Sample records for small schools

  1. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson


    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  2. Small Schools, Real Gains. (United States)

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.


    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  3. Resourcing Change in Small Schools (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone


    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  4. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small School...

  5. How Small School Districts Can Organize to Afford Their Small Schools (United States)

    Burton, Christine


    While the research continues to mount on the benefits of school downsizing and decentralizing efforts in urban areas, there exists a paradox for small school Administrators who continue to struggle against forces of consolidation. Small schools in rural and suburban districts have fought for their existence against the pressures of consolidation…

  6. Homework particularities for small school children. (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha


    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  7. Development of Educational Management System in Small Primary School (United States)

    Alsammarry, Yupayao; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Duangcharthom, Surat


    The purposes of the research were: (1) to study the factors of Educational Management System in Small Primary School; (2) to investigate current situations problems and guidelines of developing educational management in small primary school; (3) to develop Educational Management System in Small Primary School; and (4) to examine the results of…

  8. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Miles, Karen Hawley


    Education Resource Strategies (ERS) works with school and district leaders to help them more strategically use resources--people, time, and money--to improve student performance. They have found that many school districts begin creating small high schools without a clear sense of how much they will spend or how to ensure that small schools…

  9. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 6. Perspectives Charter School (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  10. Small Schools in Rural India: "Exclusion" and "Inequity" in Hierarchical School System (United States)

    Diwan, Rashmi


    Small schools have enjoyed rich traditions in the history of education. The Vedic-age gurukula small schools, an abode for children of the privileged few, followed a structured curriculum in the teaching of religion, scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, medicine, astrology and history. The rigvedic small schools, which were more…

  11. Dollars & Sense: The Cost Effectiveness of Small Schools. (United States)

    Bingler, Steven; Diamond, Barbara M.; Hill, Bobbie; Hoffman, Jerry L.; Howley, Craig B.; Lawrence, Barbara Kent; Mitchell, Stacy; Rudolph, David; Washor, Elliot

    This publication summarizes research on the educational and social benefits of small schools and the negative effects of large schools on students, teachers, and members of the community, as well as the "diseconomies of scale" inherent in large schools. It asserts that research shows that measuring the cost of education by graduates rather than by…

  12. Integrating Academic Interventions into Small Group Counseling in Elementary School (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Kaffenberger, Carol J.


    Professional school counselors face the challenge of delivering guidance and counseling services to students while connecting to the educational mission of schools. This article is a summary and evaluation of a small group counseling program that targets academic issues while addressing personal/social issues with elementary-aged children. Results…

  13. Managing Smallness: Promising Fiscal Practices for Rural School District Administrators. (United States)

    Freitas, Deborah Inman

    Based on a mail survey of over 100 rural school administrators in 34 states, this handbook outlines common problems and successful strategies in the financial management of rural, small school districts. Major problems are related to revenue and cash flow, increasing expenditures, providing quality education programs, and staffing to handle the…

  14. Small Schools: The Numbers Tell a Story. A Review of the Research and Current Experiences. The Small Schools Workshop. (United States)

    Klonsky, Michael

    A compelling body of research shows that when students are part of smaller and more intimate learning communities, they are more successful. The latest research demonstrates that small schools, particularly schools of choice, have a measurably positive impact on inner-city students, especially those from minority and low-income families. The…

  15. School Business Leadership: The Small School District Perspective (United States)

    Schaefbauer, Christi J.


    Effective leadership is on everyone's mind this presidential election year as the country's citizens look for a strong candidate to guide them through the next four years. Effective leadership is just as critical in the nation's school districts where people prepare their young people to be the global citizens of tomorrow. In most school…

  16. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps. (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona


    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  17. The Role of Small Enterprise in School Students' Workplace Learning. (United States)

    Mulraney, James; Turner, Peter; Wyatt, Frank; Harris, Roger; Gibson, Terri

    The role of small enterprise in Australian school students' workplace learning was examined. First, the literature on structured workplace learning in Australia, Europe, and North America was reviewed. Next, four structured learning programs in South Australia and four in New South Wales were studied. Interviews were conducted with a total of 41…

  18. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat


    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  19. Context Counts: Viewing Small School Leadership from the Inside out (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen


    This paper proceeds from the basis that leadership can only be understood in context and by viewing it from the inside. In particular, it argues that the contextual complexity of small school leadership warrants attention from researchers, policy makers and system administrators and describes the nature of this complexity as depicted in the…

  20. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 8. High Tech High School (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  1. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Personalization Strategic Designs: 9. MetWest High School (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  2. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 3. University Park Campus School (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  3. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 2. Noble Street Charter High School (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  4. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district. (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E


    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  5. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 4. Boston Arts Academy (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…




  7. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Executive Summary (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Miles, Karen Hawley


    Education Resource Strategies (ERS) works with school and district leaders to help them more strategically use resources--people, time, and money--to improve student performance. They have found that many school districts begin creating small high schools without a clear sense of how much they will spend or how to ensure that small schools…

  8. Problematizing the Relationship between Rural Small Schools and Communities: Implications for Youth Lives (United States)

    Cuervo, Hernán


    Small schools are often the hub of many rural communities. In the school space, a multiplicity of social, economic and political relationships are sustained, which enhance the vitality of the community. As such, the relationship between small schools and communities is often presented as a powerful one; however, too often as a harmonious, natural…

  9. More with Four: A Look at the Four Day Week in Oregon's Small Schools. (United States)

    Reinke, Joyce M.

    The 4-day school week offers solutions to the financial and instructional problems often faced by small rural schools. Two southern Oregon schools implemented the 4-day school week on a trial basis in 1982-83 and, along with five eastern Oregon districts, continue to use this schedule today. The primary purpose of the change to a 4-day week was…

  10. Parents' Attitudes to the Closure of Small Rural Primary Schools (United States)

    Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.


    Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)

  11. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert


    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  12. Improving the Small Rural or Remote School: The Role of the District (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen


    There is a robust body of work highlighting distinctive challenges encountered by leaders of small schools in pursuit of school improvement but this work has focused on the school as the unit of change and neglects the role of the district. As the district potentially influences what principals know and how they use their knowledge, this article…

  13. Small NGO Schools in India: Implications for Access and Innovation (United States)

    Blum, Nicole


    In addition to the proliferation of private, fee-paying schools in India, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play an important role in providing educational services, especially in un-served and under-served communities. This paper uses qualitative research to critically examine the nature and potential of NGO provision of primary schooling in…




  15. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 5. Life Academy of Health and Bioscience (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  16. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 7. TechBoston Academy (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  17. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 1. Academy of the Pacific Rim (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley


    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  18. Just-in-Time Online Professional Development Activities for an Innovation in Small Rural Schools (United States)

    Hamel, Christine; Allaire, Stephane; Turcotte, Sandrine


    This article describes the just-in-time online professional development offered to teachers in the Remote Networked Schools (RNS), a systemic initiative funded by the Quebec Ministry of Education (Canada), which aims at enriching the learning environment of small rural schools with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The…

  19. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon


    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  20. Career Status of Secondary Principals in Small Schools in the Southwest. (United States)

    Seifert, Edward H.


    A random sample of 559 secondary small school principals in Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas revealed that 73 percent of the principals were actively seeking new positions or were leaving school administration. The findings have implications for selection procedures, salary/fringe benefit packages, principal autonomy, evaluation…

  1. Interactive Distance Learning Technologies for Rural and Small Schools: A Resource Guide. ERIC Mini-Review. (United States)

    Barker, Bruce O.

    In remote and isolated schools where a certified teacher is not always available, or in small schools where limited student enrollments make hiring teachers for low incident courses cost-prohibitive, instruction via distance may be the "next best thing to being there." Several approaches are available: (1) satellite transmissions--the…

  2. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities. (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.


    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  3. Characteristics of National Merit Scholars from Small Rural Schools. (United States)

    Peltier, Gary; And Others

    This study compares 1988 National Merit Scholars enrolled in rural public schools with a senior class smaller than 99 students to other merit scholars and the national sample of SAT takers. Rural scholars were more likely to be female (45.5%) and Caucasian (98%) than other scholars. Involvement in extracurricular activities was significantly…

  4. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.


    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  5. Recent Innovations in Small-N Designs for Research and Practice in "Professional School Counseling" (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Smith, Douglas


    This article illustrates an innovative small-N research design that researchers and practitioners can use to investigate questions of interest in "professional school counseling." The distributed criterion (DC) design integrates elements of three classic small-N research designs--the changing criterion, reversal, and multiple baseline. The DC…

  6. Publishing Systems Same for J-Schools and Small Papers. (United States)

    Oates, William R.


    Discusses how professional publishing software allows journalism education programs to accurately create the publishing environment students will encounter at small and medium-sized newspapers. Claims that the laser jet printer is the key ingredient that is turning the personal computer revolution into a newspaper publishing revolution, describing…

  7. How Database Management Systems Can Be Used To Evaluate Program Effectiveness in Small School Districts. (United States)

    Hoffman, Tony

    Sophisticated database management systems (DBMS) for microcomputers are becoming increasingly easy to use, allowing small school districts to develop their own autonomous databases for tracking enrollment and student progress in special education. DBMS applications can be designed for maintenance by district personnel with little technical…

  8. Leading a Small Remote School: In the Face of a Culture of Acceptance (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon


    This article presents a case study of one very small school in a remote location of Western Australia. The study is part of a larger programme, International Study of Principal Preparation, investigating the challenges facing novice principals in the first 3 years of appointment and the extent to which they felt they were adequately prepared to…

  9. Small High Schools at Work: A Case Study of Six Gates-Funded Schools in New York City. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (United States)

    Fancsali, Cheri; Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Mitchell-McKnight, Vernay; Nevarez, Nancy; Orellana, Eliana, Williams Rose, Lea


    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) conducted a case study of six public high schools in New York City as part of a multifaceted evaluation of a small schools initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, the authors gathered information and opinions from the schools'…

  10. An Exploratory Case Study of How Middle School Principals of Small Rural Schools Address Cyberbullying (United States)

    Force, Christina Marie


    Cyberbullying affects almost half of the teenagers in America (National Crime Prevention Council [NCPC], 2010). The effects of cyberbullying can be detrimental to teens and may include withdrawal from school activities, illness, depression, eating disorders, or suicidal ideations (Dehue, Bolman, & Vollink, 2008; Mason, 2008). In order to…

  11. A Development of Academic Management on Small School Model Under The Office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerachai Saenkaew


    Full Text Available The purpose of study were ; 1 to determine the Academic Management on small school Model ; 2 to Develop of Academic Management on small school model Under the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2. The research Methodology consisted of four steps ; 1 Analyzing the documentary research ; 2 developing the academic management on small school factors and Indicators with Delphi Technique by verifying of 21 experts ; 3 seeking the advices and the feedbacks from nine experts in Udonthani using focus group discussion ; 4 evaluating the 110 school Administrators opinions in Udonthani. The analysis of the data was accomplished by computation of percentage, mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile ranges. Based on the findings to the study; it was concluded that: 1 The group of experts represented the three factors were ; a A development school Record of students ; b A development attribute of student ; c care forward successes with 15 Indicators. 2 Based on group discussion, all experts strongly agreed with the used and Integration of three factors of academic management on small school Model. 3 Overall, the at 110 school demonstrations in Udonthani agreed with academic management on small school model at high level. 4 A development of academic management on small school model in the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2 ; a A development school Record of students with 5 indicators ; b A development attribute of student with 6 indicators ; c Care Forward Successes with 4 indicators.

  12. An Analysis of New Small High Schools' On-Time Graduation Rates in New York City (United States)

    Dudley, Nathan


    Beginning in 2002, with the election of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's Department of Education undertook an unprecedented overhaul of the largest school district in the United States. Over the next 10 years the Department of Education closed more than 25 large, underperforming high schools, and created almost 200 new, small high schools,…

  13. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school. (United States)

    Shankar, Pr; Gurung, Sb; Jha, N; Bajracharya, O; Karki, Bms; Thapa, Tp


    Small group learning sessions are used in pharmacology at the KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback about student behaviours that enhance and hinder small group effectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve the small group sessions and will also be useful to educators using small groups in other medical schools. The small groups were self-managing with a group leader, time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small group effectiveness was measured using the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI) developed by Singaram and co-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010 and key findings obtained were shared with students and facilitators. The instrument was administered again in August. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivational and overall scores were compared among different categories of respondents in June and August. Scores were also compared between June and August 2010. A total of 89 students participated in the study in June and 88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall group productivity higher compared to males. The cognitive and motivational scores were higher in August 2010 while the demotivational score was lower. The small group effectiveness was higher in August after the educational intervention which utilised feedback about problems observed, theoretical considerations of effective small groups and how this information can be applied in practice.

  14. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR


    Full Text Available BackgroundSmall group learning sessions are used in pharmacology atthe KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback aboutstudent behaviours that enhance and hinder small groupeffectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve thesmall group sessions and will also be useful to educatorsusing small groups in other medical schools.MethodThe small groups were self-managing with a group leader,time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small groupeffectiveness was measured using the Tutorial GroupEffectiveness Instrument (TGEI developed by Singaram andco-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010and key findings obtained were shared with students andfacilitators. The instrument was administered again inAugust. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivationaland overall scores were compared among differentcategories of respondents in June and August. Scores werealso compared between June and August 2010.ResultsA total of 89 students participated in the study in June and88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall groupproductivity higher compared to males. The cognitive andmotivational scores were higher in August 2010 while thedemotivational score was lower.ConclusionThe small group effectiveness was higher in August after theeducational intervention which utilised feedback aboutproblems observed, theoretical considerations of effectivesmall groups and how this information can be applied inpractice.

  15. Big Sky Legacy. In Montana, Small Schools Aren't a Bold New Idea. They're a Way of Life. (United States)

    Boss, Suzie


    Two-thirds of Montana's school districts are rural, and most students attend schools with enrollments under 300. Such recent trends as peer tutoring, multigrade classrooms, and project-based learning have always been practiced in these small schools. One small community's successful effort to save its school, classroom practices in one-room…

  16. Competitive advantages in nets of micro, small and medium companies: the case of Brazil School Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaine Fermoseli Vilga


    Full Text Available In this article, it is presented a study about a stationery stores’ associativism called Brazil School Network. The objective was to verify the companies’ competitive advantages once taken part in this type of association. Primary data were collected in 45 stationery stores, starting from the 85 stores of São Paulo State. The productive, technological or services cooperation among micro, small and medium companies represent an alternative for the collective proits attainment among the actors. The strategical alliances, networks of companies, clusters, virtual organizations, incubators, local productive arrangements, condominiums and trusts represent forms of complementary resources coordination and management, distinct from the hierarchy and market. In the article, the typology and mechanisms for coordination of small and medium companies’ networks are also explored. The results show high beneits to the stationery stores associated to Brazil Scholar Network, which would not be possible if they were managed in isolated and independent way.

