WorldWideScience

Sample records for small raspberry producers

  1. Raspberry Pi gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Shea

    2015-01-01

    If you are someone who loves to play games and are interested in learning more about the capabilities of your Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Raspberry Pi programming is expected.

  2. Perancangan Papan Informasi Digital Berbasis Web pada Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Panuntun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital signage is information boards migrate from conventional forms to digital form. Form of digital signage used in computer by connecting to monitor to display the information. Digital notice board (digital signage puts a digital-based information services in one direction. Many digital signage applications appear with the development of information technology. Unfortunately, if used as a digital signage devices, the implementation of existing digital signage applications using a desktop computer is unefficient. Signage applications that developed to be implemented on a single board computers such as raspberry-pi is still rare. In that case, there are any idea to implement a mini computer raspberry-pi as digital signage devices. Mini computer raspberry-Pi was chosen because of its small size and power saving. so it can be efficient and flexible than a regular desktop computer. Forming of this thesis includes designing web server using PHP and MySQL and raspberry pi configuration. The results of this research is to implement digital signage in raspbeery pi that produce a web-based digital information boards that efficient and power saving.

  3. Kelayakan Raspberry Pi sebagai Web Server: Perbandingan Kinerja Nginx, Apache, dan Lighttpd pada Platform Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Dawood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a small-sized computer, but it can function like an ordinary computer. Because it can function like a regular PC then it is also possible to run a web server application on the Raspberry Pi. This paper will report results from testing the feasibility and performance of running a web server on the Raspberry Pi. The test was conducted on the current top three most popular web servers, which are: Apache, Nginx, and Lighttpd. The parameters used to evaluate the feasibility and performance of these web servers were: maximum request and reply time. The results from the test showed that it is feasible to run all three web servers on the Raspberry Pi but Nginx gave the best performance followed by Lighttpd and Apache.Keywords: Raspberry Pi, web server, Apache, Lighttpd, Nginx, web server performance

  4. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  5. Meet the Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2012-01-01

    The essential preview guide to getting started with Raspberry Pi ʼ computing and programming Originally conceived of as a fun, easy way for kids (and curious adults) to learn computer programming, the Raspberry Pi quickly evolved into a remarkably robust, credit-card-size computer that can be used for everything from playing HD videos and hacking around with hardware to learning to program! Co-authored by one of the creators of the Raspberry Pi, this special preview eBook fills you in on everything you need to know to get up and running on your Raspberry Pi in no time, including how to:

  6. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  7. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., consumer information, advertising, sales promotion, producer information, market development, and product... Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. DATES: Comments on this document...

  8. Raspberry Pi projects

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn to build software and hardware projects featuring the Raspberry Pi! Raspberry Pi represents a new generation of computers that encourages the user to play and to learn and this unique book is aimed at the beginner Raspberry Pi user who is eager to get started creating real-world projects. Taking you on a journey of creating 15 practical projects, this fun and informative resource introduces you to the skills you need to have in order to make the most of the Pi. The book begins with a quick look at how to get the Pi up and running and then encourages you to dive into the array of exciti

  9. Raspberry Pi for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Embrace the exciting new technology of Raspberry Pi! With the invention of the unique credit-card sized single-board computer, the Raspberry Pi, comes a new wave of hardware geeks, hackers, and hobbyists who are excited about the possibilities of the Raspberry Pi, and this is the perfect guide to get you started in this exhilarating new arena. With this fun and friendly book, you'll quickly discover why the supply for the Pi cannot keep up with the demand! Veteran tech authors Sean McManus and Mike Cook show you how to download and install the operating system, use the installe

  10. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  11. Raspberry Pi robotics projects

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for enthusiasts who want to use the Raspberry Pi to build complex robotics projects. With the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex robotics projects that can move, talk, listen, see, swim, or fly. No previous Raspberry Pi robotics experience is assumed, but even experts will find unexpected and interesting information in this invaluable guide.

  12. Raspberry Pi hardware projects 1

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn how to take full advantage of all of Raspberry Pi's amazing features and functions-and have a blast doing it! Congratulations on becoming a proud owner of a Raspberry Pi, the credit-card-sized computer! If you're ready to dive in and start finding out what this amazing little gizmo is really capable of, this ebook is for you. Taken from the forthcoming Raspberry Pi Projects, Raspberry Pi Hardware Projects 1 contains three cool hardware projects that let you have fun with the Raspberry Pi while developing your Raspberry Pi skills. The authors - PiFace inventor, Andrew Robinson and Rasp

  13. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  14. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  15. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  16. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  17. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  18. Raspberry Pi projects for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Mike; Craft, Brock

    2015-01-01

    Join the Raspberry revolution with these fun and easy Pi projects The Raspberry Pi has opened up a whole new world of innovation for everyone from hardware hackers and programmers to students, hobbyists, engineers, and beyond. Featuring a variety of hands-on projects, this easy-to-understand guide walks you through every step of the design process and will have you creating like a Raspberry Pi pro in no time. You'll learn how to prepare your workspace, assemble the necessary tools, work with test equipment, and find your way around the Raspberry Pi before moving on to a series of fun, livel

  19. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  20. DPM PERFORMANCE TESTING USING RASPBERRY PIS

    CERN Document Server

    Regala, M

    2013-01-01

    This is the final report from attending CERN’s Summer Student Programme. The project goal was to do performance testing on the Disk Pool Manager (DPM), a lightweight, reliable, grid-aware storage software used to store and retrieve data produced by CERN’s LHC experiments using the small, low-end ARM powered devices named Raspberry Pis. The idea behind it was to reason if it’s possible to use a cluster of lower-end, under-capable devices to run DPM, and to conclude if it would be more energy efficient than running it on oversized machines, with the same or comparable performance. If this hypothesis was true, the power-hungry machines could be ditched in favour of these small devices, leading to an enormous saving in overall power consumption and hence, overall cost. In this report, I describe what was the initial project goal and intended outcomes, proceeding to explain the underlying technologies used. Afterwards, I’ll explain the setup used, the tests performed, and the conclusions reached. iii

  1. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility that they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietary supplements. Currently, the amount of raspberry ketone in dietary supplements (currently sold in the US is well above the maximum concentration recommended for food and fragrance products, so additional toxicology work is needed to ensure that such concentrations of raspberry ketone are safe. In addition to safety data, clinical studies are also needed to validate any health benefits. Without research on the effects of consuming high concentrations of raspberry ketone, consumers should be wary of unsubstantiated claims and mindful of potential harm to their health.

  2. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  3. Learning Python with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Bradbury, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The must-have companion guide to the Raspberry Pi User Guide! Raspberry Pi chose Python as its teaching language of choice to encourage a new generation of programmers to learn how to program. This approachable book serves as an ideal resource for anyone wanting to use Raspberry Pi to learn to program and helps you get started with the Python programming language. Aimed at first-time developers with no prior programming language assumed, this beginner book gets you up and running.Covers variables, loops, and functionsAddresses 3D graphics programmingWalks you through programming MinecraftZero

  4. Raspberry Pi mechatronics projects hotshot

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanoor, Sai

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted towards beginners and intermediate designers of mechatronic systems and embedded system design. Some familiarity with the Raspberry Pi and Python programming is preferred but not required.

  5. Remote laboratory with Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is intended for teachers in junior high school and students of technology education in planning innovational and different learning lessons using information and communication technologies and inductive methods. In thesis is represented an indicative layout of the remote laboratory for educational purposes on the basis of the Raspberry Pi computer. Thesis features used hardware components for this theme, Raspberry Pi computer, its development and commonly used peripheral device...

  6. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  7. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  8. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  9. Applications of Raspberry Pi computers in the education system

    OpenAIRE

    STARICHENKO EVGENIY BORISOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The article puts forward a thesis about the possibility and necessity of using single-board computer Raspberry Pi in education. The main advantages of Raspberry Pi are small size, low power consumption, a complete operating system, free software and low price. Due to the presence of general-purpose input/output ports it allows one to program real devices, physical systems and objects, which allows a better visual representation of the results of the work than creation of virtual images on the...

  10. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  11. Safety characteristics of small heat producing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1987-10-01

    The primary objectives of protection in nuclear power plants are the possibility to shut the reactor down in case of emergency and keep it subcritical in the long run, the existence of a heat sink for post-decay heat removal in order to avoid overheating, let alone core meltdown, and the containment of radioactivity within the barriers designed for this purpose, thus preventing significant activity release. In principle, these objectives can be met in various ways, namely by active, passive or inherent technical safeguards systems. In practice, a mixture of these approaches is employed in almost all cases. What matters in the end is the assessment of the overall concept, not of some outstanding feature. Inherent characteristics are easier to achieve in small reactors. However, also in this case, inherent safety does not mean absolute safety. If inherent safety characteristics were all encompassing, they would have to include self-healing effects. However, inanimate matter is incapable of such self-organization. Consequently, inherent characteristics in nuclear technology by definition should include the increased use of dissipative processes in the thermal part of the plant. (author)

  12. Raspberry Pi projects for kids

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains all-important information about how to use your Raspberry Pi to develop any application you like. It is broken down into several action-packed projects, each containing easy-to-follow steps, just to show you how easy and fun computer programming can be!If you are someone with a big imagination and would like to dive straight into the realm of technology and computers, then this is the book for you. With only a Raspberry Pi and no prior experience required, you will be shown how to translate your ideas into computer programs, creating any game, tool, or animation you can

  13. Raspberry Pi in oddaljeni laboratorij

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2017-01-01

    Diplomsko delo je namenjeno učiteljem Tehnike v osnovnih šolah in študentom Tehnike pri načrtovanju inovativnih, drugačnih učnih ur ob uporabi informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij in induktivnih metod poučevanja. V diplomskem delu je predstavljena okvirna postavitev oddaljenega laboratorija za izobraževalne namene na podlagi računalnika Raspberry Pi. Predstavljene so uporabljene strojne komponente, računalnik Raspberry Pi, pogosto uporabljene periferne naprave in čutilniki ter povezava...

  14. Laying the foundation to use Raspberry Pi 3 V2 camera module imagery for scientific and engineering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Cazenavette, George; Gold, Maxwell; Harlan, Ryan; Leggett, Edward; Pagnutti, James

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive radiometric characterization of raw-data format imagery acquired with the Raspberry Pi 3 and V2.1 camera module is presented. The Raspberry Pi is a high-performance single-board computer designed to educate and solve real-world problems. This small computer supports a camera module that uses a Sony IMX219 8 megapixel CMOS sensor. This paper shows that scientific and engineering-grade imagery can be produced with the Raspberry Pi 3 and its V2.1 camera module. Raw imagery is shown to be linear with exposure and gain (ISO), which is essential for scientific and engineering applications. Dark frame, noise, and exposure stability assessments along with flat fielding results, spectral response measurements, and absolute radiometric calibration results are described. This low-cost imaging sensor, when calibrated to produce scientific quality data, can be used in computer vision, biophotonics, remote sensing, astronomy, high dynamic range imaging, and security applications, to name a few.

  15. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  16. A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schlobohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ m .

  17. IoT con Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    García Muelas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de diferentes plataformas software y hardware del internet de las cosas. Aplicación real con Raspberry Pi. Estudi de diferents plataformes programari i maquinari de l'internet de les coses. Aplicació real amb Raspberry Pi. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  18. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  19. Raspberry Pi home automation with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to the Raspberry Pi, the Arduino, or home automation and wish to develop some amazing projects using these tools, then this book is for you. Any experience in using the Raspberry Pi would be an added advantage.

  20. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda

    2010-01-01

    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  1. The management of radioactive wastes from small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Medicine, research and industry generate various type of radioactive wastes which have to be managed by the ANDRA, the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes. This educative booklet explains the missions of the ANDRA with respect to these small producers: collection, selection, conditioning, control and storage of wastes. (J.S.)

  2. Public service of radioactive waste management for small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    By Governmental decree of May 1999, the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorized as a state public service for managing radioactive waste from small producers. By this decree the ARAO also became the operator of the Central Interim Storage intended for radioactive waste from industry, medicine and research, located in Brinje near Ljubljana. In this paper the current situation will be presented, together with plans for improving public service and the necessary refurbishment and modernization of the storage facility. Execution of the proposed measures, modifications and a modernization will ensure proper and safe storing of all radioactive waste from small producers produced in Slovenia, thus fulfilling the requirements for full operation of the public service of radioactive waste management.(author)

  3. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and restaurants. In a smaller scale it is done through internet sales, own outlets and wine auctions. According to the research of Focus agency, Marketing & Social Research, done in 2009, customers buy wine mostly in retail chains and decide on sort and quality of wine directly at the moment of purchase. Selection is based except wine quality also on the shape of the bottle, etiquette, and also cork (consumers explicitly prefer cork, and the screw top rather discourages. Certain part of customers – specifically those, who are more acquainted with wine – buy wine in special wine-shops. The research shows a decrease of direct wine-sales.When using services of independent trade organizations, producers have to control the intensity of commercial activities and knowledge of technical characteristics of products. Small wine producers, though, do not have to use this distribution channel, and can focus only on direct sales. For some small wine producers, specifically those operating in the areas with an extended possibility for wine-tourism, this channel can be more suitable and effective than using retail chains. This way of distribution does not require extensive start-up investments, it is directly dependent on producers own effort, and can be done as a supplementary activity to the main source of income.Regardless the particular choice of a distribution channel by a small wine producer it is necessary to be judged not only from the viewpoint of its advantages and

  4. Raspberry Pi programming day | 12 April

    CERN Multimedia

    William Bell

    2014-01-01

    CERN is hosting a Raspberry Pi programming day on 12 April 2014 (see here).   The event includes a hands-on workshop and a series of presentations of different projects with the Raspberry Pi. The presentations and workshop provide an ideal introduction for beginners and information for those with more advanced computer programming skills. Basic programming techniques will be discussed using Scratch, Python and C, through a set of worked examples and additional electronics. The electronics examples will include a LEGO NXT interface, other expansion boards and a variety of basic I/O components and sensors. This event is free, but it is necessary to sign up to be able to attend. If you would like to present a project or bring your Raspberry Pi project to discuss in the tutorial session, please also email raspberry.pi@cern.ch with the details of your presentation or project.

