Linearity was achieved from 25.0 to 10000pg/mL for buprenorphine, from 20.0 to 8000pg/mL for norbuprenorphine with r2>0.99. The method was demonstrated with acceptable accuracy, precision and specificity for the detection of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Recovery was 81.8–88.8% for buprenorphine and 77.0–84.6% for norbuprenorphine, and the matrix effect was 95.6–97.4% for buprenorphine and 94.0–96.9% for norbuprenorphine; all were not concentration dependent. With validated matrix and autosampler stability data, this method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to support abbreviated new drug application. Keywords: Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Human plasma, HPLC–MS/MS

  5. A simple and sensitive method for determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma: application for an in vivo pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Sivak, Olena; Darlington, Jerald W; Wasan, Kishor M

    2014-03-01

    To develop and to validate a simple but sensitive method for determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma. The sample treatment included protein precipitation by cold acetonitrile, evaporation, reconstitution with methanol and filtration. The chromatography conditions included Xterra RP18 3.5 µm 4.6 × 100 mm column at ambient temperature and mobile phase consisting of methanol/water (93/7, v/v) at 0.5 mL/min flow rate. Vitamin D3 and probucol were detected at 265 nm and vitamin K1 at 239 nm. Rats were administered intravenously by 0.1 mg/kg of vitamin D3 or K1 and the blood samples were withdrawn pre-administration and at pre-determined time points post-administration. The pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a non-compartmental approach. The calibration curves in rat plasma were linear up to 5000 ng/mL for both vitamins. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 20 ng/mL for vitamin D3 and 40 ng/mL for K1. Inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy were below 15%. The pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin D3 following intravenous administration were: AUC0-∞ = 11323 ± 1081 h × ng/mL, Vd = 218 ± 80 mL/kg, CL = 8.9 ± 0.8 mL/h/kg, t1/2 = 16.8 ± 5 h; and of vitamin K1: AUC0-∞ = 2495 ± 297 h × ng/mL, Vd = 60 ±24 mL/kg, CL = 40.5 ± 5.1 mL/h/kg, t1/2 = 1.1 ±0.5 h. The developed HPLC-UV assay is a simple and sensitive method for the determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma. A higher dose of vitamin K1 should be used in future studies for accurate estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters. The data show the suitability of the assay for pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

  6. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  7. MULTI-FLUID APPROACH TO HIGH-FREQUENCY WAVES IN PLASMAS. I. SMALL-AMPLITUDE REGIME IN FULLY IONIZED MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an accurate description of low-frequency Alfvén waves in fully ionized plasmas. However, higher-frequency waves in many plasmas of the solar atmosphere cannot be correctly described by ideal MHD and a more accurate model is required. Here, we study the properties of small-amplitude incompressible perturbations in both the low- and the high-frequency ranges in plasmas composed of several ionized species. We use a multi-fluid approach and take into account the effects of collisions between ions and the inclusion of Hall’s term in the induction equation. Through the analysis of the corresponding dispersion relations and numerical simulations, we check that at high frequencies ions of different species are not as strongly coupled as in the low-frequency limit. Hence, they cannot be treated as a single fluid. In addition, elastic collisions between the distinct ionized species are not negligible for high-frequency waves, since an appreciable damping is obtained. Furthermore, Coulomb collisions between ions remove the cyclotron resonances and the strict cutoff regions, which are present when collisions are not taken into account. The implications of these results for the modeling of high-frequency waves in solar plasmas are discussed.

  8. Design and construction of small magnetic probes for a toroidal plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of probes were built with consideration given to the problems of heating, caused by bombardment by the hot plasma, interaction of the probe on the plasma, stray pick up by inaccurate alignment and accidental damage to the delicate coils. These problems were resolved by the following design criteria: 1. Heat resistant materials and thermocouple attached. 2. Dimensions kept to a minimum size. 3. Double layer coils wound back on themselfes and lead tightly twisted together. 4. Coils accurately aligned. 5. Protective covering over coils. (author)

  9. A retrospective study comparing the outcome of horses undergoing small intestinal resection and anastomosis with a single layer (Lembert) or double layer (simple continuous and Cushing) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristyn; Epstein, Kira L; Sherlock, Ceri E

    2014-05-01

    To (1) compare postoperative complications and survival in horses after small intestinal resection and anastomosis using 2 anastomosis techniques (single layer Lembert; double layer simple continuous oversewn with Cushing), and (2) to compare outcome by anastomosis type (jejunoileostomy; jejunojejunostomy). Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 53). Medical records (July 2006-July 2010) of all horses that had small intestinal resection and anastomosis. Horses were divided into groups based on technique and type of anastomosis. Comparisons of pre- and intraoperative findings (disease severity), postoperative complications, and survival rates were made between groups. There were no differences in disease severity, postoperative complications, or survival between single layer (n = 23) or double layer (n = 31) anastomoses. There were no differences in disease severity or survival between jejunoileostomy (n = 16) or jejunojejunostomy (n = 38). There was a higher incidence of postoperative colic in hospital after jejunoileostomy (13/16) compared with jejunojejunostomy (18/38) (P = .0127). Postoperative complications and survival are comparable between horses undergoing single layer and double layer small intestinal end-to-end anastomoses. With the exception of increased postoperative colic in the hospital, postoperative complications and survival after jejunoileostomy and jejunojejunostomy are also comparable. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Expression profiles and clinical value of plasma exosomal Tim-3 and Galectin-9 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianwei; Qiu, Xiangyu; Li, Xinying; Fan, Hang; Zhang, Fang; Lv, Tangfeng; Song, Yong

    2018-04-06

    Exosomes are membrane-bound, virus-sized vesicles present in circulating blood. Tumor cells are avid producers of exosomes, which are thought to mimic molecular features of parent tumor cells. T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is a the next-generation immune checkpoint that can be activated by its ligand Galectin-9 to negatively regulate the anti-tumor immune response. However, the characteristics of plasma exosomal Tim-3 and Galectin-9 (Exo-T/G) in cancer remained unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the expression patterns and clinical value of plasma exosomal total protein (Exo-pro) and Exo-T/G in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Plasma was collected from 103 NSCLC patients including 60 early stages and 43 advanced stages disease samples as well as 56 healthy subjects. Exosomes were isolated from plasma by commercial exosome precipitation solution and identified by western blotting of CD63 and transmission electron microscopy. Exo-pro concentration was measured by the BCA assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify Exo-T/G. Additionally, 34 NSCLC samples were applied to directly detect plasma TIM-3 (Plas-T) and Galectin-9 (Plas-G). Our results showed that Exo-pro, Exo-T, and Exo-G were significantly increased in NSCLC plasma compared to that in the healthy samples. High levels of Exo-T and Exo-G were all positively correlated with several malignant parameters, including larger tumor size, advanced stages, and more distant metastasis. High levels of Exo-pro and Exo-T were also correlated with more lymph node metastasis. Additionally, plasma from lung squamous cell carcinoma showed higher Exo-T and Exo-G compared with that from lung adenocarcinoma. ALK-positive patients showed to have decreased Exo-T and Exo-G levels. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between Exo-pro and Exo-T/G, Exo-T and Exo-G, Exo-T and Plas-T, Exo-G and Plas-G, and Plas-T and Plas-G. Together

  11. Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light walking or simple resistance activities reduces resting blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Sacre, Julian W; Larsen, Robyn N; Straznicky, Nora E; Sethi, Parneet; Cohen, Neale D; Cerin, Ester; Lambert, Gavin W; Owen, Neville; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged sitting is increasingly recognized as a ubiquitous cardiometabolic risk factor, possibly distinct from lack of physical exercise. We examined whether interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light-intensity activity reduced blood pressure (BP) and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover trial, 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D (14 men; mean ± SD; 62 ± 6 years) consumed standardized meals during 3 × 8 h conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); sitting + half-hourly bouts of walking (3.2 km/h for 3-min) (light-intensity walking); and sitting + half-hourly bouts of simple resistance activities for 3 min (SRAs), each separated by 6-14 days washout. Resting seated BP was measured hourly (mean of three recordings, ≥20-min postactivity). Plasma noradrenaline was measured at 30-min intervals for the first hour after meals and hourly thereafter. Compared with SIT, mean resting SBP and DBP were significantly reduced (P light-intensity walking (mean ± SEM; -14 ± 1/-8 ± 1 mmHg) and SRA (-16 ± 1/-10 ± 1 mmHg), with a more pronounced effect for SRA (P light-intensity walking). Similarly, mean plasma noradrenaline was significantly reduced for both light-intensity walking (-0.3 ± 0.1 nmol/l) and SRA (-0.6 ± 0.1 nmol/l) versus SIT, with SRA lower than light-intensity walking (P light-intensity walking (-3 ± 1 bpm; P light-intensity walking or SRA reduces resting BP and plasma noradrenaline in adults with T2D, with SRA being more effective. Given the ubiquity of sedentary behaviors and poor adherence to structured exercise, this approach may have important implications for BP management in patients with T2D.

  12. Transient, Small-Scale Field-Aligned Currents in the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer During Storm Time Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Varsani, A.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report on field-aligned current observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned currents were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the Separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned current sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward earth ward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.

  13. Small amplitude Kinetic Alfven waves in a superthermal electron-positron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Sahahzad; Qamar, Anisa; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-11-01

    We are investigating the propagating properties of coupled Kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves in a low beta plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons. Using the standard reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation is derived which describes the evolution of Kinetic Alfven waves. It is found that nonlinearity and Larmor radius effects can compromise and give rise to solitary structures. The parametric role of superthermality and positron content on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is also investigated. It is found that only sub-Alfvenic and compressive solitons are supported in the present model. The present study may find applications in a low β electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons.

  14. A Combined Time Domain Impedance Probe And Plasma Wave Receiver System For Small Satellite Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E. A.; Clark, D. C.; Vadepu, S. K.; Patra, S.

    2017-12-01

    A Time Domain Impedance Probe (TDIP) measures electron density and electron neutral collision frequencies in the ionosphere. This instrument has been tested on a sounding rocket flight and is now being further developed to fly on a NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Program (USIP) cubesat to be launched out of the ISS in 2019. Here we report on the development of a new combined TDIP and plasma wave instrument that can be used on cubesat platforms to measure local electron parameters, and also to receive or transmit electron scale waves. This combined instrument can be used to study short time and space scale phenomena in the upper ionosphere using only RF signals. The front end analog circuitry is dual-purposed to perform active or passive probing of the ambient plasma. Two dipole antennas are used, one is optimzed for impedance measurements, while the other is optimized for transmitter-receiver performance. We show our circuit realization, and initial results from laboratory measurements using the TDIP prototype modified for receiver function. We also show Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations of an electrically long antenna immersed in a magnetized plasma used to optimize the transmitter receiver performance.

  15. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetized Argon Plasma Flow Through Small Mechanical Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam B. Sefkow and Samuel A. Cohen

    2009-04-09

    Motivated by observations of supersonic argon-ion flow generated by linear helicon-heated plasma devices, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to study whether stationary electrostatic layers form near mechanical apertures intersecting the flow of magnetized plasma. By self-consistently evaluating the temporal evolution of the plasma in the vicinity of the aperture, the PIC simulations characterize the roles of the imposed aperture and applied magnetic field on ion acceleration. The PIC model includes ionization of a background neutral-argon population by thermal and superthermal electrons, the latter found upstream of the aperture. Near the aperture, a transition from a collisional to a collisionless regime occurs. Perturbations of density and potential, with mm wavelengths and consistent with ion acoustic waves, propagate axially. An ion acceleration region of length ~ 200-300 λD,e forms at the location of the aperture and is found to be an electrostatic double layer, with axially-separated regions of net positive and negative charge. Reducing the aperture diameter or increasing its length increases the double layer strength.

  16. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetized Argon Plasma Flow Through Small Mechanical Apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Cohen, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by observations of supersonic argon-ion flow generated by linear helicon-heated plasma devices, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to study whether stationary electrostatic layers form near mechanical apertures intersecting the flow of magnetized plasma. By self-consistently evaluating the temporal evolution of the plasma in the vicinity of the aperture, the PIC simulations characterize the roles of the imposed aperture and applied magnetic field on ion acceleration. The PIC model includes ionization of a background neutral-argon population by thermal and superthermal electrons, the latter found upstream of the aperture. Near the aperture, a transition from a collisional to a collisionless regime occurs. Perturbations of density and potential, with mm wavelengths and consistent with ion acoustic waves, propagate axially. An ion acceleration region of length ∼ 200-300 λ D,e forms at the location of the aperture and is found to be an electrostatic double layer, with axially-separated regions of net positive and negative charge. Reducing the aperture diameter or increasing its length increases the double layer strength

  17. Eosinophils may play regionally disparate roles in influencing IgA(+) plasma cell numbers during large and small intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ruth; Bramhall, Michael; Logunova, Larisa; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Else, Kathryn J

    2016-05-31

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in the intestine during inflammatory disorders. Classically the function of eosinophils has been associated with tissue destruction, due to the release of cytotoxic granule contents. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophil plays a more diverse role in the immune system than previously acknowledged, including shaping adaptive immune responses and providing plasma cell survival factors during the steady state. Importantly, it is known that there are regional differences in the underlying immunology of the small and large intestine, but whether there are differences in context of the intestinal eosinophil in the steady state or inflammation is not known. Our data demonstrates that there are fewer IgA(+) plasma cells in the small intestine of eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice compared to eosinophil-sufficient wild-type mice, with the difference becoming significant post-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Remarkably, and in complete contrast, the absence of eosinophils in the inflamed large intestine does not impact on IgA(+) cell numbers during steady state, and is associated with a significant increase in IgA(+) cells post-infection with Trichuris muris compared to wild-type mice. Thus, the intestinal eosinophil appears to be less important in sustaining the IgA(+) cell pool in the large intestine compared to the small intestine, and in fact, our data suggests eosinophils play an inhibitory role. The dichotomy in the influence of the eosinophil over small and large intestinal IgA(+) cells did not depend on differences in plasma cell growth factors, recruitment potential or proliferation within the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We demonstrate for the first time that there are regional differences in the requirement of

  18. Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. II. Small-amplitude Regime in Partially Ionized Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    The presence of neutral species in a plasma has been shown to greatly affect the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves. For instance, the interaction between ions and neutrals through momentum transfer collisions causes the damping of Alfvén waves and alters their oscillation frequency and phase speed. When the collision frequencies are larger than the frequency of the waves, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approximations can accurately describe the effects of partial ionization, since there is a strong coupling between the various species. However, at higher frequencies, the single-fluid models are not applicable and more complex approaches are required. Here, we use a five-fluid model with three ionized and two neutral components, which takes into consideration Hall’s current and Ohm’s diffusion in addition to the friction due to collisions between different species. We apply our model to plasmas composed of hydrogen and helium, and allow the ionization degree to be arbitrary. By analyzing the corresponding dispersion relation and numerical simulations, we study the properties of small-amplitude perturbations. We discuss the effect of momentum transfer collisions on the ion-cyclotron resonances and compare the importance of magnetic resistivity, and ion–neutral and ion–ion collisions on the wave damping at various frequency ranges. Applications to partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere are performed.

  19. MHD model including small-scale perturbations in a plasma with temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility is studied of using a hydrodynamic model to describe a magnetized plasma with density and temperature variations on scales that are arbitrary with respect to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the inertial component of the transverse ion thermal flux should be taken into account. This component is found from the collisionless kinetic equation. It can also be obtained from the equations of the Grad type. A set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations for ions is obtained with this component taken into account. These equations are used to derive model hydrodynamic expressions for the density and temperature variations. It is shown that, for large-scale perturbations (when the wavelengths are longer than the ion Larmor radius), the expressions derived coincide with the corresponding kinetic expressions and, for perturbations on sub-Larmor scales (when the wavelengths are shorter than the Larmor radius), they agree qualitatively. Hydrodynamic dispersion relations are derived for several types of drift waves with arbitrary wavenumbers. The range of applicability of the MHD model is determined from a comparison of these dispersion relations with the kinetic ones. It is noted that, on the basis of results obtained, drift effects can be included in numerical MHD codes for studying plasma instabilities in high-temperature regimes in tokamaks

  20. Stability of small axial wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m>=1)modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also constant current density equilibria can be stabilized for P per >P par and large β per . (authors)

  1. Remarkable Enhancement of the Hole Mobility in Several Organic Small-Molecules, Polymers, and Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Transistors by Simple Admixing of the Lewis Acid p-Dopant B(C6F5)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidi, Julianna; Paterson, Alexandra F; Khim, Dongyoon; Fei, Zhuping; Han, Yang; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2018-01-01

    Improving the charge carrier mobility of solution-processable organic semiconductors is critical for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors and their application in the emerging sector of printed electronics. Here, a simple method is reported for enhancing the hole mobility in a wide range of organic semiconductors, including small-molecules, polymers, and small-molecule:polymer blends, with the latter systems exhibiting the highest mobility. The method is simple and relies on admixing of the molecular Lewis acid B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 in the semiconductor formulation prior to solution deposition. Two prototypical semiconductors where B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 is shown to have a remarkable impact are the blends of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene:poly(triarylamine) (diF-TESADT:PTAA) and 2,7-dioctyl[1]-benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene:poly(indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole) (C8-BTBT:C16-IDTBT), for which hole mobilities of 8 and 11 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively, are obtained. Doping of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene:PTAA blend with B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 is also shown to increase the maximum hole mobility to 3.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Analysis of the single and multicomponent materials reveals that B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 plays a dual role, first acting as an efficient p-dopant, and secondly as a microstructure modifier. Semiconductors that undergo simultaneous p-doping and dopant-induced long-range crystallization are found to consistently outperform transistors based on the pristine materials. Our work underscores Lewis acid doping as a generic strategy towards high performance printed organic microelectronics.

  2. Remarkable Enhancement of the Hole Mobility in Several Organic Small-Molecules, Polymers, and Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Transistors by Simple Admixing of the Lewis Acid p-Dopant B(C6F5)3

    KAUST Repository

    Panidi, Julianna; Paterson, Alexandra F.; Khim, Dongyoon; Fei, Zhuping; Han, Yang; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A.; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the charge carrier mobility of solution-processable organic semiconductors is critical for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors and their application in the emerging sector of printed electronics. Here, a simple method is reported for enhancing the hole mobility in a wide range of organic semiconductors, including small-molecules, polymers, and small-molecule:polymer blends, with the latter systems exhibiting the highest mobility. The method is simple and relies on admixing of the molecular Lewis acid B(C6F5)(3) in the semiconductor formulation prior to solution deposition. Two prototypical semiconductors where B(C6F5)(3) is shown to have a remarkable impact are the blends of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene:poly(triarylamine) (diF-TESADT:PTAA) and 2,7-dioctyl[1]-benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene:poly(indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole) (C8-BTBT:C16-IDTBT), for which hole mobilities of 8 and 11 cm(2) V-1 s(-1), respectively, are obtained. Doping of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene:PTAA blend with B(C6F5)(3) is also shown to increase the maximum hole mobility to 3.7 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Analysis of the single and multicomponent materials reveals that B(C6F5)(3) plays a dual role, first acting as an efficient p-dopant, and secondly as a microstructure modifier. Semiconductors that undergo simultaneous p-doping and dopant-induced long-range crystallization are found to consistently outperform transistors based on the pristine materials. Our work underscores Lewis acid doping as a generic strategy towards high performance printed organic microelectronics.