  17. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers (United States)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  18. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson


    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  19. Approaches of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-Funded Intermediary Organizations to Structuring and Supporting Small High Schools in New York City. Executive Summary (United States)

    Foley, Eileen


    In 2003, a few years after the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began implementing its small schools reform agenda, the Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (DOE) announced a plan to replace large failing high schools in New York City with 200 small schools. In short order, the foundation and the Chancellor became partners with…

  20. The Effect of the Student Success Skills Small Group Counseling Intervention on Factors Associated with Dropout Potential in High School (United States)

    Weinstein, Jodie


    The focus of this study is to add to the outcome research on effective school counseling interventions and to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention with students identified as having drop out potential in the 9th grade. This study analyzed two years of pre-existing, non-identifiable…

  1. Decision-Making Quandaries that Superintendents Face in Their Work in Small School Districts Building Democratic Communities (United States)

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michele


    Superintendents of small school districts describe how they give voice, involve and listen to others, and solicit various publics to build democratic communities. Superintendents make sense of leadership through their constructed role, leadership orientation, and district size. Findings suggest the following when superintendents involve, listen,…

  2. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia


    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  3. If You Build It, They Will Come: A Successful Truancy Intervention Program in a Small High School (United States)

    Marvul, John N.


    To assess whether a 5-month program involving attendance monitoring, sports participation, and a moral character class would reduce absenteeism, 40 students in a small transitional high school were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups and assessed pre- and postintervention on educational expectations, attitude toward education, and…

  4. Small Schools Student Learning Objectives, 9-12: Mathematics, Reading, Reading in the Content Areas, Language Arts. (United States)

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; Hartl, David, Ed.

    Designed by Washington curriculum specialists and secondary teachers to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to aid smaller districts lacking curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives Law, this handbook contains learning objectives in the areas of language arts,…

  5. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School


    Steven M. Smith; Sonja Novkovic; John Maddocks


    This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of develop...

  6. The Fairness Committee: Restorative Justice in a Small Urban Public High School (United States)

    Hantzopoulos, Maria


    Rather than creating safer schools, punitive policies--such as zero-tolerance discipline policies--appear only to have created hostile learning environments. In response, many advocacy organizations have urged schools to adopt a human rights framework, including restorative practices. Schools with restorative approaches have noted dramatic…

  7. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Text Previewing and Preteaching Keywords as Small-Group Reading Comprehension Strategies with Middle-School Students (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Parker, David C.; Fremont, Kathryn


    Reading instruction for middle- and high-school students is focused on vocabulary and comprehension, yet research suggests that comprehension skills among these students are alarmingly low. Small-group reading interventions are becoming more prevalent in schools, but there are few studies regarding small-group reading comprehension interventions.…

  8. Letter-Sound Knowledge: Exploring Gender Differences in Children When They Start School Regarding Knowledge of Large Letters, Small Letters, Sound Large Letters, and Sound Small Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermundur Sigmundsson


    Full Text Available This study explored whether there is a gender difference in letter-sound knowledge when children start at school. 485 children aged 5–6 years completed assessment of letter-sound knowledge, i.e., large letters; sound of large letters; small letters; sound of small letters. The findings indicate a significant difference between girls and boys in all four factors tested in this study in favor of the girls. There are still no clear explanations to the basis of a presumed gender difference in letter-sound knowledge. That the findings have origin in neuro-biological factors cannot be excluded, however, the fact that girls probably have been exposed to more language experience/stimulation compared to boys, lends support to explanations derived from environmental aspects.

  9. How Technicians Can Lead Science Improvements in Any School: A Small-Scale Study in England (United States)

    Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon


    This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…

  10. Vic: The Challenges Facing Schools in a Small, Newly Diverse, Catalan City (United States)

    Simo, Nuria; Telford, Jon


    The arrival over the last 15 years of a substantial number of pupils of immigrant origin has presented Catalan schools with significant challenges. The schools in Vic (70 km north of Barcelona) have been at the forefront of attempts to adjust to this new multicultural reality. This article describes the results of three studies carried out by the…

  11. Small Steps Make Meaningful Change in Transforming Urban Schools (United States)

    Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Radliff, Kisha M.; Della Flora, Olympia A.


    Urban schools in the United States are generally viewed as having greater challenges than their suburban and rural counterparts. Most notably, they often have lower academic achievement and much of the educational reform movement has been aimed at urban schools in an attempt to close the achievement gap. Although much of the focus in recent years…

  12. Site-Based Leadership: Extrapolating from Small Business to Charter Schools (United States)

    Arbisi Little, Joan


    Using a participant-observer perspective, this comparative case study sought to identify similarities between business and education to contribute to charter school training, leadership development, and school reform. This inquiry is a qualitative comparative case study using a participant observer perspective presented in a scholarly personal…

  13. Is small town India falling into the nutritional trap of metro cities? A study in school-going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Nawab


    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660. Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2% and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5% was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV viewing more than 2 h/day. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing.

  14. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda


    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  15. Family Involvement in Creative Teaching Practices for All in Small Rural Schools (United States)

    Vigo Arrazola, Begoña; Soriano Bozalongo, Juana


    Parental involvement is interpreted as a key form of support that can contribute to the establishment of inclusive practices in schools, but this can be difficult in sparsely populated areas. Using ethnographic methods of participant observation, informal conversations and document analysis, this article therefore focuses on family involvement…

  16. Six Small Boys and Marshall Dillon: Contribution of Hero Identification to Improved In School Behavior (United States)

    Whiting, Anita


    Summarized are several theoretical positions on identification, together with one application in a case study. An autographed picture of their hero was presented to each of six uncerachieving and disruptive boys in an effort to provide an interested" adult role model for them. The school staff reinforced this identification with projects in which…

  17. Private Schools in American Education: A Small Sector Still Lagging in Diversity. Working Paper (United States)

    Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary; Teitell, Jennifer


    Private schools have a long and important tradition in U.S. education and have been the focus of a great deal of political controversy in recent years. There is deep division among Americans over the desirability of using public funds to finance vouchers for private education--an issue that has become the leading educational goal of the Trump…

  18. Rescuing a Small Village School in the Context of Rural Change in Hungary (United States)

    Kovacs, Katalin


    The paper discusses local responses to schooling policy in the context of the uneven differentiation and sharp social polarisation of the Hungarian countryside. Counter-urbanisation, on the one hand, has brought affluent urban middle classes to suburban spaces, on the other hand, peripheral areas are becoming impoverished with high unemployment,…

  19. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on High School Outcomes (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane


    North Carolina's Early College model is the subject of an IES-funded eleven-year longitudinal experimental study that utilized a lottery process to assign early college applicants to either treatment or control groups. This paper presents findings related to high school outcomes. The primary goal of the early college model is to increase the…

  20. Middle-school students of United Arab Emirates: effects of heterogeneous small group work on attitudes toward mathematics. (United States)

    Alkhateeb, H M; Jumaa, M


    This study compared the effects of two instructional strategies, small heterogeneous cooperative learning experience versus lecture and discussion, on students' attitudes toward mathematics. 54 boys and 57 girls in Grade 8 of four middle-school mathematics classes participated. Two classes (57 students) were taught using a cooperative learning method and the other two classes (54 students) were taught using traditional lecture and discussion. Differences between attitudes of boys and girls were also investigated and discussed in the light of Arabic culture. The results suggested that cooperative learning might be a valuable method with which to teach mathematics concepts to boys.

  1. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto


    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  2. Proceedings of the International school and symposium on small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, S.; Rosta, L.


    The meeting was devoted to small angle neutron and X-ray scattering with regard to the wide interest for this method in various fields of basic and applied research. Scientists from European laboratories gave introductory talks to various subject fields related to small angle scattering (SAS) techniques or data analysis methods as well as topical research area e.g. soft condensed matter, biology or materials science. An important number of contributed talks were presented on neutron or X-ray scattering and even on combining both of them, demonstrating the very useful complementarity of these methods. Some other papers give nice examples of SAS experiments completed by results of other techniques such as NMRE of light scattering. The variety of presented contributions is a nice demonstration for the interdisciplinary use of small angle scattering from physics through biology, chemistry, materials science to engineering. 18 items are indexed separately for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  3. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Smith


    Full Text Available This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of development of survey-based measures for the particular organization. The direction of the tool development and subsequent organizational changes were carried out in a participatory process between the school's staff, the parents, and the board. We identify the limitations and challenges of this process, and outline its successes to draw lessons for other similar democratic organizations. / Cet article est le produit d'un projet conjoint de recherche sur l'économie sociale entre un partenaire communautaire-une école privée-et des partenaires académiques. L'école est une organisation démocratique dirigée par des enseignants et des parents. Le but de ce projet était de trouver des façons d'améliorer la communication et la reddition de compte en ce qui a trait au rendement général de l'école comme faisant partie de la responsabilité de l'école envers ses membres. En commençant par des leçons sur l'approche de tableau de bord équilibré pour les organismes sans but lucratif, nous abordons le processus de l'élaboration de mesures fondées sur des enquêtes pour l'organisation particulière. L'orientation du développement d'outils et des changements organisationnels subséquents ont été déterminés lors d'un processus participatif entre le personnel de l'école, les parents et la direction. Nous établissons les limites et les défis de cette façon de procéder et en soulignons les réussites pour tirer des leçons qui serviront à d

  4. Building a National Security Program at a Small School: Identifying Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Schortgen, Francis


    This article offers insights into the overall program development process and--institutional obstacles and constraints notwithstanding--successful introduction of a new national security program at a small liberal arts university at a time of growing institutional prioritization of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs.…

  5. Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools. (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub


    Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal small group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. Small group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-directed learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement.

  6. ASEAN Economic Community and Small-Medium Enterprises: an English School Perspective


    Robertua, Verdinand


    Accounting for 30-60% of GDP of ASEAN member states and the largest source of employment for all economic actors, small medium enterprises is a very important economic actor in Southeast Asia. The SME sector in ASEAN, however, is confronted with a wide-range of structural, financial and other challenges, among which are limited access to finance, technologies and markets. ASEAN has many important roles in developing SMEs. ASEAN institutions can guide, direct, and fund many development program...

  7. Increasing Opportunities for Small and Local Businesses at the Naval Postgraduate School Through Simplified Acquisitions Contracting (United States)


    Once more, with feeling: federal small business contracting policy in the Obama adminstration . Public Procurement Law Review, 1, 15–40. Office of...Lead Advisor Elliot Cory Yoder, Support Advisor Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to

  8. Estimation of Mental Disorders Prevalence in High School Students Using Small Area Methods: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Soltanian


    Full Text Available Background Adolescence is one of the most important periods in the course of human evolution and the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescence in different regions of Iran, especially in southern Iran. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in Bushehr province, south of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 286 high school students were recruited by a multi-stage random sampling in Bushehr province in 2015. A general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used to assess mental disorders. The small area method, under the hierarchical Bayesian approach, was used to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and data analysis. Results From 286 questionnaires only 182 were completely filed and evaluated (the response rate was 70.5%. Of the students, 58.79% and 41.21% were male and female, respectively. Of all students, the prevalence of mental disorders in Bushehr, Dayyer, Deylam, Kangan, Dashtestan, Tangestan, Genaveh, and Dashty were 0.48, 0.42, 0.45, 0.52, 0.41, 0.47, 0.42, and 0.43, respectively. Conclusions Based on this study, the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents was increasing in Bushehr Province counties. The lack of a national policy in this way is a serious obstacle to mental health and wellbeing access.

  9. Cyber dating violence: Prevalence and correlates among high school students from small urban areas in Quebec. (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Cénat, Jude Mary; Lapierre, Andréanne; Dion, Jacinthe; Hébert, Martine; Côté, Karine


    Adolescents in a dating relationship can interact anytime using information and communication technologies. Yet, despite associated potential benefits, this availability of means to reach out to their partner may also exacerbate possible conflictual exchanges, including dating violence through technology. This study aimed to document the prevalence of cyber dating violence (CDV) victimization and perpetration among teenagers. It also explored self-esteem and psychological distress in participants having been perpetrators, victims, or perpetrator-victims, compared with those not having experienced CDV. The sample comprised 190 teenagers from a small urban area who completed the K10 psychological distress scale, the Self-Description Questionnaire, which measures self-esteem, and the Cyber Dating Abuse Questionnaire, which measures the prevalence of CDV victimization and perpetration. Our results suggest no gender difference in the prevalence of CDV victimization (35.8%), perpetration (33.0%), or the high co-occurrence rate of victimization and perpetration (27.2%) in the last 12 months. When age and gender were controlled for, cyber dating violence was found to be associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Cyberperpetration was also associated with higher self-esteem. The cross-sectional design precludes any conclusion about the sequencing of the variables. Reliance on a convenience sample also represents a limitation of the study. CDV is associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Dating violence prevention programs should include issues related to CDV, considering its high prevalence, conceptual proximity to psychological violence, and relationship with psychological distress and low self esteem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools* (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip


    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  11. Step-by-Step Guide to Effective PR for Large & Small School Districts. Special Bulletin No. 3. (United States)

    School Information and Research Service, Olympia, WA.

    This guide to formulating and carrying out an effective school public relations program includes articles drawn from public relations and communications journals. The articles deal with planning public relations programs, communicating with the public and the news media, program evaluation, and the tools of communication, including newsletters,…

  12. Possibilities of Implementation of Small Business Check-Up Methodology in Comparative Analysis of Secondary Schools and Universities in Slovakia (United States)

    Štofková, Katarína; Strícek, Ivan; Štofková, Jana


    The paper is aimed to evaluate the possibility of applying new methods and tools of more effective educational processes, with an emphasis on increasing their quality especially aimed on educational processes at secondary schools and universities. There are some contributions from practice for the effective implementation of time management, such…

  13. A small community model for the transmission of infectious diseases: comparison of school closure as an intervention in individual-based models of an influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the absence of other evidence, modelling has been used extensively to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. METHOD: We have constructed an individual based model of a small community in the developed world with detail down to exact household structure obtained from census collection datasets and precise simulation of household demographics, movement within the community and individual contact patterns. We modelled the spread of pandemic influenza in this community and the effect on daily and final attack rates of four social distancing measures: school closure, increased case isolation, workplace non-attendance and community contact reduction. We compared the modelled results of final attack rates in the absence of any interventions and the effect of school closure as a single intervention with other published individual based models of pandemic influenza in the developed world. RESULTS: We showed that published individual based models estimate similar final attack rates over a range of values for R(0 in a pandemic where no interventions have been implemented; that multiple social distancing measures applied early and continuously can be very effective in interrupting transmission of the pandemic virus for R(0 values up to 2.5; and that different conclusions reached on the simulated benefit of school closure in published models appear to result from differences in assumptions about the timing and duration of school closure and flow-on effects on other social contacts resulting from school closure. CONCLUSION: Models of the spread and control of pandemic influenza have the potential to assist policy makers with decisions about which control strategies to adopt. However, attention needs to be given by policy makers to the assumptions underpinning both the models and the control strategies examined.