  5. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  6. New Vertical Marketing of Producers and Small Traders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In relations of producers and small traders, diferent forms of vertical marketing develop a long time. However, under the contemporary conditions of retail global companies, the question is frst about conception of products categories called category management – CM. Namely, the prerequisites of business success of contemporary retail economic subjects in new highly competitive environment hide in the implementation of new managing conceptions and new technologies. This paper first gives a short analysis of some former theoretical cooperation viewpoints of producers and traders in marketing channels; later, it analyzes the basic assumptions of new vertical marketing on which rests the conception of category management. Besides, the paper states the application possibilities of the stated conception from the trader’s point of view. The basic hypothesis from which the authors start is the indispensability of vertical marketing application in the relations of contemporary retail economic subjects and producers in all market economies and the implementation of category management in its structure.

  7. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-01-01

    Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection...

  8. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  9. Improvement of production capacity and export raspberry from Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the Republic of Serbia as an investment destination and boost exports is necessary to improve the image of Republic of Serbia. The target is to produce sufficient amounts of high quality raspberries. It is necessary to promote Republic of Serbia as an attractive destination for foreign investment and promote exports of raspberries. The way to achieve the above objectives is determined strategy of international marketing. Republic of Serbia should find its way of realization of the set goals. A good example of prosperity and international promotion of the industry raspberry we can see the competitors Poland and Chile, who have been well positioned in the global market. International marketing should be supported by intensive promotion in all media and the Internet, participation in international fairs.

  10. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  11. A Low-Cost Wireless Multi-Presentation on Single Screen in Classroom Using Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Layona, Rita; Dewi, Lusiana Citra

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone has become a daily necessity in supporting the mobility of users, including teachers and students. The need of users to make multi-presentation via a smartphone wirelessly does not fit with the cost and multiplatform support. This study aims to produce a solution by using Raspberry Pi as a wireless digital media player that will be…

  12. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  13. Power Monitoring Using the Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Raspberry Pi is a credit card size low powered compute board with Ethernet connection, HDMI video output, audio, full Linux operating system run from an SD card, and more, all for $45. With cables, SD card, etc., the cost is about $70. Originally designed to help teach computer science principles to low income children and students, the Pi has…

  14. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. *Corresponding author. E-mail: bdsunjinxu@163.com. (Cushnie et al., 2005), but there have been no reports on the bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of raspberry flavonoid. In this paper ...

  15. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  16. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ..., Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Processed Raspberries, Promotion, Reporting and...-705-FR] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum... referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and...

  17. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  18. 100 MW anthracite culm CFB small power producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, R.; Wilhelm, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development and design aspects of the Schuylkill Energy Resources, Inc., St. Nicholas Cogeneration Project. The project is an anthracite culm-fired 80 MWe qualifying cogeneration facility. The project is privately financed, owned, and is to be operated to produce process steam for commercial use along with cogenerating electricity for sale to the local utility. This paper highlights (1) the details of the power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, (2) the development of the project for third-party financing, (3) and the design considerations for fueling the facility with anthracite culm

  19. A small wind power producer on a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jari, Ihonen; Mikko, Jalas; Timo, Lahti

    2000-01-01

    Lumituuli Oy is a customer owned wind power producer in Finland. The company installed one wind turbine (Vestas V47/660kW) on an artificial island in Lumijoki in March 1999 and has sold electricity on the Finnish market since then. This document describes the experiences, which the company has gained in projecting the investment and operating of the turbine. A technical description of the special construction and erection technique, namely the ice road, is also included in this document. (author)

  20. Door Security using Face Detection and Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutra, Venkatesh; Kumar, Harshav; Jangid, Santosh; Solanki, L.

    2018-03-01

    With the world moving towards advanced technologies, security forms a crucial part in daily life. Among the many techniques used for this purpose, Face Recognition stands as effective means of authentication and security. This paper deals with the user of principal component and security. PCA is a statistical approach used to simplify a data set. The minimum Euclidean distance found from the PCA technique is used to recognize the face. Raspberry Pi a low cost ARM based computer on a small circuit board, controls the servo motor and other sensors. The servo-motor is in turn attached to the doors of home and opens up when the face is recognized. The proposed work has been done using a self-made training database of students from B.K. Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan, India.

  1. Raspberry Pi cookbook for Python programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Tim

    2014-01-01

    ""Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers"" is written in a Cookbook format, presenting examples in the style of recipes.This allows you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain a thorough in-depth knowledge.The aim of this book is to bring you a broad range of Python 3 examples and practical ideas which you can develop to suit your own requirements. By modifying and combining the examples to create your own projects you learn far more effectively with a much greater understanding. Each chapter is designed to become a foundation for further e

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  3. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  4. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong; Hwang, Yoon Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO 2 nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures

  5. A critical review of producers of small lactone mycotoxins: patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    A very large number of filamentous fungi has been reported to produce the small lactone mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin. Among the 167 reported fungal producers of patulin, only production by 29 species could be confirmed. Patulin is produced by 3 Aspergillus species, 3...

  6. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  7. Seasonal Occurrence of Key Arthropod Pests and Beneficial Insects in Michigan High Tunnel and Field Grown Raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Isaacs, Rufus

    2018-06-06

    Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region. We compared the abundance of these insects during two growing seasons in field-grown and tunnel-grown floricane and primocane producing raspberries through direct observation and trapping at five sites in southwestern and central Michigan. We found eight key pests, including spotted wing Drosophila, leafhoppers, and thrips, and seven key natural enemies including parasitoid wasps, spiders, and lacewings, that were common across all sites. Pest populations were up to 6.6 times higher in tunnels, and pests typical of greenhouse systems became more dominant in this environment. Natural enemies observed on plants under tunnels were also more abundant than in the field, but this trend was reversed for natural enemies trapped on yellow sticky cards. There was also a reduction of both honey bees and wild bees under the high tunnels, which was balanced by use of commercial bumble bees. These data not only provide much-needed information on the phenology of the insect community on raspberry plantings, they also highlight the entomological implications of protected raspberry culture.

  8. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  9. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Victoria H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  10. Seeing the forest for the trees: annotating small RNA producing genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Ceyda; Shahid, Saima; Axtell, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    A key goal in genomics is the complete annotation of the expressed regions of the genome. In plants, substantial portions of the genome make regulatory small RNAs produced by Dicer-Like (DCL) proteins and utilized by Argonaute (AGO) proteins. These include miRNAs and various types of endogenous siRNAs. Small RNA-seq, enabled by cheap and fast DNA sequencing, has produced an enormous volume of data on plant miRNA and siRNA expression in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent progress in using small RNA-seq data to produce stable and reliable annotations of miRNA and siRNA genes in plants. In addition, we highlight key goals for the future of small RNA gene annotation in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Governance of Fair Trade System: Evidence from Small Honey Producers in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Fair Trade [FT] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from RS to meet these criteria. A new trading system such as FT has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. The method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by Paul (2005 to analyse FT as development projects. This study is three-fold: first to characterise the FT system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as FLO-CERT and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with FT, such as export and organisation capacity. Our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the FT system. The certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  13. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  14. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...... distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labelled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products labelled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed...

  15. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chres W. Sørensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, upcoming communications and storage networks are expected to tolerate major difficulties produced by huge amounts of data being generated from the Internet of Things (IoT. For these types of networks, strategies and mechanisms based on network coding have appeared as an alternative to overcome these difficulties in a holistic manner, e.g., without sacrificing the benefit of a given network metric when improving another. There has been recurrent issues on: (i making large-scale deployments akin to the Internet of Things; (ii assessing and (iii replicating the obtained results in preliminary studies. Therefore, finding testbeds that can deal with large-scale deployments and not lose historic data in order to evaluate these mechanisms are greatly needed and desirable from a research perspective. However, this can be hard to manage, not only due to the inherent costs of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications requiring results replicability.

  16. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  17. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  18. Effects produced by multi-parton interactions and color reconnection in small systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuautle, Eleazar; Ortiz, Antonio; Paić, Guy

    2016-12-15

    Multi-parton interactions and color reconnection can produce QGP-like effects in small systems, specifically, radial flow-like patterns. For pp collisions simulated with Pythia 8.212, in this work we investigate their effects on different observables like event multiplicity, event shapes and transverse momentum distributions.

  19. Economic feasibility of producing inside-out beams from small-diameter logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Patterson; Richard A. Kluender; James E. Granskog

    2002-01-01

    Previous work has shown that it is technically feasible to produce inside-out (ISO) beams by taking small-diameter (5 to 7 in.) logs, slabbing four sides, quartering the cant, and turning the quarters inside out and gluing them together. After drying, the beams were found to be straight, with no cracks, and of equal or better mechanical properties than solid sawn...

  20. The management of radioactive wastes from small producers; La gestion des dechets radioactifs des petits producteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Medicine, research and industry generate various type of radioactive wastes which have to be managed by the ANDRA, the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes. This educative booklet explains the missions of the ANDRA with respect to these small producers: collection, selection, conditioning, control and storage of wastes. (J.S.)

  1. Understanding the Performance of Low Power Raspberry Pi Cloud for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Hajji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet-of-Things (IoT devices generate data at high speed and large volume. Often the data require real-time processing to support high system responsiveness which can be supported by localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. However, there are considerably large deployments of IoT such as sensor networks in remote areas where Internet connectivity is sparse, challenging the localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi, a credit card-sized single board computer, there is a great opportunity to construct low-cost, low-power portable cloud to support real-time data processing next to IoT deployments. In this paper, we extend our previous work on constructing Raspberry Pi Cloud to study its feasibility for real-time big data analytics under realistic application-level workload in both native and virtualised environments. We have extensively tested the performance of a single node Raspberry Pi 2 Model B with httperf and a cluster of 12 nodes with Apache Spark and HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System. Our results have demonstrated that our portable cloud is useful for supporting real-time big data analytics. On the other hand, our results have also unveiled that overhead for CPU-bound workload in virtualised environment is surprisingly high, at 67.2%. We have found that, for big data applications, the virtualisation overhead is fractional for small jobs but becomes more significant for large jobs, up to 28.6%.

  2. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (Motivation for keeping pigs was significantly associated with a number of biosecurity practices. Producers who kept pigs for primary income were more likely to provide footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and

  3. Quantitative farm-to-fork human norovirus exposure assessment of individually quick frozen raspberries and raspberry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Stals, A; De Keuckelaere, A; Deliens, B; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-02-02

    A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV. The model was built simulating that a collection center received berries from ten farms with a total of 245 food handlers picking soft red fruits during a 10-hour day shift. Given 0, 5 and 20 out of 245 berries' pickers were shedding NoV, these conditions were calculated to result in a mean NoV contamination of respectively 0.47, 14.1 and 36.2 NoV particles per kg raspberries in case all raspberries are mixed to one day-batch of 11tons. The NoV contamination of the fruits was mainly driven by the route of NoV shedding food pickers (95.8%) rather than by spraying contaminated pesticide water (4.2%) (baseline scenario with 5 shedding pickers and contaminated pesticide water). Inclusion of appropriate hand washing procedures or hand washing followed by hand disinfection resulted in estimated reductions of the mean NoV levels from 14.1 to 0.16 and 0.17 NoV particles per kg raspberries, respectively, for the baseline scenario with 5 out of 245 food pickers shedding NoV. The use of a mild heat treatment (30s at 75°C) during further processing of berries to purees was noted to reduce mean NoV levels substantially from 14.1 to 0.2 NoV particles per kg raspberry puree. For IQF raspberries, the NoV contamination is heterogeneously distributed and resulted in a mean contamination of 3.1 NoV particles per 250g

  4. Brokering as an impediment to the development of small producers in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Caicedo Díaz del Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify market constraints in agricultural products between the various actors in the production and marketing chain. It starts with understanding the inequalities of opportunities for vulnerable communities, and events or traditions outside those communities, which generate the conditions that perpetuate poverty from generation to generation. Agents involved in this market are immersed in these economic and sociocultural dynamics, favoring exclusion of social groups with less power, as in the case of small producers in Colombia. By means of a survey to fifty small farmers in the township of San Cristobal (Medellin, we inquire about socioeconomic variables such as buying and selling prices, production costs, family expenses, marketing methods, transformation of production, among others. Once tabulated and analyzed the information, we found that the vast majority of the population perceives that middle man as the main cause for not finding improvements in their quality of life. The relationships between the different actors in the production and marketing chain were established by comparing prices of each of the agents, taking as a basis for comparison, the price of the small producer. We found that profit margins are low for the producer, which discourages the permanence of agricultural activities in the long term.

  5. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  6. Evaluation of flooring produced from small diameters logs of Eucalyptus sp. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated two Eucalyptus clones, MN 249 and MN 89, for the flooring production using small diameters logs. It was considered the wood physical properties - NBR 7190/97 (ABNT, 1997 and simulation of the product in service (ASTM D 2394/83 with two thicknesses, 8 and 14 mm. The basic density of the clone 89 NM was the highest one (0,615 g/cm3. The contractions were more pronounced in clone NM 249, however, the anisotropy coefficient of this clone was small. In the simulation tests, the floor produced by clone MN 249 presented the lowest deformation rate. The floor of 8 mm, in addition to the differences between clones, there was significant interaction between the positions for the indentation test caused by loads applied in small areas. The deformations obtained for the floor with 14 mm thickness, produced with the MN clone 89, were higher than those found in the literature for the indentation load applied on a small area test. The clone MN 249 presented the best results in both thicknesses.