  3. Remarkable Enhancement of the Hole Mobility in Several Organic Small-Molecules, Polymers, and Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Transistors by Simple Admixing of the Lewis Acid p-Dopant B(C6F5)3

    KAUST Repository

    Panidi, Julianna

    2017-10-05

    Improving the charge carrier mobility of solution-processable organic semiconductors is critical for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors and their application in the emerging sector of printed electronics. Here, a simple method is reported for enhancing the hole mobility in a wide range of organic semiconductors, including small-molecules, polymers, and small-molecule:polymer blends, with the latter systems exhibiting the highest mobility. The method is simple and relies on admixing of the molecular Lewis acid B(C6F5)(3) in the semiconductor formulation prior to solution deposition. Two prototypical semiconductors where B(C6F5)(3) is shown to have a remarkable impact are the blends of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene:poly(triarylamine) (diF-TESADT:PTAA) and 2,7-dioctyl[1]-benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene:poly(indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole) (C8-BTBT:C16-IDTBT), for which hole mobilities of 8 and 11 cm(2) V-1 s(-1), respectively, are obtained. Doping of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene:PTAA blend with B(C6F5)(3) is also shown to increase the maximum hole mobility to 3.7 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Analysis of the single and multicomponent materials reveals that B(C6F5)(3) plays a dual role, first acting as an efficient p-dopant, and secondly as a microstructure modifier. Semiconductors that undergo simultaneous p-doping and dopant-induced long-range crystallization are found to consistently outperform transistors based on the pristine materials. Our work underscores Lewis acid doping as a generic strategy towards high performance printed organic microelectronics.

  4. Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations in small complex plasma disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations of a complex (dusty) plasma disk are excited for n=3 and 5 microspheres (≅10 μm diameter) with neutral argon pressures P≅1-4 Pa. The mode frequencies and damping rates are determined directly from measured resonance curves. Millikan's coefficient for the Epstein drag force, the Debye length, and the particle charge is found by comparison with theory. The damping rates are the same for both modes and for n=3 and 5, as predicted. Millikan's coefficient is found to be δ=1.55±0.16, in agreement with δ=1.44 for diffuse reflection. A consistent value of the Debye length that decreases with pressure is measured. The average particle charge for n=3 particles is found to be more negative than that for n=5 particles for the same conditions, indicating that the effective ion collection area of the particles increases as their separation decreases

  5. Alfvén wave interaction with inhomogeneous plasmas: acceleration and energy cascade towards small-scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Génot

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the process of electron acceleration in auroral regions, we present a study of the temporal evolution of the interaction of Alfvén waves (AW with a plasma inhomogeneous in a direction transverse to the static magnetic field. This type of inhomogeneity is typical of the density cavities extended along the magnetic field in auroral acceleration regions. We use self-consistent Particle In Cell (PIC simulations which are able to reproduce the full nonlinear evolution of the electromagnetic waves, as well as the trajectories of ions and electrons in phase space. Physical processes are studied down to the ion Larmor radius and electron skin depth scales. We show that the AW propagation on sharp density gradients leads to the formation of a significant parallel (to the magnetic field electric field (E-field. It results from an electric charge separation generated on the density gradients by the polarization drift associated with the time varying AW E-field. Its amplitude may reach a few percents of the AW E-field. This parallel component accelerates electrons up to keV energies over a distance of a few hundred Debye lengths, and induces the formation of electron beams. These beams trigger electrostatic plasma instabilities which evolve toward the formation of nonlinear electrostatic structures (identified as electron holes and double layers. When the electrostatic turbulence is fully developed we show that it reduces the further wave/particle exchange. This sequence of mechanisms is analyzed with the program WHAMP, to identify the instabilities at work and wavelet analysis techniques are used to characterize the regime of energy conversions (from electromagnetic to electrostatic structures, from large to small length scales. This study elucidates a possible scenario to account for the particle acceleration and the wave dissipation in inhomogeneous plasmas. It would consist of successive phases of acceleration along the magnetic field

  6. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. A Simple Method for the Extraction, PCR-amplification, Cloning, and Sequencing of Pasteuria 16S rDNA from Small Numbers of Endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibalentja, N; Noel, G R; Ciancio, A

    2004-03-01

    For many years the taxonomy of the genus Pasteuria has been marred with confusion because the bacterium could not be cultured in vitro and, therefore, descriptions were based solely on morphological, developmental, and pathological characteristics. The current study sought to devise a simple method for PCR-amplification, cloning, and sequencing of Pasteuria 16S rDNA from small numbers of endospores, with no need for prior DNA purification. Results show that DNA extracts from plain glass bead-beating of crude suspensions containing 10,000 endospores at 0.2 x 10 endospores ml(-1) were sufficient for PCR-amplification of Pasteuria 16S rDNA, when used in conjunction with specific primers. These results imply that for P. penetrans and P. nishizawae only one parasitized female of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines, respectively, should be sufficient, and as few as eight cadavers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus with an average number of 1,250 endospores of "Candidatus Pasteuria usgae" are needed for PCR-amplification of Pasteuria 16S rDNA. The method described in this paper should facilitate the sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the many Pasteuria isolates that have been reported on nematodes and, consequently, expedite the classification of those isolates through comparative sequence analysis.

  8. Ghrelin and obestatin plasma levels and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms in small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulian; Zhai, Guanpeng; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Jianguo; Chen, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To investigate plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels, and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms, in sequentially enrolled small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Neonates were sequentially enrolled into this study and were then subdivided into different groups, according to different study aims and availability of study materials. Consequently, plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured in term SGA, term appropriate for gestational age (AGA), term large for gestational age (LGA), preterm SGA and preterm AGA neonates. Levels of both peptides were also measured in AGA infants of different gestational ages, and in term AGA neonates at different days following birth. Three ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu, were measured in neonates. The study involved a total cohort of 581 neonates. Out of 150 neonates (30 term AGA, 30 term SGA, 30 term LGA, 30 preterm AGA, and 30 preterm SGA), plasma obestatin levels were significantly higher in term SGA versus term LGA neonates (0.21 ± 0.02 ng/ml versus 0.17 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Out of a wider cohort, there were no significant differences in genotypes and allele frequencies of Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu SNPs between term SGA and AGA neonates, or between preterm SGA and AGA neonates. Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide polymorphisms were not found to be associated with SGA status in neonates; however, ghrelin and obestatin levels may be involved in growth and development. Further studies are required to understand the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and prenatal development. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Multielemental analysis in small amounts of environmental reference materials with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovári, J; Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-07-01

    The lowest possible sample weight for performing multielemental trace element analysis on environmental and biological samples by ICP-MS has been investigated. The certified reference materials Bovine Liver NIST SRM 1577b, Human Hair NCS DC 73347 and Oriental Tobacco Leaves CTA-OTL-1 were applied at sample weights (1, 5, 20 and 50 mg aliquots, n = 10) which were significantly lower than those recommended with most recoveries in the range of 95-110%. Samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen fluoride by closed-vessel microwave digestion. Multielemental analysis was performed with an optimized ICP-QMS method. Aqueous standard solutions were applied for external calibration with rhodium as the internal standard element. The detection limits varied between 0.02-0.38 microg/g for Li, Na, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb, and up to 1.92 microg/g for Mg, Al, Ca, Fe and Ni. Digested human plasma samples were spiked with multielemental solution (0.5-10 microg/L) to test the analytical method and the recoveries were 95-105% for most analytes. Our results show that in the case of homogeneous SRMs it is possible to use them in very low amounts (1-5 mg) for method development and quality control.

  10. A small electron beam ion trap/source facility for electron/neutral–ion collisional spectroscopy in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gui-Yun; Wei, Hui-Gang; Yuan, Da-Wei; Wang, Fei-Lu; Peng, Ji-Min; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Schmidt, Mike; Zschornack, Günter; Ma, Xin-Wen; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Spectra are fundamental observation data used for astronomical research, but understanding them strongly depends on theoretical models with many fundamental parameters from theoretical calculations. Different models give different insights for understanding a specific object. Hence, laboratory benchmarks for these theoretical models become necessary. An electron beam ion trap is an ideal facility for spectroscopic benchmarks due to its similar conditions of electron density and temperature compared to astrophysical plasmas in stellar coronae, supernova remnants and so on. In this paper, we will describe the performance of a small electron beam ion trap/source facility installed at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences.We present some preliminary experimental results on X-ray emission, ion production, the ionization process of trapped ions as well as the effects of charge exchange on the ionization.

  11. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Meldgaard, Peter; Hager, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    samples with allele-specific PCR assays. METHODS: Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence...... of mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas(®) EGFR Tissue Test and cobas(®) EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). RESULTS: Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were...... identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue...

  12. US-Japan IEC Workshop on Small Plasma and Accelerator Neutron Sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The history of IEC development will be briefly described, and some speculation about future directions will be offered. The origin of IEC is due to the brilliance of Phil Farnsworth, inventor of electronic TV in the US. Early experiments were pioneered in the late 1960s by Robert Hirsch who later became head of the DOE fusion program. At that time studies of IEC physics quickly followed at the University of Illinois and at Penn State University. However, despite many successes in this early work, IEC research died as DOE funding stopped in the mid 1980s. In the early 90's, R. W. Bussard of EMC revived work with a new major project based on a magnetic assisted IEC. While doing supportive studies for that project, G. Miley proposed a grided 'STAR mode' IEC as a neutron source for NAA. This concept was later used commercially by Daimler-Benz in Germany to analysis impurities in incoming ores. This represented a first practical application of the IEC. During this period other research groups at LANL, U of Wisconsin and Kyoto University entered IEC research with innovative new concepts and approaches to IEC physics and applications. Much of this work is documented in the present and in past US-Japan Workshops. At present we stand on the threshold of a new area of IEC applications as neutron source, for isotope production, and as a plasma source. These applications provide a way to continue IEC understanding and technology development with the ultimate goal being a fusion power plant. Indeed, a distinguishing feature of the IEC vs. other fusion confinement approaches is the unique opportunity for 'spin off' applications along the way to a power producing plant.

  13. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  14. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  15. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  16. A summary of processes relevant for the particle balance of a cold plasma blanket contaminated with a small amount of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, J.H.H.M.; Goedheer, W.J.

    1982-04-01

    A summary is given of the atomic processes which are relevant for the ionization balance and for the transport in a plasma consisting of hydrogen with a small admixture of helium. Attention is paid mainly to processes in plasmas with temperatures below 100 eV and electron densities between 3x10 13 and 3x10 14 cm -3 conditions which prevail in a so-called cold plasma blanket. The species considered are electrons, protons, hydrogen atoms (ground state and excited), α-particles, He + -ions (ground state and excited), and helium atoms (ground state and excited). The discussed processes are charge exchange, ionization, recombination, (de-) excitation, and elastic scattering

  17. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses: A Prospective Observational European Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J G; Humbla, O; McAlindon, M E; Davison, C; Seitz, U; Fraser, C; Hagenmüller, F; Noetzel, E; Spada, C; Riccioni, M E; Barnert, J; Filmann, N; Keuchel, M

    2015-10-01

    Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse.Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course.Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P endoscopy may be useful before attending an SBCE course.

  18. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multielement analysis in small sample amounts of thyroid tissue from Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, thyroid pathologies occurred among children in some regions of belarus. Besides the irradiation of children's thyroids by radioactive iodine and caesium nuclides, toxic elements from fallout are a direct risk to health. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA) were used for multielement determination in small amounts (I-10 mg) of human thyroid tissue samples. The accuracy of the applied analytical technique for small biological sample amounts was checked using NIST standard reference material oyster tissue (SRM 1566 b). Almost all essential elements as well as a number of toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, Hg, U etc. Were determined in a multitude of human thyroid tissues by quadrupole-based Icp-Ms using micro nebulization. In general, the thyroid tissue affected by pathology is characterized by higher calcium content. Some other elements, among them Sr, Zn, Fe, Mn, V, As, Cr, Ni, Pb, U, Ba, Sb, were also Accumulated in such tissue. The results obtained will be used as initial material for further specific studies of the role of particular elements in thyroid pathology development

  19. A pharmacologic increase in activity of plasma transaminase derived from small intestine in animals receiving an acyl CoA: diacylglycerol transferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akio; Kondo, Kazuma; Oshida, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Tadakazu; Masuyama, Taku; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the re-synthesis of triglycerides (TG) from free fatty acids and diacylglycerol. JTT-553 is a DGAT1 inhibitor and exhibits its pharmacological action (inhibition of re-synthesis of TG) in the enterocytes of the small intestine leading to suppression of a postprandial elevation of plasma lipids. After repeated oral dosing JTT-553 in rats and monkeys, plasma transaminase levels were increased but there were neither changes in other hepatic function parameters nor histopathological findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Based on the results of exploratory studies for investigation of the mechanism of the increase in transaminase levels, plasma transaminase levels were increased after dosing JTT-553 only when animals were fed after dosing and a main factor in the diet contributing to the increase in plasma transaminase levels was lipids. After dosing JTT-553, transaminase levels were increased in the small intestine but not in the liver, indicating that the origin of transaminase increased in the plasma was not the liver but the small intestine where JTT-553 exhibits its pharmacological action. The increase in small intestinal transaminase levels was due to increased enzyme protein synthesis and was suppressed by inhibiting fatty acid-transport to the enterocytes. In conclusion, the JTT-553-related increase in plasma transaminase levels is considered not to be due to release of the enzymes from injured cells into the circulation but to be phenomena resulting from enhancement of enzyme protein synthesis in the small intestine due to the pharmacological action of JTT-553 in this organ.

  20. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H 2 , A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author) [pt

  1. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  2. Effect of colchicine on rat small intestinal absorptive cells. II. Distribution of label after incorporation of [3H]fucose into plasma membrane glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger, A.; Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    By means of radioautography the influence was tested of various periods (5, 15, 30, 40 min, 2 hr) of pretreatment with colchicine, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dosage of 0.5 mg/100 g of body weight, on the intracellular pathway of [ 3 H]fucose in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Administration of colchicine for 30 min and longer time intervals causes delay in the insertion of [ 3 H]fucose into the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus, and results in redistribution of the label apparent over the different portions of the plasma membrane. In controls, at 2 and 4 hr after administration of [ 3 H]fucose the apical plasma membrane is strongly labeled. Colchicine causes equalization of the reaction of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane: the number of silver grains attributable to the apical plasma membrane is reduced; following treatment with colchicine, apical portions of the plasma membrane comprise 31.6 +/- 1.8% of the silver grains, 38.6 +/- 3.8% are attributable to basolateral membrane regions. The colchicine-induced equalization of the density of label of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane, in addition to the occurrence of basolateral microvillus borders, suggests microtubules to be important in the maintenance of the polar organization of small intestinal absorptive cells

  3. Using a simple HPLC approach to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g, a small molecule TNF-α inhibitor, from porcine esterase and from rabbit esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenneth; Zhang, Yiguan; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2013-12-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. As a prelude to investigating the metabolites of UTL-5g, we set out to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g under the treatment of both porcine liver esterase (PLE) and rabbit liver esterase (RLE). First, a number of mixtures made by UTL-5g and PLE were incubated at 25°C. At predetermined time points, individual samples were quenched by acetonitrile, vortexed, and centrifuged. The supernatants were then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC (using a C18 column). The retention times and UV/vis spectra of individual peaks were compared to those of UTL-5g and its two postulated enzymatic products; thus the enzymatic products of UTL-5g were tentatively identified. Secondly, a different HPLC method (providing different retentions times) was used to cross-check and to confirm the identities of the two enzymatic products. Based on the observations, it was concluded that under the treatment of PLE, the major enzymatic products of UTL-5g were 5-methyliosxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX) and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Treatment of UTL-5g by RLE also provided the same enzymatic products of UTL-5g from esterase. These results indicate that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by PLE/RLE. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed that the Km values of UTL-5g were 2.07mM with PLE and 0.37mM with RLE indicating that UTL-5g had a higher affinity with RLE. In summary, by a simple HPLC approach, we have concluded that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by esterase from either porcine liver or rabbit liver in vitro and afforded DCA (at a mole ratio of 1:1) and ISOX. However, further studies are needed in order to determine whether UTL-5g is metabolized by microsomal enzymes to produce ISOX and DCA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of In-Flight Alumina Spheroidization Process Using a Small Power Argon DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System by Helium Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Jang, Juyong; Igawa, Junji; Nakajima, Tomoki; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2011-03-01

    For the further improvement of in-flight alumina spheroidization process with a low-power direct-current radiofrequency (DC-RF) hybrid plasma flow system, the effect of a small amount of helium gas mixture in argon main gas and also the effect of increasing DC nozzle diameter on powder spheroidization ratio have been experimentally clarified with correlating helium gas mixture percentage, plasma enthalpy, powder in-flight velocity, and temperature. The alumina spheroidization ratio increases by helium gas mixture as a result of enhancement of plasma enthalpy. The highest spheroidization ratio is obtained by 4% mixture of helium in central gas with enlarging nozzle diameter from 3 to 4 mm, even under the constant low input electric power given to a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  5. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16, 2000 - May 13, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyekyoon, Kim-Kevin

    2003-01-01

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction

  6. Kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin as measured by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, B.; Pap, S.; Järnberg, S.-E.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin into two half-molecular fragments was investigated at 21.0-degrees-C by using small-angle neutron scattering. The relative change in molecular mass that occurs upon dissociation was monitored by recording the forw...

  7. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  8. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2018-04-01

    Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

  9. Simple measurement of isepamicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, in guinea pig and human plasma, using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisotti, S.; Bamonte, F.; Scaglione, F.; Ongini, E.