  14. Small-sided games in football as a method to improve high school students’ instep passing skills (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, G.; Fuadi, Z.


    This study analyzed the influence of small sided games application toward increasing the learning result of instep passing in football. The research used one group pretest-posttest design. The data were obtained once a week for 135 minutes of small sided games and this activity had been held for four weeks with a final test in the final meeting. According to descriptive data result, there were increases of the mean. The data showed the increase of the application of small sided games resulted in not only the mean of the descriptive data but also the result of T-test. The significant of T-test is 0,000. It means less than 0,05 then the hypothesis Ha received and Ho rejected automatically. The presentation showed that 48,15% data is increasing by small-sided games application. The small-sided games were proven to be the right tool to increase instep passing football technique. We suggested to the apply that kind of games of football learning on physical education subject, especially for pre-university students.

  15. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance. (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar


    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  16. The Self-Aware Organization: A Metacognitive Approach to Change Management in a Small Rural School District (United States)

    Harrison, Charles E., Jr.


    Educational leaders have often been ineffective in managing change in their environment. Change vectors were used in the current study to identify areas of needed change, along with a metacognitive approach to organizational change. A qualitative case study was employed to explore the use of such a metacognitive approach to change by a small rural…

  17. Innovative Ideas for Developing Geophysics Field Schools in Classes with Small Numbers: Experience Gained from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics International Field School (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M. S.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.


    The geophysics program at Wits University has few students in its Honours program, making it difficult to run a fully-fledged field school. However, there is a dire need for field training both at Wits and throughout Africa. The solution is to expand the number of participants by taking additional students from Africa and the US. This has been sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and more recently UNESCO, and a variety of US NSF programs. More students make it efficient to acquire data using a variety of methods and provides for important networking and skills development. Expanding the number of participants means that more staff members are needed. In Africa, it is difficult to recruit corporate participants as volunteering for three weeks is simply too long to take off from work. Thus university academic staff must commit on an ongoing basis and this can lead to burnout. The timing of the field school is during prime research field time and the results are difficult to publish. The solution has been to use graduate students as instructors. This has turned out to be a valuable experience for graduate students; one or two graduate students are assigned to each method and they take on the responsibility of preparing lectures, equipment, software and computers. Thus the program has developed into a two tier training program, whereby Honours students participate as students with the objective of collecting data and writing a company style report and graduate students participate as instructors. Graduate students participate for one or two years and the payment is mitigated as they are required to work a number of hours for the department. This has led to the establishment of a vibrant network of young geophysicists throughout Africa and the US.

  18. Small-group, computer-mediated argumentation in middle-school classrooms: the effects of gender and different types of online teacher guidance. (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B; Gil, Julia


    Research has shown the importance of careful teacher support during collaborative group work to promote productive discourse between students (Webb, 2009). However, this research has traditionally focused on face-to-face communication. The role of online teacher guidance of small-group computer-mediated discussions has received little attention, especially in secondary school classroom settings. Researchers of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), on the other hand, have traditionally focused on software-embedded features, such as scripts, to support a-synchronous peer dialogue, and less so on human guidance of synchronous group discussions. The main aim of the present in vivo, experimental study is to examine whether online teacher guidance can improve the quality of small-group synchronous discussions, and whether different types of guidance (epistemic or interaction guidance) affect these discussions differently, when compared to an unguided condition. The second goal of this study is to explore potential differences between all-female and all-male discussion groups. Eighty-two 9th graders (three classrooms) and six teachers from a rural high school in Israel. Whereas epistemic guidance only improved aspects of the argumentative quality of the discussion, interaction guidance only improved aspects of collaboration. Discussions of all-girls groups scored higher on aspects of collaboration and argumentative quality, compared to all-boys groups. The findings show that teacher guidance of synchronous, online discussions in classrooms is realizable and reasonably reaches its intended goals. Training should be focused on acquiring various guidance strategies to augment their beneficial effects. Furthermore, future research should pay more attention to potential gender differences in peer-to-peer argumentation. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Industrial Education. "Small Engines". (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  20. Hacker School. (United States)

    Hutchins, Leonard


    The author reminisces about his educational experience at a small school in Maine during the late 1930s, revealing the respect he extended toward his teachers, what it was like to grow up during this time period, and his feelings upon returning to the now vacant school. (LP)

  1. Body Mass Index, family lifestyle, physical activity and eating behavior on a sample of primary school students in a small town of Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti


    Full Text Available

    Background: Obesity is actually a discernible issue in prosperous western society and is dramatically increasing in children and adolescents. Many studies indicate that obesity in childhood may become chronic disease in adulthood and, particularly, those who are severely overweight have an increased risk of death by cardiovascular disease. Understanding the determinants of life style and behavior in a person’s youth and making attempts to change children’s habits is considered a key strategy in the primary prevention of obesity. This study aims to find a correlation between Body Mass Index, (BMI, physical activity and eating behavior and to identify, eventually, risks, protective factors and possible directions for interventions on incorrect nutritional/physical activity and intra-familiar life styles in a sample of young adolescents in a small town of Western Sicily.

    Methods: The research surveyed the entire population of the last three curricular years of two Primary Schools in a town of western Sicily, (n=294. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 20 different items with multiple choices answers. Personal information, physical activity and eating behaviors were collected both for parents and students to cross students’ and parents’ characteristics. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed through Statistica and Openstat software.

    Results: Data obtained demonstrated a relevant percentage (18% of obese children. Prevalence of overweight was high as well, (23%, and many in this area (12% were at risk since they were on the limits of the lower class. A significant association was found between the percentage of students classified as having an elevated BMI and a sedentary habit and/or an incorrect eating behavior. Among the overweight and obese children a direct statistical association was also shown between the weight of their

  2. Analysis of the Socio-Economic Factors That Contribute to Children School Dropout in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities of Tanzania (United States)

    Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom


    In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…

  3. Is small play area in schools associated with overweight among students? A comparative cross-sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Moges, Tsedey; Gebremichael, Bereket; Shiferaw, Solomon; Yirgu, Robel


    Childhood obesity has more than doubled since it was formally recognized as a global epidemic in 1997. With increasingly dwindling space for private schools in Ethiopia, there is unresolved concern among the public on the possible effect of limited play area in schools on overweight/obesity. This study intended to determine and compare the levels of overweight and obesity among adolescents in private schools with and without adequate play area in Addis Ababa. School based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 1276 adolescents. 20 private schools were grouped into two based on their size of play area. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and analyzed using descriptive statistical tests and logistic regression. The magnitude of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in schools without adequate play area than in schools with adequate play area, % (95% CI) = 19.4% (16.4 - 22.7%) and 14.6% (11.9 - 17.5%) respectively. Inadequate play area was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the multiple logistic regression analysis, OR (95% CI) = 1.62 (1.05-2.51). Using private car transportation to and from school, father's educational status (secondary school and above) and middle wealth quintile were other significantly associated factors with overweight/obesity, OR (95% CI) =2.27 (1.13-4.57), 2.54 (1.14-5.62) and 2.54 (1.50-4.33) respectively. Inadequate play area in schools is an important contributor for overweight and obesity. Sedentary behavior was also significant factor associated with overweight/obesity.

  4. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada. (United States)

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna


    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  5. THE SCHOOL PARK. (United States)



  6. School Organizational Climate and School Improvement. (United States)

    Dellar, Graham B.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.

    The refinement and application of the School Organizational Climate Questionnaire (SOCQ), an instrument for measuring organizational climate, is described in this report. The instrument is a mechanism by which schools can direct their school improvement efforts. In two case studies, a small urban elementary and a large urban secondary school…

  7. Parent interactions in mediating behaviour problems of school-aged students: A case study set in a small BC Coastal community


    de Jong, Marian Elizabeth


    In the process of parents’ interactions with principals and teachers to resolve behaviour problems, what happens that is likely to create positive outcomes for children in school? Research literature establishes that parent interactions, whether for behaviour or academic reasons, are directed by subtly defined or invisible parameters that provide inherent institutional influence to outcomes. Bourdieu’s social reproduction theory, which relates to the influence of cultural, social, and symbo...

  8. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)


    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  9. Publishing scientific papers based on Master's and Ph.D. theses from a small scientific community: case study of Croatian medical schools. (United States)

    Frković, Vedran; Skender, Tomislav; Dojćinović, Bojan; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija


    To evaluate publishing activity of medical doctors after they have obtained Master's or Ph.D. degree at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine in Croatia, and establish the number of journal articles based on these theses. Data on Master's and Ph.D. theses defended at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine in the 1990-1999 period were collected by hand-search of the archive. MEDLINE and Current Contents databases were searched for journal articles resulting from the theses. During the 10-year period, 1,535 Master's and 634 Ph.D. theses were defended at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine (253 Master's and 138 Ph.D. theses from Rijeka and 1,282 Master's and 496 Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). There were 201 (14%) Master's and 218 (34%) Ph.D. theses that resulted in articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE (13% of Master's and 11% of Ph.D. theses from Rijeka, and 14% of Master's and 41% of Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). Also, 97 (6%) Master's and 129 (20%) Ph.D. theses that resulted in articles published in Current Contents journals (8% of Master's and 6% of Ph.D. theses from Rijeka, and 6% of Master's and 24% of Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). There was no significant difference between the two Universities with respect to published articles based on Master's theses, but there were significantly more articles from Ph.D. theses in Zagreb (ptheses resulted in a single publication (95%), 19 (5%) in 2, and 2 in 3 publications. Out of all 453 journal articles, 31% were published in Croatian and 69% in international journals. Most Croatian Master's and Ph.D. theses are not made available to the scientific community. There should be more institutional effort directed at the stimulation of postgraduate students to publish their scientific work.

  10. Problems Facing Rural Schools. (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  11. Digging up your dirt. High school students combine small-scale respiration and soil carbon measurements with satellite imagery in hands-on inquiry activities. (United States)

    Kemper, K.; Throop, H.


    One of the greatest impacts on the global carbon cycle is changes in land use. Making this concept relevant and inquiry-based for high school students is challenging. Many are familiar with reconstructing paleo-climate from ice core data, but few have a connection to current climate research. Many students ask questions like 'What will our area be like in 20 years?' or 'How much does planting trees help?' while few have the scientific language to engage in a discussion to answer these questions. Our work connects students to climate change research in several ways: first, teacher Keska Kemper engaged in field research with Dr. Heather Throop creating a 'teacher in the field' perspective for students in the classroom. Dr. Throop met with Keska Kemper's students several times to develop an inquiry-based field study. Students predicted and then measured rates of respiration between different soil types in an urban park close to their school. Students then could compare their results from Portland, Oregon to Throop's work across a rain gradient in Australia. Discussions about percent tree cover and soil carbon helped students see connections between land use changes and changes in carbon cycling. Last, students examined satellite imagery to determine percent tree cover and numberss of trees to compare to soil carbon in the same region. Students were able to examine imagery over the last 30 years to visualize land use changes in the greater Portland area.

  12. Small Data


    Pemberton, Steven


    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  13. Charter Schools: An Experiment in School Reform. ASPIRA Issue Brief. (United States)

    Dittmar, Belinda Corazon; And Others

    Charter schools incorporate the focus of magnet schools but often go beyond their academic specialization to more social goals. They can operate at both elementary and secondary levels, although they are always quite small. The greatest difference, however, between charter schools and other public schools is their status as a bridge between public…

  14. La scuola svedese e la teoria macroeconomica: riflessioni su una piccola economia aperta operante in regime di cambi flessibiliThe Swedish School and macroeconomic theory: Reflections on a small open economy operating within a regime of flexible exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Swedish School, with its representatives Ohlin, Hammarskjöld and Lindahl, madeimportant contributions to the economic theory of the open economy, even if such contributions have never been at the centre of attention of economists, probably due to their dark language style. In particular, it had a vision of the operating of an open economy that was completely different from post-war Keynesian orthodoxy. The exchange rate regime does not isolate a small economy from the repercussions of events that occur in financial markets and from goods at the international level. The other major assumption of open economy macroeconomics was the independence of monetary policy. The Keynesian models in the 1950s included only external money. On the contrary, the Swedes considered the credit system and the working of international banks.JEL: F41

  15. Small trails, great knowledge: local ecological knowledge shared by children and teenagers of a rural school in Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Riat


    Full Text Available Deforestation and forests fragmentation in Argentina and particularly in Santiago del Estero have favored the loss of biodiversity in recent decades. Ethnobiological studies in the province have shown the presence of peasant families in relict of dry forests, who subsist through multiple use strategy (MUS. As it is necessary to develop conservation strategies that include local knowledge and recognize children and adolescents as key players, we conducted a study on the local botanical knowledge of children and adolescents, inquiring about how many and which uses of plant species they know. Field ethnobotanic techniques were used, among them ludic techniques and participative preparation of a territorial map. Children and adolescents recognized 36 plant species. Three principal microenvironments, tours and spaces that function as meeting places outside the households were identified. Finally, a discussion on the inclusion of knowledge of children in school settings is presented, to strengthen a process of teaching and learning, and an education that fosters the conservation of biocultural diversity.

  16. School Expenditure and School Performance: Evidence from New South Wales Schools Using a Dynamic Panel Analysis (United States)

    Pugh, G.; Mangan, J.; Blackburn, V.; Radicic, D.


    This article estimates the effects of school expenditure on school performance in government secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2006-2010. It uses dynamic panel analysis to exploit time series data on individual schools that only recently has become available. We find a significant but small effect of expenditure on…

  17. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.


    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  18. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van


    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  19. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Bosco, E. Del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, M.; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.


    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  20. BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. Unlike public schools, where federal funding constitutes a small portion of total resources, the BIA and DOD school systems depend almost entirely on federal funds...

  1. BIA AND DOD SCHOOLS: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. Unlike public schools, where federal funding constitutes a small portion of total resources, the BIA and DOD school systems depend almost entirely on federal funds...

  2. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.


    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  3. School Politics and Conflict in Racially Isolated Schools. (United States)

    Michel, George J.


    Compares areas and levels of political conflict in racially isolated school districts by surveying six superintendents from racially isolated African-American schools and six superintendents from racially isolated white schools. Similar issues arise at every conflict level with small variations among issues between African-American and white…

  4. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski


    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  5. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette


    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  6. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton


    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  7. The Public Schools as a Work Environment (United States)

    McIntire, Walter G.; Drummond, Robert J.