  7. Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture-independent methods. During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L(-1) until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL(-1) . After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL(-1) until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L(-1) . In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Prediction of small spark ignited engine performance using producer gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homdoung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer gas from biomass gasification is expected to contribute to greater energy mix in the future. Therefore, effect of producer gas on engine performance is of great interest. Evaluation of engine performances can be hard and costly. Ideally, they may be predicted mathematically. This work was to apply mathematical models in evaluating performance of a small producer gas engine. The engine was a spark ignition, single cylinder unit with a CR of 14:1. Simulation was carried out on full load and varying engine speeds. From simulated results, it was found that the simple mathematical model can predict the performance of the gas engine and gave good agreement with experimental results. The differences were within ±7%.

  9. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  10. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaokar, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  11. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  12. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  13. Behavior of pyrimethanil, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos residues on raspberry fruit and leaves of Laszka variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Stawarczyk, Michał; Piechowicz, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research conducted was to investigate and evaluate the behavior of pyrimethanil, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, the active ingredients of selected fungicides and insecticides, on ripe fruit and in fully developed leaves of raspberry of the Laszka variety. The field trial was carried out in the period of one month starting from the first fruit picking. The results obtained indicated that residue levels on the day of the first crop picking did not even approximate the corresponding EU-MRLs (http://ec.europa.eu/sanco_pesticides). Individual substances in raspberry fruits and leaves disappeared at a similar rate. As a result of chlorpyrifos application to the soil, its residue in fruits and leaves occurred for the whole period of fruit bearing, though in fruit they dropped successively. To produce raspberries with residues below or equal to 0.01 μg g(-1), the application of pesticides should be stopped at least 2-3 weeks before the first crop picking, and on condition that an appropriate preparation (active in low doses) is applied to the last treatments.

  14. The challenges of biofuels from the perspective of small-scale producers in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Michele; Stuart, Ben J.; McHenry, Izaak; Buckley, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Increased interest in renewable fuels in the United States, such as biodiesel and ethanol, is mainly the result of higher cost for traditional fuels after years of low prices. A growing concern over oil imports from politically unstable parts of the world has also led people to seriously consider alternatives to gasoline. Despite this attention, there are issues that challenge the widespread acceptance of biofuels, including the availability of raw materials and food security concerns. Ohio is one of the most productive agricultural states in the country, able to contribute significant amounts of corn and soybeans, the main feedstock for biofuels. Even though Ohio is rich in the raw materials needed for biofuel production, it is still an endeavor that mainly involves small businesses that face numerous challenges. Some of these challenges are national in scope, while others are localized. Interviews with small-scale biofuels producers in Ohio identify some of the major political, economic, and perceptual hurdles confronting this fledgling industry

  15. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  16. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Smets

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  17. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME?chiral?GC?MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne?Mette S.; Frandsen, Henrik L.; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)???ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mi...

  18. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sapes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  19. The Bacteriostasis Study of Nisin for the Raspberry Health Draft Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinxu; Zhu, Hui xia; Guo, Jiping; Xiao, Dong Guang

    The raspberry healthy draft beer was obtained by adding the extracting of raspberry into the raw fermentation materials of beer, in order to prolong the shelf life, the different concentrations nisin were added to the the raspberry healthy draft beer, the result shown that nisin could have obvious influence on the shelf life, the shelf life prolonged with nisin concentrations adding, the shelf life raspberry healthy draft beer was 44d after adding 0.02 nisin mg/mL, the shelf life prolonged 36d than blank.

  20. Controllability of runoff and soil loss from small plots treated by vinasse-produced biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Harchegani, Mahboobeh Kiani

    2016-01-15

    Many different amendments, stabilizers, and conditioners are usually applied for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen with the goal to be used as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a wide range of biomass sources including straw, wood, manure, and other organic wastes. Biochar has been demonstrated to restore soil fertility and crop production under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application on soil erosion and runoff control. Therefore, a rainfall simulation study, as a pioneer research, was conducted to evaluate the performance of the application of vinasse-produced biochar on the soil erosion control of a sandy clay loam soil packed in small-sized runoff 0.25-m(2) plots with 3 replicates. The treatments were (i) no biochar (control), (ii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 24h before the rainfall simulation and (iii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 48 h before the rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 50 mm h(-1) for 15 min. The mean change of effectiveness in time to runoff could be found in biochar application at 24 and 48 h before simulation treatment with rate of +55.10% and +71.73%, respectively. In addition, the mean runoff volume 24 and 48 h before simulation treatments decreased by 98.46% and 46.39%, respectively. The least soil loss (1.12 ± 0.57 g) and sediment concentration (1.44 ± 0.48 gl(-1)) occurred in the biochar-amended soil treated 48 h before the rainfall simulation. In conclusion, the application of vinasse-produced biochar could effectively control runoff and soil loss. This study provided a new insight into the effects of biochar on runoff, soil loss, and sediment control due to water erosion in sandy clay loam soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of Lightweight e Attendance Prototype Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Nurbahyah Hamdan; Abdul Muin Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    E-Attendance is a system that has been extensively used to record attendance in most of the official ceremony of Nuclear Malaysia. Currently, a computer is used as the client to record the input from the proximity card. However, further study on Raspberry Pi, the single board computer that use system on a chip (SoC) in the current market, discover that it is capable of delivering a simple light task of the e-attendance. With a compact memory and in linux environment, a prototype for lightweight e-attendance is being developed. This prototype of Raspberry Pi is believe to have potential in computer based system of Nuclear Technology such as access control, monitoring system and even robotic assistance. This paper will discuss the design of the prototype that resemble e-attendance to improve the robustness of the system. (author)

  2. IMPLEMENTATION RASPBERRY PI USING PRIVATE CLOUD FOR ACCESSING PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued development and widespread use of current technology so that accessing and managing data from a personal computer to make private users become inflexible due to the personal computer requires a power source directly and storage areas are static, therefore, the author plans to implement a service private cloud that uses raspberry pi as a server and will be tested by the test Blackbox. Our research by collecting data that we did put a literature study, experiments, and observations. The design method using UML use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and sequence diagrams. This application is built using Django, Python, Raspberry Pi, MySQL. Hopefully the benefit of this implementation can help a person in terms of managing data from a wide variety of resources (resource quickly and anywhere.

  3. Iris movement based wheel chair control using raspberry pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jatin; Anbarasu, M.; Chakraborty, Chandan; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    Paralysis is considered as a major curse in this world. The number of persons who are paralyzed and therefore dependent on others due to loss of self-mobility is growing with the population. Quadriplegia is a form of Paralysis in which you can only move your eyes. Much work has been done to help disabled persons to live independently. Various methods are used for the same and this paper enlists some of the already existing methods along with some add-ons to improve the existing system. Add-ons include a system, which will be designed using Raspberry Pi and IR Camera Module. OpenCV will be used for image processing and Python is used for programming the Raspberry Pi.

  4. Performance and emissions of a modified small engine operated on producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homdoung, N.; Tippayawong, N.; Dussadee, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A small agricultural diesel engine was converted into a spark ignited engine. • The modified engine operated solely on producer gas at various loads and speeds. • It run successfully at high compression ratio, without knocking. • Improvement in efficiency and specific energy consumption at higher CR was evident. - Abstract: Existing agricultural biomass may be upgraded converted to a gaseous fuel via a downdraft gasifier for spark ignition engines. In this work, a 0.6 L, naturally aspirated single cylinder compression ignition engine was converted into a spark ignition engine and coupled to a 5 kW dynamometer. The conventional swirl combustion chamber was replaced by a cavity chamber. The effect of variable compression ratios between 9.7 and 17:1, and engine speeds between 1000 and 2000 rpm and loads between 20% and 100% of engine performance were investigated in terms of engine torque, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and emissions. It was found that the modified engine was able to operate well with producer gas at higher compression ratios than with gasoline. The brake thermal efficiency was lower than the original diesel engine at 11.3%. Maximum brake power was observed to be 3.17 kW, and the best BSFC of 0.74 kg/kWh was achieved. Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 23.9% was obtained. The smoke density of the engine was lower than the diesel engine, however, CO emission was higher with similar HC emission

  5. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  7. Annual and perennial alleyway cover crops vary in their effects on Pratylenchus penetrans in Pacific Northwest red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fields in the Pacific Northwest. Raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus pene...

  8. Modeling the effects of mineral nutrition for improving growth and development of micropropagated red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for rapid multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberries. The genetic variation of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to use one growth medium for all. Although some cultivars grow well on Murashige and Skoog (1962) mediu...

  9. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  10. The entry of Brazilian fresh fruit small and medium producers into the global market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify some elements which contribute to the entry of small and medium producers into the global market. Specifically, it analyses the case of the greatest Brazilian mango and grape exported region - the Petrolina-Juazeiro (P-J. The conceptual background consists of two approaches. The first conceptual framework is the Global Value Chain (GVC approach which is mainly concerned with the entry of local economies, from developing countries, into the global market. The second approach is the dynamic capability which is mainly concerned with the way the firm could acquire capabilities. The method selected for the empirical part was the multiple-case studies which were made viable by means of semi-structured questionnaires conducted with mango and grape producer agents from P-J Region in Brazil and European buyers. This study indicates that some institutions have been supporting the export activities in terms of irrigation techniques, new techniques of cultivation, financial support and the introduction of some certificates such as EurepGap. Lastly, the mango and grape producers have been undertaking upgrading of product, process and functional.O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os elementos que contribuem para a entrada de pequenos e médios produtores no mercado global. Especificamente foi analisado o caso da maior região brasileira exportadora de manga e uva in natura, a de Petrolina (PE e Juazeiro (BA. Os aportes teóricos utilizados neste artigo foram: cadeia de valor global e capacitações dinâmicas. O método selecionado para a realização da parte empírica foi o estudo de casos múltiplos. Para a coleta de dados, foram elaborados questionários semi-estruturados e realizadas entrevistas presenciais com produtores de manga e uva, associações de produtores, instituições de apoio localizadas em Petrolina e Juazeiro e compradores europeus de manga e uva. O estudo indicou que algumas institui

  11. Improvement of small dairy producers in the central coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C; Fernandez, M; Salazar, I; Saldaña, I; Heredia, H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize a group of small dairy producers in the central coast of Peru and determine the most important limiting factors that affect animal productivity, using Participatory Rural Appraisal methodologies. The information collected during a year included biological and socio-economic characteristics. Inappropriate nutrition, management, health and reproduction were observed in most farms. The average number of animals per family was 17.3, of which 40% were bulls and growing calves. Milk production and net cash income were reduced in the summer. The feeding programme for lactating and growing females of forage exchanged for labour and purchased concentrates did not theoretically or practically meet the cows' needs. All water was carried to the site on donkeys from one kilometre distance. All cows were negative for a number of potential infectious diseases. By California Mastitis Test of routine samples 7.1% of cows had clinical mastitis and 66.1% subclinical. Taking notional labour and forage costs into account, milk production was at a loss but the farmers considered neither and were satisfied with a net cash income from milk sales three times the average agricultural wage.

  12. A method of producing small grain Ru intermediate layers for perpendicular magnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hua; Qin Yueling; Laughlin, David E.

    2008-01-01

    NiAl + SiO 2 thin films were used as a grain size reducing seedlayer for cobalt alloy granular perpendicular magnetic recording media. The effect of this NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer on the microstructure and crystalline orientation of Ru intermediate layer has been investigated. By co-sputtering the composite NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer, the smallest average grain diameter of NiAl was significantly reduced to about 2.5 nm. The grain size of the subsequent Ru intermediate layer was reduced to about 4 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicate an epitaxial orientation relationship of NiAl (110) // Ru (0002) between the two layers. Moreover, significant improvement of this epitaxial relationship was developed, which produced narrow c-axis distribution of the Ru intermediate layer with small grain size. The addition of the NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer is a very promising approach to reduce the Ru intermediate layer grain size and eventually the magnetic layer grain size for perpendicular magnetic recording media without deterioration of other properties of thin films

  13. Impact of coffee crop renewal program on small producers in department Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarín N. Carlos Andrés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The modernization of crops through renewal is a vital option for the restoration of the productivity and competitiveness of the coffee crop. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee is banking on a strategy that promotes renewal by providing resources to stimulate growers. As a result of the implementation of the program, it is hoped that it will reverse the aging process of coffee crops, consolidate a productive and competitive market, provide appropriate ages and densities and promote the use of coffee rust resistant varieties. Similarly, it is expected that small producers, who constitute the majority of farmers and who presumably suffer major limitations to independent renewal, will be the main beneficiaries.

  14. The Complex Sol–Gel Process for producing small ThO{sub 2} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brykala, Marcin, E-mail: m.brykala@ichtj.waw.pl; Rogowski, Marcin

    2016-05-15

    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø <50 μm). Their application involves using powder-free process, called the Complex Sol–Gel Process. The source sols used for the processes were prepared by the method where in the starting ascorbic acid solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate gel were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article. - Highlights: • ThO{sub 2} were prepared for the first time using combination of ICHTJ methods. • The homogeneous thorium-ascorbate sol was used as starting solutions in CSGP method. • The gelation by IChTJ Process to microspheres (Ø <50 μm) with 100% efficiency was used. • ThO{sub 2} microspheres exhibit a high sphericity, crack-free surface and microstructure. • The cubic crystalline structure of ThO{sub 2} was produced at 700 °C.

  15. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DECY NATALIANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  16. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-04

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. © 2016 Sugawara et al.