    1991-01-01

    Isepamicin, the 1-N-(S-alpha-hydroxy-beta-aminopropionyl) derivative of gentamicin B, is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, which not only has most of the properties of amikacin but also is effective against several amikacin-resistant strains of bacteria. The drug was assayed in guinea-pig and human plasma with a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure using precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ultraviolet detection. Linearity was established over the range 0.5-40 micrograms/ml using 50 microliters of plasma. Accuracy has a mean relative error of less than 3% and precision a mean coefficient of variation of 5%. Isepamicin was determined without interference from plasma constituents or other drugs commonly prescribed during aminoglycoside therapy. This procedure correlates well with radioimmunoassay and can be used either in experimental studies or therapeutic monitoring of plasma levels

  10. Beam-plasma interaction in randomly inhomogeneous plasmas and statistical properties of small-amplitude Langmuir waves in the solar wind and electron foreshock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Lobzin, V. V.; Musatenko, K.; Souček, Jan; Pickett, J. S.; Cairns, I. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, A10 (2007), A10109/1-A10109/12 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : plasma waves * kinetic waves and instabilities * foreshock * solar wind Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2007

  11. Preliminary results of the TBR small tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, I.C.; Fagundes, A.N.; Da Silva, R.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Vuolo, J.H.; Sanada, E.K.; Dellaqua, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives a short description of the TBR - small Brazilian tokamak and the first results obtained for plasma formation and equilibrium. Measured breakdown curves for hydrogen are shown to be confined within analytically calculated limits and to depend strongly on stray vertical magnetic fields. Time profiles of plasma current in equilibrium are shown and compared with the predictions of a simple analytical model for tokamak discharges. Reasonable agreement is obtained taking Zsub(eff) as a free parameter. (author)

  12. [18F]Fallypride: Metabolism studies and quantification of the radiotracer and its radiometabolites in plasma using a simple and rapid solid-phase extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyronneau, Marie-Anne; Saba, Wadad; Goutal, Sébastien; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Dollé, Frédéric; Bottlaender, Michel; Valette, Héric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: [ 18 F]Fallypride, a fluorinated and substituted benzamide with high affinity for D 2 /D 3 receptors, is a useful PET radioligand for the study of striatal/extrastriatal areas. Since [ 18 F]fallypride is extensively metabolized in vivo and since PET examinations are long lasting in humans, the rapid measurement of the unchanged radiotracer in plasma is essential for the quantification of images. The present study aims: i) to evaluate if the radiometabolites of [ 18 F]fallypride cross the blood–brain barrier in rodents, ii) to identify these radiometabolites in baboon plasma and iii) to develop a rapid solid phase extraction method (SPE) suitable for human applications to quantify both [ 18 F]fallypride and its radiometabolites in plasma. Methods: The metabolites P450-dependant in rat and human liver microsomes were characterized by LC–MS–MS and compared to those detected in vivo. Sequential solvent elution on Oasis®-MCX-SPE cartridges was used to quantify [ 18 F]fallypride and its radiometabolites. Result: In rat microsomal incubations, five metabolites generated upon N/O-dealkylation or hydroxylation at the pyrrolidine and/or at the benzamide moiety were identified. No radiometabolite was detected in the rat brain. N-dealkylated and hydroxylated derivatives were detected in human microsomal incubations as well as in baboon plasma. The use of SPE (total recovery 100.2% ± 2.8%, extraction yield 95.5% ± 0.3%) allowed a complete separation of [ 18 F]fallypride from its radiometabolites in plasma and evaluate [ 18 F]fallypride at 150 min pi to be 22% ± 5% of plasma radioactivity. Conclusions: The major in vivo radiometabolites of [ 18 F]fallypride were produced by N-dealkylation and hydroxylation. Allowing the rapid analysis of multiple plasma samples, SPE is a method of choice for the determination of [ 18 F]fallypride until late images required for quantitative PET imaging in humans

  13. Grid-Free 2D Plasma Simulations of the Complex Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Small, Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Poppe, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new grid-free 2D plasma simulation code applied to a small, unmagnetized body immersed in the streaming solar wind plasma. The body was purposely modeled as an irregular shape in order to examine photoemission and solar wind plasma flow in high detail on the dayside, night-side, terminator and surface-depressed 'pocket' regions. Our objective is to examine the overall morphology of the various plasma interaction regions that form around a small body like a small near-Earth asteroid (NEA). We find that the object obstructs the solar wind flow and creates a trailing wake region downstream, which involves the interplay between surface charging and ambipolar plasma expansion. Photoemission is modeled as a steady outflow of electrons from illuminated portions of the surface, and under direct illumination the surface forms a non-monotonic or ''double-sheath'' electric potential upstream of the body, which is important for understanding trajectories and equilibria of lofted dust grains in the presence of a complex asteroid geometry. The largest electric fields are found at the terminators, where ambipolar plasma expansion in the body-sized night-side wake merges seamlessly with the thin photoelectric sheath on the dayside. The pocket regions are found to be especially complex, with nearby sunlit regions of positive potential electrically connected to unlit negative potentials and forming adjacent natural electric dipoles. For objects near the surface, we find electrical dissipation times (through collection of local environmental solar wind currents) that vary over at least 5 orders of magnitude: from 39 Micro(s) inside the near-surface photoelectron cloud under direct sunlight to less than 1 s inside the particle-depleted night-side wake and shadowed pocket regions

  14. Human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen extrapolated from in vivo animal pharmacokinetics using in vitro human hepatic clearances and simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for radio-labeled microdose clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kunikane, Eriko; Nishiyama, Sayako; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Chiba, Koji; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics of drug substances orally administered in humans from rat pharmacokinetic data using tolbutamide and acetaminophen as model compounds. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from rat studies based on reported plasma concentrations were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors. In this extrapolation, in vitro metabolic clearance data were obtained using liver preparations. Rates of tolbutamide elimination were roughly similar in rat and human liver microsome experiments, but acetaminophen elimination by rat liver microsomes and cytosolic preparations showed a tendency to be faster than those in humans. Using a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, estimated human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen were consistent with reported concentrations. Tolbutamide cleared in a roughly similar manner in humans and rats, but medical-dose levels of acetaminophen cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in rats. The data presented here illustrate how pharmacokinetic data in combination with a simple PBPK model can be used to assist evaluations of the pharmacological/toxicological potential of new drug substances and for estimating human radiation exposures from radio-labeled drugs when planning human studies. (author)

  15. Small scale irregularities in Comet Halley's plasma mantle - An attempt at self-consistent analysis of plasma and magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    1989-01-01

    VEGA-1 measurements of the plasma density and magnetic field in the coma of Comet Halley show characteristic signatures over a significant portion of the outbound pass. It is found that the assumption that there is a balance between the thermal and magnetic pressures in these features can be used to obtain estimates of the plasma temperature as a function of distance from the nucleus. These estimates indicate that the ions cool from about 1.5 x 10 to the 6th K at 10 to the 5th km to 2 x 10 to the 5th K at 5 x 10 to the 4th km. The technique used here represents a novel approach whereby temperature measurements can be made in situations where only plasma density and magnetic field data are available.

  16. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  18. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I, Team

    1993-01-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author) 5 refs

  19. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I, Team

    1993-07-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature...

  1. New and vintage solutions to enhance the plasma metabolome coverage by LC-ESI-MS untargeted metabolomics: the not-so-simple process of method performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipani, Sara; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Jáuregui, Olga; Llorach, Rafael; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-03-03

    Although LC-MS untargeted metabolomics continues to expand into exiting research domains, methodological issues have not been solved yet by the definition of unbiased, standardized and globally accepted analytical protocols. In the present study, the response of the plasma metabolome coverage to specific methodological choices of the sample preparation (two SPE technologies, three sample-to-solvent dilution ratios) and the LC-ESI-MS data acquisition steps of the metabolomics workflow (four RP columns, four elution solvent combinations, two solvent quality grades, postcolumn modification of the mobile phase) was investigated in a pragmatic and decision tree-like performance evaluation strategy. Quality control samples, reference plasma and human plasma from a real nutrimetabolomic study were used for intermethod comparisons. Uni- and multivariate data analysis approaches were independently applied. The highest method performance was obtained by combining the plasma hybrid extraction with the highest solvent proportion during sample preparation, the use of a RP column compatible with 100% aqueous polar phase (Atlantis T3), and the ESI enhancement by using UHPLC-MS purity grade methanol as both organic phase and postcolumn modifier. Results led to the following considerations: submit plasma samples to hybrid extraction for removal of interfering components to minimize the major sample-dependent matrix effects; avoid solvent evaporation following sample extraction if loss in detection and peak shape distortion of early eluting metabolites are not noticed; opt for a RP column for superior retention of highly polar species when analysis fractionation is not feasible; use ultrahigh quality grade solvents and "vintage" analytical tricks such as postcolumn organic enrichment of the mobile phase to enhance ESI efficiency. The final proposed protocol offers an example of how novel and old-fashioned analytical solutions may fruitfully cohabit in untargeted metabolomics

  2. A simple, rapid and stability indicating validated method for quantification of lamotrigine in human plasma and dry plasma spot using LC-ESI-MS/MS: Application in clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdev, Kuldeep Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Chilkoti, Deepak Chandra; Sharma, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LTZ) is a phenyltriazine derivative which belongs to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) class and prescribed as mono- or adjunctive-therapy in treatment of epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of AEDs provides a valid clinical tool in optimization of overall therapy. However, TDM is challenging due to the high biological samples (plasma/blood) storage/shipment costs and the limited availability of laboratories providing TDM services. Sampling in the form of dry plasma spot (DPS) or dry blood spot (DBS) are suitable alternative to overcome these issues. We developed and validated a new method for quantification of LTZ in human plasma and DPS. The extraction of LTZ from plasma and DPS was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether and an extraction solution composed of diethyl ether- methyl tert-butyl ether- acetone (50:30:20, v/v/v), respectively. Lamotrigine- 13C3, d3 was used as internal standard (ISTD) and the chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypurity Advance C18 column (150×4.6mm, 5μm). Quantitative estimation of LTZ and ISTD was performed on a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization interface operated under positive mode of ionization. Calibration curves were linear (r 2 >0.99) over the concentration range of 10-3020ng/mL for both plasma and DPS. Statistical analysis provides insignificant difference between LTZ concentration extracted from plasma and DPS samples. The method is found suitable for application in clinical study and in therapeutic monitoring of LTZ. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report which describing a validated stability indicating assay for quantification of LTZ in dry plasma spot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SCORCH - a zero dimensional plasma evolution and transport code for use in small and large tokamak systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.; Cook, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    The zero-dimensional code SCORCH determines number density and temperature evolution in plasmas using concepts derived from the Hinton and Hazeltine transport theory. The code uses the previously reported ADL-1 data library

  4. Green's function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency ω p (t) with a rise time T r . If the period t 0 of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t 0 is comparable to the rise time T r . The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10 1 to 10 3 /cc in a rise time of about 100 micros

  5. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  6. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  7. Assessing mixed dose distributions in young sediments identified using small aliquots and a simple two-step SAR procedure: the F-statistic as a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.Q.; Sanderson, D.C.W.; Deckers, Katleen; Sommerville, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the apparent dose (D e *) distribution in four samples of young sedimentary quartz from different depositional environments, and on standard quartz comprised of artificial binary-dose mixtures. We have used a simplified two-step single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) approach to rapidly measure D e * from a large number of small aliquots (∼50-100 grains), with a small sub-set subjected to routine SAR measurements to enable monitoring of luminescence characteristics. We have used an F-ratio analysis to interpret D e * distributions. This analysis is sensitive to structure, the leading edge and modal data in D e * distributions, indicated by inflections and plateaux in F-ratio plots. We cautiously suggest that F-ratios at or approaching unity may indicate a single dose component

  8. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  9. A Simple and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Four Major Active Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata in Human Plasma and Its Application to a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholphana, Nanthanit; Panomvana, Duangchit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Thaeopattha, Saichit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata contains four major active diterpenoids, including andrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (2), neoandrographolide (3), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (4), which exhibit differences in types and/or degrees of their pharmacological activity. Previous pharmacokinetic studies in humans reported only the parameters of compound 1 and its analytical method in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry technique for the simultaneous determination of all four major active diterpenoids in the A. paniculata product in human plasma. These four diterpenoids in plasma samples were extracted by a simple protein precipitation method with methanol and separated on a Kinetex C18 column using a gradient system with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water. The liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry was performed in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantitation. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range of 2.50-500 ng/mL for 1 and over the range of 1.00-500 ng/mL for the other diterpenoids with a correlation coefficient R(2) > 0.995. The lower limit of quantification of 1 was found to be 2.50 ng/mL, while those of the other diterpenoids were 1.00 ng/mL. The intraday and interday accuracy (relative error) ranged from 0.03 % to 10.03 %, and the intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were in the range of 2.05-9.67 %. The extraction recovery (86.54-111.56 %) with a relative standard deviation of 2.78-8.61 % and the matrix effect (85.15-112.36 %) were within the acceptance criteria. Moreover, these four major active diterpenoids were stable in plasma samples at the studied storage conditions with a relative error ≤-9.79 % and a relative standard deviation ≤ 9.26 %. Hence, this present method was successfully validated

  10. A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD and phallacidin (PCD in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated. The diluted plasma, serum and urine samples were directly purified with a novel PRiME technique on a 96-well μElution plate platform, which allowed high-throughput sample processing and low reagent consumption. After purification, a UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode. This method fulfilled the requirements of a validation test, with good results for the limit of detection (LOD, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ, accuracy, intra- and inter-assay precision, recovery and matrix effects. All of the analytes were confirmed and quantified in authentic plasma, serum and urine samples obtained from cases of poisoning using this method. Using the PRiME μElution technique for quantification reduces labor and time costs and represents a suitable method for routine toxicological and clinical emergency analysis.

  11. Simple and rapid determination of norethindrone in human plasma by supported liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhilong; Chandler, Kiresha; Webster, Stephen; Kerley, Remy; Buist, Susan; McCort-Tipton, Melanie

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time an ultra performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC/MS/MS) for the determination of norethindrone alone in human plasma over the concentration range of 50.0-25000 pg mL(-1) using a sample volume of 0.250 mL. Norethindrone and its internal standard (ISTD), norethindrone-(13)C(2), were extracted from human plasma by supported liquid extraction (SLE). After evaporation of the organic solvent, samples were reconstituted and analyzed on an UPLC/MS/MS system. The UPLC system used a Waters BEH C18 (100 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm) column with mobile phase A of 0.05% formic acid in water:acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) and mobile phase B of 0.05% formic acid in methanol:acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The flow rate was 0.500 mL min(-1). The method was fully validated. The inter-run accuracy and precision at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), low, mid and high quality control (QC) concentration levels were 99.2-108.4% with a <8.1% CV (coefficient of variation), respectively. The validated method has been successfully applied to analysis of thousands of pharmacokinetic samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  13. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  14. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  15. Experimental characterization of post rigor mortis human muscle subjected to small tensile strains and application of a simple hyper-viscoelastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Laporte, Sébastien; Viot, Philippe; Mitton, David

    2014-10-01

    In models developed for impact biomechanics, muscles are usually represented with one-dimensional elements having active and passive properties. The passive properties of muscles are most often obtained from experiments performed on animal muscles, because limited data on human muscle are available. The aim of this study is thus to characterize the passive response of a human muscle in tension. Tensile tests at different strain rates (0.0045, 0.045, and 0.45 s⁻¹) were performed on 10 extensor carpi ulnaris muscles. A model composed of a nonlinear element defined with an exponential law in parallel with one or two Maxwell elements and considering basic geometrical features was proposed. The experimental results were used to identify the parameters of the model. The results for the first- and second-order model were similar. For the first-order model, the mean parameters of the exponential law are as follows: Young's modulus E (6.8 MPa) and curvature parameter α (31.6). The Maxwell element mean values are as follows: viscosity parameter η (1.2 MPa s) and relaxation time τ (0.25 s). Our results provide new data on a human muscle tested in vitro and a simple model with basic geometrical features that represent its behavior in tension under three different strain rates. This approach could be used to assess the behavior of other human muscles. © IMechE 2014.

  16. Use of inter-simple sequence repeats and amplified fragment length polymorphisms to analyze genetic relationships among small grain-infecting species of ustilago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, J G; Bakkeren, G; Matheson, F; Procunier, J D; Woods, S

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In the smut fungi, few features are available for use as taxonomic criteria (spore size, shape, morphology, germination type, and host range). DNA-based molecular techniques are useful in expanding the traits considered in determining relationships among these fungi. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Ustilago (U. avenae, U. bullata, U. hordei, U. kolleri, U. nigra, U. nuda, and U. tritici) using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare their DNA profiles. Fifty-four isolates of different Ustilago spp. were analyzed using ISSR primers, and 16 isolates of Ustilago were studied using AFLP primers. The variability among isolates within species was low for all species except U. bullata. The isolates of U. bullata, U. nuda, and U. tritici were well separated and our data supports their speciation. U. avenae and U. kolleri isolates did not separate from each other and there was little variability between these species. U. hordei and U. nigra isolates also showed little variability between species, but the isolates from each species grouped together. Our data suggest that U. avenae and U. kolleri are monophyletic and should be considered one species, as should U. hordei and U. nigra.

  17. Rapid and simple one-step membrane extraction for the determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in human plasma by a combination of on-line solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Jen; Yang, Ning-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Chi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2011-11-15

    A quantitative analytical method using automated on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in human plasma was developed and validated. A one-step membrane extraction method for the plasma sample preparation and a C18 SPE column with simple extraction and purification were used for the on-line extraction. A C18 column was employed for LC separation and ESI-MS/MS was utilized for detection. (15)N(5)-8-OHdG ((15)N(5)-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) was used as an internal standard for quantitative determination. The extraction, clean-up and analysis procedures were controlled by a fully automated six-port switch valve as one strategy to reduce the matrix effect and simultaneously improve detection sensitivity. Identification and quantification were based on the following transitions: m/z 284→168 for 8-OHdG and m/z 289→173 for (15)N(5)-8-OHdG. Satisfactory recovery was obtained, and the recovery ranged from 95.1 to 106.1% at trace levels in human plasma and urine, with a CV lower than 5.4%. Values for intraday and interday precision were between 2.3 and 6.8% for plasma and between 2.7 and 4.5% for urine, respectively. Values for the method accuracy of intraday and interday assays ranged from 93.0 and 100.5% for plasma and 110.2 and 119.4% for urine, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were 0.008 ng/mL and 0.02 ng/mL, respectively.The applicability of this newly developed method was demonstrated by analysis of human plasma samples for an evaluation of the future risk of oxidative stress status in human exposure to nanoparticles and other diseases. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Relationship of plasma ghrelin, IGF-1 and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaying; Song, Guangyao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Baoping; Zhao, Xiumian; Yin, Jianying

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship of Ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age (SGA) at birth. The levels of ghrelin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin and glucose were measured in the children with preterm SGA and term SGA and compared with the children with preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and term AGA. The correlation of ghrelin with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin was analyzed. Plasma ghrelin in preterm SGA was higher than that in term SGA (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin in preterm AGA and term SGA was higher than that in term AGA (P development of preterm and SGA children, regardless of the magnitude of their catch up growth. As a re-regulatory factor to insulin, ghrelin regulates the energy metabolism in a form of negative feedback.

  19. A simple and cost-effective method of DNA extraction from small formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue for molecular oncologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Anthony N; Stence, Aaron A; Pruessner, Jonathan A; Bossler, Aaron D; Ma, Deqin

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical step in molecular oncologic testing. As molecular oncology testing becomes more important for prognostic and therapeutic decision making and tissue specimens become smaller due to earlier detection of suspicious lesions and the use of fine needle aspiration methods for tissue collection, it becomes more challenging for the typical molecular pathology laboratory to obtain reliable test results. We developed a DNA extraction method to obtain sufficient quantity and high quality genomic DNA from limited FFPE tissue for molecular oncology testing using a combination of H&E stained slides, a matrix capture method and the Qiagen DNA column. THREE DNA EXTRACTION METHODS WERE COMPARED: our standard procedure of manually scraping tissue from unstained slides followed by DNA extraction using the QIAamp FFPE column (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), a glue capture method (Pinpoint Solution, Zymo Research Corp, Inc) on H&E stained slides followed by DNA extraction using either the QIAamp column or the column included with the Pinpoint kit (Zymo Research). The DNA extraction protocol was optimized. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired two-sample student's t-test. The combination of the matrix capture method with the QIAamp column gave an equivalent amount of DNA as our standard extraction method using the unstained slides and a 4.6-fold higher DNA yield than using the Zymo column included in the Pinpoint Slide Solution kit. Several molecular tests were performed and DNA purified using the new method gave the same results as for the previous methods. Using H&E stained slides allows visual confirmation of tumor cells during microdissection. The Pinpoint solution made removal of specific tissue from the slides easier and reduced the risk of contamination and tissue loss. This DNA extraction method is simple, cost-effective, and blends with our current workflow requiring no additional equipment.