    Examines the perceptions of elementary and secondary school teachers, and school board members, of the school as a work environment. The Work Environment Preferences Scale, an instrument based on Weber's components of bureaucratic organizations, was administered to all the teachers and board members of a small Maine school district. (Author)

  8. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education? (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  9. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  10. Variation in obesity among American secondary school students by school and school characteristics. (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; Bachman, Jerald G; Schulenberg, John E


    Body mass index (BMI) is known to vary by individual characteristics, but little is known about whether BMI varies by school and by school characteristics. Nationally representative samples of United States schools and students are used to determine the extent to which BMI and percent of students at or above the 85th percentile of BMI vary by school and by school characteristics. Data from the 1991-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF) study were analyzed in 2006 and 2007. A relatively small proportion of variance in BMI lies between schools; intraclass correlations are on the order of 3%. Still, this is sufficient variation to provide very different environments for students attending schools that are low versus high in average BMI. There is some modest variation by school type (public, Catholic private, non-Catholic private); school size (number of students in the sampled grade); region of the country; and population density. There is more variation as a function of school socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition of the school. School SES in particular was negatively associated with BMI levels, even after controlling individual-level SES and racial/ethnic status. The residual differences in BMI by school suggest that some characteristic of the school and/or community environment--perhaps cultural factors or peer role modeling or differences in school food, beverage, or physical education policies--facilitate obesity in schools with a high concentration of lower socioeconomic students, beyond individual-level factors.

  11. Private School Chains in Chile: Do Better Schools Scale Up? Policy Analysis. No. 682 (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto


    There is a persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than do small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large, centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more…

  12. Lessons from Small-scale Standardised Testing of English Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The superior performance by the public school can partly be explained by teachers teaching experience, most of them have been teaching for more than ten years and greater community support for the school. It is recommended that data produced through small-scale standardised testing should be used by school ...

  13. Freedom of Expression for High School Journalists: A Case Study of Selected North Carolina Public Schools. (United States)

    Phillips, Kay D.

    A study examined the freedom of the high school press in North Carolina to determine whether publication guidelines should be in place, and if so, what those guidelines should contain. High school newspaper advisors, high school principals, and high school newspaper editors from large and small, urban and rural, eastern and western high schools…

  14. A small-scale study investigating staff and student perceptions of the barriers to a preventative approach for adolescent self-harm in secondary schools in Wales-a grounded theory model of stigma. (United States)

    Parker, Rachel


    Grounded theory analysis of secondary school staff and pupil perceptions about the barriers to preventative work for adolescent self-harm within the secondary school setting in Wales. Qualitative and grounded theory. Two secondary schools in Wales were purposefully sampled for variation. Four group interviews took place using qualitative research methods (Participatory Rapid Appraisal) with six school-based professionals and six students aged more than 16 years. Three pupil participants had long-term experience themselves of self-harming behaviours; all the remaining participants had encountered pupils who self-harmed. The research interviews were transcribed verbatim, generating school context-dependent information. This was analysed through the logic of abduction using the constant comparative grounded theory method because of its ability to focus on axial coding for context. The ontology that shaped this work was critical realism within a public health paradigm. A theoretical model of stigma resulted from the grounded theory analytical process, specifically in relation to staff and student perceptions about adolescent self-harm within the institutional context. This meant that social-based behaviours in the secondary school setting centred on the topic and behaviour of adolescent self-harm were structured by stigma. The findings of this study offer an explanation on the exclusion of adolescent self-harm from preventative work in secondary schools. The stigma model demonstrates that adolescent self-harm is excluded from the socio-cultural norms of the institutional setting. Applying the UK Equality Act (2010), this is discrimination. Further research on the institutional-level factors impacting adolescent self-harm in the secondary school context in England and Wales is now urgently needed. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Small Business Development Center (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  16. School Gardens and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiemensma, Britt Due


    This paper outlines the changing discourse on school gardens as a learning object as well as a learning environment in urban and rural schools in Denmark and Norway, two small states in Northern Europe. School and community gardens are to be found all over the world, and in Scandinavian...... they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...... of children learning to plant and care for plants in a school garden....

  17. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  18. School Competition and Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from Charter School Entry in North Carolina


    C. Kirabo Jackson


    I analyze changes in teacher turnover, hiring, effectiveness, and salaries at traditional public schools after the opening of a nearby charter school. While I find small effects on turnover overall, difficult to staff schools (low-income, high-minority share) hired fewer new teachers and experienced small declines in teacher quality. I also find evidence of a demand side response where schools increased teacher compensation to better retain quality teachers. The results are robust across a va...

  19. Leadership in a Democratic School (United States)

    McCormick, Paul R.


    The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of a democratic school leader and understand how his conception of leadership is congruent or incongruent with notions of democracy and democratic leadership. This small, participant-observer case study follows a democratic school leader and his staff for a year and examines those challenges…

  20. Summer School on Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server


    The goal of the school is to give a detailed overview of particle physics from the basics of Standard Model phenomenology to the most important areas where significant progress has been achieved recently. This year the school will cover both the energy and the intensity frontiers, including lectures on experimental techniques for small scale experiments and on formal developments in quantum field theory.

  1. Free-Market School Reform. (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna


    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  2. Certified Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  3. Barriers to Distance Education in Rural Schools (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Varre, Claire de la; Farmer, Thomas W.


    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine barriers to the use of distance education and explore related factors in small and low-income rural schools. Data were collected via a telephone survey with administrators or other qualified personnel. The sample involved 417 randomly selected small and low-income rural school districts…

  4. Mandatory School Uniforms and Freedom of Expression (United States)

    Vopat, Mark C.


    On 10 December 2007 the Akron City School Board--following the precedent set by many school systems across the United States and the world--instituted a policy of mandatory school uniforms for all students in grades K-8. The measure was met with mixed reviews. While many parents supported the measure, a small group of parents from a selective,…

  5. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools? (United States)

    Coates, Max


    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  6. Lung cancer - small cell (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Small millets, big potential

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  8. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School


    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website:

  9. School Consolidation: A Silver Lining in a Dark Cloud (United States)

    Waldfogel, Dean


    Everyone--board members, parents, and staff--loves small schools, bur it's no secret that small schools cost more to operate, particularly if administrative and teaching staff cannot be assigned efficiently. If there is a silver lining in this dark contextual cloud, it's that political support for consolidating schools has rarely been better. The…



    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU


    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  11. Small Business Size Standards (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...




  13. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program (United States)


    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  14. New Mexico's Model for Funding School Facilities' Greatest Needs (United States)

    Gorrell, Robert; Salamone, Frank


    The New Mexico Public Schools Facilities Authority (NM-PSFA) is a relatively small state agency (50 staff members) that manages the allocation of funding for public school facilities in the state while assisting school districts and state-chartered charter schools in facility planning, construction, and maintenance. Like the majority of other…

  15. A Case Study of a Rural Iowa School Preparing to Meet New State Guidelines for School Libraries (United States)

    Krueger, Karla Steege


    A qualitative case study highlighting one rural Iowa elementary school provided insight into the issue of small schools without library programs as they are preparing to meet the Iowa reinstatement of the requirement for school library programs. The site was purposefully chosen because it has been operating without a school library program or…

  16. Religion and Primary School Choice in Ireland: School Institutional Identities and Student Profile (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer


    Ireland's demographic profile has changed significantly in the past 20 years, being now characterised by increasing cultural, ethnic and religious diversity. However, primary schooling in Ireland has remained highly denominational, mostly Roman Catholic, in nature, with a small number of minority faith schools and multi-denominational schools.…

  17. Teacher's Perceptions of Class Control in the Upper Primary School. (United States)

    Roberts, Alasdair


    Reports that 73% of 66 elementary school (primary) teachers interviewed in the Aberdeen, Scotland, area operated using moderate policies of class control, rather than the permissive policies commonly found in small rural schools or the more traditional restrictive policies. (SB)

  18. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses (United States)


    ... small school buses to provide adequate crash protection for the occupants. For large school buses, FMVSS... and crash protection,'' requires lap/shoulder belts for all seating positions on small school buses... for adequate occupant crash protection. For large school buses, we have determined there is not a...

  19. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen


    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  20. Private Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  1. of Schools*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elementary Schools' (1908) and the 'School Health Service. Regulations' (1953). ... to the social and medical changes which have taken place during the past 20 years. ... both by mass media, and group discussion between teachers and the ...

  2. Healthy Schools (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  3. School sport participation under two school sport policies: comparisons by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. (United States)

    Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Edwards, Michael B; Casper, Jonathan M; Floyd, Myron F


    School-based extracurricular sport remains an effective strategy to increase physical activity. However, school sport is often limited to a small number of elite athletes. Few schools provide more inclusive sport programs that offer a wider array of activities regardless of ability. The aim of this study was to examine school sport participation in middle schools (ages 11-14) with contrasting school sport delivery strategies (intramural vs. interscholastic). Data were obtained through an online survey administered to students at four public middle schools (grades 6-8) in a southeastern US city (n = 2,582). More students participated in school sports at intramural schools. Boys were more likely to participate in after-school sports at intramural schools. Low-income and Black children, two groups at greater risk of physical inactivity and other negative outcomes, had greater participation in intramural programs. After-school intramural sports in middle school is a promising strategy for increasing sport participation.

  4. School Phobia (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen


    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  5. School Insurance. (United States)


    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  6. School Violence (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam


    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  7. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School


    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website:

  8. School Property. (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  9. School Refusal (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary


    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  10. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.


    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  11. Small Community Training & Education (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  12. Gender Segregation Small Firms


    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington


    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  13. Small Business Commitment | NREL (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  14. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.


    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  15. Mission Statements of Christian Elementary Schools in the United States and the Netherlands (United States)

    Zandstra, Anne M.


    This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…

  16. Teacher community in elementary charter schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cannata


    Full Text Available The organizational context of charter schools may facilitate the formation of a strong teacher community. In particular, a focused school mission and increased control over teacher hiring may lead to stronger teacher professional communities. This paper uses the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey to compare the level of teacher community in charter public and traditional public schools. It also estimates the effect of various charter policy variables and domains of school autonomy on teacher community. Charter school teachers report higher levels of teacher community than traditional public school teachers do, although this effect is less than one-tenth of a standard deviation and is dwarfed by the effect of a supportive principal, teacher decision-making influence, and school size. Charter public schools authorized by universities showed lower levels of teacher community than those authorized by local school districts. Teachers in charter schools that have flexibility over tenure requirements and the school budget report higher levels of teacher community. This study reveals that charter schools do facilitate the formation of strong teacher communities, although the effect is small. The analysis also suggests that the institutional origin of the charter school and specific areas of policy flexibility may influence teacher community.

  17. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H


    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  18. Propaganda between school and Church: the control of small Italian community in Portugal (1926-1943 | Propaganda entre escuela e Iglesia: el control de la pequeña comunidad italiana en Portugal (1926-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ivani


    Full Text Available The Italian community in Portugal between the two world wars was made the subject of efforts to promote the Fascist Regime among Italians abroad through the regimentation in mass organizations and the appeal to the fascist civil religion. The myths of the universality of fascism, of the common Latin and Catholic origins, of the empire, of the uomo nuovo and the dissemination of the achievements of fascism had the dual goals of enhancing the consent of the Italian immigrants and attract the sympathies of the local elites for the fascist political model. The network of fasci and Italian schools abroad were the main instruments of this action. A crucial help came from the ecclesiastical structures, part of the community. | La comunidad italiana en Portugal en el periodo de entreguerras fue objeto de los esfuerzos por promover el régimen fascista entre los italianos en el extranjero a través del encuadramiento en las organizaciones de masas y las prácticas de la religión civil fascista. Los mitos de la universalidad del fascismo, de la latinidad y de los orígenes católicos comunes en los países de acogida, del imperio, del uomo nuovo y la divulgación de los logros del fascismo tenían el doble objetivo de reforzar el consenso de los inmigrantes italianos y atraer las simpatías de las elites locales hacia el modelo político fascista. Los instrumentos principales de esta acción fueron la red de los fasci all’estero y las escuelas italianas. Una ayuda determinante provenía de las estructuras eclesiásticas, parte integrante de la comunidad.

  19. Small Business Contracting in the United States and Europe: A Comparative Assessment (United States)


    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 SMALL BUSINESS CONTRACTING IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE: A...COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT by Max Kidalov, Assistant Professor Procurement Law & Policy March 2010 Graduate School of Business & Public Policy...Daniel T. Oliver Leonard A. Ferrari President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “Small Business Contracting in

  20. [School bullying]. (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W


    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  1. Small but super

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.L.


    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  2. Small Business Procurement Event (United States)


    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  3. Minijets at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.


    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tsinghua SEM Gets EQUIS Accreditation The School of Economies and Management of Tsinghua University(Tsinghua SEM)was awarded accreditation from the European Quality’ Improvement System(EQUIS)at the end of February 2008.This makes Tsinghua SEM the first business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by EQUIS.Together with the accreditation awarded by AACSB International (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business)in 2007,Tsinghua SEM becomes the only business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by both AACSB and EQUIS,two of the most prestigious international accreditations of management education.

  5. Nursery school

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfants


    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, On the pages of the Nursery School website  

  6. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfant


      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website

  7. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.


    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  8. Small Intestine Disorders (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  9. School interventions after the Joplin tornado. (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David


    To qualitatively describe interventions by schools to meet children's needs after the May 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Qualitative exploratory study conducted six months after the tornado. Key informant interviews with school staff (teachers, psychologists, guidance counselor, nurse, principal), public health official, and physicians. After the tornado, school staff immediately worked to contact every enrolled child to provide assistance and coordinate recovery services. Despite severe damage to half of the city's schools, the decision was made to reopen schools at the earliest possible time to provide a safe, reassuring environment and additional services. An expanded summer school session emphasized child safety and emotional wellbeing. The 2011-2012 school year began on time, less than three months after the disaster, using temporary facilities. Displaced children were bused to their usual schools regardless of their new temporary residence locations. In just-in-time training sessions, teachers developed strategies to support students and staff experiencing anxiety or depression. Certified counselors conducted school-based, small-group counseling for students. Selective referrals were made to community mental health providers for children with greatest needs. Evidence from Joplin adds to a small body of empirical experience demonstrating the important contribution of schools to postdisaster community recovery. Despite timely and proactive services, many families and children struggled after the tornado. Improvements in the effectiveness of postdisaster interventions at schools will follow from future scientific evidence on optimal approaches.

  10. Study on school lunch of four groups


    大迫, 康子; 小住, フミ子; Yasuko, OSAKO; Fumiko, OZUMI


    There are many small islands, villages and fishing ports in Kagoshima. This study was designed to investigate whether a local color in school lnuch exist or not. It was found that the school lunch served in small island had the best nutritional quantity and quality and menu contents. Contradictionus results, vitamin deficiency in village and protein deficiency in fishing ports, were also obtained. There is a correlation between lunch cost and menu contents. The shotage of potatos and beans ob...