  17. Achieving Success in Small Business: A Self-Instruction Program for Small Business Owner-Managers. Developing Ads That Produce Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This self-instructional module on developing ads that produce results is the sixth in a set of twelve modules designed for small business owner-managers. Competencies for this module are (1) identify three guidelines to be considered when you invest money in advertising, (2) identify the five basic elements of a printed advertisement, and (3)…

  18. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosing constraints to market participation of small ruminant producers in northern Ghana: An innovation systems analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amankwah, K.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses why participation in markets for small ruminants is relatively low in northern Ghana by analysing the technical and institutional constraints to innovation in smallholder small ruminant production and marketing in Lawra and Nadowli Districts. The results show that the limitations

  20. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap [B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn, E-mail: Dr.N.L@ieee.org [Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  1. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  2. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-01-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  3. Teaching Direct Marketign and Small Farm Viability, 2nd Edition. Unit 2 - Overview of Produce Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a produce marketing channel is one of the most critical decisions produce farmers must make. This unit introduces students to the history of produce marketing and provides information on the most common marketing options. Lecture 1 provides an historical overview and discusses the changes growers made to their marketing practices after the advent of supermarkets and 20th century technology. It also introduces Agricultural Marketing Orders and their unique role in market...

  4. 76 FR 38110 - Announcement of Small, Socially-Disadvantaged Producer Grant (SSDPG) Application Deadlines in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... years. Socially-Disadvantaged Producer--Individual agricultural producer who is a member of a group... individual qualities. State--Includes each of the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin... maximum page total. Additional letters from industry groups, commodity groups, local and state government...

  5. Assessment of feasibility of running RSNA's MIRC on a Raspberry Pi: a cost-effective solution for teaching files in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa; Rogalla, Patrik; Huynh, Thien; O'Malley, Martin E

    2015-11-01

    The value of a teaching case repository in radiology training programs is immense. The allocation of resources for putting one together is a complex issue, given the factors that have to be coordinated: hardware, software, infrastructure, administration, and ethics. Costs may be significant and cost-effective solutions are desirable. We chose Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) to build our teaching file. It is offered by RSNA for free. For the hardware, we chose the Raspberry Pi, developed by the Raspberry Foundation: a small control board developed as a low cost computer for schools also used in alternative projects such as robotics and environmental data collection. Its performance and reliability as a file server were unknown to us. For the operational system, we chose Raspbian, a variant of Debian Linux, along with Apache (web server), MySql (database server) and PHP, which enhance the functionality of the server. A USB hub and an external hard drive completed the setup. Installation of software was smooth. The Raspberry Pi was able to handle very well the task of hosting the teaching file repository for our division. Uptime was logged at 100 %, and loading times were similar to other MIRC sites available online. We setup two servers (one for backup), each costing just below $200.00 including external storage and USB hub. It is feasible to run RSNA's MIRC off a low-cost control board (Raspberry Pi). Performance and reliability are comparable to full-size servers for the intended purpose of hosting a teaching file within an intranet environment.

  6. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2018-06-15

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tree planting by small producers in the tropics: A comparative study of Brazil and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia S. Simmons; Robert T. Walker; Charles H. Wood

    2002-01-01

    Forest regrowth is a notable phenomenon across the tropical forest latitudes. Such reforestation takes place in the wake of land abandonment, occurs cyclically in a rotational agricultural system, and may result from the deliberate planting of trees by farmers. Although less extensive than successional forest regeneration, tree planting by small farmers can have...

  8. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  9. Risks of using social media as a marketing tool for small producers in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhitha, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this secondary research is to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers. Secondary research was used to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers in an emerging country. The growth in the craft market is also associated with the rise in local interest in South African craft fuelled by trends towards ethnic, rustic, earthy styles and increasing national pride and the return of local values. The consulted secondary resources confirm that social media has the potential to help crafters to create better brand awareness, better relationships with customers, and increase sales via these mechanisms. However, the major challenge for craft producers to use social media as a communication tool will be limited resources and illiteracy. The research recommends that the South African government provide support in the form of a centralized marketing agency that uses social media to promote craft producers products

  10. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  11. Pathogenicity and Host Range of Pathogen Causing Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Anthracnose in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Uh Seong Jeong; Ju Hee Kim; Ki Kwon Lee; Seong Soo Cheong; Wang Hyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    The strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. coccodes, C. acutatum isolated from black raspberry werepathogenic to apple and strawberry after dropping inoculation, but showed weak pathogenicity in hot-pepperand tomato. The anthracnose pathogens of C. gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, C. acutatum isolated from apple,hot-pepper and pumpkin showed pathogenicity in black raspberry. Moreover, the anthracnose pathogensisolated from apple caused disease symptoms in non-wounded inoculation.

  12. Servidor de comunicaciones unificadas con Raspberry Pi y Micro-Elastix

    OpenAIRE

    Peláez, David; Tipantuña, Christian; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad mostrar la configuración e implementación de un servidor de comunicaciones unificadas utilizando un Raspberry Pi como plataforma de hardware y la distribución de Elastix, micro-Elastix, desarrollada especialmente para trabajar en arquitecturas ARM. This paper shows the configuration and implementation of a unified communications server using a Raspberry Pi as the hardware platform and the Elastix distribution as software platform, specifically micro...

  13. Upon a Home Assistant Solution Based on Raspberry Pi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florentin IFTIMIE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ongoing research on Internet of Things (IoT has been focused on a project aiming to creating a proof of concept for a distributed system capable of controlling common devices found in a house such as TVs, air conditioning units, and other electrical devices. In order to automate these devices, the system integrates various sensors and actuators and, depending of user’s needs and creativity in conceiving and implementing new commands, the system is able to take care and execute the respective commands in a safe and secure manner. This paper presents our current research results upon a personal home assistant solution designed and built around Raspberry Pi V3 platform. The distributed, client-server approach enables users to control home electric and electronic devices from an Android based mobile application.

  14. The family house control system based on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design and implementation of a smart household based on simple wireless modules, which are monitoring (collecting data and controlling smart household supporting devices. The central unit processes measured parameters, and in relation to resulting values, a pre-set action is performed. Those actions variety can be configured by user via the user interface so that a set of smart rules for reaction on by household devices generated stimuli or problems can be created. That all together composes a control system based on Raspberry Pi, which manages indoor and outdoor temperature measurement, the lighting control, RF transmitter, jalousie, motion sensor control etc. There is a GUI for a PC and for a mobile phone as a part of that system.

  15. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  16. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  17. Purification of cyclotron-produced 81Rb for the preparation of small krypton-81m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.; Haasbroek, F.J.; Venter, S.S.J.; Strelow, F.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of 81 Rb from sodium bromide targets. Ammonium molybdophosphate columns are used and the separation takes only about 20 minutes. More than 90% of the 81 Rb is recovered. The purified 81 Rb enables small Rubidium-81/Krypton-81m generators to be prepared with Bio-Rad 50W-X8 ion-exchange resin (200-400 mesh) [af

  18. Pulsed EPR studies of small reactive radicals produced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    For several years we have participated in a collaborative research effort to apply the pulsed EPR-pulse radiolysis technique to several problems associated with the dynamics of small reactive radicals formed during radiolysis of aqueous solutions using 3 MeV electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator. We will discuss experimental techniques and applications arising from this work, with particular emphasis on problems requiring high initial radical concentrations and EPR time resolution of one microsecond or better. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  20. Upgrading Wood-Based Industries: Harnessing the Social Network of Small-Scale Furniture Producers and Their Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melati ,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Furniture is a major export commodity in Indonesia with a total value of USD 1.96 million in 2007.  Jepara District is one of the key location for wood furniture production with 15,271 furniture related business units employing 176,469 workers.  However, inefficiencies and power imbalances throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in overharvesting and uneven distribution of gains among the industry’s actors.  In contrast to price-setting international furniture retailers, small-scale producers enjoy the least value from their products.  In order to increase added value and competitiveness, small-scale furniture producers have made efforts to upgrade by harnessing their social network and institutions.  This paper describes small-scale furniture producers’ efforts to upgrade by utilising their social network and institutions in Jepara.  Data was collected through in-depth interviews with members of the small-scale furniture producers’ association.  The research provides insight into the nature of social networks and information flow and develops future scenarios to upgrade.  The scenarios will not only benefit the furniture industry in Jepara, but may also be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and the world, and potentially improve many people’s economies and livelihoods.Keywords: wood-based industry, furniture, small-scale, social network, institution

  1. Profitability of raspberry production on holdings in the territory of Arilje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is the most important kind of berries and specific in many of its characteristics - biological properties, economic importance, agro-ecological, technological and organizational requirements, the market value of the product, as well as very high interdependence and correlation between the individual phases of the reproductive cycle. Due to its extremely pleasant smell and taste and high nutritional value, raspberry represents a very esteemed and sought fruit which has a high price in the world market and is very suitable for processing. In addition to financial effect, the cultivation of raspberries enables recruitment of labour force, which is in our economic situation of great socio-economic importance, especially in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Based on real data examples, this paper analyzes the economic profitability of this production. Investments in the establishment and cultivation of a raspberry plantation under irrigation amount to 12.140 €/ha. In the production of raspberries a very favourable annual financial result (profit in the amount of 9300 €/ha is achieved, production is very cost-effective, accumulation is significant (about 77% and return on equity is in the second year of exploitation. The established economic and financial results show that the production of raspberries is very profitable.

  2. Effect of Application Timing of Oxamyl in Nonbearing Raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Walters, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L ® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans . This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans . Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington.

  3. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... of detection was 119 and 140 RT-qPCR units/25g for NoV GI or GII, respectively. Nineteen (37%) of 51 raspberry samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoVs with the respective geometric mean values of 70 (range 22-330) or 29 (range 3-217) detectable genome copies/g of raspberries, when corrected using...... mengovirus recoveries. A 100% identical GI.6 sequence was detected in both raspberries and patient stool samples associated to one outbreak. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating quantified virus levels of contaminated raspberries linked to illness. These data can contribute...

  4. Implementasi Cluster Server pada Raspberry Pi dengan Menggunakan Metode Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Habi Putra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Server merupakan bagian penting dalam sebuah layanan didalam jaringan komputer. Peran server dapat menentukan kualitas baik buruknya dari layanan tersebut. Kegagalan dari sebuah server bisa disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya kerusakan perangkat keras, sistem jaringan serta aliran listrik. Salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi kegagalan server dalam suatu jaringan komputer adalah dengan melakukan clustering server.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengukur kemampuan Raspberry Pi (Raspi digunakan sebagai web server. Raspberry Pi yang digunakan menggunakan Raspberry Pi 2 Model B dengan menggunakan processor ARM Cortex-A7 berjalan pada frekuensi 900MHz dengan memiliki RAM 1GB. Sistem operasi yang digunakan pada Raspberry Pi adalah Linux Debian Wheezy. Konsep penelitian ini menggunakan empat buah perangkat Raspberry Pi dimana dua Raspi digunakan sebagai web server dan dua Raspi lainnya digunakan sebagai penyeimbang beban (Load Balancer serta database server. Metode yang digunakan dalam pembangunan cluster server ini menggunakan metode load balancing, dimana beban server bekerja secara merata di masing-masing node. Pengujian yang diterapkan dengan melakukan perbandingan kinerja dari Raspbery Pi yang menangani lalu lintas data secara tunggal tanpa menggunakan load balancer serta pengujian Raspberry Pi dengan menggunakan load balancer sebagai beban penyeimbang antara anggota cluster server.

  5. Agribusiness and Contract Farming: the Case of Small-Scale Cucumber Producers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Echánove Huacuja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura por contrato constituye un mecanismo de abasto de las agroindustrias que se ha expandido rápidamente en los últimos años. Entre los factores que han motivado esta expansión se encuentran los cambios en el consumo alimentario, el crecimiento y fortalecimiento de las agroindustrias y otros distribuidores y la aplicación de políticas de ajuste estructural. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis de las características del régimen contractual bajo el cual se produce cierta hortaliza de exportación ('el pepinillo', así como sus efectos en los productores, en los mercados de trabajo y tierras, y en el medio ambiente. Encontramos que el ingreso obtenido por los productores contratados no los ha exentado de la necesidad de diversificar sus actividades y que, en general, su situación como productores de bienes no-tradicionales es vulnerable y dependiente de los cambios en los mercados mundiales. English: Contract farming comprises an agribusiness supply mechanism that has undergone rapid expansion in recent years. Among the factors influencing that expansion are changes in consumption, the growth and strengthening of agribusinesses and other distributors, and the application of structural adjustment policies. The objective of this article is the analysis of the characteristics of the type of contract farming practiced with regard to the production of an export vegetable crop (pickling cucumbers, as well as its effects on producers, labor and land markets, and the environment. We find that the income obtained by contracted producers has not freed them from the necessity of diversifying their activities, and that in general, their situation as producers of non-traditional commodities is vulnerable and dependent upon the changing scenarios of global markets.

  6. Training small producers in Good Manufacturing Practices for the development of goat milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí RAMÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.

  7. Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaioanou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’. Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents, plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry.

  8. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  9. Correlations associated with particles produced at small angles in pp collisions at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Benz, P; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Chang, C Y; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Kooijman, P; Loebinger, F K; McCubbin, N A; Murphy, P G; Radiojicic, D; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Sessoms, A L; Singh, J; Strolin, P; Timmer, J

    1976-01-01

    Data on correlations between momentum analysed protons, pions or K mesons, and charged particles produced in pp collisions at the CERN ISR are presented. The charged particles were detected in a approximately 4 pi scintillation counter hodoscope. The pseudo- rapidity distributions are well described by production within the limits of cylindrical phase space, with negative kaons and antiprotons yielding narrower distributions than protons, pions and positive kaons. The azimuthal distributions show symmetry around the t-channel axis in the rest frame of the recoiling mass M/sub X/ in pp to aX(a =detected proton, pion, positive kaon). (14 refs).