  20. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with 'cold' magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ω i are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1(ω' ω-mω i + , ω + = (-ω ci +Ω i )/2, Ω i (ω ci 2 -4eE r /m i r) 1/2 is called the 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f N i /n e = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ω pe 2 /ω ce 2 . The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ω i consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece--Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ω i above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ω i and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ω i ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max ≅0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max pe 2 /ω ce 2 , corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ω ci 2 r /m i r|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency dependencies of MIC modes. They are similar to oscillations on dispersion curves of electron waves in

  1. A simple and sensitive methodology for voltammetric determination of valproic acid in human blood plasma samples using 3-aminopropyletriethoxy silane coated magnetic nanoparticles modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabardasti, Abedin; Afrouzi, Hossein; Talemi, Rasoul Pourtaghavi

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we have prepared a nano-material modified pencil graphite electrode for the sensing of valproic acid (VA) by immobilization 3-aminopropyletriethoxy silane coated magnetic nanoparticles (APTES-MNPs) on the pencil graphite surface (PGE). Electrochemical studies indicated that the APTES-MNPs efficiently increased the electron transfer kinetics between VA and the electrode and the free NH 2 groups of the APTES on the outer surface of magnetic nanoparticles can interact with carboxyl groups of VA. Based on this, we have proposed a sensitive, rapid and convenient electrochemical method for VA determination. Under the optimized conditions, the reduction peak current of VA is found to be proportional to its concentration in the range of 1.0 (±0.2) to 100.0 (±0.3) ppm with a detection limit of 0.4 (±0.1) ppm. The whole sensor fabrication process was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods with using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as an electrochemical redox indicator. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages such as high sensitivity, selectivity, ease of preparation and good repeatability, reproducibility and stability. The proposed method was applied to determination of valproic acid in blood plasma samples and the obtained results were satisfactory accurate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Experimental study on the optimization for neutron emission in a small fast plasma focus operated at tens of Joules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeno-Saldivia, A; Soto, L

    2014-01-01

    This work reports results of a systematic experimental study dealing with the optimization for neutron emission of the PF-50J plasma focus. The device was operated in a repetitive mode at repetition rates of 0.1-0.5 Hz. Optimal configurations, neutron emission rates, observed anisotropy, analysis and contrast of 'good' and 'bad' shots are currently presented. Additionally, engineering aspects on the neutron emission were also studied, such as contaminants removal circuit and chamber design.

  3. Assessment of six commercial plasma small RNA isolation kits using qRT-PCR and electrophoretic separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerson, Ari; Ploug, Thorkil

    2016-01-01

    of specific miRNAs in different samples varied considerably between the tested extraction methods. Of all kits tested, the QIAGEN miRNeasy kits (Mini and Serum/Plasma kits) and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit produced the highest RNA yields. The QIAGEN Exo kit produced lesser yields than what could...... be extracted from the UC fraction using the QIAGEN miRNeasy kits and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit. Bioanalyzer results showed an average correlation of R2¼0.8 with endogenous miRNA qRT-PCR results, for sample concentrations >40 pg/ml. The levels of the endogenous miRNAs measured in the two volunteer...... samples were compared with those in a larger group of subjects (n¼10) and found to be typical. Our comparison favors the use of the QIAGEN Serum/Plasma kit and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit for plasma miRNA applications. Furthermore, extraction of miRNAs from the UC fraction results in higher yield...

  4. Impactos do simples na sociedade: uma análise da arrecadação e dos empregos gerados pelas microempresas, empresas de pequeno porte e pelos microempreendedores individuais = Impacts of the 'simple tax' in society: an analysis of revenue and jobs generated by the micro, small businesses and individuals by micro entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Driemeyer Wilbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996 a carga tributária das Microempresas (ME e Empresas de Pequeno Porte (EPP foi reduzida por meio da criação do Sistema Integrado de Pagamento de Impostos e Contribuições das Microempresas e das Empresas de Pequeno Porte (SIMPLES, que é um regime especial unificado de arrecadação de tributos e contribuições. Essa redução da carga tributária representa uma importante renúncia de receita ao Estado, o que representa um custo para o país e justifica a importância do seu estudo. Assim, o objetivo do presente artigo é fazer uma análise da arrecadação do SIMPLES e do SIMPLES Nacional e da geração de empregos pelas ME, EPP e pelos Microempreendedores Individuais (MEI, para verificar benefícios à sociedade. Como instrumento de pesquisa, utilizou-se revisão bibliográfica, coleta de dados para o período de 2002 a 2013 e análise desses dados por meio de estatística descritiva. Foi verificado que a arrecadação tributária pelo SIMPLES apresentou um crescimento mais de três vezes superior ao crescimento da arrecadação dos outros regimes, no período de 2007 a 2013. Além disso, observa-se que apesar das ME, EPP e MEI possuírem participação expressiva no número de empregos, essa participação reduziu no período estudado. Constatou-se que a partir de 2009, com a influência dos MEI, a arrecadação média por empresa no SIMPLES tem apresentado diminuição.In 1996, Microenterprises' (ME and Small Enterprises' (EPP tax burden was reduced by the creation of the Integrated System for Payment of Taxes and Contributions of Micro and Small Enterprises (SIMPLES, which is a special unified regime applied to collect federal taxes and contributions of such companies. This tax reduction is an important waiver of revenue to the state, which represents a cost to the country and justifies the importance of this study. The objective of this paper is to analyze the collection of 'SIMPLES' tax and the consequent generation of jobs

  5. Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Metoprolol in Beagle Dog Plasma with a Simple Protein Precipitation Treatment and Its Pharmacokinetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available : A rapid LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and sensitivity was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetics study of metoprolol (MP in beagle dogs. The plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An Ultimate XB-C18 column (150 × 2.1 mm ID, 5 μm was used for separation, with methanol-water containing 0.2% formic acid (65:35, v/v as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Monitoring ions of MP and internal standard (hydroxypioglitazone were m/z 268.1/115.6 and m/z 373.1/150.2, respectively. The linear range was 3.03–416.35 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and the limit of quantification was 3.03 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15%. At low, middle and high concentrations, the recovery, the matrix effect and the accuracy was in the range of 76.06%–95.25%, 93.67%–104.19% and 95.20%–99.96% respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetics study of MP tartrate tablets (50 mg. The AUC0-t, Tmax and Cmax were respectively 919.88 ± 195.67 μg/L·h, 0.96 ± 0.33 h, 349.12 ± 78.04 ng/mL.

  6. A simple assay for the simultaneous determination of human plasma albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide levels by high performance liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Cabaleiro-Ocampo, Teresa; Román-Martínez, Manuel; Ochoa-Mazarro, Dolores; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2013-11-15

    A simple, reproducible and fast (4 min chromatogram) method of liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed to determine simultaneously the plasma levels of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) for pharmacokinetic and clinical analysis. Each plasma sample was extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) using phenacetin as internal standard (IS). The extracted sample was eluted with a Zorbax XDB-CN column using an isocratic method. The mobile phase consisting of water with 1% acetic acid (40%, A) and MeOH (60%, B), was used at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. ABZ and ABZOX were detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 5-1000 ng/mL for ABZ and 10-1500 ng/mL (full validation) or 10-5000 ng/mL (partial validation) for ABZOX, with 5 and 10 ng/mL lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for ABZ and ABZOX, respectively. The tests of accuracy and precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery and stability of the samples for both ABZ and ABZOX did not deviate more than 20% for the LLOQ and no more than 15% for other quality controls (QCs), according to regulatory agencies. © 2013.

  7. New technique for the direct analysis of food powders confined in a small hole using transversely excited atmospheric CO(2) laser-induced gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, Ali; Ramli, Muliadi; Deguchi, Yoji; Lee, Yong Inn; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Taking advantage of the differences between the interactions of transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO(2) lasers with metal and with organic powder, a new technique for the direct analysis of food powder samples has been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were placed into a small hole with a diameter of 2 mm and a depth of 3 mm and covered by a metal mesh. The TEA CO(2) laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces, passing through the metal mesh, at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off of sample, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are then ablated by laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited; this method cannot be applied for the case of Nd:YAG lasers because in such case the metal mesh itself was ablated by the laser irradiation. A quantitative analysis of a milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision.

  8. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  10. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  11. A simple filter dam for small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. G. Reinhart

    1960-01-01

    Research foresters on the Fernow Experimental Forest were recently faced with the problem of conducting a logging job with "poor" skidroad standards on a 38-acre watershed above a municipal water-supply reservoir.

  12. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  13. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-03-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with "cold" magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ωi are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1 (ω' = ω-mωi+, ω+ = (-ωci+Ωi)/2, Ωi = (ωci2-4eEr/mir)1/2 is called the "modified" ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f = Ni/ne = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2. The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ωi consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece—Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ωi above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ωi and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ωi ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≈0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≲0,002). Their instability has a threshold character. The instabilities of TG and MIC modes take place mainly at the values of parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2, corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ωci2≪|eEr/mir|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency

  14. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  15. Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Renewable Power Systems for a Small-Scale Plasma-Assisted Nitric Acid Plant in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Anastasopoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected world population growth by 2050 is likely to pose great challenges in the global food demand and, in turn, in the fertilizer consumption. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has forecasted that 46% of this projected growth will be attributed to Africa. This, in turn, raises further concerns about the sustainability of Africa’s contemporary fertilizer production, considering also its high dependence on fertilizer imports. Based on these facts, a novel “green” route for the synthesis of fertilizers has been considered in the context of the African agriculture by means of plasma technology. More precisely, a techno-economic feasibility study has been conducted for a small-scale plasma-assisted nitric acid plant located in Kenya and South Africa with respect to the electricity provision by renewable energy sources. In this study, standalone solar and wind power systems, as well as a hybrid system, have been assessed for two different electricity loads against certain economic criteria. The relevant simulations have been carried out in HOMER software and the optimized configurations of each examined renewable power system are presented in this study.

  16. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  17. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  18. Circadian time structure of circulating plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzymes and other small molecules in peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjana; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Masood, Tariq; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2015-12-07

    The circadian rhythm, as part of a broad time structure (chronome) of lipid peroxides and antioxidant defense mechanisms may relate to prevention, efficacy and management of preventive and curative chronotherapy. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with peptic ulcers, 30-45 years of age, and 60 age-matched clinically healthy volunteers were synchronized for one week with diurnal activity from about 06:00 to about 22:00 and nocturnal rest. Breakfast was served around 08:30, lunch around 13:30 and dinner around 20:30. Drugs known to affect the free-radical systems were not taken. Blood samples were collected at 6-hour intervals for 24h under standardized, presumably 24-hour synchronized conditions. Plasma lipid peroxides, in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA), blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) activities, and serum total protein, albumin, ascorbic acid, total serum cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were determined. By population-mean cosinor analysis, a marked circadian variation was demonstrated for all variables in healthy subjects and in ulcer patients (pascorbic acid, and HDL-C. They also had smaller circadian amplitude of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, ascorbic acid, T-C, and HDL-C, but larger circadian amplitude of MDA and albumin. As compared to healthy subjects, the circadian acrophase of ulcer patients occurred later for MDA and GR and earlier for GPx. Mapping circadian rhythms, important chronome components that include trends with age and extra-circadian components characterizing antioxidants and pro-oxidants, is needed for exploring their putative role as markers in the treatment and management of peptic ulcers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A simple method using on-line continuous leaching and ion exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2012-03-02

    A simple method for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic (As) in rice was developed using a continuous on-line leaching method to release the bio-accessible fraction. The continuous on-line leaching method has several advantages over commonly used batch methods including quicker and easier sample preparation, reduced risk of contamination and access to real time leaching data. The bio-accessibility of As in the samples was monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from a certified reference material as well as cooked and uncooked white rice showed that the majority of As was leached by saliva. Results obtained using the continuous on-line leaching method were comparable to those obtained using a batch method. Speciation analysis of the saliva leachate was performed using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic forms of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)) were clearly separated within 5 min in a single chromatographic run. Over 92% of bio-accessible As in the certified reference material and uncooked white rice sample was in the form of DMA and As(V), whereas it was present as DMA and As(III) in the cooked white rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in agricultural soil samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after simple and rapid solvent extraction using choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matong, Joseph M; Nyaba, Luthando; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-01-01

    A rapid, simple and green ultrasound-assisted extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for extraction of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in soil samples, has been developed. Choline chloride-oxalic acid based DES was used as a solvent. The target analytes were subsequently quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES). The parameters that affect the extraction of the target analytes was optimized using standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). In the optimization step, a two-level full factorial experimental design was used. The factors under investigation include extraction time, sample mass and acid concentration. Under optimized conditions, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 and 0.03-0.3µgg -1 , respectively. The repeatability (n=20) estimated in terms of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was carried out using SRM 2709a. The obtained and certified/ indicative values were statistically in good agreement at 95% confidence level. The proposed method applied for quantification of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in real soil samples. For comparison, the analytes of interest were also determined using a conventional acid digestion method. According to the paired t-test, the analytical results were not significant differences at 95% confidence level. The method was found to be accurate, precise and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drift motions of small-scale irregularities in the high-latitude F region: An experimental comparison with plasma drift motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Villain, J.P.; McCready, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    On the evening of January 6, 1986, coordinated observations were carried out with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory HF coherent scatter radar at Goose Bay, Labrador, and the SRI International incoherent scatter radar at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland. The common field of view comprised a section of high-latitude F region ionosphere centered on the great circle plane between the radar sites. Over a 40-min period, the HF radar observed strong backscatter from small-scale (13.9 m) field-aligned irregularities. The bulk line-of-sight drift velocity of the irregularities is deduced from the backscatter data. The returns collected simultaneously with the incoherent scatter radar are processed for estimates of the mean line-of-sight ion velocity. Approximately 100 distinct comparisons are possible between the two sets of velocity estimates. Reversals exceeding 1,000 m/s are present in both. In this paper, the authors demonstrate a correspondence between the measured irregularity and ion drifts that is consistent with the supposition that the motion of the irregularities is dominated by convective drift of the ambient plasma. This indicates that the small-scale irregularities detected by HF radars in the high-latitude F region can serve as tracers of ionospheric convective drift

  2. A PORTRAIT OF COLD GAS IN GALAXIES AT 60 pc RESOLUTION AND A SIMPLE METHOD TO TEST HYPOTHESES THAT LINK SMALL-SCALE ISM STRUCTURE TO GALAXY-SCALE PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Schruba, Andreas; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Escala, Andres; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Colombo, Dario; Kramer, Carsten; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Pety, Jerome; Sandstrom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low- J 12 CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1 σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  3. A PORTRAIT OF COLD GAS IN GALAXIES AT 60 pc RESOLUTION AND A SIMPLE METHOD TO TEST HYPOTHESES THAT LINK SMALL-SCALE ISM STRUCTURE TO GALAXY-SCALE PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Blanc, Guillermo A.; Escala, Andres [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Colombo, Dario [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Pety, Jerome [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimtrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin-d’Hères (France); Sandstrom, Karin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low- J {sup 12}CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1 σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  4. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  5. Control of plasma column horizontal position in TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszel, A.G.; Rincoski, C.R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The TBR-1 is a small tokamak built at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. It was originally designed with a simple vertical field power supply made of one fast capacitor bank for vertical current build-up and one slow capacitor bank for flat-top phase, without any control but the adjustable initial voltages of the capacitors. With such an elementary system, the plasma cannot be held in the center of the vacuum vessel for the whole duration of the plasma. This led to a suboptimal performance with easy disruptions. A control system was designed to hold the plasma centered in the radial coordinate. (Author)

  6. Plasma and pleural fluid pharmacokinetics of erlotinib and its active metabolite OSI-420 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer with pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masago, Katsuhiro; Togashi, Yosuke; Fukudo, Masahide; Terada, Tomohiro; Irisa, Kaoru; Sakamori, Yuichi; Kim, Young Hak; Mio, Tadashi; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2011-09-01

    Erlotinib is orally active and selectively inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor. The pleural space penetration and exposure of erlotinib is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of erlotinib and its active metabolite OSI-420 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). We analyzed the PK of erlotinib and OSI-420 on days 1 and 8 after beginning erlotinib therapy in 9 patients with MPE. Their concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Blood samples were obtained five times per day: before administration, and 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after administration. Pleural effusions were obtained once per day, 2 hours after administration on day 1, and before administration on day 8. The exceptions were cases 2 and 4, which had pleural effusions obtained just before drug administration, and 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after administration. The mean percentage of penetration from plasma to pleural effusion for erlotinib was 18% on day 1 and 112% on day 8, while these values for OSI-420 were 9.5% on day 1 and 131% on day 8. The area under the drug concentration-time curve of pleural fluid for erlotinib was 28,406 ng-hr/mL for case 2 and 45,906 ng-hr/mL for case 4. There seems to be a significant accumulation of both erlotinib and OSI-420 in MPE with repeated dosing. Although larger studies will be necessary to determine the true impact of erlotinib MPE accumulation on plasma PK and safety, erlotinib can be administered safely to patients with MPE with respect to efficacy and side effects. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  8. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  9. Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.

    2010-11-01

    A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.