  11. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools (United States)

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian


    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  12. The Media, Marketing, and Single Sex Schooling (United States)

    Mills, Martin


    The Australian media's interest in education, as in many Anglophone countries, is frequently dominated by concerns about boys in schools. In 2002, in a country region of the Australian State of Queensland, this concern was evident in a debate on the merits of single sex schooling that took place in a small local newspaper. The debate was fuelled…

  13. Meeting Flooring for Schools Performance Needs (United States)

    Simoneau, Mike


    Many school and college campuses are like small cities--they offer a little bit of everything. Although academic buildings and residence halls account for a sizable percentage of the facilities on a campus, the academic community on a school campus can include other buildings with specialized design and performance needs: laboratories,…

  14. The Succession of a School Principal. (United States)

    Fauske, Janice R.; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    Applying theory from organizational and cultural perspectives to succession of principals, this study observes and records the language and culture of a small suburban elementary school. The study's procedures included analyses of shared organizational understandings as well as identification of the principal's influence on the school. Analyses of…

  15. Sensitive Small Area Photometer (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.


    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  16. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  17. Electronic School. (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994


    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  18. Democratic Schools. (United States)

    Apple, Michael W., Ed.; Beane, James A., Ed.

    This book illustrates how educators in four U.S. communities committed themselves to preparing students for the democratic way of life. In four narratives, educators directly involved in four different school-reform efforts describe how they initiated demographic practices in their educational settings. The four schools serve as reminders that…

  19. School Performance (United States)

    Lamas, Héctor A.


    The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…

  20. Small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.


    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  1. School reintegration. (United States)

    Blakeney, P


    School reintegration programs have been developed to enhance a positive sense of self-worth in a child who has been burned. The premise of these programs is that cognitive and affective education about children with burns will diminish the anxiety of the patient with burns, the patient's family, faculty and staff of the school, and the students. Five principles guide school reentry programs: (1) preparation begins as soon as possible; (2) planning includes the patient and family; (3) each program is individualized; (4) each patient is encouraged to return to school quickly after hospital discharge; and (5) burn team professionals remain available for consultation to the school. Reintegration programs can vary in format depending on patient and/or family need and capability of the burn team, thus allowing flexibility in assisting every child with burns make the transition from hospital patient to normal living.

  2. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  3. Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms. (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Allan, Susan Demirsky

    Differentiation is simply a teacher attending to the learning needs of a particular student or small group of students, rather than teaching a class as though all individuals in it were basically alike. This book explores in 10 chapters how school leaders can develop responsive, personalized, and differentiated classrooms: (1) "Understanding…

  4. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.


    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  5. Schools Integrate Dance into Lessons (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.


    Photosynthesis may be an unlikely topic to inspire an opera or ballet, but in a 2nd grade classroom in Pikesville, Maryland, the children were asked to use dance to help them learn about that process. Small groups of pupils in this class at Fort Garrison Elementary School brainstormed to come up with dance movements to convey elements of…

  6. Do school inspections improve primary school performance?


    Dinand Webbink; Rob Luginbuhl; I. de Wolf


    Inspectors from the Dutch Inspectorate of Education inspect primary schools, write inspection reports on each inspected school, and make recommendations as to how each school can improve. We test whether these inspections result in better school performance. Using a fixed-effects model, we find evidence that school inspections do lead to measurably better school performance. Our assessment of school performance is based on the Cito test scores of pupils in their final year of primary school. ...

  7. SmallSat Database (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert


    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  8. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de


    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  9. Mandala Mornings: A Creative Approach for Elementary School Counselors (United States)

    Cook, Katrina; Mayorga, Mary G.; Ball, Veronica


    The American School Counselor Association (ASCA, 2012) has identified one of the ways elementary school counselors can assist students to become successful in school is to offer small group counseling through the responsive services delivery system. Expressive arts, such as creating mandalas, provide a non-threatening approach for school…

  10. Managing Communication during a School Crisis: A Case Study (United States)

    Gentilucci, James L.


    Crisis communication training of school principals is problematic because it overemphasizes media relations and underemphasizes the critical importance of immediate and personal communication with students, staff, and parents--those most affected by school crises. A case study involving the death of a student in a small rural school explains why…

  11. The Role of Leadership in Surviving a School Shooting (United States)

    Brown, Carleton H.


    At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…

  12. Using School Lunch Programs To Promote Positive Dietary Habits. (United States)

    Hoff, Mary E.


    The variety of school lunch foods available has dramatically expanded as school food managers strive to increase sales and generate revenue. Though lunchtime offerings are often based on student preferences versus nutritional value, with a small investment of effort and commitment to student well-being, schools can create lunch programs that…

  13. N.Y.C. School Marches to Unorthodox Schedule (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen


    Superficially, the Brooklyn Generation School, in the Flatbush area, looks a lot like the other six small public high schools that share space in this tall building, the former South Shore High School. What's noticeably different about it, though, is the strength of the relationships among staff members. Teachers can be seen running across the…

  14. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Zidack, Astri Marie


    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  15. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir


    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  16. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2010


    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  17. Colorado's Alternative School Calendar Program and the Four Day Week. (United States)

    Brubacher, Roy G.; Stiverson, C. L.

    Taking advantage of legislation permitting modified school calendars, the four-day work week has been implemented by 23 small, rural Colorado school districts representing 5,200 children. Thirteen districts implemented the four-day program in the 1980-81 school year. Ten additional districts applied as first year pilot programs in the 1981-82…

  18. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen


    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  19. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail:


    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  20. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha


    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  1. On Meeting NCLB School Improvement Mandate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Green


    Full Text Available This descriptive study used nonparametric (Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests to determine the efficacy of New York City (NYC small school initiative. A sample of 369 NYC high schools was tested on various performance indicators. The results: Large schools generated statistically significant higher performance scores and were more effective at preparing students for college and careers. On the New York State (NYS English language arts (ELA test, a Mann–Whitney U found statistically significant difference between scores for small school (median = 2.62, n = 213 and large school (median = 2.81, n = 58, U = 3200.00, z = −5.63, p = .001, r = −.34. On the state’s math test, a Mann–Whitney U found statistically significant difference between scores for small school (median = 2.76, n = 213 and large school (median = 3.12, n = 58, U = 3086.00, z = −5.84, p = .000, r = −.35. On NYC Department of Education (NYCDOE–assigned college and career readiness scores (CCRS, a Mann–Whitney U found statistically significant difference between CCRS for small school (median = 3.00, n = 213 and large school (median = 3.00, n = 58, U = 4705.50, z = −2.90, p = .004, r = −.018. The evidence suggests the city reconfigured large failing schools into smaller ones, resulting in the concentration of poverty (through the placement of mostly low socioeconomic status [SES] and underperforming Black and Hispanic students in those schools. Recommendations include future studies exploring the effect of mediating and moderating factors.

  2. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools (United States)

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Prescott, Melissa Pflugh; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy Ellen


    BACKGROUND Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. METHODS Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC’s Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013. Programs were grouped into categories, nutrition, fitness, and comprehensive, and were combined with data on school characteristics available from NYC’s Department of Education. Numbers of programs and provision of programs were analyzed for relationships with demographic and school structural characteristics, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. RESULTS Discretionary wellness programs are numerous, at 18 programs. Little evidence supports inequity according to student race/ethnicity, income, or nativity, but high schools, new schools, co-located schools, small schools, and schools with larger proportions of inexperienced teachers are less likely to provide wellness programs. CONCLUSIONS Opportunities exist to further the reach of wellness programs in public schools by modifying them for high school adoption and building capacity in schools less likely to have the administrative support to house them. PMID:27917485

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Safety at School and Their Solutions for Enhancing Safety and Reducing School Violence: A Rural Case Study. (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    An exploratory study of a small rural high school in upstate New York investigated students' perceptions of safety at school and empowered students to develop solutions to school violence. A mixed-methods approach drew on action research, youth-based phenomenology, and a general systems frame of reference. Data collection included two surveys of…

  4. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Hattiesburg Public School District. Summative Report (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim


    The Hattiesburg Public School District (HPSD) is a small urban school system located in southern Mississippi. Of the almost 4,500 students enrolled in its nine schools, 92 percent are African American and 90 percent receive free or reduced lunch. Currently, HPSD employs 34 administrators, 375 teachers, and 11 technology specialists. When the 21st…

  5. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County Agricultural High School. Summative Report (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim


    Forrest County Agricultural High School (FCAHS) is located in Brooklyn, a small rural town in southern Mississippi and part of the Hattiesburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Unlike the other schools that participated in the Cisco 21S initiative, FCAHS is not part of a larger school district. Therefore, the unit of analysis throughout this summary…

  6. Automating the Small Library. (United States)

    Skapura, Robert


    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  7. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  8. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  9. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  10. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.


    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  11. [Small renal mass]. (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C


    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  12. Small Bowel Bleeding (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  13. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  14. Factors shaping the HIV-competence of two primary schools in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice


    We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools - one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more...... teachers with higher morale, more specialist HIV/AIDS activities, and an explicit religious ethos. The relatively impoverished rural school was located in a more cohesive community with a more critically conscious, dynamic and networking headmaster. The current emphasis on HIV/AIDS-related teacher training...





    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  16. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  17. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics


    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.


    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  19. Vaksvikelva small hydro


    Loe, Daniel Aarset


    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  20. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren


    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  1. The Effectiveness of Private School Franchises in Chile's National Voucher Program (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto


    There is persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more effective…

  2. Teachers' Awareness of Cultural Diversity and Academic Achievement in Ninth Grade Academies and Senior High Schools (United States)

    Whipps-Johnson, Jamellah Renee


    High school graduation rates are higher than they have ever been in 40 years, but disparities continue to exist for students of color and students from poverty when compared to their counterparts. High school reform efforts like creating small learning communities are promising, but small schools alone do not improve student outcomes.…

  3. Public Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  4. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  5. School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Lamas


    Full Text Available The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic education classrooms. The construct of learning approaches is presented as one of the factors that influences the school performance of students. Besides, an outlook of the empirical research works related to variables that are presented as relevant when explaining the reason for a specific performance in students is shown. Finally, some models and techniques allowing an appropriate study of school performance are presented.

  6. School bullying


    Smith, Peter K.


    Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...

  7. Art School


    Lucas, Anna


    Art School is a body of research that focuses on the pedagogical environment and the conditions of creative thinking & material making. The outputs are films that embed reflexivity in their concept, process and form, further contextualised through International talks, events and curated screenings about Art School and the nature of artist’s process and pedagogy. The underlying research questions also address the significance of artist’s processes within the contemporary political and cultur...

  8. Democracy as a social technology on schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Kasper


    " democracy. The democratic influence in schools thus spans from "big" parliamentary democracy to small participatoruy democracy - a dichotomy schooll leadership must maneuvre within using democratic procedures and leadership as social technologies. This article argues that a positive coinnectiion exists...... between strong leadership and having wello-functioning democratic processes in schools and the introduction of tests, quality reports and these approaches does not weaken democratic processes in schools. This connection is nonetheless changing the logics of the state, market, and the civil society vectors.......On a formal level, the influence og "big" parlamentary democracy is enhanced because parliamentary control in individual schools has become stronger; and the formal democratic influence of parents has been strengthned by their membership on school boards, the latter being an example of "small...

  9. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small... (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  10. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary


    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  11. Perceptions of the Quality of School Life: A Case Study of Schools and Students. (United States)

    Batten, Margaret; Girling-Butcher, Sue

    In order to test the validity of a measure of Australian students' views on the quality of life within their schools, a small-scale study was conducted in seven secondary schools, including both public and private institutions. The 52-item survey instrument was administered to 651 students in grades 9-12. Followup interviews of students were held…

  12. The Search for Equity in School Finance: Michigan School District Response to a Guaranteed Tax Base. (United States)

    Park, Rolla Edward; Carroll, Stephen J.

    Part of a three-volume report on the effects of school finance reform, this volume examines the effects of reform on Michigan school districts' budgets from 1971 to 1976. Econometric models were used. Researchers found a very small "price" effect--an elasticity of -.02. The data provide no evidence that state matching grants stimulate…

  13. BOMBAY: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Full text: Promising students had a foretaste of the latest laboratory techniques at the ICFA 1993 India School on Instrumentation in High Energy Physics held from February 15-26 and hosted by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay. The scientific programme was put together by the ICFA Panel for Future Instrumentation, Innovation and Development, chaired by Tord Ekelof (Uppsala). The programme included lectures and topical seminars covering a wide range of detector subjects. In small groups, students got acquainted with modern detector technologies in the laboratory sessions, using experimental setups assembled in various institutes world-wide and shipped to Bombay for the School. The techniques covered included multiwire proportional chambers for detection of particles and photons, gaseous detectors for UV photons and X-ray imaging, the study of charge drift in silicon detectors, measurement of the muon lifetime using liquid scintillators, tracking using scintillating fibres, and electronics for sensitive detectors. The India School was attended by around 80 students from 20 countries; 34 came from Indian universities. It was the fifth in this series, previous Schools having been at Trieste (1987, 1989 and 1991) organized by the ICFA Panel and hosted and sponsored by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and in 1990, organized at Rio de Janeiro in collaboration with the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas. The School was jointly directed by Suresh Tonwar (TIFR), Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Marleigh Sheaff (University of Wisconsin), and sponsored by TIFR and DAE (India), CERN (Switzerland), ICTP and INFN (Italy), British Council and RAL (UK), NSF and DOE (USA), KEK (Japan), IPP (Canada) and DESY (Germany)

  14. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.


    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  15. Small Intestinal Infections. (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P


    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  16. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar


    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  17. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan


    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  18. Review of "Charter-School Management Organizations: Diverse Strategies and Diverse Student Impacts" (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce


    This report details how charter schools are increasingly run by private, nonprofit management organizations called charter school management organizations (CMOs). The researchers find that most CMOs serve urban students from low-income families, operate small schools that offer more instructional time, and attract teachers loyal to each school's…

  19. Improved Attitude and Achievement: A Case Study of an Elementary School Academic Advisement Intervention (United States)

    Kamrath, Barry; Brooker, Teresa


    School counselors are often called upon to develop and implement academic interventions. In this case study of one urban elementary school, a school counselor conducted a small group academic advisement intervention. The results suggest that integrating the activities into the elementary school counseling program can be an effective Response to…

  20. "Adam Smith Meets Walt Disney": School Image on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Smith, Alison


    This article describes a small-scale research project undertaken as part of the coursework in a Doctor of Education programme. The project investigated the organisational images or identities portrayed by ten secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand on their school websites. The recent proliferation of school websites has provided schools with a…

  1. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M


    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  2. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan


    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  3. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas


    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  4. Small group experience for socially withdrawn girls. (United States)

    Houck, Gail M; Stember, Lisa


    Social competence is the effectiveness of social interaction behavior. Given its link to mental health outcomes, it is an important consideration in child and adolescent development. Social withdrawal is associated with depression. Socially withdrawn children make few social initiations and tend to be isolated in their play, further limiting their social involvement. To develop effective social behavior, experiences must be provided to learn relationship skills. This practice improvement project provided a small group experience for five socially withdrawn school-age girls. Weekly group meetings provided a social situation in which conversations could occur around a shared snack and craft project. The school nurse facilitated self-assertion and the expression of prosocial behavior in a socially safe (nonrejecting) environment and promoted social problem solving. On completion of the program, the participants not only showed more effective social reasoning and social skills, but developed friendships with each other that lasted beyond the life of the group.