  10. Rural Associativity of Small Milk Producers and Collective Actions in the Free Market and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Cortés Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper emerges as a result of the research “Design of public policies for the Associativity o milk producers in Colombia”. The creation process of milk producers associations in Cundinamarca is shown, with the goal of offering a framework for public policy that makes it possible to support and recognize rural communities immersed in globalization processes, involved in free commerce treaties with the United States and the European Union. The methodology defined for the project had a qualitative framework, expressed through an interpretative discursive typology. Thorough interviews were made with a focus on categorization that, for the project, linked the narrations and perceptions of the collective identity components, traditional practices and collective political action. On the other hand, the methodological experience made it possible to link complementary strategies such as social cartography, documentary collection and ethnographic diaries, with which it was possible not only to collect information related to the categories of the study in an important proportion, but also to enrich the analysis itself, with the diversity and plurality that suggests an investigation of this nature.

  11. [Acidity and microbial flora contaminating Senegalese reconstituted curdled milk produced on small scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydi, M; Ndiaye, M

    1993-01-01

    The present study is carried out to appreciate the acidity, and survey the microbiological quality of reconstituted curdled milk (R.C.M.) obtained on small scale. For his, a total of 100 samples collected from Dakar's sellers were examined. The results show that: pH of R.C.M. is low and very variable: 4.17 +/- 0.30, titrable acidity is high: 152.6 +/- 26.5 degrees D, 5% of samples are contaminated by fecal coliforms and yielded counts of 20 germs/g, 19% of samples are polluted by Staphylococcus aureus to level equal to 10(2) germs/g or higher, yeasts and moulds are present in all samples, salmonella were absent. Saphylococcus aureus survival in curdled milk despite a dysgenesic acidity may be the result of very unhygienic conditions of preparation. Sellers and consumers must be encouraged to respect hygienic rules of preparation. It is the only way to prevent food poisoning.

  12. The Complex Sol-Gel Process for producing small ThO2 microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, Marcin; Rogowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate gel were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article.

  13. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes.

  14. Producing a Linear Laser System for 3d Modelimg of Small Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, A. Sh.; Mozaffar, M. H.

    2012-07-01

    Today, three dimensional modeling of objects is considered in many applications such as documentation of ancient heritage, quality control, reverse engineering and animation In this regard, there are a variety of methods for producing three-dimensional models. In this paper, a 3D modeling system is developed based on photogrammetry method using image processing and laser line extraction from images. In this method the laser beam profile is radiated on the body of the object and with video image acquisition, and extraction of laser line from the frames, three-dimensional coordinates of the objects can be achieved. In this regard, first the design and implementation of hardware, including cameras and laser systems was conducted. Afterwards, the system was calibrated. Finally, the software of the system was implemented for three dimensional data extraction. The system was investigated for modeling a number of objects. The results showed that the system can provide benefits such as low cost, appropriate speed and acceptable accuracy in 3D modeling of objects.

  15. PRODUCING A LINEAR LASER SYSTEM FOR 3D MODELIMG OF SMALL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Amini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, three dimensional modeling of objects is considered in many applications such as documentation of ancient heritage, quality control, reverse engineering and animation In this regard, there are a variety of methods for producing three-dimensional models. In this paper, a 3D modeling system is developed based on photogrammetry method using image processing and laser line extraction from images. In this method the laser beam profile is radiated on the body of the object and with video image acquisition, and extraction of laser line from the frames, three-dimensional coordinates of the objects can be achieved. In this regard, first the design and implementation of hardware, including cameras and laser systems was conducted. Afterwards, the system was calibrated. Finally, the software of the system was implemented for three dimensional data extraction. The system was investigated for modeling a number of objects. The results showed that the system can provide benefits such as low cost, appropriate speed and acceptable accuracy in 3D modeling of objects.

  16. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  17. Composition of Unrecorded Distilled Alcohol (bai jiu) Produced in Small Rural Factories in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian; Qian, Ling; Tamrakar, Niran; Feng, Yonghua; Xu, Ganrong

    2017-01-01

    Unrecorded traditional distilled spirits (bai jiu, ) are made and used throughout rural China for everyday use and special occasions. Nearly every town or village has a distiller to supply the demand. In rural China, distilling bai jiu is legal and regulated lightly or not at all. The World Health Organization estimates that as much as 25% of all alcohol consumed in China is unrecorded alcohol, of which an unknown portion is unrecorded bai jiu. Little is known about the composition of unrecorded Chinese spirits from rural parts of the country. This study focused on white spirits because the high ethanol (EtOH) concentration makes them more likely to contribute to health risks compared to other types of lower alcohol by volume (ABV) Chinese unrecorded alcohol. Researchers purchased samples of Chinese white spirits from small-factory distillers in central China. An independent laboratory conducted the analysis. Alcohol strength (ABV) was determined by hydrometer. Gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds: EtOH, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and higher alcohols. Samples were tested for 3 heavy metals-arsenic, cadmium, and lead. We used the guidelines developed by the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) of the European Commission to assess risk. ABV ranged from 35.7 to 61.4%, and 58 of the 61 samples exceeded 40% ABV. The concentration of methanol, ethyl acetate, lead, arsenic, and cadmium was below AMPHORA guideline. The sum of higher alcohols exceeded the AMPHORA maximum in just 1 sample. Forty of the 61 samples had acetaldehyde levels beyond the AMPHORA guideline. The unrecorded Chinese alcohols we analyzed had a high EtOH concentration-a public health concern that is also presented by recorded alcohols. The high percentage of samples (65.5%) that had elevated acetaldehyde suggests the need to investigate the causes for this result and the need for steps to reduce acetaldehyde levels

  18. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  19. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J.; Meloni, Giovanni; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Vereecken, Luc; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-12-05

    The reactions of the methylidyne radical (CH) with ethylene, acetylene, allene, and methylacetylene are studied at room temperature using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and time-resolved mass spectrometry. The CH radicals are prepared by 248 nm multiphoton photolysis of CHBr3 at 298 K and react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow. Analysis of photoionization efficiency versus VUV photon wavelength permits isomer-specific detection of the reaction products and allows estimation of the reaction product branching ratios. The reactions proceed by either CH insertion or addition followed by H atom elimination from the intermediate adduct. In the CH + C2H4 reaction the C3H5 intermediate decays by H atom loss to yield 70(+-8)percent allene, 30(+-8)percent methylacetylene and less than 10percent cyclopropene, in agreement with previous RRKM results. In the CH + acetylene reaction, detection of mainly the cyclic C3H2 isomer is contrary to a previous RRKM calculation that predicted linear triplet propargylene to be 90percent of the total H-atom co-products. High-level CBS-APNO quantum calculations and RRKM calculation for the CH + C2H2 reaction presented in this manuscript predict a higher contribution of the cyclic C3H2 (27.0percent) versus triplet propargylene (63.5percent) than these earlier predictions. Extensive calculations on the C3H3 and C3H2D system combined with experimental isotope ratios for the CD + C2H2 reaction indicate that H-atom assisted isomerization in the present experiments is responsible for the discrepancy between the RRKM calculations and the experimental results. Cyclic isomers are also found to represent 30(+-6)percent of the detected products in the case of CH + methylacetylene, together with 33(+-6)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 37(+-6)percent vinylacetylene. The CH + allene reaction gives 23(+-5)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 77(+-5)percent vinylacetylene, whereas cyclic isomers are produced below the detection limit

  20. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans, but not Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  1. Contribution of a winter wheat cover crop to the maintenance of Pratylenchus penetrans populations in the raspberry production system with management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers in the Pacific Northwest confront is root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). In this perennial production system, raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a ne...

  2. Laser ablation and injection moulding as techniques for producing micro channels compatible with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, R.; Marmiroli, B.; Gavalas, I.

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic mixing is an important means for in-situ sample preparation and handling while Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) is a proven tool for characterising (macro-)molecular structures. In combination those two techniques enable investigations of fast reactions with high time resolution......, the requirement for low scattering especially limits the techniques suitable for producing the mixer, as the fabrication process can induce molecular orientations and stresses that can adversely influence the scattering signal. Not only is it important to find a production method that results in a device with low...

  3. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis engineering of iron oxide raspberry-shaped nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, O; Pichon, B P; Ihiawakrim, D; Florea, I; Moldovan, S; Ersen, O; Begin, D; Grenèche, J-M; Lemonnier, S; Barraud, E; Begin-Colin, S

    2017-01-07

    Magnetic porous nanostructures consisting of oriented aggregates of iron oxide nanocrystals display very interesting properties such as a lower oxidation state of magnetite, and enhanced saturation magnetization in comparison with individual nanoparticles of similar sizes and porosity. However, the formation mechanism of these promising nanostructures is not well understood, which hampers the fine tuning of their magnetic properties, for instance by doping them with other elements. Therefore the formation mechanism of porous raspberry shaped nanostructures (RSNs) synthesized by a one-pot polyol solvothermal method has been investigated in detail from the early stages by using a wide panel of characterization techniques, and especially by performing original in situ HR-TEM studies in temperature. A time-resolved study showed the intermediate formation of an amorphous iron alkoxide phase with a plate-like lamellar structure (PLS). Then, the fine investigation of PLS transformation upon heating up to 500 °C confirmed that the synthesis of RSNs involves two iron precursors: the starting one (hydrated iron chlorides) and the in situ formed iron alkoxide precursor which decomposes with time and heating and contributes to the growth step of nanostructures. Such an understanding of the formation mechanism of RSNs is necessary to envision efficient and rational enhancement of their magnetic properties.

  6. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  7. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS......) based on a NOAEL of 280 mg/kg bw/day for lower weight gain in rats is 165 at 100 mg and 12 at 1400 mg. The recommended doses are a concern taking into account the TTC and MOS. Investigations of raspberry ketone in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated potential cardiotoxic...

  8. Study of the defect structures produced by heavy ions in dielectrics by means of small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the defects in dielectrics produced by fast ions. For this the small angle scattering was proved as suitable method. By the production by means of the ion beam of an accelerator the defects possess a pronounced preferential direction. In scattering experiments this system of scattering centers is distinguished by its unusually strong dependence of the sample orientation according to the primary beam. This property was studied, described, and illustrated by examples, and it could by shown that from this additional informations about the scattering defects can be derived. For the first time nuclear tracks were detected by means of small angle neutron scattering. It could be shown that here the same results are obtained as by small angle X-ray scattering. The measured intensity distributions could be assigned to a mathematical model description which gives form, width, and density of the tracks in the position space. On the base of this cylinder model computer codes were established which simulate the scattering experiment regarding the main influences and calculate the expected theoretical intensity distribution. The agreement between calculated and measured scattering distributions proves the validity of the model. The parameters determined by this model, maximal change of density in the track, defect length, radial dilatation, distance of the narrowings and there depth were determined. For the main quantities, radial dilatation and maximal change of densities a simple description of the energy dependence could be given via the energy loss. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. [Effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun-Ying; Meng, Qing-Ling; Guo, Min-Zhuo; Yi, Yao; Su, Qiu-Dong; Lu, Xue-Xin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering. Based on the colon preference of E. coli, the HDV small antigen original gene from GenBank was optimized. Both the original gene and the optimized gene expressed in prokaryotic cells, SDS-PAGE was made to analyze the protein expression yield and to decide which protein expression style was more proportion than the other. Furthermore, two antigens were purified by chromatography in order to compare the purity by SDS-PAGE and Image Lab software. SDS-PAGE indicated that the molecular weight of target proteins from two groups were the same as we expected. Gene optimization resulted in the higher yield and it could make the product more soluble. After chromatography, the purity of target protein from optimized gene was up to 96.3%, obviously purer than that from original gene. Gene optimization could increase the protein expression yield and solubility of genetic engineering HDV small antigen. In addition, the product from the optimized gene group was easier to be purified for diagnosis usage.

  10. Preparation of raspberry-like polypyrrole composites with applications in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Wang, Chuanxi; Wu, Jie; Lin, Quan; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Kui; Yang, Bai

    2009-10-15

    Raspberry-like composites were prepared by coating the silver/polypyrrole core/shell composites onto the surface of silica spheres via oxidation polymerization of pyrrole monomer with [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions as oxidants. The whole process allowed the absence of stabilizers, which greatly improved the quality of the conducting polymer composites. The morphology of the resulting composites was investigated, which can be described as raspberry-like; also, the structure and composition of the composites were characterized in detail. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. The present synthetic strategy substantially extended the scope of metal/conducting polymer composite synthesis. The raspberry-like composites exhibited excellent catalytic properties in the reduction of methylene blue dye with the reducing agent of sodium borohydride.

  11. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    of infectious virus and viral genomes were determined by plaque assay and reverse transcription-real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. On plastic surfaces, an inactivation of >99.99% was obtained for both MS2 and FCV, corresponding to a 9.1-log and >4.8-log reduction after 1 or 3 s of treatment......) resulted in negligible reductions of viral genome titers of MS2, FCV, and MNV on plastic surfaces as well as of MS2 inoculated on raspberries. Steam-ultrasound treatment in its current format does not appear to be an appropriate method to achieve sufficient decontamination of NoV-contaminated raspberries...... treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts...

  12. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  13. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT.