  10. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction to simultaneously determine trans-resveratrol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yu; Yang, Yue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jiaqiu; Qin, Zhiying; Huang, Fang; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol (Res) and its major glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma. Acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and ammonium acetate (10 mol L -1 ) were used as extractant and salting-out reagent to locate the target analytes in the supernatant after the aqueous and organic phase stratification, then the analytes were determined via gradient elution by LC-MS/MS in negative mode in a single run. The analytical method was validated with good selectivity, acceptable accuracy (>85%) and low variation of precision (extraction efficiency of target glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (>80%). The method was successfully applied to determine Res and its four conjugated metabolites in rat after Res administration (intragastric, 50 mg kg -1 ; intravenous, 10 mg kg -1 ). The systemic exposures to Res conjugates were much higher than those to Res (AUC 0-t , i.v., 7.43 μm h; p.o., 8.31 μm h); Res-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was the major metabolite (AUC 0-t , i.v., 66.1 μm h; p.o., 333.4 μm h). The bioavailability of Res was estimated to be ~22.4%. The reproducible SALLE method simplified the sample preparation, drastically improved the accuracy of the concomitant assay and gave full consideration of extraction recovery to each target analyte in bio-samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A new simple and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of plasma oxysterols as dimethylaminobutyrate esters. Its successful use for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Martinelli, Diego; Verrigni, Daniela; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Bertini, Enrico; Pastore, Anna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Johnson, David W

    2014-11-01

    Two oxysterols, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), have been recently proposed as diagnostic markers of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing a potential alternative diagnostic tool to the more invasive and time consuming filipin test in cultured fibroblasts. Usually, the oxysterols are detected and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electro-spray-ionization (ESI) sources, after a variety of derivatization procedures to enhance sensitivity. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify the oxysterols in plasma as dimethylaminobutyrate ester, suitable for ESI analysis. This method, with an easy liquid-phase extraction and a short derivatization procedure, has been validated to demonstrate specificity, linearity, recovery, lowest limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.5-200ng/mL for C-triol and 1.0-200ng/mL for 7-KC. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV%) were <15% for both metabolites. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimates that the area under curve was 0.998 for C-triol, and 0.972 for 7-KC, implying a significant discriminatory power for the method in this patient population of both oxysterols. In summary, our method provides a simple, rapid and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of NP-C disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    Full Text Available Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03 worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025 increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05 decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  14. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  15. Validation of liquid biopsy: plasma cell-free DNA testing in clinical management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldore VH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vidya H Veldore,1,* Anuradha Choughule,2,* Tejaswi Routhu,1 Nitin Mandloi,1 Vanita Noronha,2 Amit Joshi,2 Amit Dutt,3 Ravi Gupta,1 Ramprasad Vedam,1 Kumar Prabhash2 1MedGenome Labs Private Ltd,, Bangalore, India; 2Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, India; 3The Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Plasma cell-free tumor DNA, or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, from liquid biopsy is a potential source of tumor genetic material, in the absence of tissue biopsy, for EGFR testing. Our validation study reiterates the clinical utility of ctDNA next generation sequencing (NGS for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. A total of 163 NSCLC cases were included in the validation, of which 132 patients had paired tissue biopsy and ctDNA. We chose to validate ctDNA using deep sequencing with custom designed bioinformatics methods that could detect somatic mutations at allele frequencies as low as 0.01%. Benchmarking allele specific real time PCR as one of the standard methods for tissue-based EGFR mutation testing, the ctDNA NGS test was validated on all the plasma derived cell-free DNA samples. We observed a high concordance (96.96% between tissue biopsy and ctDNA for oncogenic driver mutations in Exon 19 and Exon 21 of the EGFR gene. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of the assay were 91.1%, 100% 100%, 95.6%, and 97%, respectively. A false negative rate of 3% was observed. A subset of mutations was also verified on droplet digital PCR. Sixteen percent EGFR mutation positivity was observed in patients where only liquid biopsy was available, thus creating options for targeted therapy. This is the first and largest study from India, demonstrating successful validation of circulating cell-free DNA as a clinically

  16. Simple stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.

  17. Zirconium silicate assisted removal of residual proteins after organic solvent deproteinization of human plasma, enhancing the stability of the LC–ESI-MS response for the bioanalysis of small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shah; Pezzei, Cornelia [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Güzel, Yüksel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); ADSI-Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, Matthias [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, Christian W., E-mail: Christian.W.Huck@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonn, Günther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); ADSI-Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A novel sample preparation technique for isolation of small molecules from human plasma. • Effectiveness of zirconium silicate for the removal of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • Abolishing the consumption of salts for the depletion of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • More than 99.6% removal of plasma proteins. - Abstract: An efficient blood plasma clean-up method was developed, where methanol protein precipitation was applied, followed by zirconium silicate assisted exclusion of residual proteins. A strong binding of zirconium (IV) silicate to the proteins enabled the elimination of remaining proteins after solvent deproteinization through a rapid solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used for monitoring the proteins during clean-up practice applied to human plasma samples. The proteins were quantified by colorimetric detection using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. The presented analytical strategy resulted in the depletion of >99.6% proteins from human plasma samples. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to diode-array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC–DAD/ESI MS) was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and their metabolites in human plasma. The procedure demonstrated high recoveries for the standard compounds spiked at different concentrations. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid were recovered in the range of 81–86% and 78–83%, respectively. Caffeic acid was extracted in the excess of 89–92%, while ferulic acid and dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid showed a recovery of 87–91% and 92–95%, respectively. The method was partially validated in accordance with FDA-Industry Guidelines for Bioanalytical Method Validation (2001). The presented scheme improves the clean-up efficacy of the methanol deproteinization

  18. Zirconium silicate assisted removal of residual proteins after organic solvent deproteinization of human plasma, enhancing the stability of the LC–ESI-MS response for the bioanalysis of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Shah; Pezzei, Cornelia; Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W.; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel sample preparation technique for isolation of small molecules from human plasma. • Effectiveness of zirconium silicate for the removal of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • Abolishing the consumption of salts for the depletion of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • More than 99.6% removal of plasma proteins. - Abstract: An efficient blood plasma clean-up method was developed, where methanol protein precipitation was applied, followed by zirconium silicate assisted exclusion of residual proteins. A strong binding of zirconium (IV) silicate to the proteins enabled the elimination of remaining proteins after solvent deproteinization through a rapid solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used for monitoring the proteins during clean-up practice applied to human plasma samples. The proteins were quantified by colorimetric detection using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. The presented analytical strategy resulted in the depletion of >99.6% proteins from human plasma samples. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to diode-array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC–DAD/ESI MS) was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and their metabolites in human plasma. The procedure demonstrated high recoveries for the standard compounds spiked at different concentrations. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid were recovered in the range of 81–86% and 78–83%, respectively. Caffeic acid was extracted in the excess of 89–92%, while ferulic acid and dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid showed a recovery of 87–91% and 92–95%, respectively. The method was partially validated in accordance with FDA-Industry Guidelines for Bioanalytical Method Validation (2001). The presented scheme improves the clean-up efficacy of the methanol deproteinization

  19. In vitro production of beta-very low density lipoproteins and small, dense low density lipoproteins in mildly hypertriglyceridemic plasma: role of activities of lecithin:cholester acyltransferase, cholesterylester transfer proteins and lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, B H; Segrest, J P; Franklin, F

    1998-12-01

    As a model for the formation of beta-very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense LDL by the intraplasma metabolic activities in vivo, lipoproteins in fresh plasma were interacted in vitro with endogenous lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer proteins (CETP) and subsequently with purified lipoprotein lipase (LpL). The LCAT and CETP reactions in a mildly hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) plasma at 37 degrees C for 18 h resulted in (1) esterification of about 45% plasma unesterified cholesterol (UC), (2) a marked increase in cholesterylester (CE) (+129%) and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) (-45%) in VLDL, and (3) a marked increase of TG (+ 341%) with a small net decrease of CE (-3.6%) in LDL, causing a significant alteration in the TG/CE of VLDL (from 8.0 to 1.9) and of LDL (from 0.20 to 0.93). The LDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma is larger and more buoyant than that in control plasma. In vitro lipolysis of control and LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma by LpL, which hydrolyzed >90% of VLDL-TG and about 50-60% of LDL-TG, converted most of VLDL in control plasma (>85%) but less than half (40%) of VLDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into the IDL-LDL density fraction and transformed the large, buoyant LDL in the LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into particles smaller and denser than those in the control plasma. The remnants that accumulated in the VLDL density region of the postlipolysis LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma contained apo B-100 and E but little or no detectable apo Cs and consisted of particles having pre-beta and beta-electrophoretic mobilities. The inhibition of LCAT during incubation of plasma, which lessened the extent of alteration in VLDL and LDL core lipids, increased the extent of lipolytic removal of VLDL from the VLDL density region but lowered the extent of alteration in the size and density of LDL. The LCAT, CETP and/or LpL-mediated alterations in the density of LDL in normolipidemic fasting plasma were less pronounced

  20. Plasma polymerization at different positions in an asymmetric ethylene discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Hegemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of plasma polymerization are investigated in an asymmetric, capacitively coupled plasma discharge. Here, the deposition in different plasma zones, i.e. on the driven electrode, within the plasma bulk and the plasma sheath as well as approximately at the plasma-sheath edge, is investigated. Principal expectations are perfectly met, though new interesting dependences of the obtained a-C : H coatings with respect to film properties and deposition rates are also found. That is, the deposition rates as measured on thin, small glass slides placed directly on the electrode are considerably higher than everywhere else in the plasma, yet only single-sided. In contrast, the deposition rates on the samples within the plasma are lowered depending on the exact placement, while a double-sided coating is obtained. Furthermore, film properties, such as the film density, are highly dependent on the sample placement in the plasma, which can even be higher under floating conditions. With simple physical arguments we are able to show the relations between the deposition rate and the energy input into the plasma as well as between the energy density during film growth and the film density itself.

  1. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  2. High Frequency Design Considerations for the Large Detector Number and Small Form Factor Dual Electron Spectrometer of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Joseph T.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; White, D.; Chornay, D. J; Lobell, J. V.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Mariano, A. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Each half of the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission utilizes a microchannel plate Chevron stack feeding 16 separate detection channels each with a dedicated anode and amplifier/discriminator chip. The desire to detect events on a single channel with a temporal spacing of 100 ns and a fixed dead-time drove our decision to use an amplifier/discriminator with a very fast (GHz class) front end. Since the inherent frequency response of each pulse in the output of the DES microchannel plate system also has frequency components above a GHz, this produced a number of design constraints not normally expected in electronic systems operating at peak speeds of 10 MHz. Additional constraints are imposed by the geometry of the instrument requiring all 16 channels along with each anode and amplifier/discriminator to be packaged in a relatively small space. We developed an electrical model for board level interactions between the detector channels to allow us to design a board topology which gave us the best detection sensitivity and lowest channel to channel crosstalk. The amplifier/discriminator output was designed to prevent the outputs from one channel from producing triggers on the inputs of other channels. A number of Radio Frequency design techniques were then applied to prevent signals from other subsystems (e.g. the high voltage power supply, command and data handling board, and Ultraviolet stimulation for the MCP) from generating false events. These techniques enabled us to operate the board at its highest sensitivity when operated in isolation and at very high sensitivity when placed into the overall system.

  3. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation

  4. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Levels in Late First Trimester Pregnancies with Small-for-Gestational Age Neonates: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Kumari, Radhika; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Faridi, M M A; Chandra, Nilesh

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in late first trimester with small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a low-income setting. The inclusion criteria were late first trimester (11-13 + 6 weeks) women with singleton and non-anomalous pregnancy. Enrolled participants were sampled for PAPP-A and prospectively followed up for delivery outcome and antenatal complications. A multiple of median (MoM) was calculated and statistically compared between groups. Out of total 284 subjects, 14.54% delivered SGA babies and formed cases (Group A), 66.5% delivered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates with uneventful antenatal period (controls, Group B), and 19.3% were AGA group with adverse pregnancy complications (Group C). The late first trimester median PAPP-A MoM was significantly lower (0.61) in Group A compared to Group B (1.47). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for PAPP-A MoM, optimal cutoff value was found at 0.45 MoM, with positive predictive value of 56.2%, specificity of 92.6% and sensitivity of 45%. The median interquartile range (IQR) of PAPP-A MoM value in Group C in comparison with Group B was significantly lower except for abruption. At PAPP-A MoM cutoff value <1, <0.8, <0.6 and <0.4, the odds ratio for adverse pregnancy outcome was 8.30, 7.29, 10.97 and 10.60, respectively, indicating an inverse relationship. With 0.45 MoM cutoff of PAPP-A, the detection rate, specificity and positive predictive value for SGA were 45, 92.6 and 56.2%, respectively. As PAPP-A MoM values decreased, the odds ratio of having adverse pregnancy outcomes increased.

  5. Simultaneous extraction of. beta. -endorphin and leu- and met-enkephalins from human and rat plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Smith, P.M.; Kennedy, B.W. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA)); Voyles, N.R.; Recant, L. (Diabetes Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable procedure is described to simultaneously concentrated and purify {beta}-endorphin, leu-and met-enkephalins from small volumes of human and rat plasma before radioimmunoassay is performed. It uses C{sub 18} Sep-Pak reverse phase cartridges. The effectiveness of different protease inhibitors in preventing degradation of opiates by plasma and different solvent systems for eluting opiates is also evaluated.

  6. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  7. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-{beta} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-{beta} plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with {omega}<<{omega}{sub c}i where {omega}{sub c}i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding.

  8. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-β plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with ω c i where ω c i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding

  9. Scaling laws for TEXT plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCool, S.C.; Bravenec, R.V.; Chen, J.Y.; Foster, M.S.; Li, W.L.; Ouroura, A.; Phillips, P.E.; Richards, B.; Wenzel, K.W.; Zhang, Z.M.

    1994-01-01

    Regression analysis has been performed on a number of measured profiles including temperature and density vs. nominal macroscopic operating parameters for TEXT tokamak (pre-upgrade) ohmic plasmas. The resulting simple empirical model has enabled the authors to quickly approximate profiles of electron temperature and density, ion temperature, and soft x-ray brightness, as well as the scalar quantities: total radiated power, q=1 radius, sawtooth period and amplitude, and energy confinement time as a power law of toroidal field, plasma current, chord average density, and fueling gas atomic weight. The model profiles are only applicable to the plasma interior, i.e. within the limiter radius. In most cases the predicted model profiles are within the experimental error bars of measured profiles and are more accurate at predicting profile variation for small operating parameter changes than the measured profiles

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Plasma and Pleural Effusion Is a Biomarker for Outcome After Bevacizumab plus Carboplatin-Paclitaxel Treatment for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Malignant Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Motohiro; Tamiya, Akihiro; Yasue, Tomomi; Nakao, Keiko; Omachi, Naoki; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tani, Eriko; Hamaguchi, Masanari; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Okishio, Kyoichi; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-06-01

    Malignant effusion is associated with high serum and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). There are no biomarkers of outcome for bevacizumab treatment in patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). We previously reported that carboplatin-paclitaxel plus bevacizumab was effective for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and MPE, although we did not evaluate the relationship between treatment outcomes and plasma or pleural effusion levels of VEGF. Therefore, this study evaluated whether plasma or pleural effusion VEGF might predict bevacizumab treatment outcome. We enrolled 23 patients with NSCLC and MPE between September 2010 and June 2012. Plasma VEGF levels were measured in 19 patients and pleural VEGF levels were measured in 22 patients. Compared to patients with a low plasma VEGF level, patients with a high level exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS: 13.8 vs. 6.5 months, p=0.04), progression-free survival (PFS: 8.7 vs. 4.8 months, peffusion, patients with a high VEGF level exhibited significantly shorter OS (19.6 vs. 6.9 months, peffusion may predict the outcome of bevacizumab treatment in patients with NSCLC and MPE. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  12. simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Simple, rapid, selective and fairly sensitive method is described for the ... Determination of small amounts of LCTZ in pharmaceutical preparations is important for .... sodium hydroxide and extraction of HCl-free-amine into chloroform followed ...

  13. Complexity-aware simple modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Schiavon, Mariana; El-Samad, Hana

    2018-02-26

    Mathematical models continue to be essential for deepening our understanding of biology. On one extreme, simple or small-scale models help delineate general biological principles. However, the parsimony of detail in these models as well as their assumption of modularity and insulation make them inaccurate for describing quantitative features. On the other extreme, large-scale and detailed models can quantitatively recapitulate a phenotype of interest, but have to rely on many unknown parameters, making them often difficult to parse mechanistically and to use for extracting general principles. We discuss some examples of a new approach-complexity-aware simple modeling-that can bridge the gap between the small-scale and large-scale approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crossing simple resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances

  15. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  16. Stellarator Coil Design and Plasma Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Long-Poe; Boozer, Allen H.

    2010-01-01

    The rich information contained in the plasma response to external magnetic perturbations can be used to help design stellarator coils more effectively. We demonstrate the feasibility by first devel oping a simple, direct method to study perturbations in stellarators that do not break stellarator symmetry and periodicity. The method applies a small perturbation to the plasma boundary and evaluates the resulting perturbed free-boundary equilibrium to build up a sensitivity matrix for the important physics attributes of the underlying configuration. Using this sensitivity information, design methods for better stellarator coils are then developed. The procedure and a proof-of-principle application are given that (1) determine the spatial distributions of external normal magnetic field at the location of the unperturbed plasma boundary to which the plasma properties are most sen- sitive, (2) determine the distributions of external normal magnetic field that can be produced most efficiently by distant coils, (3) choose the ratios of the magnitudes of the the efficiently produced magnetic distributions so the sensitive plasma properties can be controlled. Using these methods, sets of modular coils are found for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) that are either smoother or can be located much farther from the plasma boundary than those of the present design.

  17. Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.

  18. Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, N A D [Department of Physics, Gomal Unversity, D I Khan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: ktk_nad@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    Plasma dynamics of a liner consisting of two or three annular cascade gas-puffs with entrained axial magnetic field is studied using the modified snow-plow model. The current stepping technique (Les 1984 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 733) is employed to enhance compression of the imploding plasma. A small-diameter low-voltage-driven system of imploding plasma is considered in order to work out the possibility of the highest gain, in terms of plasma parameters and radiation yield with a relatively simple and compact system. Our numerical results demonstrate that current stepping enhances the plasma compression, yielding high values of the plasma parameters and compressed magnetic field B{sub z} (in magnitudes), if the switching time for the additional current is properly synchronized.