  5. [Typing and Shorthand in the Small High School. (United States)

    Fedel, Joan; Starbuck, Ethel

    Two studies conducted in the field of business education are presented in this report by the Colorado State Department of Education. In one study, individualized instruction procedures and individual work packets were developed for students in both first- and second-year typing. Descriptive statistics presented for the 2 groups over a 3-year…

  6. Barriers to Technology Use in Large and Small School Districts (United States)

    Francom, Gregory M.


    Barriers to effective technology integration come in several different categories, including access to technology tools and resources, technology training and support, administrative support, time to plan and prepare for technology integration, and beliefs about the importance and usefulness of technology tools and resources. This study used…

  7. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  8. Small bowel resection (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Preventing falls Small bowel resection - discharge Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge When ...

  9. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.


    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  10. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre


    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  11. Radiotherapy in small countries. (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo


    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. On small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, N.


    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  13. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole


    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  14. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P


    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  16. Small Group Research (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.


    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  17. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  18. Small hydro in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W


    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  19. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the importance of qualitative research in the field of school bullying. However, the authors also acknowledge the importance of insights obtained through quantitative studies, such as survey material, and through mixed methods (see Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed on page XX, and Cross and Barnes on page XX)....... seen amongst various the actors involved in bullying practices. Theoretical approaches based in deconstruction, discourse analysis and narrative analysis as well as mixed methods have been utilised to analyse the qualitative data. This anthology makes a particular contribution in highlighting......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...

  20. Finding Safety in Small Numbers. (United States)

    McPartland, James; Jordan, Will; Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert


    A large Baltimore high school has shown how personalizing relationships and focusing the curriculum can turn around an unsafe school and create a climate conducive to learning. The school adopted the Talent Development model, which created six smaller units or academies. Instead of suspending or transferring ill-behaved students, Patterson…

  1. Are school vending machines loaded with calories and fat: an assessment of 106 middle and high schools. (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie A; Samuelson, Anne C; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kubik, Martha Y; Patnode, Carrie D


    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which vending offerings in 106 schools in the St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area, met criteria for types of beverages, fat, and calories based on selected criteria offered by the Institute of Medicine. Schools where youth participants were attending for the 2006-2007 school year were identified and invited to participate in the study (n = 143); 81% of schools (n = 116) agreed to participate. Of the 116 schools, 106 had vending machines. Across schools with vending machines (n = 106), 5085 food and 8442 beverage items were offered. Overall, only 18% of beverage items met criteria for calories and type of beverage; significantly more items in public schools met the criteria as compared to private schools (19% vs 12%; p schools as compared to middle schools (18% vs 22%; p schools (22% vs 18%; p = .01), while high schools (22%) and middle schools (21%) were similar. A very small proportion of foods (schools are doing a slightly better job of providing healthy foods as compared to private schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  2. Administrator Leadership Styles and Their Impact on School Nursing. (United States)

    Davis, Charles R


    In comparison to other professional staff in an educational based setting, the registered professional school nurse has unique roles, responsibilities, education, training, and scope of practice. In carrying out this unique and specialized role, school nurses operate under a building administrator, the leader of the building and often the immediate supervisor of the school nurse. In addition, many school nurses in small districts are the only registered professional nurse employed by the school. The building administrator's leadership style not only sets the tone for the day-to-day operations in the school but also impacts the school nurse functioning and program implementation. This article reviews the three most common types of leadership styles as defined by Kurt Lewin-laissez-faire, democratic, and coercive/authoritarian-and their potential impact on school nursing practice. In addition, the article provides recommendations for school nurses for successful practice with regard to supervisor leadership styles.

  3. Asthma and school (United States)

    ... teacher School nurse School office Gym teachers and coaches Alternative Names Asthma action plan - school; Wheezing - school; ... Children Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  4. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  5. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  6. What Do Schools Need? School Professionals' Perceptions of School Psychology (United States)

    Ahtola, Annarilla; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna


    Indirect work of school psychologists has not actualized itself widely in everyday practices. To understand this contradiction, the working environment of school psychologists, that is, the school, is worthy of closer examination. In the present study, we wanted to find out which factors affect school professionals' perceptions of school…

  7. The relationship between school inspections, school characteristics and school improvement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Visscher, Arend J.


    The effects of school inspections on school improvement have been investigated only to a limited degree. The investigation reported on in this article is meant to expand our knowledge base regarding the impact of school inspections on school improvement. The theoretical framework for this research

  8. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede


    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  9. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Peter


    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  10. Small reactor operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.


    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  11. Climate change adaptation strategies by small-scale farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    SPSS) ... were financial constraints (93.4%), lack of relevant skills (74.5%) and lack of ... Key words: Climate change, small-scale farmers, adaptation strategies. ... investment in irrigation infrastructure, high post-harvest ..... 72.0 School drop out.

  12. Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE): 2010 Highlights (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2011


    This document presents 2010 data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau. The SAIPE program produces poverty estimates for the total population and median household income estimates annually for all counties and states. SAIPE data also produces single-year poverty estimates for the school-age…

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.


    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  14. Programming in the Small


    Gersten, David B.; Langer, Steve G.


    Academic medical centers, in general, and radiation oncology research, in particular, rely heavily on custom software tools and applications. The code development is typically the responsibility of a single individual or at most a small team. Often these individuals are not professional programmers but physicists, students, and physicians. While they possess domain expertise and algorithm knowledge, they often are not fully aware of general “safe coding” practices—nor do they need the full co...

  15. Big Data, Small Sample. (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan


    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  16. Women School Leaders: Entrepreneurs in Low Fee Private Schools in Three West African Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available This study explores the opportunities and challenges of women who own low-fee private schools in three West African nations. With the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2000 and the Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, it has become obvious to policymakers that school leadership needs to be a policy priority around the world. Increased school autonomy and a greater focus on schooling and school results have made it essential to understand and support the role of school leaders. Few countries however have strong and systematic initiatives to professionalize school leadership and to nurture and support current school leaders. This becomes even more complex for governments given the rise of private schooling in low and middle-income countries worldwide; thus, it is crucial for governments to understand the importance of leadership at the school level and how to nurture and professionalize it. In this study, the authors examine the roles of women school leaders in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Liberia within the context of MDG 3: promote gender equality and empower women. Because of the many challenges in the public sector in education in low and middle-income countries, the private sector has responded by creating thousands of small businesses. Since a large and growing number of women are leading these private schools, this study presents the findings on the nature of the leadership of these women entrepreneurs. Fourteen school proprietors participated in face-to face interviews about their reasons for founding a school as well as the supports and challenges they face. Findings discuss the limited professional learning opportunities for school leaders in these nations. The study describes the school leaders’ desires to help build their nations, and the unique cultural and contextual factors in each country.

  17. Discipline in the Schools. (United States)

    Eggleton, Travis

    Discipline is a necessary ingredient for any successful school. Every teacher and school has a particular style and technique of discipline. This paper examines effective discipline strategies that help maintain school discipline. Classroom management, in school and out of school suspensions, alternative schooling, corporal punishment, and…

  18. Slow progress in changing the school food environment: nationally representative results from public and private elementary schools. (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J


    Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pschool size. For public schools, scores were higher in the Pacific and West South Central divisions compared with the national average. Changes in the school food environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON


    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  20. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small... (United States)


    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  1. Preconceptions of Students about the Natural Urban Environment in a Small Spanish City. (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others


    Reports the results of a study of preconceptions of secondary students from a small Spanish city. The analysis has led the authors to propose some recommendations for curricular design and development for schools in urban environments. (LZ)

  2. Analysis of the Determinants of Small-Scale Farmers' Grain Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some cases, farmers may sell at low price when they face financial constraints, especially ... Analysis of the Determinants of Small-Scale Farmers' Grain Market Participations. [76] ...... An MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate.

  3. No School like Freedom School (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann


    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  4. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  5. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice


    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  6. The Small Mars System (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.


    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  7. Small Business Innovations (United States)


    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  8. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.


    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  9. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik


    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  10. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.


    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  11. Data: Big and Small. (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan


    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Going with small ICBMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.


    Support for the small ICBM (SICBM) is coming from government bureaucrats, contractors, MX opponents, ''build-down'' supporters, and those who have no confidence in arms control. Despite this support, which the author sees as a failure of administration policies, the SICBM has most of the technological and basing drawbacks of the MX. Mobile and superhardening basing techniques are as questionable for the SICBM as for the MX. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that their deployment will increase stability and enhance the arms control process

  13. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.


    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  14. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease]. (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A


    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher


    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  16. Effective Charter Schools and Charter School Systems (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.


    The purpose of this synthesis of the literature on charter school effectiveness is to develop a research agenda on the topic and to propose action that will lead to improved performance of charter schools. To accomplish these goals, background information is first provided including: a definition of charter schools; statistics on charter schools;…

  17. Superconductivity of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavens, C.R.; Fenton, E.W.


    The Eliashberg gap equations are used to investigate the contribution of surface-phonon softening to the size dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of small metallic particles. Because of our limited quantitative knowledge of phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling in the surface region, the effect cannot be calculated with certainty. Previous calculations which agree with experiment depend on a fortuitous choice of input parameters which cannot be justified at present. For this reason the absence of any observable size effect for T/sub c/ in Pb is especially important. This null effect is obtained in Pb if the electron-phonon coupling strength is the same in the surface region as in the bulk. This assumption can be tested experimentally because it means that the energy gap of Pb should not be independent of particle size but rather should increase significantly with decreasing radius. Hence, measurement of the size dependence of the energy gap for well-characterized small particles of Pb could provide information regarding the importance of the phonon-softening mechanism, at least for Pb

  18. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small... (United States)


    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  19. Bidirectional associations between emotions and school adjustment. (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L; Berger, Rebecca H; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Diaz, Anjolii; Thompson, Marilyn S; Gal, Diana E; Southworth, Jody


    We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or nonclassroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' reports of children's school engagement and relationship quality with teachers and peers. In longitudinal panel models, greater teacher-student conflict and lower student engagement in kindergarten predicted greater negative expressivity in both school contexts. School engagement and peer acceptance in kindergarten positively predicted first grade positive emotion in the classroom. Suggestive of possible bidirectional relations, there was also small unique prediction (near significant) from negative expressivity at lunch and recess to higher teacher-student conflict, from negative expressivity in the classroom to low peer acceptance, and from positive expressivity in the classroom to higher peer acceptance. The pattern of findings suggests that the quality of experience at school uniquely predicts children's emotional expressivity at school more consistently than vice versa-a finding that highlights the important role of school context in young children's emotionality at school. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M


    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  1. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov


    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  2. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede


    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  3. Small transport aircraft technology (United States)

    Williams, L. J.


    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  4. [Is allastrim small pox?]. (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A


    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  5. Small caliber guided projectile (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM


    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  6. Tumor of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis


    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  7. Small dose... big poison. (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed


    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  8. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Urban and Rural Low-Socioeconomic Status Tennessee Public Schools (United States)

    Crow, Johnny


    Comparing a small, rural school with sometimes less than 100 students to a massive inner-city school with greater than 2,500 students is crude and untenable. There are simply too many variables. Nonetheless, the No Child Left Behind Act treats these two very different schools the same. When urban and rural schools cannot meet AYP or highly…

  9. From School-Culture-to-Family-Culture: Reflections on Four Generations of a Deweyan Education in Hawai'i (United States)

    Makaiau, Amber Strong


    In 1918, the author's great great aunt, Sophie Judd Cooke founded a small progressive school in Honolulu. Her brother Henry named it Hanahau'oli School, which means joyful work school. In this essay the author's mother, Linda Summers Strong and the author reflect on the impact of Hanahau'oli School's Deweyan approach to education on the…

  10. Micropolitics, Leadership and All That...The Need To Increase the Micropolitical Awareness and Skills of School Leaders. (United States)

    West, Mel


    Explores the influence of micropolitical factors on school organization and management, drawing on Ball's idea regarding the inevitability of micropolitics in school settings. Using Edgar Schein's small-group perspective, shows how micropolitical analyses of school cultures and teacher behavior can be used to increase school leaders'…

  11. Disciplinary practices in schools and principles of alternatives to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    truancy, smoking, disobedience, intimidation, delinquency, murder, assault, rape, theft, ... measures are verbal warning, detention, demerits, community work and small ... ture that highlights its impact on the core business of the school and the ...

  12. High Tech in Small Places (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi


    Across a giant swath of desert and mountain terrain southeast of Tucson, one yellow school bus has been carrying an extra passenger since last fall. Along with dozens of students, the bus rolls through the Vail School District's most far-flung portions equipped with a wireless router. It delivers the Internet to students for as many as three hours…

  13. School Shootings Stun Reservation (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean


    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  14. Work Begins at School. (United States)

    Casto, James E.


    Students at Clay County High School (West Virginia) get real-world work experience through the school's comprehensive School-to-Work program, now in its third year. Given the limited job availability in this poor rural area, the school supplements work-site experiences with school-based business enterprises, student construction projects, and…

  15. A Study of School Size among Alabama’s Public High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Lindahl


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of Alabama’s public high schools, selected school quality and financial indicators, and their students’ performance on standardized exams. When the socioeconomic level of the student bodies is held constant, the size of high schools in Alabama has relatively little relationship with 11th grade student (both regular and special education performance on the reading and math portions of the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE. High schools’ average daily attendance rates and pupil-to-computer (and computer with Internet connections ratios do not vary in accordance with school size. Higher percentages of highly qualified teachers are found in Alabama’s largest high schools. There was very little difference in the percentage of teachers with a master’s degree or above across school size categories. Very little difference exists across size categories in regard to mean expenditures per pupil (range = $7,322 to $7,829. However, districts of the large high schools exert over twice the effort of those with small high schools (3.2 mills to 1.5 mills and approximately 50 percent greater local effort than the districts of the medium-size high schools.

  16. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert


    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  17. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif


    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  18. Small Area Fair Market Rent (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  19. Small intestine aspirate and culture (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...


    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  1. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.