  14. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šustek Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  15. A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

  16. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  17. Characteristics of hydrogen produced by partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming in a small methanol reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Rong-Fang; Chou, Huann-Ming; Lee, Chiou-Hwang; Tsai, Hsien-Te

    This paper investigates experimentally, the transient characteristics of a small methanol reformer using partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) for fuel cell applications. The parameters varied were heating temperature, methanol supply rate, steady mode shifting temperature, O 2/C (O 2/CH 3OH) and S/C (H 2O/CH 3OH) molar ratios with the main aim of promoting a rapid response and a high flow rate of hydrogen. The experiments showed that a high steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a faster temperature rise at the catalyst outlet and vice versa and that a low steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a lower final hydrogen concentration. However, when the mode shifting temperature was too high, the hydrogen production response was not necessarily improved. It was subsequently shown that the optimum steady mode shifting temperature for this experimental set-up was approximately 75 °C. Further, the hydrogen concentration produced by the auto-thermal process was as high as 49.12% and the volume flow rate up to 23.0 L min -1 compared to 40.0% and 20.5 L min -1 produced by partial oxidation.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry

  20. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  1. Automated touch sensing in the mouse tapered beam test using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardesch, Dirk Jan; Balbi, Matilde; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-11-01

    Rodent models of neurological disease such as stroke are often characterized by motor deficits. One of the tests that are used to assess these motor deficits is the tapered beam test, which provides a sensitive measure of bilateral motor function based on foot faults (slips) made by a rodent traversing a gradually narrowing beam. However, manual frame-by-frame scoring of video recordings is necessary to obtain test results, which is time-consuming and prone to human rater bias. We present a cost-effective method for automated touch sensing in the tapered beam test. Capacitive touch sensors detect foot faults onto the beam through a layer of conductive paint, and results are processed and stored on a Raspberry Pi computer. Automated touch sensing using this method achieved high sensitivity (96.2%) as compared to 'gold standard' manual video scoring. Furthermore, it provided a reliable measure of lateralized motor deficits in mice with unilateral photothrombotic stroke: results indicated an increased number of contralesional foot faults for up to 6days after ischemia. The automated adaptation of the tapered beam test produces results immediately after each trial, without the need for labor-intensive post-hoc video scoring. It also increases objectivity of the data as it requires less experimenter involvement during analysis. Automated touch sensing may provide a useful adaptation to the existing tapered beam test in mice, while the simplicity of the hardware lends itself to potential further adaptations to related behavioral tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ‘Razz’ highbush blueberry: A specialty cultivar with raspberry-flavored fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Razz’ represents a distinct a...

  3. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo

    2016-09-01

    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  4. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  5. What’s really in our black raspberry products? – chemotaxonomy by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  6. 75 FR 6131 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to... to one cent per pound, with the initial assessment rate being one cent per pound, which would be paid... raspberries imported into the United States. These countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78...

  7. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  8. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has be...

  9. Measurement of Global Solar Radiation data using Raspberry Pi and its estimation using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S.Shanmuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for more efficient and environmentally benign, non-conventional sources of energy came into picture due to increasing demands for human comforts. Solar energy is now the ultimate option. In this paper, the instruments used to measure the solar radiation at Innovation Centre, MIT Manipal were connected to a Raspberry Pi to access the data remotely. Genetic Algorithms were formulated, so that the monthly mean global solar radiation in Manipal can be effectively estimated. Meteorological data such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc. were used as inputs to train the networks. A successful network was made between the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi. The data collected by the data loggers from the devices are transmitted to the Raspberry Pi which in turn sends the data to an internal server. The Raspberry Pi can be accessed using any SSH client such as PuTTY. The meteorological data was collected for the years 2010-2014 in order to formulate the Artificial Intelligence models. The validity of the formulated models were checked by comparing the measured data with the estimated data using tools such as RMSE, correlation coefficient, etc. The modelling of solar radiation using GA was carried out in GeneXpro tools version 5.0.

  10. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  11. Fossil fuel reform in developing states: The case of Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing small Island developing State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago is an oil exporting small island developing state (SIDS) with a 0.12% contribution to global emissions and with important socio-economic challenges. It has producer, electricity and transport fuel subsidies. It is at an interesting juncture in subsidy reform: the government faces the embeddedness of distributive justice norms that are contested by fiscal prudence and environmental stewardship norms. The value of the paper is twofold. First it develops a subsidy intractability framework to explain reform global narratives that highlights: the power of agents, the nature of contested economic, justice and environmental norms and the availability of mechanisms for reform. Second, this framework is used to explain reform narratives and trajectories in Trinidad and Tobago using data from public documents and from a unique elite survey of former and present heads of state, politicians, policy makers and stakeholders. Even in conditions of falling oil prices and national revenue and pressures to reduce emissions, where redistributive justice arguments are heavily embedded in public discourses, those aspects of the subsidy that have developmental or distributive justice goals are more intractable. The results of the study have implications for carbon emission reduction strategies in developing states with fossil fuel reserves. - Highlights: • A subsidy intractability framework is used to analyse fuel subsidy reform. • A sense of entitlement to resources contributes to subsidy intractability. • Global environmental stewardship norms matter less for fuel subsidy reform in SIDS. • Policy space is most determined by international economic conditions in SIDS.

  12. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  13. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  14. A hands-on course in sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemann, Volker

    2018-01-01

    A Hands-On Course in Sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi is the first book to give a practical and wide-ranging account of how to interface sensors and actuators with micro-controllers, Raspberry Pi and other control systems. The author describes the progression of raw signals through conditioning stages, digitization, data storage and presentation. The collection, processing, and understanding of sensor data plays a central role in industrial and scientific activities. This book builds simplified models of large industrial or scientific installations that contain hardware and other building blocks, including services for databases, web servers, control systems, and messaging brokers. A range of case studies are included within the book, including a weather station, geophones, a water-colour monitor, capacitance measurement, the profile of laser beam, and a remote-controlled and fire-seeking robot This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking hands-on laboratory course...

  15. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

  16. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP Pada Jaringan Nirkabel Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Handayani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan satu teknologi telekomunikasi yang mampu melewatkan layanan komunikasi dalam jaringan Internet Protocol sehingga memungkinkan antar pengguna berkomunikasi suara dalam jaringan IP. Kelebihan dari VoIP ini mampu melakukan efisiensi bandwith dan biaya pengelolaan dengan memanfaatkan Raspberry Pi sebagai server VoIP. Dalam penelitian ini, VoIP dibangun pada Sistem Operasi Linux dengan aplikasi Asterisk dan RasPBX yang diintegrasikan pada Raspberry Pi dengan menggunakan jaringan nirkabel lokal sebagai media transmisi. Sistem ini diujikan dengan menggunakan dua tipe client, yaitu PC dan smartphone dengan mengukur QoS dengan rata-rata delay 0.4463ms, rata-rata throughput 16.36KBps, rata-rata packet loss 0.889% dan jitter 1.102ms.

  17. PROTOTIPE SISTEM KONTROL JARAK JAUH BEBERAPA ALAT PENDINGIN RUANGAN BERBASIS RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mochamad subianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini pengendalian on/off berbagai piranti listrik kebanyakan masih dikendalikan dengan menekan tombol saklar atau remote yang penggunaannya dengan jarak yang dekat. Untuk menjawab kebutuhan masyarakat tentang sistem kontrol yang cepat dan dinamis diperlukan suatu teknologi sistem kontrol jarak jauh yang memungkinkan proses secara cepat agar dapat menghemat waktu dan tenaga khususnya pengendalian beberapa alat pendingin ruangan yang berada di beberapa ruangan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian lanjutan dari peneliti terdahulu dan menggunakan perangkat yang mempunyai teknolgi terbaru yaitu Raspberry Pi sebagai pengendali untuk membuat suatu sistem kontrol beberapa AC (Air Conditioning pada ruangan yang berbeda secara jarak jauh. Diharapkan dapat sebagai salah satu solusi untuk perkembangan gaya hidup dan dinamika sosial saat ini yang semakin mementingkan kepraktisan dan efisiensi. Metodologi penelitian yang akan digunakan menggunakan metodologi waterfall dengan tahap-tahapannya yaitu tinjauan pustaka, analisa kebutuhan pengguna, analisis sistem, perancangan sistem, implementasi dan pengujian. Hasil akhir dari penelitian adalah prototipe pengendali jarak jauh beberapa perangkat AC Raspberry Pi.

  18. Uav Photogrammetric Solution Using a Raspberry pi Camera Module and Smart Devices: Test and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M.; Grasso, N.; Jabbar, A. Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, smart technologies are an important part of our action and life, both in indoor and outdoor environment. There are several smart devices very friendly to be setting, where they can be integrated and embedded with other sensors, having a very low cost. Raspberry allows to install an internal camera called Raspberry Pi Camera Module, both in RGB band and NIR band. The advantage of this system is the limited cost (light weight and their simplicity to be used and embedded. This paper will describe a research where a Raspberry Pi with the Camera Module was installed onto a UAV hexacopter based on arducopter system, with purpose to collect pictures for photogrammetry issue. Firstly, the system was tested with aim to verify the performance of RPi camera in terms of frame per second/resolution and the power requirement. Moreover, a GNSS receiver Ublox M8T was installed and connected to the Raspberry platform in order to collect real time position and the raw data, for data processing and to define the time reference. IMU was also tested to see the impact of UAV rotors noise on different sensors like accelerometer, Gyroscope and Magnetometer. A comparison of the achieved results (accuracy) on some check points of the point clouds obtained by the camera will be reported as well in order to analyse in deeper the main discrepancy on the generated point cloud and the potentiality of these proposed approach. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be analysed.

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the storage life elongation of fresh strawberries and raspberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of preserving strawberries and raspberries at room temperature by irradiation is studied. The fruits were packed in perforated plastic bags and irradiated on gamma-device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min. Strawberries were irradiated with 250 krad, raspberries of ''Rubin'' variety with 150 or 200 krad. Irratiated and control fruits were stored at 20sup(o) - 22sup(o)C and examined every day until the first signs of microbial decay appeared. It is found that the total number of microorganisms drops immediately after irradiation. The earliest signs of decay in control strawberries appeared on the second day after they had been packed; in irradiated strawberries - on the fourth or fifth day, with a rapid progress of decay thereafter. Decay of control raspberries started on the first day and by the fourth day all packages were completely moldy, while irradiated fruits had a very good appearance. Single mold spots appeared on the third or fourth day after exposure to 150 krad and later than the fifth day after exposure to 200 krad. Physico-chemical studies disclosed a tendency toward decrease in the sugar content immediately after irradiation. A post-irradiation decrease in the content of total pectine substances and ascorbic acid was also observed. At the end of preservation ascorbic acid in strawberries was reduced by 33 per cent and in raspberries by 19 - 70 per cent. The spectra of antecyonic substances showed that during the preservation of irradiated fruits oxidation has been more intensive. (Ch.K.)

  20. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca M. Reck; R. S. Sreenivas

    2016-01-01

    Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC ...

  1. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  2. Otomatisasi Pelayanan Binatu Berbasis Raspberry Pi Untuk Meningkatkan Efektivitas Dan Efisiensi Kegiatan Operasional Dan Pelayanan Binatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Habsyi Yesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisnis binatu (laundry atau bisnis jasa cuci pakaian merupakan bisnis yang menggiurkan saat sekarang ini. Proses layanan binatu umumnya terdiri dari pendaftaran, pengolahan, dan pengambilan pakaian. Proses ini memiliki banyak kekurangan yaitu pendaftaran manual tidak efektif dan efisien, pengolahan pakaian hanya diketahui oleh penyedia layanan binatu, dan pelanggan tidak mengetahui pakaian telah selesai. Ditengah persaingan bisnis yang begitu ketat, pelayanan konsumen merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting. Penyedia jasa dituntut untuk berinovasi untuk menyediakan layanan jasa yang efektif dan efisien. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan otomatisasi pelayanan binatu berbasis raspberry pi. Sistem ini menggunakan timbangan digital berbasis load cell, teknologi radio frequency identification (RFID sebagai masukan data otomatis, Raspberry Pi sebagai pusat dari pengolahan basis data (database, dan webserver sebagai pusat informasi bagi pelanggan. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan beberapa kesimpulan. Timbangan digital memiliki eror rata-rata 0,88 %, metode RFID dapat memasukan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan metode pengambilan nomor identitas jenis hex 8 digit, Raspberry Pi dapat mengakomodasi aplikasi yang efektif dan efisien untuk menyimpan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan pemakaian CPU rata-rata 5%, dan webserver yang digunakan dapat menyediakan informasi layanan binatu bagi pelanggan.

  3. Design and Experimentation of a Control System Implemented on Raspberry Pi 3 Board for Photovoltaic Systems Using SEPIC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutouba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage regulation system is proposed for photovoltaic energy sources (PV, using Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter as a DC-DC converter to feed loads working with specific input voltage. The choose of SEPIC converter is due to the output voltage ripple of developed-type converters are usually small and can be lower than 2%, also it considered as a buck and boost converter and thereafter loads with lower or higher voltage could be powered. Matlab Simulink is used as environment to develop control strategies to guaranties a stable voltage at the loads terminals. Two algorithms are used to fulfill this role: A Conventional PID and PI-Fuzzy logic controller to generate the PWM signal for the SEPIC converter. Hence, to validate the work some real-time simulations are treated by implemented the control strategies on a low-cost control board: The Raspberry Pi 3 in order to manage the operation of system and collecting the simulation data. Also, and for verification purposes, several simulations were treated to verify the good behavior of the proposed system.

  4. Identification of point mutations in clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce small-colony variants auxotrophic for menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Melissa A; Olsen, Randall J; Long, S Wesley; Rosato, Adriana E; Musser, James M

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are implicated in chronic and relapsing infections that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Despite many years of study, the underlying molecular mechanisms and virulence effect of the small-colony phenotype remain incompletely understood. We sequenced the genomes of five S. aureus SCV strains recovered from human patients and discovered previously unidentified nonsynonymous point mutations in three genes encoding proteins in the menadione biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of genetic revertants and complementation with wild-type alleles confirmed that these mutations caused the SCV phenotype and decreased virulence for mice.