  19. Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, N A D; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G; Zakaullah, M

    2008-01-01

    Plasma dynamics of a liner consisting of two or three annular cascade gas-puffs with entrained axial magnetic field is studied using the modified snow-plow model. The current stepping technique (Les 1984 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 733) is employed to enhance compression of the imploding plasma. A small-diameter low-voltage-driven system of imploding plasma is considered in order to work out the possibility of the highest gain, in terms of plasma parameters and radiation yield with a relatively simple and compact system. Our numerical results demonstrate that current stepping enhances the plasma compression, yielding high values of the plasma parameters and compressed magnetic field B z (in magnitudes), if the switching time for the additional current is properly synchronized

  20. Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments

  1. Population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of erlotinib and pharmacogenomic analysis of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid drug concentrations in Japanese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Masahide; Ikemi, Yasuaki; Togashi, Yosuke; Masago, Katsuhiro; Kim, Young Hak; Mio, Tadashi; Terada, Tomohiro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Mishima, Michiaki; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Katsura, Toshiya

    2013-07-01

    Erlotinib shows large inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability, but the impact of early drug exposure and genetic variations on the clinical outcomes of erlotinib remains fully investigated. The primary objective of this study was to clarify the population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The secondary objective was to identify genetic determinant(s) for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) permeability of erlotinib and its active metabolite OSI-420. A total of 88 patients treated with erlotinib (150 mg/day) were enrolled, and CSF samples were available from 23 of these patients with leptomeningeal metastases. Plasma and CSF concentrations of erlotinib and OSI-420 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with the nonlinear mixed-effects modelling program NONMEM. Germline mutations including ABCB1 (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, 3435C>T), ABCG2 (421C>A), and CYP3A5 (6986A>G) polymorphisms, as well as somatic EGFR activating mutations if available, were examined. Early exposure to erlotinib and its safety/efficacy relationship were evaluated. The apparent clearance of erlotinib and OSI-420 were significantly decreased by 24 and 35 % in patients with the ABCG2 421A allele, respectively (p OSI-420 (p model showed that erlotinib trough (C0) levels on day 8 were an independent risk factor for the development of grade ≥2 diarrhea (p = 0.037) and skin rash (p = 0.031). Interstitial lung disease (ILD)-like events occurred in 3 patients (3.4 %), and the median value of erlotinib C0 levels adjacent to these events was approximately 3 times higher than that in patients who did not develop ILD (3253 versus 1107 ng/mL; p = 0.014). The objective response rate in the EGFR wild-type group was marginally higher in patients achieving higher erlotinib C0 levels (≥1711 ng/mL) than that in patients having lower erlotinib C0

  2. Temperature of thermal plasma jets: A time resolved approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahasrabudhe, S N; Joshi, N K; Barve, D N; Ghorui, S; Tiwari, N; Das, A K, E-mail: sns@barc.gov.i [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 094 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Boltzmann Plot method is routinely used for temperature measurement of thermal plasma jets emanating from plasma torches. Here, it is implicitly assumed that the plasma jet is 'steady' in time. However, most of the experimenters do not take into account the variations due to ripple in the high current DC power supplies used to run plasma torches. If a 3-phase transductor type of power supply is used, then the ripple frequency is 150 Hz and if 3- phase SCR based power supply is used, then the ripple frequency is 300 Hz. The electrical power fed to plasma torch varies at ripple frequency. In time scale, it is about 3.3 to 6.7 ms for one cycle of ripple and it is much larger than the arc root movement times which are within 0.2 ms. Fast photography of plasma jets shows that the luminosity of plasma jet also varies exactly like the ripple in the power supply voltage and thus with the power. Intensity of line radiations varies nonlinearly with the instantaneous power fed to the torch and the simple time average of line intensities taken for calculation of temperature is not appropriate. In this paper, these variations and their effect on temperature determination are discussed and a method to get appropriate data is suggested. With a small adaptation discussed here, this method can be used to get temperature profile of plasma jet within a short time.

  3. A simple derivation of new sum rules of Bessel functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Dipace, A.

    1985-01-01

    In this note it is exploited a recently suggested technique to get simple expressions for a class of sum rules of Bessel functions appearing in plasma physics; their relevance to the numerical evaluation of the Turkin function is also discussed

  4. Electromagnetic Separator of a Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, Vladimir V.; Nezovibat'ko, Yuriy N.; Poklipach, Grigoriy S.; Shvets, Oleg M.; Taran, Valeriy S.; Tereshin, Vladimir I.

    2006-01-01

    Simple freestanding 90 deg. filter is used for obtaining the metallic vacuum coatings. As the source of metallic plasma adapted standard cathode vaporizer on the installation ''Bulat 6''. Plasma flow from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral (solenoid). The solenoid outlet from the side of cathode find under the floating potential. The second solenoid outlet was connected to the autonomous power supply. Solenoid was prepared with the wide interval of the coil winding and with the turning to 90 degrees. Therefore, drifting charged of particle can freely depart from the interior of solenoid outside. The glow of the turned flow of plasma is observed during the supplying to the cathode and the solenoid. Flow is separation from the coils and is extended along the axis of solenoid. In this case over the solenoid flow the current 20-90 A, the voltage of solenoid relative to vessel (earth) + 15 V. We assume, that this device ensures radial electric field relative to the basic nucleus of the plasma (diameter of the nucleus of plasma column it is commensurate with the diameter of cathode) and the current of solenoid creates the longitudinal magnetic field (estimated order 20 oersted). Magnetic field strength is sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it is very small for the ions and the charged microdroplets. The carried out experiments on the application of coatings on the dielectric substrate with the use of aluminum and titanium cathodes showed the effectiveness of the work of this separator. Coatings without the drops are obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement. The reflective properties of the metallic films (Ti,Al) on the glass samples were measured

  5. Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Bendamustine and its Active Metabolite, γ-Hydroxybendamustine in Small Volume Mice and Dog Plasma and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Devaraj V; Suresh, Ponnayyan S; Kumar, Rajnish; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Mullangi, Ramesh; Richter, Wolfgang; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of bendamustine (BM) and γ-hydroxybendamustine (HBM) in small volume (20 µL) mice and dog plasma using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Both the analytes and IS were extracted from mice and dog plasma using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Chromatography was achieved on Atlantis dC 18 column using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 25:75) at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 3.0 min and the elution of BM, HBM and IS occurred at ~1.2, 1.2 and 2.0 min, respectively. A linear response function was established 0.11-518 ng/mL for both the analytes in mice and dog plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the range of 3.46-12.9 and 3.63-8.23%; 1.15-9.00 and 7.86-9.49% for BM and HBM, respectively in mice plasma and 2.15-6.49 and 1.73-13.1%; 4.35-13.9 and 4.33-10.5% for BM and HBM, respectively in dog plasma. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice and dogs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  7. Plasma Proteomic Analysis May Identify New Markers for Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xuwi; Shedden, Kerby; Ao Xiaoping; Davis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study whether radiation induces differential changes in plasma proteomics in patients with and without radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) of Grade ≥2 (RILT2). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with NSCLC received radiation therapy (RT) were eligible. Twenty patients, 6 with RILT2 with tumor stage matched to 14 without RILT2, were enrolled for this analysis. Platelet-poor plasma was obtained before RT, at 2, 4, 6 weeks during RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Plasma proteomes were compared using a multiplexed quantitative proteomics approach involving ExacTag labeling, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and nano-LC electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Variance components models were used to identify the differential protein expression between patients with and without RILT2. Results: More than 100 proteins were identified and quantified. After excluding proteins for which there were not at least 2 subjects with data for at least two time points, 76 proteins remained for this preliminary analysis. C4b-binding protein alpha chain, Complement C3, and Vitronectin had significantly higher expression levels in patients with RILT2 compared with patients without RILT2, based on both the data sets of RT start to 3 months post-RT (p < 0.01) and RT start to the end of RT (p < 0.01). The expression ratios of patients with RILT2 vs. without RILT2 were 1.60, 1.36, 1.46, and 1.66, 1.34, 1.46, for the above three proteins, respectively. Conclusions: This proteomic approach identified new plasma protein markers for future studies on RILT prediction.

  8. Validation of liquid biopsy: plasma cell-free DNA testing in clinical management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Veldore,Vidya; Choughule,Anuradha; Routhu,Tejaswi; Mandloi,Nitin; Noronha,Vanita; Joshi,Amit; Dutt,Amit; Gupta,Ravi; Vedam,Ramprasad; Prabhash,Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Vidya H Veldore,1,* Anuradha Choughule,2,* Tejaswi Routhu,1 Nitin Mandloi,1 Vanita Noronha,2 Amit Joshi,2 Amit Dutt,3 Ravi Gupta,1 Ramprasad Vedam,1 Kumar Prabhash2 1MedGenome Labs Private Ltd,, Bangalore, India; 2Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, India; 3The Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Plasma cell-free tumor DNA, or circulating tumo...

  9. Simple models of the thermal structure of the Venusian ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, R.C.; Knudsen, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models of plasma temperatures in the Venusian ionosphere are proposed. The magnitudes of plasma thermal parameters are calculated using thermal-structure data obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. The simple models are found to be in good agreement with the more detailed models of thermal balance. Daytime and nighttime temperature data along with corresponding temperature profiles are provided

  10. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association with toll-like receptor 4 expression and plasma levels of interleukin 8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanab, Ahmed Abu

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest an association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver injury and fibrosis could be related to exposure to bacterial products of intestinal origin and, most notably, endotoxin, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  11. Study of the radiation in divertor plasmas; Etude du rayonnement dans les plasmas de divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F

    2000-10-19

    We have studied the cooling of the edge plasma by radiation in the divertor volume, in order to optimize the extraction of power in tokamaks and to limit the wall erosion. In attached divertor plasmas experiments, the concentration of intrinsic impurities at the edge is related to the response of the wall to the incident energy flow of plasma, depending on a phenomenological law. We carried out an analysis of the radiation according to this law and to the control parameters of the discharges. The largest radiated fraction and best synergy are obtained when the concentration of intrinsic impurities strongly increases with the energy of incident plasma. On the other hand, the erosion of the wall is stronger. In detached plasmas, we proved that the performances in terms of incident plasma energy loss and pressure loss are optimal when the density of the slowest neutrals is strong at the edge and when their radial penetration is small. On Tore Supra, we highlighted the correlations between the maximum Mach number of incident plasma flow, the radiation front and the penetration of the neutrals. A simple diagnostic based on the localization of the maximum Mach number proves that detached mode is not optimal on Tore Supra, because the radial penetration of the slowest neutrals is not sufficiently small. In the last part, we obtained the three-dimensional topology of the radiation in the ergodic divertor using a spectral analysis code and boundary conditions consistent with the temperature distribution on the wall. The radiation is maximum in front of the divertor modules. As a consequence, radiated power is underestimated by standards measurements of Tore Supra that are located between the modules. We finally showed that the profiles of temperature along the field lines are modulated, this is specific to the ergodic divertor. (author)

  12. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  13. Small field depth dose profile of 6 MV photon beam in a simple air-water heterogeneity combination: A comparison between anisotropic analytical algorithm dose estimation with thermoluminescent dosimeter dose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Ram, Chhape; Mourya, Ankur; Singh, Navin

    2017-01-01

    To establish trends of estimation error of dose calculation by anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) with respect to dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in air-water heterogeneity for small field size photon. TLDs were irradiated along the central axis of the photon beam in four different solid water phantom geometries using three small field size single beams. The depth dose profiles were estimated using AAA calculation model for each field sizes. The estimated and measured depth dose profiles were compared. The over estimation (OE) within air cavity were dependent on field size (f) and distance (x) from solid water-air interface and formulated as OE = - (0.63 f + 9.40) x2+ (-2.73 f + 58.11) x + (0.06 f2 - 1.42 f + 15.67). In postcavity adjacent point and distal points from the interface have dependence on field size (f) and equations are OE = 0.42 f2 - 8.17 f + 71.63, OE = 0.84 f2 - 1.56 f + 17.57, respectively. The trend of estimation error of AAA dose calculation algorithm with respect to measured value have been formulated throughout the radiation path length along the central axis of 6 MV photon beam in air-water heterogeneity combination for small field size photon beam generated from a 6 MV linear accelerator.

  14. [The impact of ascorbic acid on the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins in the plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing first-line chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Maciej; Godala, Małgorzata; Mejer, Anna; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    One of the main after-effects of chemotherapy used in cancer treatment is an augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn ROS become a source of unwanted side effects of chemotherapy, often forcing the discontinuation of the therapy. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), being an antioxidant, can strengthen the antioxidative barrier of an organism. The aim of the study was an assessment of the concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy supplemented with vitamin C. 25 first-line chemotherapy patients with inoperable NSCLC, including 19 men and 6 women aged between 37-73 years (average age 60.1 +/- 8.8 years) have undergone the examination. Their chemotherapy has been supplemented with ascorbic acid (vitamin C dose of 600 mg per 24 hours). Control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals, including 18 men and 6 women aged between 49-71 years (average age 59.5 +/- 6.6 years). In cancer patients the concentration of A, C and E vitamins was assessed by spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after first-line chemotherapy which was supplemented with vitamin C. In control group the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins was assessed only once. In comparison to the control group the concentrations of the A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients was significantly lower (p vitamin C a significant rise of concentrations (p vitamins tested for was observed. The biggest rise was noted for vitamin C (99.8%). The supplementation of the chemotherapy of NSCLC patients with C vitamin leads to rise of the low concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma. This suggests strengthening of the antioxidative barrier in patients.

  15. Evolution of transverse instability in a hollow cylindrical weakly-ionized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuedyan, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    Having observed formation of plasma striations in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) device, we have studied the conditions under which the hollow cylindrical plasma columns would develop into striations. We first present the observed conditions of the hollow cylindrical plasma which would develop into plasma striations, the measured characteristics of the transverse oscillations and a simple small signal model for a transverse instability in a weakly-ionized hollow cylindrical plasma. This linearized model, which assumes flowing cold ion fluid (T/sub i/ approximately < 0.1 eV) in warm electron fluid (T/sub e/ approximately 1 eV) and background neutrals, reveals a transverse flute-type electrostatic instability whose characteristics are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the measured values of the oscillations in our experiment

  16. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  18. A simple and highly sensitive on-line column extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of protein-unbound tacrolimus in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittersohl, Heike; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Luppa, Peter B

    2018-04-27

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus is essential to avoid side effects and rejection of the allograft after transplantation. In the blood circulation, tacrolimus is largely located inside erythrocytes or bound to plasma proteins and less than 0.1% is protein-unbound (free). One basic principle of clinical pharmacology is that only free drug is pharmacologically active and monitoring this portion has the potential to better reflect the drug effect than conventional measurements of total tacrolimus in whole blood. To address this, a highly sensitive and straightforward on-line liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated and applied to patient plasma samples. The sample preparation included ultracentrifugation and addition of the stable isotope labeled drug analogue D2,13C-tacrolimus, followed by on-line sample extraction and measurement using a Sciex QTRAP ® 6500 in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Due to very low concentrations of protein-unbound tacrolimus, it was important to develop a highly sensitive, precise and accurate assay. Here, we first report the efficient formation of tacrolimus lithium adduct ions, which greatly increased assay sensitivity. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 pg/mL (10 fg on column) was achieved and the assay was linear between 1 and 200 pg/mL. There was no carry-over detected. The inaccuracy ranged from -9.8 to 7.4% and the greatest imprecision was 7.5%. The matrix factor was found to be smaller than 1.1%. In summary, this method represents a suitable tool to investigate the potential clinical value of free tacrolimus monitoring in organ transplant recipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eigenstructure of of singular systems. Perturbation analysis of simple eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    García Planas, María Isabel; Tarragona Romero, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The problem to study small perturbations of simple eigenvalues with a change of parameters is of general interest in applied mathematics. After to introduce a systematic way to know if an eigenvalue of a singular system is simple or not, the aim of this work is to study the behavior of a simple eigenvalue of singular linear system family

  20. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  1. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  2. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  3. Interpretation of plasma impurity deposition probes. Analytic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeby, P. C.

    1987-10-01

    Insertion of a probe into the plasma induces a high speed flow of the hydrogenic plasma to the probe which, by friction, accelerates the impurity ions to velocities approaching the hydrogenic ion acoustic speed, i.e., higher than the impurity ion thermal speed. A simple analytic theory based on this effect provides a relation between impurity fluxes to the probe Γimp and the undisturbed impurity ion density nimp, with the hydrogenic temperature and density as input parameters. Probe size also influences the collection process and large probes are found to attract a higher flux density than small probes in the same plasma. The quantity actually measured, cimp, the impurity atom surface density (m-2) net-deposited on the probe, is related to Γimp and thus to nimp by taking into account the partial removal of deposited material caused by sputtering and the redeposition process.

  4. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  5. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  6. Determination of eugenol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using a simple off-line dansyl chloride derivatization reaction to enhance signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Vachon, Pascal

    2006-11-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive method was developed for the determination of eugenol concentration using an off-line dansyl chloride derivatization step to enhance signal intensity. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride and analysis by full scan liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QIT). The separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(8) analytical column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 75:25 acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in water set at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Signal intensity of the eugenol-dansyl chloride derivative was increased up to 100-fold as compared with the underivatized eugenol in positive electrospray mode. An analytical range of 100-20,000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve of plasma and blood samples. The LOD observed was 0.5 pg injected on column. The novel method met all requirements of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability. In conclusion, a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI/MS/MS method using a derivatization agent was developed to enhance signal intensity of eugenol. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  8. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  9. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  10. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  11. Association "Les Simples"

    OpenAIRE

    Thouzery, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fondée par les producteurs du Syndicat Inter-Massifs pour la Production et l’Économie des Simples (S.I.M.P.L.E.S), l’association base son action sur la recherche et le maintien d’une production de qualité (herboristerie et préparations à base de plantes) qui prend en compte le respect de l’environnement et la pérennité des petits producteurs en zone de montagne. Actions de formation Stages de découverte de la flore médicinale sauvage, Stages de culture et transformation des plantes médicinale...

  12. A simple electron multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L; Akjouj, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Al-Wahsh, H; Zielinski, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple multiplexing device made of two atomic chains coupled by two other transition metal atoms. We show that this simple atomic device can transfer electrons at a given energy from one wire to the other, leaving all other electron states unaffected. Closed-form relations between the transmission coefficients and the inter-atomic distances are given to optimize the desired directional electron ejection. Such devices can be adsorbed on insulating substrates and characterized by current surface technologies. (letter to the editor)

  13. Axisymmetric Plasma Equilibria in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Klaus

    Axisymmetric plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species; they remain arbitrary if no gain and loss processes are considered, in close analogy to the free flux functions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Several simplifying assumptions allow the reduction of the basic equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function χ of positrons or ions, respectively, playing the rôle of the Grad/Shafranov equation in magnetohydrodynamics; in particular, Maxwell's equations can be solved analytically for a quasineutral plasma when both the charge density and the toroidal electric current density are negligible (in contrast to the Tokamak situation). The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio me/mi. The χ-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.

  14. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  15. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  16. A Simple Tiltmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, M. G.; Harrison, D. R.; Edwards, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bubble vial with external aluminum-foil electrodes is sensing element for simple indicating tiltmeter. To measure bubble displacement, bridge circuit detects difference in capacitance between two sensing electrodes and reference electrode. Tiltmeter was developed for experiment on forecasting seismic events by changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  17. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  18. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  19. Simple mathematical fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Faella, O

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical fireworks are reproduced in two dimensions by means of simple notions in kinematics and Newtonian mechanics. Extension of the analysis in three dimensions is proposed and the geometric figures the falling tiny particles make on the ground after explosion are determined. (paper)

  20. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  1. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  4. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  5. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.

  6. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  7. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  8. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  9. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  10. Quercetin and fisetin enhanced the small intestine cellular uptake and plasma levels of epi-catechins in in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Oh; Lee, Seon-Bong; Jeong, Kang-Hyun; Song, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Su-Kyung; Joo, Kyung-Mi; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Jeong-Kee; Kim, Wan-Gi; Shin, Song-Seok; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2018-01-24

    Quercetin and fisetin, known as catechol-containing flavonoids, could positively affect the absorption of catechins due to their strong affinity for catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), which can methylate and cause the excretion of catechins. The current study examined the effect of quercetin and fisetin on the absorption of epi-catechins (ECs) by using a Caco-2 cell line and an in vivo model. The intestinal transport of total catechins by Caco-2 cells was enhanced from 1.3- to 1.6-fold and 1.4- to 1.7-fold by adding quercetin and fisetin, respectively, compared to the control. It was even higher in the treatment with a mixture of quercetin and fisetin. While EC had the highest value of intestinal transport (169% of the control) in 10% quercetin treatment, EGC (235%), EGCG (244%), and ECG (242%) were significantly transported in the treatment with a 5% mixture of quercetin and fisetin (p < 0.05). In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study, the values of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, ng h mL -1 ) were also higher in rats orally administered EGCG with 10% quercetin (365.5 ± 25.5) or 10% fisetin (825.3 ± 46.7) than in those administered EGCG only (111.3 ± 13.1). Methylated quercetin and methylated fisetin were determined to be m/z 317.24 and m/z 301.25 [M + H] + with their own product ions, respectively. The results indicate that quercetin or fisetin is superior to ECs for methylation by COMT.