    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  2. How Brazil turned one public health school into 40



    Brazil built its public health education system through the work of the renowned Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, which established courses across the whole country. The courses eventually became the core curriculum for small schools and now Brazil boasts 40 schools of public health. Foundation President Paulo Buss argues that there are ways that resource-poor countries can improve their public health education.

  3. Perceptions of Crisis Management in a K-12 School District (United States)

    Tucker, Joy


    This multiple-case qualitative study was conducted to examine the perceptions of community members, students, and staff regarding school crisis management following a 2006 tornado and 2010 bus accident in a small rural school district in Missouri. Online surveys were collected from 66 participants, and 10 follow-up interviews were completed with…

  4. Ensuring the Availability and Quality of School Psychology Doctoral Internships (United States)

    Harris, Abigail M.


    Currently, only a small percentage of internships accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) are filled by school psychology interns and only a few of the available APA internship positions are in schools. Program data submitted online to APA indicate that many interns are in sites that meet the guidelines adopted by the Council of…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Middle School Math Students (United States)

    Remillard, Heather A.


    The purpose of this study was to explore cooperative learning and the impact on middle school students overall academic achievement. The study included 47 students from a small private school, ranging from grades sixth through eighth. The researcher examined student perception of cooperative learning, implementation process and the overall impact…

  6. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools (United States)

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn


    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  7. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick


    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  8. The Four Day Week: An Alternative School Calendar. (United States)

    Pope, Jean; Gillian, Russ

    This booklet surveys the possibilities in instituting a 4-day school week, an approach which has gained favor in some small school districts. The history of the 4-day week and its characteristics are first described. Drawing on case studies of districts that have begun the 4-day schedule, the authors enumerate the steps in proposing and…

  9. Knowledge of Legally Sanctioned Discipline Procedures by School Personnel. (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.

    Principals, teachers, and counselors in 15 Indiana high schools were interviewed to determine what procedures they believed were required in various disciplinary actions, and what authority they believed had sanctioned these procedures. The interviewees came from small, medium, and large schools in rural and urban settings. Nearly 71 percent of…

  10. Modified Small Business Network Security


    Md. Belayet Ali; Oveget Das; Md. Shamim Hossain


    This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  11. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search (United States)

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  12. Rugby school

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club


    Choosing a sport for your kid? How about Rugby? Rugby is a team sport that allows children to develop their motor skills as well as their intellectual skills in a fun way. The CERN-Meyrin-Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby school, given its international location, welcomes children from the age of 5 from all nationalities and levels. Diversity is welcomed and encouraged to build a strong sense of belonging and team spirit. Training sessions take place on Wednesdays from 17h30 to 19h00 at the pitch by the parking lot of the Meyrin pool. Adding to the training sessions, children are also have the opportunity to participate in several Swiss tournaments. One of these tournaments will be organized by the CERN rugby school on Sunday, October 4th 2015 from 12h-16h in the Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby pitch (by the Gold des Serves). Do not hesitate to come see us for more information and support the kids on the date. The first 2015/2016 practice will take place on Wednesday, 26th of August. Come join us in Meyrin! For more...

  13. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  14. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.


    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  15. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.


    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Health Problems at School (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Fitness Nutrition Puberty School Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Gradeschool > School > Health Problems at School Ages & Stages ...

  18. Venezuela's Bolivarian Schools Project. (United States)

    Diaz, Maria Magnolia Santamaria


    Discusses efforts by the Venezuelan government to improve the nation's school infrastructure through the Bolivarian Schools Project administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. The project set educational principles which are guiding current school building efforts. (EV)

  19. School and Concussions (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español School and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / School and Concussions What's in ... a type of brain injury. How Can a Concussion Affect Me at School? All injured body parts ...

  20. Radon in Schools (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  1. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings (United States)

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.


    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  2. Proceedings of CanWEA's 2006 small wind conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Small wind energy systems are typically comprised of a single wind turbine for on-site power generation of between 300 watts to 100 kW. They are suited for use in remote locations, as well as on farms or for on-grid residential applications. Small wind customers are concerned about environmental issues as well as the reliability of the electric power grid. Recent increases in electricity prices have contributed to a renewed interest in small wind systems. Primary distributed wind market growth areas include residential grid-connected sites; schools, public facilities and farmer co-operatives; and farms, business and industry. Growth in small wind applications has not been matched by an increase in government incentives, and the lack of clear technical standards for wind systems may negatively impact public perceptions of the industry. This conference provided an overview of the small wind industry in Canada. The conference provided a forum for wind industry members, government agencies, and academics to explore challenges and barriers to the growth of the small wind industry. The conference, which was held as part of the larger annual CanWEA 2006 conference and trade show, was divided into 3 sessions: (1) policies to support small wind; (2) doing business with small wind; and (3) small wind technical insights. Recommendations for the certification of small wind turbines were provided, as well as a model zoning by-law. Technical issues included the development of high penetration wind/diesel systems for isolated communities in the Arctic; technical challenges with small turbines; and siting guidelines for consumers. Several small wind turbine owners reviewed some of the challenges of both buying and using wind systems. Technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications were also discussed. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 12 were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Especially for High School Teachers (United States)

    Howell, J. Emory


    students into a class research project that employs simple materials but leads to an elegant solution. It is highly likely that her students' conceptual understanding of solution properties, density, heat capacity, phase change, diffusion, and scientific inquiry was greatly enhanced by the experience. Other accounts of research by high school students in class, small-group, and individual settings will be published in future issues. I hope that the various approaches described will stimulate new ideas for student-conducted research to facilitate learning. One frustration that high school teachers and students may experience is difficult access to instrumentation needed to carry out investigations. Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) and other new technologies provide some relatively low-cost solutions to the problem, but the cost of specialized sensors can still be a barrier. In this issue a method for constructing an electrode for determining carbon dioxide concentration is described (p 1253). The article is not identified with Secondary School Chemistry mark (t) because it might not be of interest to a large number of high school teachers, but if the idea is appealing I encourage you to read the article. JCE has received several submissions from high school teachers describing devices constructed by their students, so I know there is some interest in low-cost build-it-yourself instrumentation. If you are among those who find this type of article interesting, please let me know. It will guide me in assigning the SSC icon to articles. Beginning Anew, Again For many readers, this issue will arrive only a few weeks or days before the beginning of the new school year. Others will already have begun the new school year. One of the joys of teaching lies in the cyclic nature of the school year. Ideas from summer workshops and conferences can be developed and implemented. Fresh faces in our classrooms provide another opportunity to try new approaches and to perfect proven teaching

  4. Introducing the USAYPT--Do Research in Your High School then Debate Your Results with Other Schools (United States)

    Oldaker, Bruce G.; Jacobs, Greg; Bibilashvili, Tengiz


    We introduce the USAYPT--the United States Association for Young Physicists Tournaments, Inc. Our motto is "Better teaching and learning by doing research in your high school." We believe that all high school teachers can improve their knowledge of physics by forming small groups that perform non-trivial--but not cutting edge--research. In order…

  5. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... (United States)


    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...

  6. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  7. Small 'l' leadership. (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni


    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice


    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Crisis response to schools. (United States)

    Johnson, K


    While community based crisis response teams offer needed resources to schools impacted by crisis, they are often not asked to help. Reports from crisis team leaders at the school shooting incidents at James W. Parker Middle School, Edinboro, Pennsylvania and Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado are contrasted regarding utilization of community resources. Factors limiting the usefulness of community based teams include unfamiliarity with school organization, culture, and procedures. Key differences in school vs. community team precepts, decision-making, and strategic paradigms render team coordination difficult. Successful cross training presents opportunities for school-community partnership and utilization of community teams for school duty.

  10. The Educationally Challenged American School District. (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans


    Two national reform movements--one focused on creating small, autonomous schools, the other fixated on a standardization agenda--are basically in conflict. The standards movement is touting the traditional, top-down, centralized, bureaucratic system modeled after Frederick Taylor and his efficiency experts. Progressive, decentralized initiatives…

  11. Tackling World Hunger in an Elementary School. (United States)

    Donnan, Caroline S.


    Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)

  12. What about Journalism in the Middle School? (United States)

    Ayres-Salamon, Marilyn


    Shares results of a study showing that even in grade 8, "journalism kids do better." Surveys 225 parents about positive aspects of middle school journalism--results show that students improved in critical thinking, writing ability, ethical sense, leadership skills, and working with others. Finds negatives in the small number of students…

  13. Creating the Grateful School in Four Phases (United States)

    Griffith, Owen M.


    Author and educator Owen Griffith shares how leaders can infuse small acts of gratitude to energize their schools and create a positive, thriving culture. Leaders must begin by practicing gratitude personally, then slowly introducing the practice to their faculty and eventually students. With the right attitude and creativity, the acts of…

  14. What's Cooking at the Restaurant School (United States)

    Binzen, Peter


    Describes the operation and program of the Restaurant School in Philadelphia, which in a one-year course of formal instruction and on-the-job training teaches students how to own and operate small restaurants and invests in the restaurants of some of its graduates. (JT)

  15. Operationalization of social capital in small societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen Lolle, Elisabeth


    , and the inequalities between cities and rural areas are getting more pronounced. If Denmark is to keep its social capital and strengthen the regional development, we need to examine the condition of the social capital and find ways to maintain or maybe even strengthen its stock. However, it is difficult to measure...... by educational institutions as platforms for offering educations on different locations in the periphery. How do these new possibilities affect the social capital of small communities and thus the regional development? Does it enhance the sense of community cohesion, or is this just another way of communicating......? This article will examine these questions through three case studies covering the educational (schools) and cultural (museums) sector in different settings in rural Denmark....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Continuing it's educational efforts, the US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) held two summer schools this year. The USPAS has two basic purposes — education in accelerator physics and technology, in particular to train apprentices and update experts; and to encourage US universities and Laboratories to offer programmes in accelerator physics by developing textbooks, training faculty, and organizing schools.

  17. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.


    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  18. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  19. Creating Better Schools through Democratic School Leadership (United States)

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.


    This paper examines the impact of implementing democratic school leadership via advisory school councils in Philippine public secondary schools. Through an experiment with empirical surveys and interviews, this study reveals that the experimental group had higher levels of commitment, empowerment and trust compared with the control group after one…


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Continuing it's educational efforts, the US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) held two summer schools this year. The USPAS has two basic purposes — education in accelerator physics and technology, in particular to train apprentices and update experts; and to encourage US universities and Laboratories to offer programmes in accelerator physics by developing textbooks, training faculty, and organizing schools

  1. Unsecure School Environment and School Phobic Behavior (United States)

    Tukur, Abubakar Hamman; Muhammad, Khadijatu


    This study determines the level of student's school phobic behavior as a result of insecurity of school environment. The study was guided by one research question and one null hypothesis. The population of the study was all the secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state numbering about the same of the study was senior secondary students in…

  2. School Breakfast Program and School Performance. (United States)

    Meyers, Alan; And Others

    Children who participate in the School Breakfast Program show significant improvement in academic performance and tardiness rates, and a trend toward improvement in absenteeism. The School Breakfast Program was created by Congress in 1966 to provide a breakfast on school days for low income children who would otherwise have none. Children…

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  5. A School-Based Enterprise: The Saint Pauls, North Carolina Experience. (United States)

    Paquin, Thomas F.


    The superintendent of Saint Pauls Schools describes how educators, community leaders, businesspersons, and high school students worked together to develop the Way Off Broadway Deli, a successful school-based enterprise providing experiential education in entrepreneurship and small business management, as well as student employment and local…

  6. The Paperwork Pile-Up: Measuring the Burden of Charter School Applications (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.; Hatfield, Jenn; English, Elizabeth


    In 1988, Albert Shanker, head of the United Federation of Teachers, suggested that small groups of teachers could design charter (performance-based)schools as alternatives to local public schools. In theory, charter school teachers would be held in check by a performance contract but would be otherwise free from rules, norms, and regulations that…

  7. Fire, Earth and Wind: Managing Risk in Today's Schools Part 2--The Environment (United States)

    Weeks, Richard


    Because school business officials are pushed to make difficult decisions quickly when it comes to risk management, they should be aware of the issues associated with environmental safety. School business officials are integral members of the teams that handle crises--big and small--in the school district. A crisis may be as straightforward as the…

  8. An Assessment of the Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Teaching Geography in Singapore Schools (United States)

    Yap, Lee Yong; Tan, Geok Chin Ivy; Zhu, Xuan; Wettasinghe, Marissa C.


    In 1998, geographical information systems (GIS) were introduced to secondary schools in Singapore as a tool for teaching geography at the secondary and junior college levels. However, general observations and feedback from school teachers suggested that only a small number of secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore were actually using…

  9. Charters and the Common Good: The Spillover Effects of Charter Schools in New York City (United States)

    Cordes, Sarah A.


    Charter Schools represent a small share of the national education market: just 6.2 percent of all public schools and 4.6 percent of all students. But their rapid growth over the past two decades has captured an outsized measure of public attention, especially in communities where district and charter schools operate side by side. At New York…

  10. "Flying the Plane while We Build It": A Case Study of an Early College High School (United States)

    Thompson, Candace; Ongaga, Kennedy


    Over the past two decades, the perceived failed promise of the comprehensive high school to effectively educate America's youth has generated a national interest in high school reform. One such area of reform is a movement to restructure high schools as small learning communities centered around unique curriculum and state-of-the-art teaching.…

  11. Activist Literacies: An Analysis of the Literacy Practices of a School-Based Human Rights Club (United States)

    Collin, Ross


    In this article, I examine the literacy practices of a high school-based human rights club. I investigate how the group engages in certain kinds of textual production to sponsor and arrange advisory sessions (school-wide meetings between teachers and small groups of students). More specifically, I consider how the club adapts school genres to…

  12. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications (United States)


    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  13. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  14. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen


    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  15. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald


    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  16. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald


    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  17. School IPM Recognition and Certification (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  18. Connecting and Networking for Schools (United States)

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  19. School children's reasoning about school rules


    Thornberg, Robert


    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  20. Adult small bowel obstruction. (United States)

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim


    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  1. Aerial Remote Radio Frequency Identification System for Small Vessel Monitoring (United States)


    technology as a tool that can benefit everyone (Warner 2008, p.144). Lippitt’s model , coupled with Vroom and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory (Miner 2005, p...Identification System for Small Vessel Monitoring 6. AUTHOR( S ) Jason Appler, Sean Finney, Michael McMellon 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  2. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  3. The Business of: School Furniture: Innovative Designs for Tomorrow's Learning (United States)

    Lacey, Kylie


    As instruction shifts to a learner-centric, individualized approach with a focus on small group activities, heavy furniture that small hands cannot move on their own have become less desirable. The most popular pieces are lightweight, portable, and colorful. The Smith System furniture company encourages schools to select chairs and desks in their…

  4. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.


    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  5. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram


    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  6. School violence: an overview. (United States)

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper


    School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.