  5. A novel one-pot room-temperature synthesis route to produce very small photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Burgos-Paci, Maxi A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Putnam, Karl G.; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Macagno, Vicente A.; Sánchez, Cristián G.; Pérez, Manuel A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from a reaction between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-hexadecyl-ammonium borohydride (CTABH4) in organic solvent is presented. The formation reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature in homogeneous phase. The produced silicon nanocrystals are characterized by using their photoluminescent properties and via HRTEM. In addition, theoretical calculations of the optical absorption spectrum of silicon quantum dots in vacuum with different sizes and surface moieties were performed in order to compare with the experimental findings. The new chemical reaction is simple and can be implemented to produce silicon nanocrystal with regular laboratory materials by performing easy and safe procedures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Influence of Sugars, Modified Starches and Hydrocolloids Addition on Colour and Thermal Properties of Raspberry Cream Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler Anita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of the addition of sugars (sucrose, fructose and trehalose, modified starches (tapioca or waxy maize starch and hydrocolloids (karaya or guar gum on colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings. In addition, the influence of the above-mentioned additives on the colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings stored at room temperature over a period of 8 and 16 months was investigated. Results showed that the highest anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were detected in raspberry cream filling prepared with sucrose and trehalose in combination with guar gum. During storage, after 8 and 16 months at room temperature, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content decreased. Results also showed that the kind of sugar and added modified starches or hydrocolloids influenced the thermal properties of cream fillings. During storage, a decrease was observed in both freezing temperature as well as enthalpy of cream fillings.

  7. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  8. Real-time Geomagnetic Data from a Raspberry Pi Magnetometer Network in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N.; Beggan, C.; Marple, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK to enable citizen science. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current scientific-level instrument, but given its relatively low-cost, at about £250 ($325) per unit, this is an excellent price-to-performance ratio given we could not improve the sensitivity unless we spent a lot more money. The magnetic data are sampled at a 5 second cadence and sent to the AuroraWatch website at Lancaster University every 2 minutes. The data are freely available to view and download. The primary aim of the project is to encourage students from 14-18 years old to look at how sensors can be used to collect geophysical data and integrate it together to give a wider understanding of physical phenomena. A second aim is to provide useful data on the spatial variation of the magnetic field for analysis of geomagnetic storms, alongside data from the BGS observatory and University of Lancaster's SAMNET variometer network. We show results from the build, testing and running of the sensors including some recent storms and we reflect on our experiences in engaging schools and the general public with information about the magnetic field. The information to build the system and logging and analysis software for the Raspberry Pi is all freely available, allowing those interested to participate in the project as citizen scientists.

  9. On the Application of the Raspberry Pi as an Advanced Acoustic Sensor Network for Noise Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Noriega-Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Cities and the monitoring of environmental parameters is an area of research that has attracted scientific attention during the last decade. These environmental parameters are well-known as important factors in their affection towards people. Massive monitoring of this kind of parameters in cities is an expensive and complex task. Recent technologies of low-cost computing and low-power devices have opened researchers to a wide and more accessible research field, developing monitoring devices for deploying Wireless Sensor Networks. Gathering information from them, improved urban plans could be carried out and the information could help citizens. In this work, the prototyping of a low-cost acoustic sensor based on the Raspberry Pi platform for its use in the analysis of the sound field is described. The device is also connected to the cloud to share results in real time. The computation resources of the Raspberry Pi allow treating high quality audio for calculating acoustic parameters. A pilot test was carried out with the installation of two acoustic devices in the refurbishment works of a neighbourhood. In this deployment, the evaluation of these devices through long-term measurements was carried out, obtaining several acoustic parameters in real time for its broadcasting and study. This test has shown the Raspberry Pi as a powerful and affordable computing core of a low-cost device, but also the pilot test has served as a query tool for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood to be more aware about the noise in their own place of residence.

  10. Analisis Kelayakan Sistem Monitoring dan Kontrol Lampu Menggunakan Web Server Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslan - Maslan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As technology develops progressively over time, system developers continue to strive to create more efficient monitoring systems. The problem that often happens is the control room and light control is currently not utilize an integrated system based web server. Room control systems still utilize large equipment such as televisions and large computers, so that every problem occurs in the room is difficult to control. From these problems then the purpose of this study to create an efficient control system that utilizes super mini-based Raspberry Pi. To create a system based on Raspberry P microcontroller then required an initial observation to perform the feasibility test on the system to be developed. The feasibility test system is the successful monitoring of the room using CCTV (Closed Circuit Television equipment and control the lamp automatically by using prototyping method. The CCTV feasibility test is viewed from the resolution while the control of room light control is seen from the success of controlling the life of the lights on the test. Based on the testing concluded that the monitoring of the room using Raspberry Pi-based web server is feasible to use, seen the test results when the light control goes smoothly, because the lights controlled through the webserver managed to live and die. Similarly, when monitoring the room with live CCTV also runs well. And while conducting Room monitoring experiments with Webcam at 800 x 600 resolution there is a lot of variation value of frame rate sometimes up and down. The up and down frame is caused by an unstable network connection.

  11. PAPAN INFORMASI DIGITAL BERBASIS RASPBERRY-PI MENGGUNAKAN JARINGAN WIRELESS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan informasi digital adalah media digital untuk menampilkan informasi dalam bentuk visual yang dapat dinikmati oleh orang-orang disekitarnya. Media digital bisa menjadi sarana informasi, promosi produk, dan juga sebagai sarana berita terbaru. Papan informasi digital yang ada di kantor atau sekolah biasanya menggunakan layar LED TV dilengkapi 1 unit komputer (CPU dan menggunakan media transmisi kabel. Banyaknya jumlah TV dan CPU yang digunakan menimbulkan masalah biaya dan tempat. Disamping itu manajemen konten informasi yang ditampilkan menjadi tidak praktis karena dilakukan langsung satu persatu di setiap CPU. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi terpadu berbasis web yang ditanam pada mini komputer berupa raspberry pi menggunakan jaringan wireless distribution system (WDS. Perangkat digital berupa LED TV dipasang raspberry-pi sebagai interface, yang dapat menghemat daya, biaya dan tempat. Manajemen konten informasi terintegrasi dengan komputer server yang menyediakan layanan edit fitur dan update informasi video streaming dan live streaming. Dari hasil pengukuran Quality of Service (QOS menggunakan Transmission Control Protocol (TCP untuk layanan video dan live streaming dengan kondisi Line of Sight (LOS dan Non Line of Sight (NLOS direkomendasikan menggunakan kondisi LOS dengan nilai Throughput sebesar 585 KBps dan 230 KBps, delay sebesar 1.7 ms dan 3.3 ms, dan Jitter sebesar 2.5 ms dan 6.19 ms. Nilai parameter tersebut memenuhi standar Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON. Cakupan WDS dari server ke raspberry-pi client mencapai 70 meter dengan kondisi LOS maupun NLOS. Pengujian Mean Opinion Score (MOS didapatkan nilai rata-rata sebesar 4 atau dalam kategori puas dengan sistem yang dibuat.

  12. Raspberry Pi as an environment for learning to program

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Darja

    2016-01-01

    The thesis discusses the projects which might encourage primary school children in the third triad to programme when the programming language Scratch becomes too restrictive. Lately, the answer has been to use proper programming languages and microcontrollers, which can be connected to camera, sensors and other devices. With this, children learn the basics of electrical engineering, and are only one step away from creating their own game or a small project. The thesis consists of assignments,...

  13. Reprogrammable Logic Gate and Logic Circuit Based on Multistimuli-Responsive Raspberry-like Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved.

  14. Game Development in Python with Pygame - 2D Platformgame for Raspberry Pi 3 driven arcademachine

    OpenAIRE

    Bryndum, Leonora; Hastrup, Jakob Scheunemann; Holm, Kevin Martin Lindemark; Kjær, Alberte Jeberg

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study, is to explore how to develop a 2D-arcade platform game for a Raspberry Pi 3 computer. This will be done with the programming language Python 3 and the game development framework Pygame. To do this, we investigate and learn about the Python 3 language and how this is structured. We investigate what an arcade game usually contains in the terms of programmatic content, and choose the focus points: Game Loop, Collisions, Physics, Animation, Level Design, Camera, Heads U...

  15. Rotation-induced YORP break-up of small bodies to produce post-main-sequence debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesize that the in situ break-up of small bodies such as asteroids spun to fission during the giant branch phases of stellar evolution provides an important contribution to the debris orbiting and ultimately polluting white dwarfs. The YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radviesvki-Paddock) effect, which arises from radiation pressure, accelerates the spin rate of asymmetric asteroids, which can eventually shear themselves apart. This pressure is maintained and enhanced around dying stars because the outward push of an asteroid due to stellar mass loss is insignificant compared to the resulting stellar luminosity increase. Consequently, giant star radiation will destroy nearly all bodies with radii in the range 100 m-10 km that survive their parent star's main-sequence lifetime within a distance of about 7 au; smaller bodies are spun apart to their strongest, competent components. This estimate is conservative and would increase for highly asymmetric shapes or incorporation of the inward drag due to giant star stellar wind. The resulting debris field, which could extend to thousands of au, may be perturbed by remnant planetary systems to reproduce the observed dusty and gaseous discs which accompany polluted white dwarfs.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  17. Effects of plastic mulches and high tunnel raspberry production systems on soil physicochemical quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagała-Świątkiewicz, Iwona; Siwek, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    In horticulture, degradable materials are desirable alternatives to plastic films. Our aim was to study the impact of soil plastic mulching on the soil properties in the high tunnel and open field production systems of raspberry. The raised beds were mulched with a polypropylene non-woven and two degradable mulches: polypropylene with a photodegradant and non-woven polylactide. The results indicated that the system of raspberry production, as well as the type of mulching had significant impact on soil organic carbon stock, moisture content and water stable aggregate amount. Soils taken from the open field system had a lower bulk density and water stability aggregation index, but higher organic carbon and capillary water content as compared to soils collected from high tunnel conditions. In comparison with the open field system, soil salinity was also found to be higher in high tunnel, as well as with higher P, Mg, Ca, S, Na and B content. Furthermore, mulch covered soils had more organic carbon amount than the bare soils. Soil mulching also enhanced the water capacity expressed as a volume of capillary water content. In addition, mulching improved the soil structure in relation to the bare soil, in particular, in open field conditions. The impact of the compared mulches on soil quality indicators was similar.

  18. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  19. Evaluation of Red Raspberry Cultivars Used for Breeding and Commercial Growing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lācis Gunārs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of raspberry cultivars and genetic resources in the Baltic countries have been influenced by the historical political situation in the 20th century and climatic conditions, especially winterhardiness. The genetic resources consist of some old European and American cultivars, but mostly of cultivars and hybrids bred in Russia. Currently, targeted breeding programmes are active only in Estonia and Latvia, which aim to develop winterhardy, disease-resistant cultivars, well adapted to the local climate. Therefore, parent material for hybridisation has been chosen from local advanced hybrids and introduced cultivars suitable to the regional climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity of Rubus germplasm and assess inter-specific and intra-specific relationships using phenotypical characterisation and molecular markers. Forty one Rubus genotypes were evaluated by 41 phenotypical traits and 15 previously described SSR markers. Both characterisation approaches discovered high correspondence with pedigree and a low level of diversity. A limited amount of the diversity of raspberry genetic material has been used in various breeding programmes, despite their broad geographical origin. The obtained results indicate the need for including local wild R. idaeus plant material into breeding programmes.

  20. Electrodeposited nanostructured raspberry-like gold-modified electrodes for electrocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy, E-mail: ramarajr@yahoo.com [Madurai Kamaraj University, Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry (India)

    2013-10-15

    A facile method for fabrication of raspberry-like Au nanostructures (Au NRBs)-modified electrode by electrodeposition and its applications toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (MOR) in alkaline medium and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic media are demonstrated. The Au NRBs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical measurements. The growth of Au NRBs was monitored by recording the in-situ absorption spectral changes during electrodeposition using spectroelectrochemical technique. Here we systematically studied the MOR by varying several reaction parameters such as potential scan rate and methanol concentration. The electrocatalytic poisoning effect due to the MOR products are not observed at the Au NRBs-modified electrode. At the alkaline medium the Au NRBs-modified electrode shows the better catalytic activities toward the MOR and ORR when compared to the poly crystalline gold and bare glassy carbon electrodes. The Au NRBs-modified electrode is a promising and inexpensive electrode material for other electrocatalytic applications.Graphical AbstractRaspberry-like Au nanostructures modified electrode is prepared and used for electrocatalytic applications.

  1. Diagnostics vehicle’s condition using obd-ii and raspberry pi technology: study literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniaga, J. V.; Manalu, S. R.; Hadipurnawan, D. A.; Sahidi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation accident rate are still being a major challenge in many countries. There are many factors that could be cause transportation accident, especially in vehicle’s internal system problem. To overcome this problem, OBD-II technology has been created to diagnostics vehicle’s condition. OBD-II scanner plugged to OBD-II port or usually called Data Link Connector (DLC), and after that it sends the diagnostics to Raspberry Pi. Compared from another microcontrollers, Arduino, Raspberry Pi are chosen because it sustains the application to receive real-time diagnostics, process the diagnostics and send command to automobiles at the same time, rather than Arduino that must wait for another process finished to run another process. Outcome from this application is to enable automobile’s user to diagnostics their own vehicles. If there is found something unusual or a problem, the application can told the problem to user, so they could know what to fix before they use their vehicle safely.

  2. Low Delay Video Streaming on the Internet of Things Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jennehag

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.