  11. Analytic analysis on asymmetrical micro arcing in high plasma potential RF plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and analytical results on asymmetrical micro arcing in a RF (radio frequency) plasma. Micro arcing, resulting from high plasma potential, in RF plasma was found to occur only on the grounded electrode for a variety of electrode and surface configurations. The analytic derivation was based on a simple RF time-dependent Child-Langmuir sheath model and electric current continuity. We found that the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the grounded electrode sheath depends on the area ratio of the grounded electrode to the powered electrode. As the area ratio increases, the minimum potential difference across a sheath increases for the grounded electrode but not for the RF powered electrode. We showed that discharge time in micro arcing is more than 100 RF periods; thus the presence of a continuous high electric field in one RF cycle results in micro arcing on the grounded electrode. However, the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the powered electrode sheath is always small so that it prevents micro arcing occurring even though the average sheath voltage can be large. This simple analytic model is consistent with particle-in-cell simulation results

  12. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  13. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1- 3 H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml -1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml -1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  14. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  15. Spheromak type plasma experiment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kiyoyuki; Miyauchi, Yasuyuki; Oomura, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The fusion power reactor which is expected to be the most promising energy has been developed for several plasma confinement systems. Under these circumstances, Spheromak configuration has recently attracted attention because of its simple structure and efficient plasma confinement. This apparatus was ordered by the Engineering Department of University of Tokyo for basic studies of the Spheromak plasma confinement technologies. This forms Spheromak plasma according to the induction discharge system which injects this plasma with magnetic energy generated by a toroidal current in the plasma and discharges the current through the electrical feed through. Toroidal current is induced by the poloidal coil in the vessel. We worked together with the researchers of University of Tokyo to conduct experiments and confirmed the formation and confinement of Spheromak plasma in the initial test. (author)

  16. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  17. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  18. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe for fast and automatic measurements of plasma temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We present a fast technique for determining the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ automatically from the small signal application of the asymmetric double Langmuir probe when it is operated in the region where -1 < eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1. The method described here is based on simple time and rms averages of the probe current that results from a sinusoidally varying applied voltage V/sub a/. 4 refs., 2 figs

  19. Disintegration of fast magnetoacoustic oscillation spectra in non-uniform current-loaded plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.A.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equation for fast plasma cylinder with longitudinal current including a weak azimuthal magnetic field β 0v is obtained and analyzed on the basis of perturbation theory. Simple asymptotic expressions for S w , S n and σ k are derived under different limiting cases (propagation of small-scale waves with high values of radial wave number, wave in the uniform cylinder, surface mode etc.). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  20. Determination of metal concentrations in certified plastic reference materials after small-size autoclave and microwave-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Esa; Väisänen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The digestion methods for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations in plastic samples using microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) and small-size autoclave digestion was developed. The certified polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene certified reference materials were used in order to find digestion method working properly for several sample matrices. Efficiency of the digestion methods was evaluated by analyzing the residual carbon in digests by TOC analyzer. MW-AD using a mixture of 7 mL of HNO3 and 3 mL of H2O2 as a digestion solution resulted in excellent recoveries for As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn, and were in the range of 92-107% for all the analytes except Pb in polyethylene material. Autoclave digestion using 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as a digestion solution resulted in similar recoveries with the exception of a higher As recovery (98%). Tin recovery resulted in low level after both MW-AD and autoclave digestion. Autoclave digestion was further developed resulting in a partially open two-step digestion process especially for the determination of Sn and Cr. The method resulted in higher recoveries of Sn and Cr (87 and 76%) but with the lower concentration of easily volatile As, Cd and Sb.

  1. A rapid procedure for the determination of thorium, uranium, cadmium and molybdenum in small sediment samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: application in Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Weinman, B.; Cronin, T.; Fleisher, M.Q.; Anderson, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid procedure that allows precise analysis of Mo, Cd, U and Th in sediment samples as small as 10 mg by using a novel approach that utilizes a 'pseudo' isotope dilution for Th and conventional isotope dilution for Mo, Cd and U by ICP-MS. Long-term reproducibility of the method is between 2.5 and 5% with an advantage of rapid analysis on a single digestion of sediment sample and the potential of adding other elements of interest if so desired. Application of this method to two piston cores collected near the mouth of the Patuxent River in Chesapeake Bay showed that the accumulation of authigenic Mo and Cd varied in response to the changing bottom water redox conditions, with anoxia showing consistent oscillations throughout both pre-industrial and industrial times. Accumulation of authigenic U shows consistent oscillations as well, without any apparent increase in productivity related to anoxic trends. Degrees of Mo and Cd enrichment also inversely correlate to halophilic microfaunal assemblages already established as paleoclimate proxies within the bay indicating that bottom water anoxia is driven in part by the amount of freshwater discharge that the area receives

  2. Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and plasma nitric oxide with risk of non-small cell lung cancer in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Badabagni, Siva Prasad; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Mundluru, Hema Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The role of ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their association with various cancers were reported. However, their role in the lung cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in South Indian population. For the eNOS gene, the homozygous "AA" genotypic frequency was significantly associated with NSCLC with an overall risk of 3.6-fold (P = 0.006, odds ratio = 3.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.66, 7.723). The heterozygous "I/D" genotypic frequency of ACE gene was significantly higher in NSCLC patients when compared to the controls with a 2.29-fold risk for NSCLC. Multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, smoking status, and polymorphisms in eNOS and ACE genes as the strongest predicting factors for an increased susceptibility to NSCLC. We report for the first time that polymorphisms in the eNOS "A/A" (homozygous mutant) and ACE "I/D" genotypes might contribute to the increased risk of NSCLC in the South Indian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  4. The thermalization of soft modes in non-expanding isotropic quark gluon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 3681, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    We discuss the role of elastic and inelastic collisions and their interplay in the thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma. We consider a simplified situation of a static plasma, spatially uniform and isotropic in momentum space. We focus on the small momentum region, which equilibrates first, and on a short time scale. We obtain a simple kinetic equation that allows for an analytic description of the most important regimes. The present analysis suggests that the formation of a Bose condensate, expected when only elastic collisions are present, is strongly hindered by the inelastic, radiative, processes.

  5. A reduced set of gyrofluid equations for plasma flow in a diverging magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Plasmas are often generated in a small diameter source with a strong magnetic field and subsequently flow into a region with greater diameter and smaller field. The magnetic mirror force that accelerates plasma in a diverging magnetic field appears in the gyrofluid equations developed for applications to toroidal devices, but this force is often absent from fluid equations. A set of gyrofluid equations with reduced complexity is developed in which drifts are assumed negligible and the mirror force is retained. The Chew–Goldberger–Low equations of state are used for a simple closure. These reduced gyrofluid equations are applied to plasma equilibrium in a magnetic mirror, to acceleration of plasma in a magnetic nozzle, and to space charge neutralization of an ion beam by electrons in a diverging magnetic field. The results from gyrofluid theory are compared with results from drift kinetic theory to find the accuracy of the gyrofluid approximation in these applications.

  6. Application of Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma for Polyethylene Powder Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichal, J.; Aubrecht, L.; Pichal, J.; Hladik, J.; Spatenka, P.; Spatenka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Paper refers about a novel plasma reactor exploiting the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) burning in air at atmospheric pressure by ambient temperature and its usability tests. Test modifications were performed with the high density polyethylene powder Borealis CB 9155-01. Modification effect was evaluated by means of dynamic capillarity rising measurements. Tests proved significant powder capillarity changes. The existence of powder surface changes was also confirmed by ESCA tests. Modification aging effect was remarkably small, hence modification effect is very time stable. In comparison with other in literature described apparatus used for this purpose the plasma reactor is of a simple construction and needs no vacuum equipment. Its operation costs are low. Described plasma modification method seems to be an appropriate method for plasma modification of polyethylene powder on the industrial scale

  7. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  9. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  10. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  11. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  12. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  13. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  14. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  15. A simple violin oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  16. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  17. Elevation of Plasma TGF-β1 During Radiation Therapy Predicts Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Combined Analysis From Beijing and Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lujun; Wang Luhua; Ji Wei; Wang Xiaozhen; Zhu Xiangzhi; Hayman, James A.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Yang Weizhi; Brenner, Dean; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Kong, F.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether radiation-induced elevations of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) during radiation therapy (RT) correlate with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the ability of mean lung dose (MLD) to improve the predictive power. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with Stage I-III NSCLC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy. Platelet-poor plasma was obtained pre-RT and at 4-5 weeks (40-50 Gy) during RT. TGF-β1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint was ≥ Grade 2 RILT. Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression, and chi-square were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 165 patients were enrolled in this study. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy, and the median MLD was 15.3 Gy. Twenty-nine patients (17.6%) experienced RILT. The incidence of RILT was 46.2% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio > 1 vs. 7.9% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio ≤ 1 (p 20 Gy vs. 17.4% if MLD ≤ 20 Gy (p = 0.024). The incidence was 4.3% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio ≤ 1 and MLD ≤ 20 Gy, 47.4% in those with a TGF-β1 ratio >1 or MLD > 20 Gy, and 66.7% in those with a TGF-β1 ratio >1 and MLD > 20 Gy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiation-induced elevation of plasma TGF-β1 level during RT is predictive of RILT. The combination of TGF- β1 and MLD may help stratify the patients for their risk of RILT.

  18. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  19. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-05-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments.

  20. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments

  1. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  2. Unusual percolation in simple small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Reuven; Dawid, Daryush Jonathan; Kardar, Mehran; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2009-06-01

    We present an exact solution of percolation in a generalized class of Watts-Strogatz graphs defined on a one-dimensional underlying lattice. We find a nonclassical critical point in the limit of the number of long-range bonds in the system going to zero, with a discontinuity in the percolation probability and a divergence in the mean finite-cluster size. We show that the critical behavior falls into one of three regimes depending on the proportion of occupied long-range to unoccupied nearest-neighbor bonds, with each regime being characterized by different critical exponents. The three regimes can be united by a single scaling function around the critical point. These results can be used to identify the number of long-range links necessary to secure connectivity in a communication or transportation chain. As an example, we can resolve the communication problem in a game of "telephone."

  3. Advanced 4S (super safe, small and simple) LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Handa, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new nuclear power system which can be used for a greater variety of applications. The 4S liquid metal reactor has high inherent safety and passive safety characteristics. It is also easy to operate, maintain and inspect, faster to construct, more flexible in location, requires less initial investment, and is better suited to electrical grid management. The reactor offers a new route through which to expand the use of safe nuclear technology in the world. (author)

  4. Simple, high current, antimony ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, H.

    1979-01-01

    A simple metal ion source capable of producing a continuous, uncontaminated, high current beam of Sb ions is presented. It produced a total ion current of 200 μA at 1 kV extraction voltage. A discharge occurred in the source at a pressure of 6 x 10 -4 Torr. The ion current extracted from the source increased with the 3/2 power of the extraction voltage. The perveance of the source and ion density in the plasma were 8 x 10 -9 and 1.8 x 10 11 cm -3 , respectively

  5. Spectroscopic diagnostics of industrial plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    Plasmas play key role in modern industry and are being used for processing micro electronic circuits to the destruction of toxic waste. Characterization of industrial plasmas which includes both 'thermal plasmas' and non-equilibrium plasmas or 'cold plasmas' in industrial environment offers quite a challenge. Numerous diagnostic techniques have been developed for the measurement of these partially ionized plasma and/or particulate parameters. The 'simple' non-invasive spectroscopic methods for characterization of industrial plasmas will be discussed in detail in this paper. The excitation temperature in thermal (DC/RF) plasma jets has been determined using atomic Boltzmann technique. The central axis temperature of thermal plasma jets in a spray torch can be determined using modified atomic Boltzmann technique with out using Abel inversion. The Stark broadening of H β and Ar-I (430 nm) lines have been used to determine the electron number density in thermal plasma jets. In low-pressure non-equilibrium argon plasma, electron temperature has been measured using the Corona model from the ratio of line intensities of atomic and ionic transitions. (author)

  6. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    We investigate “dual headquarters involvement”, i.e. corporate and divisional headquarters’ simultaneous involvement in subsidiaries’ innovation development projects. Analyses draw on 85 innovation projects in 23 multibusiness firms and reveal that cross-divisional innovation importance, i.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross......-divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...

  7. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  8. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  9. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  10. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  11. Molecular genetics made simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh.; Girolami, Francesca; Sanoudou, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients. PMID:25610837

  12. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  13. Axisymmetric plasma equilibria in a Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Klaus

    2001-10-01

    Plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species. The quasi-neutrality assumption (no charge density, no toroidal current) allows to solve Maxwell's equations analytically for any axisymmetric stationary metric, and to reduce the fluid equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function \\chi of the positrons or ions, respectively. The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio m_e/m_i. The \\chi-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.

  14. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  15. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  16. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  17. Simple gun for vapor deposition of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple evaporation gun for preparing organic thin films was fabricated using commercially available parts of an electron gun for a TV Braun tube. The device permits sample heating to be easily controlled because of the small heat capacity

  18. Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...... for operation of fusion experiments and ultimately fusion power plants. Recent results clearly demonstrate that the plasma transport through the SOL is dominated by turbulent intermittent fluctuations organized into filamentary structures convecting particles, energy, and momentum through the SOL region. Thus......, the transport cannot be described and parametrized by simple diffusive type models. The transport leads to strong localized power loads on the first wall and the plasma facing components, which have serious lasting influence....

  19. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  20. ECRH Studies on Tokamak Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-10

    r.I*cru.Dtrtibution uUnliited 300 Unicorn Pork Drive Woburn, Massachusetts 04801 ECRH STUDIES ON TOKAMAK PLASMAS JAYCOR Project No. 6183 Final Report...up techniques now in use or being suggested, include growing the plasma from a small minor radius or applying a negative voltage spike immediately

  1. Ruthenates: simple superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulian, Armen M.; Wood, Kent S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose triplet superconductors, such as ruthenates, as a prospective material for qubit construction. The vectorial nature of the order parameter in triplet superconductors makes it conceptually very easy to imagine the performance of the qubits. The Cooper condensate of pairs in triplet superconductors has all the attributes of the Bose-Einstein condensates and should facilitate long decoherence times of these qubits versus other 'vectorial' schemes for qubits, such as small ferromagnets. There are other benefits, which the superconducting state provides for a requirement like entanglement between qubits via the proximity effect

  2. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser

  3. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-10-07

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser.

  4. Simple Parametric Model for Airfoil Shape Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, David

    2017-12-01

    We show a simple, analytic equation describing a class of two-dimensional shapes well suited for representation of aircraft airfoil profiles. Our goal was to create a description characterized by a small number of parameters with easily understandable meaning, providing a tool to alter the shape with optimization procedures as well as manual tweaks by the designer. The generated shapes are well suited for numerical analysis with 2D flow solving software such as XFOIL.

  5. Simple de Sitter solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, Eva

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential

  6. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  7. A simple scaler timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Kalavathy, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    In any nuclear reactor, the start-up channels monitor the neutron flux during the start-up operation and give the alarm signals for safety purposes. Normally, a fission chamber is used as a detector to detect the low level neutron fluxes. The output of the detector after amplification and discrimination is shaped in a pulse shaper to provide constant width, constant height pulses for further processing in rate meters. The shaped pulses also go to a scaler timer, where they are counted for fixed time intervals and the accumulated counts displayed. The scaler timer described in this paper uses LSIs to get at a simple, compact and reliable unit. The design is centered around two LSIs. MOS Counter Timebase LSI type MK 5009P (U1) is used to generate the gating pulses. A 1 MHz crystal is used to generate the system clock. A 4 bit address selects the desired gating intervals of 1 or 10 or 100 seconds. In fact, MK 5009 is a very versatile LSI in a 16 pin DIP package, consisting of a MOS oscillator and divider chain. It is binary encoded for frequency division selection ranging from 1 to 36 x 10. With an input frequency of 1 MHz, MK 5009 provides the time periods of 1 μs to 100 seconds, one minute, ten minute and one hour periods. (author)

  8. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R A; Islamy, M R F; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Latief, H; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM. (paper)

  9. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  10. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  11. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  12. A Simple HPLC Bioanalytical Method for the Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, accurate, and precise high performance chromatography (HPLC) method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in rat plasma. Methods: Doxorubicin hydrochloride and daunorubicin hydrochloride (internal standard, IS) were separated on a C18 ...

  13. Plasma Assisted Combustion Mechanism for Small Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    fast ionization wave. Combust.  Theory Modeling, 2001. V.5 pp.97‐129.  N.A.Popov. Effect of a  Pulsed  High‐Current  Discharge  on Hydrogen–Air  Mixtures... Discharge Tube Mono- chro- mator PM Pressure Gauge Electric Gauge Physics of Nonequilibrium  Systems Laboratory Hexane Oxidation by  Pulsed  Nanosecond...Pathways: C2H4‐air  Where PAC Experimental Data is Available Avalanche  to Streamer Transition in Uniform  Electric Field (air, 1 bar, 300 K, 1 cm

  14. Standardised multicentre procedure for plasma gonadotrophin radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, K M; Hayes, M; Jeffcoate, S L [Chelsea Hospital for Women, London (UK)

    1982-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for the assay of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum/plasma has been designed for use in laboratories of varying expertise in the United Kingdom. The major sources of experimental error leading to poor within-laboratory performance and between-laboratory comparability were identified: quality of tracer, use of calibration standards, and separation procedure. A simple rugged kit was designed which was extensively tested first in our laboratory and then in a small multi-centre field trial before being made available. It is now used routinely by 26 health service and research laboratories. The working range of the assays is 1-50 IU/l (LH) and 0.3-16 IU/l (FSH). The between-batch reproducibility was 5-11% (CV) over the dose range 4.8-18 IU/l (LH) and 1.6-15 IU/l (FSH).

  15. Systematic study of plasma and serum proteins in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Nizza, P.; Hatchikian, C.; Schmidt, J.-P.