  7. Assessment of School Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík Eger


    Full Text Available There seems to be a gap in the literature on educational management that focuses on school image and its assessment. This paper addresses this issue by reviewing the state of the art regarding school image and communication with the public.School image can be defined as the overall impression and mosaic synthesised from numerous impressions of individuals of school publics (pupils/students, teachers and deputies of school management, parents, and other stakeholders. School image is not what the headteachers understand it to be, but the feelings and beliefs about the school and its educational programme that exist in the minds of the school publics. The present study contributes to the literature by providing an overview of school image and by providing a practical application of a useful tool for assessing the content of corporate image. Semantic differential scales are used for marketing purposes and as a useful technique for measuring and assessing school image. Communication with publics and the development and sustainability of a positive school image influence not only the marketing of the school but also the educational process in the school. Today, shaping and maintaining a school image is even more important because of the curriculum reform, focusing on higher study process outputs, quality assessments, and accountability. The findings of this study have important implications for school marketing experts and researchers, headteachers, education policymakers, as well as teachers at schools.

  8. Do School Uniforms Fit? (United States)

    White, Kerry A.


    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  9. Utopia Middle School (United States)

    Cloud, Michelle


    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  10. School gardens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg


    ). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization...

  11. Radiating school milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    School milk is milk delivered by a separate distribution network to schools and sold there at reduced prices. Radioactivities of these school milk have been sampled and compared to the milk sold in the usual shops. It turns out that the school milk is frequently more active than the ordinary milk: this is critisized. (qui)

  12. Gaelic in Scottish Schools. (United States)

    MacLeod, Findlay

    In Scotland, Gaelic has traditionally been associated with social and economic inferiority. When the State school was introduced in the 1800's, school use of Gaelic was prohibited, even though it was widely used in the Western Islands Area. There are now 60 primary schools in this area (4,000 students), 56 schools are located in a rural Gaelic…

  13. School Closings in Philadelphia (United States)

    Jack, James; Sludden, John


    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  14. National School Lunch Program (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009


    The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non-profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to more than 30.5 million children each school day in 2008. In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch…

  15. Achieving Public Schools (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight


    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  16. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland. (United States)

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz


    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  17. HEPS tool for schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Grieg Viig, Nina

    The main aim of this publication is to serve as a practical guide for the development of a sustainable school policy on healthy eating and physical activity. It is hoped it will be used by all practitioners working within the field of health education and promotion in schools. Particularly...... of health promotion and education....... it is aimed at school leaders, teachers and other staff in primary and secondary schools, vocational schools and special schools. School partners and supporters on local, regional and national levels could benefit from this publication as well as programme developers and policy makers more widely in the field...

  18. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan (United States)

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang


    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  19. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yang Lo


    Full Text Available The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI, bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump. Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed

  20. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  1. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.


    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  2. Optimising India's small hydro resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.


    A brief history is given of an initiation to develop small scale hydropower projects in the Himalayas. The experience of the Indian project managers in utilising international funds from the Global Environment Facility could serve as a model for other small remote communities in the rest of the world. Lessons learned are reported. (UK)

  3. Standard Deviation for Small Samples (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.


    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  4. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert


    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  5. Financial management for small companies (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer


    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  6. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.


    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, M.; Jamar, B.


    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savli, M; Jamar, B [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  9. What Is a Small Business?


    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Derek Newman


    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  10. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  11. Pond systems for the purification and disposal of domestic wastewater from small communities: use, design, operation and maintenance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Drews, RJLC


    Full Text Available Pond systems are ideally suited for small communities, and for schools, hospitals and other institutions since they are simple and economical to construct, operate and maintain. Numerous pons systems have been designed and commissioned in South...

  12. Parental informal payments in Kyrgyzstani schools: Analyzing the strongest and the weakest link


    Rubén Ruiz Ramas


    This paper aims to explain why parental informal payments emerge and then spread in different manners in Kyrgyzstani schools and to examine their interaction as informal institutions with the school as a formal one. It is argued that the main reason behind informal payments is the survival of the schools; parents' acceptance of them was a result of necessity. In a small percentage of experiences where marketization of public schools was successful, there was a socioeconomic segregation of pup...

  13. Small dams need better management (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  14. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  15. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk


    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  16. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.


    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife AK


    Full Text Available The main purpose of study is to define the health behaviour profile of the personnel of primary schools as well as to define the topics to be given priority in health education activities. The research population consisted of all personnel of 564 primary schools in Ankara province. The study group (30 schools was estimated by cluster sampling method. The Health Behaviours Questionnaire, which consists of 47 items on health behaviours and demographic characteristics, was used for data collection. In the study, 849 school workers (67,5% female were interviewed. Teachers constituted the largest group (82,3% while the cleaning staff (7.0%, school administrators (6.3%, and other personnel (4.4% were sharing the rest in small proportions. Of the study group 41,7 % are cigarette smokers and of them 67.3% smoke every time and 11,9% sometime in school. Very few school personnel (14,8% do physical exercise regularly. Majority of school personnel (71,3% stated that they brush their teeth at least twice a day regularly. However, only 23,7% of school personnel go to have regular dental control. All results were discussed in details considering the effects of health behaviours of school personnel on students, and some recommendations were developed for health education activities in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 83-93

  18. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year. (United States)


    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  19. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    ". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...

  20. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  1. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  2. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.


    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  3. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands


    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;


    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  4. A School Day is a School Day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin


    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 7-13. 2003 Short description: The school Sint-Jozef-Klein-Seminarie in the Flemish town of Sint-Niklaas reveals a school system characterised by hard work, solicitude and tradition. Abstract......: Compared with the French communities, where many children have to repeat a year if they fail the tests, the children in the Flemish communities get a lot of help if they risk failing. In the beginning of the first school year, the students can do their homework in the school together with their own classes...

  5. Small bowel volvulus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.


    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.) [de

  6. The assignment of elementary school pupils to secondary school types: A correlational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Hoogstraten, J.; Mellenbergh, G.J.; van Santen, J.P.


    Examined relationships between personality, intelligence, and achievement measures and the allocation to 1 of 6 secondary school types; Ss were 135 6th graders. Results of discriminant analyses indicated that personality scores predicted only a small portion of pupil assignment, whereas achievement

  7. The School Principal as Leader: Guiding Schools to Better Teaching and Learning. Perspective (United States)

    Wallace Foundation, 2012


    Education research shows that most school variables, considered separately, have at most small effects on learning. The real payoff comes when individual variables combine to reach critical mass. Creating the conditions under which that can occur is the job of the principal. For more than a decade, The Wallace Foundation has supported efforts to…

  8. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.


    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  9. Bridge to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig


    This article deals with the problem on children’s transition from preschool to school. Besides a number of so-called transition activities as for example children visit to school before school start, the author also argues for a practice using boundary objects in order to ease children’s transiti...... to school. However the main message is to break the philosophical discontinuity (educational contradictions) between preschool and school by use of a common learning concept – a play-based learning understanding which both is useful in preschool and school....

  10. Introduction to Small Telescope Research Communities of Practice (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.


    Communities of practice are natural, usually informal groups of people who work together. Experienced members teach new members the “ropes.” Social learning theorist Etienne Wenger’s book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, defined the field. There are, in astronomy, many communities of practice. One set of communities uses relatively small telescopes to observe brighter objects such as eclipsing binaries, intrinsically variable stars, transiting exoplanets, tumbling asteroids, and the occultation of background stars by asteroids and the Moon. Advances in low cost but increasingly powerful instrumentation and automation have greatly increased the research capabilities of smaller telescopes. These often professional-amateur (pro-am) communities engage in research projects that require a large number of observers as exemplified by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. For high school and community college students with an interest in science, joining a student-centered, small telescope community of practice can be both educational and inspirational. An example is the now decade-long Astronomy Research Seminar offered by Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Each student team is required to plan a project, obtain observations (either locally or via a remote robotic telescope), analyze their data, write a paper, and submit it for external review and publication. Well over 100 students, composed primarily of high school juniors and seniors, have been coauthors of several dozen published papers. Being published researchers has boosted these students’ educational careers with admissions to choice schools, often with scholarships. This seminar was recently expanded to serve multiple high schools with a volunteer assistant instructor at each school. The students meet regularly with their assistant instructor and also meet online with other teams and the seminar’s overall community college instructor. The seminar

  11. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia


    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  12. Teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the portuguese school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the Portuguese schools. To that end, we carried out semi-structured interviews with 24 Portuguese teachers of middle and secondary schools. After having analyzed the retrieved data from the interviews, we identified four main themes: gender polarization; lesbian invisibility; homophobia; and measures against homophobia. Based on their discourses, we concluded that these interviewees have a small amount of knowledge about lesbian women’s sexuality. Despite the legislative progress concerning the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People's rights in Portugal, teachers are not prepared to deal with this issue both inside and outside the school environment. Furthermore, this research includes some recommendations to deal with homophobia in the Portuguese school context. This study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the discourses and practices towards young lesbians in the school panorama, highlighting the importance of promoting non-discriminatory attitudes in the Portuguese schools

  13. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students. (United States)

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice


    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Small Exercise in Democracy (United States)

    Lazorishak, Ted


    What can social studies teachers do to try to put some of their teaching into more realistic avenues? A high school teacher undertook a project at the primary and general elections in order to create some student interest in the electoral process. (Author/RK)

  15. SmAll That Jazz (United States)

    Bluemel, Dina


    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  16. Small Classes 1, Vouchers 0. (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Alan Krueger's reanalyses of Eric Hanushek's school-productivity data show that Hanushek's "money doesn't matter" conclusions (influential in several states' education-finance hearings) have no factual basis. Hanushek excluded Tennessee's student/teacher ratio study (Project STAR). Also, class size is influencing students' success in…

  17. Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers state. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Effective school health instruction in primary schools is ...

  18. Sustained School Improvement: A Case of How School Leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustained School Improvement: A Case of How School Leaders Strategise for School Improvement in Zimbabwean Primary Schools. ... Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  19. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In ... and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. ... the school-feeding programme [SFP] succeeded in increasing parent's income.

  20. Small Bowel Follow-Through (United States)

    ... Small bowel follow-through uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  1. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  2. Urban Waters Small Grants 101 (United States)

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  3. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S


    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  4. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Nishimura, Satoshi; Brown, Neil W.


    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  5. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P.


    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG)

  6. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience


    Meyers, Stewart


    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  7. Urgent problems at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P. V.


    Regge theory provides an excellent fit to small-x structure-function data from Q 2 = 0 right up to the highest available values, but it also teaches us that conventional approaches to perturbative evolution are incorrect

  8. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  9. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.


    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  10. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.


    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  11. Water Loss in Small Settlements


    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė


    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  12. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)


    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  13. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))


    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  15. Who needs a small reactor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet.


    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  16. Assessment for Exemplary Schools: Productive School Management (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.


    The 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, has been called the most far-reaching federal education bill in nearly four decades. The law's comprehensive assessment provisions address areas from school choice to low-performing schools and increased…

  17. Philosophy in Schools: A Catholic School Perspective (United States)

    Whittle, Sean


    This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…

  18. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  19. School Counselors: Untapped Resources for Safe Schools. (United States)

    Callahan, Connie J.


    Principals should consider redirecting school counselors' responsibilities to include directing safe-school teams; establishing networks to identify at-risk students and violent behavior signs; developing conflict-resolution activities; assessing and counseling misbehaving students; devising crisis- management plans; and helping staff predict and…

  20. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.


    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  1. School Breakfast Program and school performance. (United States)

    Meyers, A F; Sampson, A E; Weitzman, M; Rogers, B L; Kayne, H


    To test the hypothesis that participation in the School Breakfast Program by low-income children is associated with improvements in standardized achievement test scores and in rates of absence and tardiness, children in grades 3 through 6 were studied in the Lawrence, Mass, public schools, where the School Breakfast Program was begun at the start of the second semester 1986-1987 school year. The changes in scores on a standardized achievement test and in rates of absence and tardiness before and after the implementation of the School Breakfast Program for children participating in the program were compared with those of children who also qualified but did not participate. Controlling for other factors, participation in the School Breakfast Program contributed positively to the 1987 Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills battery total scale score and negatively to 1987 tardiness and absence rates. These findings suggest that participation in the School Breakfast Program is associated with significant improvements in academic functioning among low-income elementary school children.

  2. Images of Schools. (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Joslin, Anne Walker


    Metaphors used commonly in education do not adequately define school problems or help in reform. A new metaphor of the school as a knowledge work organization is offered with a description of teacher and student roles. (DF)

  3. Together at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels


    Original title: Samen scholen Cooperation between parents and schools is important. By supporting schools, parents can contribute to the educational achievement of their children. This report explores this cooperation, looking in the first place from the perspective of parents. Several

  4. School Staff Training - Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Gøtzsche, Helle Katinka; Réol, Lise Andersen


    Teaching material for the whole school approach working with social, emotional and intercultural competencies......Teaching material for the whole school approach working with social, emotional and intercultural competencies...

  5. Speeds in school zones. (United States)


    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  6. Truck Driving Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — his dataset is composed of any type of Post Secondary Education facility such as: colleges, universities, technical schools, or trade schools that provide training...

  7. School and Asthma (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español School and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / School and Asthma Print en ... Let's find out. Why Do I Need an Asthma Action Plan? When you're dealing with asthma, ...

  8. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne


    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  9. Managing Radon in Schools (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  10. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M


    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...

  11. Characteristics of Illinois School Districts That Employ School Nurses (United States)

    Searing, Lisabeth M.; Guenette, Molly


    Research indicates that school nursing services are cost-effective, but the National Association of School Nurses estimates that 25% of schools do not have a school nurse (SN). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of Illinois school districts that employed SNs. This was a secondary data analysis of Illinois School Report…

  12. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts (United States)

    Costa, Lois


    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  13. Examining School Culture in Flemish and Chinese Primary Schools (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo


    The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…

  14. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation (United States)

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim


    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  15. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis (United States)

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  16. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013


    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  17. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014


    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  18. Zero Energy With an Affordable Price Tag: Friends School of Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    More than half of all operating school districts in the U.S. are in rural areas. These small schools operate at a different scale and have different needs than their city counterparts. In 2003-2004, 20% of public schools in the U.S. served fewer than 200 students(1). Although the Friends School of Portland - which was designed to achieve both zero energy performance and Passivhaus certification - is an independent school, it faced financial constraints similar to those faced by many other small schools throughout the country. The project was financed through a capital campaign and a mortgage that forced a hard cost cap on the project, so the project team had to be diligent about every dollar that was spent. In its first year of operation, the school site energy use intensity was just 12 kbtu/ft2, a bit more than the 9 kbtu/ft2 predicted.

  19. Next Generation Summer School (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  20. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small... (United States)


    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...