    1966-01-01

    This work has been carried out in the framework of the determination of the physiological constants of a normal pig. The aim was to study the serum and plasma proteins of this animal species, the ultimate object being to discover whether the qualitative and quantitative changes in these proteins can make a significant contribution to the establishment of a biological dosimetry for irradiated pigs. The serum and plasma from a normal pig were analyzed first by various simple electrophoretic methods and then by immuno-electrophoresis. As a result of the particular characteristics of pig serum we have gradually been led to make numerous modifications to the techniques used for human serums or for those of small laboratory animals. Much careful work and patience were required in order to obtain reproducible results. (authors) [fr

  16. Capacity-coupled multidischarge for atmospheric plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Tamiya; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We propose a method of plasma production by capacity-coupled multidischarge (CCMD) at atmospheric pressure. The discharge gaps in the CCMD consist of a common electrode and a number of compact electrodes (CCE) which are directly coupled with small capacitors for quenching the discharge. A simple CCE structure is provided by a cylindrical capacitor, the inner conductor of which is used as a gap electrode. A short pulse discharge is observed to appear homogeneously at each CCE. A charge transfer for the single-pulsed discharge is 10-100 times as large as that of the conventional dielectric barrier discharge. A high efficiency of ozone production has been confirmed in the CCMD using O 2 gas. A device configuration of the CCMD is quite flexible with respect to its geometrical shape and size. The CCMD could be used to produce plasmas for various kinds of industrial applications at atmospheric pressure

  17. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  18. Contamination Study of Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2008-01-01

    .... Micro-Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) are highly reliable and simple micro propulsion systems that will offer attitude control, station keeping, constellation flying, and drag compensation for such satellites...

  19. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  20. An evaluation of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using electrothermal atomisation sample introduction and photographic plate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khathing, D.T.; Pickford, C.J.

    1984-05-01

    A photographic radiation measurement approach has been used with an inductively coupled plasma source to evaluate and tabulate the more prominent optical emission lines of 66 elements. Compared with the more common sample introduction technique using nebulisation, increased sensitivity for multielement analysis of small samples was achieved by using a simple graphite electrothermal atomisation system. This was constructed to serve as a dual purpose atomiser ie both for Atomic Absorption and for Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission spectroscopy. The system offers the advantage of a wide multi-elemental coverage, but sensitivities achieved with photographic detection are poorer than those obtained photoelectrically. (author)

  1. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  2. The expanding plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, M.C.M. van den.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns the fundamental aspects of an argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. This type of plasma is not only used for fundamental research but also for technologically orientated research on plasma deposition and plasma sources. The important characteristics of the plasma are a strong supersonic expansion in which the neutral particle and ion densities decrease three orders of magnitude, followed by a stationary shock front. After the shock front the plasma expands further subsonically. A part of this thesis is devoted to the discussion of a newly constructed combined Thomson-Rayleigh scattering set up. With this set up the electron density, the electron temperature and the neutral particle density are measured locally in the plasma for different conditions. In the analysis of the measured spectra weak coherent effects and the measured apparatus profile are included. The inaccuracies are small, ranging from 1 to 4 percent for the electron density and 2 to 6 percent for the electron temperature, depending on the plasma conditions. The inaccuracy of the neutral particle density determination is larger and ranges from 10 to 50 percent. The detection limits for the electron and neutral particle density are 7.10 17 m -3 and 1.10 20 m -3 respectively. A side path in this thesis is the derivation of the Saha equation for a two-temperature plasma. The reason for this derivation was the dispute in the literature about the correct form of this equation. In this thesis it is shown, from the correct extension of the second law of thermodynamics and from the non-equilibrium formalism of Zubarev, That in the limit of m e /m h ->0 the generalized Saha equation depends on the electron temperature only. (author). 221 refs.; 54 figs.; 13 tabs

  3. Is our world simple?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    Grand unified models try to unify the electroweak interaction of Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg and the strong interaction of the nuclear forces (quantum-chromodynamics) into a single force. These models predict that the neutrino is identical to its antiparticle (Majorana-neutrino), that the neutrino has a mass, and that a small, right-handed, weak interaction also exists. This allows double neutrinoless beta-decay, which is forbidden in the standard model. Thus, double beta-decay without the emission of neutrinos would falsify the standard model and strongly support grand unified models. This neutrinoless double beta-decay has not yet been found but lower limits of the half-life of nuclei against the double neutrinoless beta-decay (about 10 24 years) allow to give upper limits of the neutrino mass and of the right-handedness of the weak interaction. The conditions for such limits are reliable nuclear structure calculations which are available for about 2 to 3 years. (orig.) [de

  4. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume of plasma generation (i.e. with a small volume-to-surface ratio) and then extending it towards a downstream sample [7]-[9]. These are among the first low-temperature atmospheric plasmas aimed particularly at the exploitation of their ability to invoke the active and rich reactive chemistry close to ambient temperature. The main applications of these early devices are precision surface modification of low-temperature dielectric materials, for example thin film deposition and etching [7]-[9]. Variations of the early plasma jets include atmospheric plasma sheet jets [10] for the treatment of largely planar objects (e.g. polymeric sheets) as well as large arrays of many plasma jets for the treatment of complex-structured objects (e.g. surgical tools and open human wounds) [11]. As a material processing technology, the sub-100oC atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has benefited over the years from many innovations. Whilst a detailed account and analysis of these is clearly outside the scope of this Editorial, it is worth stating that there are different avenues with which to maintain a moderate electron density at the plasma core so as to keep the gas temperature at the sample point below a ceiling level. Most of the early studies employed excitation at radio frequencies above 10 MHz, at which electrons are largely confined in the plasma generation region, and this limits the current flow to and gas heating in the plume region of the plasma jet. Other techniques of current limitation have since been shown to be effective, including the use of dielectric barriers across a very large frequency range of 1 kHz--50 MHz, sub-microsecond pulses sustained at kHz frequencies, pulse-modulated radio frequencies and dual-frequency excitation [12]-[15]. These and other techniques have considerably advanced the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technology. The period of some 15 years since the above

  5. Cyclotron radiation from hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Henning, J.; Duechs, D.

    1975-11-01

    In calculating the energy transport and losses due to cyclotron radiation there are two major requirements: the absorption coefficient has to be known and the proper geometry of the plasma has to be taken into account. In this report Trubnikov's integral formulae for the absorption coefficient have been evaluated numerically and compared with the approximative formulas of previous authors. Deviations by a factor of 2 - 10 in various frequency regimes are not unusual. With these coefficients the rate of change of the energy density due to cyclotron radiation in a plasma as well as the radiation density at a plasma surface are computed for plasma slab and plasma cylinder. Sometimes considerable differences to the results of previons papers can found. Many simple formulae interpolating the numerical results are given in the text, and the FORTRAN computer programs have been reproduced in the appendices. (orig.) [de

  6. Understanding Turbulence in Compressing Plasmas and Its Exploitation or Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth

    Unprecedented densities and temperatures are now achieved in compressions of plasma, by lasers and by pulsed power, in major experimental facilities. These compressions, carried out at the largest scale at the National Ignition Facility and at the Z Pulsed Power Facility, have important applications, including fusion, X-ray production, and materials research. Several experimental and simulation results suggest that the plasma in some of these compressions is turbulent. In fact, measurements suggest that in certain laboratory plasma compressions the turbulent energy is a dominant energy component. Similarly, turbulence is dominant in some compressing astrophysical plasmas, such as in molecular clouds. Turbulence need not be dominant to be important; even small quantities could greatly influence experiments that are sensitive to mixing of non-fuel into fuel, such as compressions seeking fusion ignition. Despite its important role in major settings, bulk plasma turbulence under compression is insufficiently understood to answer or even to pose some of the most fundamental questions about it. This thesis both identifies and answers key questions in compressing turbulent motion, while providing a description of the behavior of three-dimensional, isotropic, compressions of homogeneous turbulence with a plasma viscosity. This description includes a simple, but successful, new model for the turbulent energy of plasma undergoing compression. The unique features of compressing turbulence with a plasma viscosity are shown, including the sensitivity of the turbulence to plasma ionization, and a "sudden viscous dissipation'' effect which rapidly converts plasma turbulent energy into thermal energy. This thesis then examines turbulence in both laboratory compression experiments and molecular clouds. It importantly shows: the possibility of exploiting turbulence to make fusion or X-ray production more efficient; conditions under which hot-spot turbulence can be prevented; and a

  7. The requirements for low-temperature plasma ionization support miniaturization of the ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiontke, Andreas; Holzer, Frank; Belder, Detlev; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AI-MS), the ionization of samples under ambient conditions, enables fast and simple analysis of samples without or with little sample preparation. Due to their simple construction and low resource consumption, plasma-based ionization methods in particular are considered ideal for use in mobile analytical devices. However, systematic investigations that have attempted to identify the optimal configuration of a plasma source to achieve the sensitive detection of target molecules are still rare. We therefore used a low-temperature plasma ionization (LTPI) source based on dielectric barrier discharge with helium employed as the process gas to identify the factors that most strongly influence the signal intensity in the mass spectrometry of species formed by plasma ionization. In this study, we investigated several construction-related parameters of the plasma source and found that a low wall thickness of the dielectric, a small outlet spacing, and a short distance between the plasma source and the MS inlet are needed to achieve optimal signal intensity with a process-gas flow rate of as little as 10 mL/min. In conclusion, this type of ion source is especially well suited for downscaling, which is usually required in mobile devices. Our results provide valuable insights into the LTPI mechanism; they reveal the potential to further improve its implementation and standardization for mobile mass spectrometry as well as our understanding of the requirements and selectivity of this technique. Graphical abstract Optimized parameters of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma for ionization in mass spectrometry. The electrode size, shape, and arrangement, the thickness of the dielectric, and distances between the plasma source, sample, and MS inlet are marked in red. The process gas (helium) flow is shown in black.

  8. International Conference on Plasma Physics ICPP 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.; Tendler, M.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the 1994 International Conference on Plasma Physics held in Foz do Iguacu, Brazil. The scope of the conference was broad and covered all aspects of plasma physics. Some of the topics discussed include space and astrophysical plasmas,fusion plasmas, small and large Tokamak plasmas, non-Tokamak plasmas, inertial confinement fusion plasmas, plasma based neutron sources and plasma applications. There are 60 papers in these proceedings and out of these, 35 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  9. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos

  10. a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...

  11. Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Overall feature of EAST operation space by using simple Core-SOL-Divertor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Hatayama, A.; Zhu, S.; Takizuka, T.; Tomita, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a simple Core-SOL-Divertor (C-S-D) model to investigate qualitatively the overall features of the operational space for the integrated core and edge plasma. To construct the simple C-S-D model, a simple core plasma model of ITER physics guidelines and a two-point SOL-divertor model are used. The simple C-S-D model is applied to the study of the EAST operational space with lower hybrid current drive experiments under various kinds of trade-off for the basic plasma parameters. Effective methods for extending the operation space are also presented. As shown by this study for the EAST operation space, it is evident that the C-S-D model is a useful tool to understand qualitatively the overall features of the plasma operation space. (author)

  13. Propulsion of plasma by magnetic means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W H [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that a small button gun can project plasma consisting of metallic ions, deuterium ions, and electrons at speeds up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cm/sec. These speeds are measured in a vacuum chamber by time-of-flight methods, using a probe and an oscilloscope. From the point of view of projecting high speed plasma in a given direction these button guns suffer from the certain weaknesses. A more efficient arrangement is to accelerate a sample of plasma by passing a current through the plasma as it rides on rails. Series plasma motor and a combination series-shunt plasma motor are analysed.

  14. Is simple nephrectomy truly simple? Comparison with the radical alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S S; O'Brien, M Frank; Kunni, I M; Phelan, E; Conroy, R; Thornhill, J A; Grainger, R

    2011-03-01

    The Oxford English dictionary defines the term "simple" as "easily done" and "uncomplicated". We tested the validity of this terminology in relation to open nephrectomy surgery. Retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing open, simple (n = 89) or radical (n = 126) nephrectomy in a single university-affiliated institution between 1998 and 2002. Operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative complications (OC) and length of stay in hospital (LOS) were analysed. Statistical analysis employed Fisher's exact test and Stata Release 8.2. Simple nephrectomy was associated with shorter OT (mean 126 vs. 144 min; p = 0.002), reduced EBL (mean 729 vs. 859 cc; p = 0.472), lower OC (9 vs. 17%; 0.087), and more brief LOS (mean 6 vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). All parameters suggest favourable outcome for the simple nephrectomy group, supporting the use of this terminology. This implies "simple" nephrectomies are truly easier to perform with less complication than their radical counterpart.

  15. Possible accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry in a sheared toroidal plasma conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Y.A.; Chrzanowski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Cotton-Mouton effect in the sheared plasma with helical magnetic lines is studied, using the equation for the complex amplitude ratio (CAR). A simple model for helical magnetic lines in plasma of toroidal configuration is suggested. Equation for CAR is solved perturbatively, treating the shear angle variations as a small perturbation, caused by the spiral form of the magnetic lines. It is shown that the uncertainty of the polarization measurements in the toroidal plasma with a spiral form of the magnetic lines does not exceed 1.0-2.0%, which determines the limiting accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry. It is furthermore pointed out that the method of a priori subtraction of the '' sheared '' term may significantly improve the accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry. (authors)

  16. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  18. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D

    2001-07-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  20. Self-sustained oscillations in the divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Kukushkin, A.S.; Pistunovich, V.I.; Pozharov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple analytical model of the edge plasma with high recycling, which relays on the presence of a small parameter - the ratio of the particle flows crossing the magnetic field to those impinging onto the divertor target, is proposed. A concept of the one-dimensional steady state (OSS) is introduced as the zero approximation in the small parameter. The mean number density N-tilde of the particles - ions plus neutrals - in the magnetic flux tube is choosen as the most representative and convenient parameter of the problem. The OSS are shown to be ambiguous in some N-tilde range for sufficiently high values of the energy flow entering the scrape-off layer from the bulk plasma. An equation, that describes a quasi-steady variations in OSS, is derived and a mechanism of exciting the self-sustained oscillations is developed. Results of simulation of the edge plasma oscillations are found to be in a good agreement with this mechanism, which could be responsible for the H-mode oscillations observed in the divertor experiments

  1. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  2. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  3. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  4. Laser-heating of hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, I.B.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kocsis, G.

    1990-10-01

    The possibility of creating a fully ionized hydrogen plasma to investigate the capture of slow antiprotons is discussed. Laser heating of the initially discharge-created arc or Z-pinch plasma is proposed. Within the framework of a simple 1-dimensional model based on the energy balance equation alone it is shown that plasma equilibrium can be sustained for 10 μs. A simple pulsed CO 2 laser with this pulse duration and an energy of about 10-30 J is sufficient for heating. (author) 16 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  6. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  7. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  9. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  10. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  11. Frugal Biotech Applications of Low-Temperature Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, Zdenko; Graves, David B

    2017-09-01

    Gas discharge low-temperature air plasma can be utilized for a variety of applications, including biomedical, at low cost. We term these applications 'frugal plasma' - an example of frugal innovation. We demonstrate how simple, robust, low-cost frugal plasma devices can be used to safely disinfect instruments, surfaces, and water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple ectopic kidney in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Heechun; Lee, Youngwon; Choi, Hojung

    2012-10-01

    Simple ectopic kidney was diagnosed in three dogs by means of radiography and ultrasonography. A 2-year-old castrated male Schnauzer, a 13-year-old female Schnauzer and a 9-year-old male Jindo were referred with vomiting, hematuria and ocular discharge, respectively. In all three dogs, oval-shaped masses with soft tissue density were observed in the mid to caudal abdomen bilaterally or unilaterally, and kidney silhouettes were not identified at the proper anatomic places on abdominal radiographs. Ultrasonography confirmed the masses were malpositioned kidney. The ectopic kidneys had relatively small size, irregular shape and short ureter but showed normal function on excretory urography.

  13. Stopping of magnetic collapse due to residual plasma effect in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasorov, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the external plasma of a divergent current shell of a plasma pinch is discussed. Even a small amount of plasma is shown to be sufficiently enough for principal change in dynamics of late stages of sausage-type instability development in a Z-pinch

  14. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  15. Simple model of the slingshot effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Fiore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed “slingshot effect.” Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc. The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.

  16. Enhancing Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Fiber-Based Supercapacitors by Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Nie, Wenqi; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fujun; Ding, Xin; Wang, Shiren; Qiu, Yiping

    2018-04-25

    Graphene fiber-based supercapacitors (GFSCs) hold high power density, fast charge-discharge rate, ultralong cycling life, exceptional mechanical/electrical properties, and safe operation conditions, making them very promising to power small wearable electronics. However, the electrochemical performance is still limited by the severe stacking of graphene sheets, hydrophobicity of graphene fibers, and complex preparation process. In this work, we develop a facile but robust strategy to easily enhance electrochemical properties of all-solid-state GFSCs by simple plasma treatment. We find that 1 min plasma treatment under an ambient condition results in 33.1% enhancement of areal specific capacitance (36.25 mF/cm 2 ) in comparison to the as-prepared GFSC. The energy density reaches 0.80 μW h/cm 2 in polyvinyl alcohol/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte and 18.12 μW h/cm 2 in poly(vinylidene difluoride)/ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, which are 22 times of that of as-prepared ones. The plasma-treated GFSCs also exhibit ultrahigh rate capability (69.13% for 40 s plasma-treated ones) and superior cycle stability (96.14% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles for 1 min plasma-treated ones). This plasma strategy can be extended to mass-manufacture high-performance carbonaceous fiber-based supercapacitors, such as graphene and carbon nanotube-based ones.

  17. Observation of intense beam in low pressure from IPR Plasma Focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Shyam, A.; Chaturvedi, S.; Lathi, D.; Sarkar, Partha; Chaudhari, V.; Verma, R.; Shukla, R.; Debnath, K.; Sonara, J.; Shah, K.; Adhikary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Plasma focus (PF) is a powerful source of various ionizing radiation such as charged particles beam (ions and electrons), X-ray, neutrons etc. This device can operate from energy level of 50J to 1MJ. Plasma Focus is relatively small, simple and cheap in comparison with other radiation sources based on isotopes, accelerators and fusion reactors. Radiation pulse from PF is strong and very short. Now with the new pulsed power technology this device can be operated repeatedly with enhanced lifetime. All these features make plasma focus a versatile device for academic as well as industrial interest such as hot plasma physics and plasma collective processes, equation of state of matter under extreme conditions, material science including material characterization, dynamic equation control, and surface modification and destruction test. Intense burst of neutrons have been observed from a low energy (3.6 kJ) Mather type plasma focus device operated in 0.4 Torr pressure of deuterium medium at IPR. The emitted neutrons (10 9 /shot), that are accompanied by a strong hard X-ray pulse, were found to be having energy up to 3.26 MeV in the axial direction of the device

  18. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  19. Basic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the chapters in this book are devoted to the theory of small amplitude perturbations which is the most well developed aspect of the subject. The remaining chapters are concerned with weak nonlinear waves, and collapse and self-focusing of Langmuir waves, two topics of widespread interest and application. A chapter on particle simulation has been included, as that numerical technique plays an essential role in the development an understanding of plasma physics

  20. Counter-facing plasma guns for efficient extreme ultra-violet plasma light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuwabara, Hajime; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial guns was proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. We applied Li as the source of plasma for improvement of the conversion efficiency, the spectral purity, and the repetition capability. For operation of the system with ideal counter-facing plasma focus mode, we changed the system from simple coaxial geometry to a multi-channel configuration. We applied a laser trigger to make synchronous multi-channel discharges with low jitter. The results indicated that the configuration is promising to make a high energy density plasma with high spectral efficiency.