  3. Función de las organizaciones de productores de leche al servicio del pequeño productor The role of producers organizations serving the small milk producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco V. Alfredo

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo plantea la problemática de los pequeños productores de leche en América Tropical, caracterizada por el ambiente individualista en que se desenvuelven, los escasos recursos con que laboran y las experiencias negativas en la superación de sus limitaciones. Así mismo, argumenta que la ausencia de organizaciones de pequeños productores dificulta las actividades de abastecimiento de insumos y la comercialización/transformación de la leche, constituyéndose en el principal obstáculo para dinamizar su proceso de desarrollo limitando el acceso a la capacitación y a la asistencia técnica, y sugiere, en consecuencia, impulsar en América Tropical organizaciones formales de pequeños
    productores que sean locales, homogéneos en su composición, democráticas y autogestadas para a través de ellas buscar la superación de los limitantes anotados.The paper states the problems faced by the small milk producers in tropical America which are characterized by the individualistic environment in which they play, the scarity of resources which they operate and the negative experiences for the over coming of their lirnitatiens. It also points out that the lack of small farmers organizations brings more difficulties to such activities as the availability of inputs and the marketing/processing of milk; it also constitutes the main obstacle for the acceleration of their development process limiting their access to capacitation and technical assitence
    programs. Consequently, the paper sugest for Tropical America to promote formal organizations of small milk producers which should be local, homogeneous in their compositions, with democratic management in order to overcome the stated limitations.

  4. Changes of hydrogen peroxide and radical-scavenging activity of raspberry during osmotic, convective, and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Miroslav M; Stevanović, Snežana M; Gorjanović, Stanislava Ž; Jovanovic, Predrag M; Tešević, Vele V; Janković, Miodrag A; Sužnjević, Desanka Ž

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of different drying treatments on antioxidant (AO) activity and phenolic content of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cultivar Willamette. Whole raspberry fruits were dried convectively (air-drying), osmotically, and freeze-dried. Acetone-water extracts of fresh and dried raspberries were assessed for total phenolic content by standard Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two AO assays were applied, a recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic assay based on decrease of anodic oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide and widely used radical scavenge against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Strong correlation has been obtained between both AO assays and total phenolic content. In addition, some individual phenolic compounds present in raspberry have been assessed using DPPH and DC polarographic assay. Comparison and evaluation of drying methods has been based on preservation of AO activity and total phenolic content. Obtained results confirmed superiority of freeze-drying; convective drying caused slight changes while osmotic dehydration showed a significant decrease of phenolic compounds and AO activity. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xu; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wu, Xinye; Yi, Jianyong; Zhou, Linyan; Li, Zhaolu

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations such as bakery and dairy products. In this study, raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA-EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR-MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared on physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. FD led to significantly higher (P drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods, were superior to FD in final total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg(-1) dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg(-1) dw). Additionally, IR-MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, were found to result in better quality of raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR-MVD could be recommended for use in the drying industry because of its advantages in time saving and nutrient retention. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöder-Moreno, M; Lange, H; Grepp, M; Osborg, E; Vainio, K; Vold, L

    2016-10-01

    In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.

  7. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavour and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft geno...

  9. Feasibility of Producing Molybdenum-99 on a Small Scale Using Fission of Low Enriched Uranium or Neutron Activation of Natural Molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication documents the work performed within the IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Developing Techniques for Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission or Neutron Activation. The project allowed participating institutions to receive training and information on aspects necessary for starting production of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) on a small scale, that is, to become national level producers of this medical isotope. Stable production of 99Mo is one of the most pressing issues facing the nuclear community at present, because the medical isotope technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), which decays from 99 Mo, is one of the most widely used radionuclides in diagnostic imaging and treatment around the world. In the past five years, there have been widespread shortages of 99 Mo owing to the limited number of producers, many of which use ageing facilities. To assist in stabilizing the production of 99Mo, and to promote the use of production methods that do not rely on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU), the IAEA initiated the abovementioned CRP on small scale 99Mo production using low enriched uranium (LEU) fission or neutron activation methods. The intention was to enable participating institutions to gain the knowledge necessary to become national level producers of 99Mo in the event of further global shortages. Some of the institutions that participated in the CRP have continued their work on 99 Mo production, and are enlisting the assistance of other CRP members and the IAEA’s technical cooperation programme to set up a small scale production capability. In total, the CRP was active for six years, and concluded in December 2011. During the CRP, fourteen IAEA Member States took part; four research coordination meetings were held, and four workshops were held on operational aspects of 99 Mo production, LEU target fabrication and waste management. Most participants carried out work related to the entire production process, from target

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of small negative ions (e/m < 100) produced by Trichel pulse negative corona discharge fed by ozonised air

    OpenAIRE

    Skalny, J.D.; Horvath, G.; Mason, N.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of small negative ions (e/m < 100) produced by DC negative corona discharge in ozonised wet air both in flow and flow-stopped regimes was conducted at pressure of 30 kPa. The point-to-plain electrode system has been used. The yield of individual ions is strongly affected by trace concentrations of ozone in both regimes. Ozone concentration greater than 25 ppm is sufficient to completely suppress the appearance of O2- and a NO2- ion as well as theirs clusters in the...

  11. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  12. Guatemala: Country of small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the antecedents of the private electrification in Guatemala since approval of the General Law of Electricity in 1996 that promoted hydroelectric power generation. The current situation in generation, transmission, and distribution is described as well the rural electrification covering and the financing of projects in this sector. Incentives to private investment is discussed with the proposal of an energy information center, proposal of fiscal incentives and promotion of renewable energy sources

  13. Proposal for creation of a small producer of electric power to the care of isolated communities; Proposta de criacao do pequeno produtor de energia eletrica para o atendimento de comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Vicente Gomes; Bortoni, Edson da Costa [Ministerio de Minas e Energia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The absence of a legal order regarding to the small-sized generation and distribution enterprises impede the power supplying of areas of noticeable interest, such as Amazon communities and national security areas, which depends on distribution network expansion, sometimes without economical feasibility. For such cases, this work proposes the creation of the small energy producer, which congregates the prerogatives of the Independent- and the self- producers of energy and, moreover, the small distribution systems. (author)

  14. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhuo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  15. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Reck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC motor and 3D printed parts. The kit has two different configurations. The first (base configuration is a DC motor system with a position and speed sensor. The second configuration adds a Furuta inverted pendulum attachment with another position sensor. These configurations replicate most of the student learning outcomes for the two control systems courses for which they were designed.

  16. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-12-04

    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  17. Design and Implementation of Smart Attendance System Based On Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Fadhil Abdulsada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The attendance system proposed is used to manage attendance system in large and branched factory or university from central unit. It consists of terminal units and a central unit. Each terminal unit consists of Raspberry pi, screen GUI, RFID, transponder card with each user (like student and GSM board. The central unit consists of Arduino, GSM board and a computer. Each unit has a special program to achieve its purpose. The terminal unit is responsible of making a connection with a transponder card to bring its ID's and make a comparison with the names listed in the database of SQL server to get the names of the absent students and send their serial numbers by using GSM message. The central unit is considered as a heart of system where it is responsible of collecting all the information from the terminal units, displaying them and making special processing to take a decision about persons whose absence exceed the threshold line.

  18. Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms. The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate.

  19. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Cloutier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  20. Building IoT Applications with Raspberry Pi and Low Power IQRF Communication Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Typical Internet of Things (IoT applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1 good computing power/cost ratio; (2 high availability; it has become a de facto hardware standard; and (3 ease of use; it is based on operating systems with a big community of users. In IoT applications, data are frequently carried by means of wireless sensor networks in which energy consumption is a key issue. Energy consumption is especially relevant for smart sensors that are scattered over wide geographical areas and may need to work unattended on batteries for long intervals of time. In this scenario, it is convenient to ease the construction of IoT applications while keeping energy consumption to a minimum at the sensors. This work proposes a possible gateway implementation with specific technologies. It solves the following research question: how to build gateways for IoT applications with Raspberry Pi and low power IQRF communication modules. The following contributions are presented: (1 one architecture for IoT gateways that integrates data from sensor nodes into a higher level application based on low-cost/low-energy technologies; (2 bindings in Java and C that ease the construction of IoT applications; (3 an empirical model that describes the consumption of the communications at the nodes (smart sensors and allows scaling their batteries; and (4 validation of the proposed energy model at the battery-operated nodes.

  1. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Raspberry Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pounding heart beat (palpitations). Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, Glucophage, Riomet), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), ...

  3. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  5. Mean flow produced by small-amplitude vibrations of a liquid bridge with its free surface covered with an insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Luis M.; Herrada, Miguel A.; Montanero, José M.; Vega, José M.

    2017-09-01

    As is well known, confined fluid systems subject to forced vibrations produce mean flows, called in this context streaming flows. These mean flows promote an overall mass transport in the fluid that has consequences in the transport of passive scalars and surfactants, when these are present in a fluid interface. Such transport causes surfactant concentration inhomogeneities that are to be counterbalanced by Marangoni elasticity. Therefore, the interaction of streaming flows and Marangoni convection is expected to produce new flow structures that are different from those resulting when only one of these effects is present. The present paper focuses on this interaction using the liquid bridge geometry as a paradigmatic system for the analysis. Such analysis is based on an appropriate post-processing of the results obtained via direct numerical simulation of the system for moderately small viscosity, a condition consistent with typical experiments of vibrated millimetric liquid bridges. It is seen that the flow patterns show a nonmonotone behavior as the Marangoni number is increased. In addition, the strength of the mean flow at the free surface exhibits two well-defined regimes as the forcing amplitude increases. These regimes show fairly universal power-law behaviors.

  6. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  7. Self-assembly of a superparamagnetic raspberry-like silica/iron oxide nanocomposite using epoxy-amine coupling chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-02-28

    The fabrication of colloidal nanocomposites would benefit from controlled hetero-assembly of ready-made particles through covalent bonding. Here we used epoxy-amine coupling chemistry to promote the self-assembly of superparamagnetic raspberry-like nanocomposites. This adaptable method induced the covalent attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles sparsely coated with amine groups onto epoxylated silica cores in the absence of other reactants.

  8. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Rational design and fabrication of highly transparent, flexible, and thermally stable superhydrophobic coatings from raspberry-like hollow silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xinshu; Tao, Chaoyou; Yang, Ke; Yang, Fan; Lv, Haibing; Yan, Lianghong; Yan, Hongwei; Li, Yuan; Xie, Yongyong; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Multifunctional coatings with superhydrophobicity, high transparency, thermal stability, flexibility, and ultralow refractive index have been investigated for many years. They have promising applications in industries such as in electronic and optical devices, photonic materials, and templates for fabricating biological and chemical sensors. However, the relatively complex preparation technology of these coatings or difficult to possess these properties simultaneously are still the main factors that limit their wide application. In this paper, we report a facile atmospheric approach to create transparent multifunctional raspberry-like particulate coatings with a low refractive index, which were obtained via one-pot base-catalyzed sol-gel process using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (POTS) as co-precursors. The excellent superhydrophobicity, mechanical flexibility, self-cleaning property, thermal and chemical stability of the as-fabricated coatings were demonstrated. The refractive indices of coatings can be easily tuned at a range of 1.07-1.16. Particularly, the resulted samples on the K9 glasses exhibited superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of 162° when the scale ratio of the POTS and TEOS was 1.0. The superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared coatings could last for more than half a year under indoor condition, demonstrating the long stability of the superhydrophobicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this simple efficient method could be extended to different substrates, including K9 glass, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and gingko leaf, to achieve superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, the superhydrophobicty of the coatings transferred to superhydrophilicity (WCA < 5°) by calcination at 500 °C, which resulted in a good antifogging property. Moreover, the coatings were not sensitive to the strong acid (pH = 1) and kept their superhydrophobic state for a long time

  10. The Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Raspberry Fruit on Ovarian follicles and serum parameters in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Nabiuni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is an endocrine disorder leading to lack of ovulation and has inflammatory aspects. Raspberry extract, with possession of bioactive compounds such as Anthocyanins and polyphenols, have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract on the development process of ovarian follicles and hormones level of pituitary, ovarian, and liver in rats suffering from PCOS were examined. Methods: In the present experimental study, 120 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, PCOS, and treated with raspberry. The induction of syndrome was done by 2mg Estradiol valerate. After a period of 60 days, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW raspberry extract was injected intraperitoneally. Control group received no injection. Ten days after the last injection, all groups were anesthetized by chloroform and the serum and ovary of all groups were collected in order to investigate the histological and serologic changes. Data obtained were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Raspberry-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hormones rate of testosterone, estradiol, LH, and CRP compared with PCOS (p<0.05, whereas a significant increase was observed in the serum level of Progesterone and FSH (p<0.05. A significant increase was observed in the number of corpus luteum and granulosa layer thickness in the raspberry-treated group compared with PCOS (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract was effective on regulating the hormones, CRPand improving of cysts which led to the initiation of ovulation.

  11. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    strain, cellular and molecular targets, and relative carcinogenic potency, our animal model may offer a more realistic platform to study oral carcinogenesis. In this perspective, we also discuss our preclinical studies to demonstrate the potential of black raspberry extracts on the prevention of OSCC. Specifically, we were the first to demonstrate that black raspberry inhibited DB[a,l]P-DNA binding and of particular importance its capacity to enhance the repair of DB[a,l]P-induced bulky lesions in DNA. We believe that the information presented in this perspective will stimulate further research on the impact of environmental carcinogens in the development of oral cancer and may lead to novel strategies toward the control and prevention of this disease.

  12. Lasing from the domain of collision of ionisation waves produced due to electric field concentration at electrodes with a small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tel'minov, A E; Burachenko, A G; Rybka, D V; Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Vil'tovskii, P O

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of UV lasing in nitrogen and of diffusive discharge produced without an additional ionisation source were experimentally investigated in a nonuniform electric field formed by electrodes with different profiles. High-voltage nanosecond pulses were applied to the blade- and cylinder-shaped electrodes. It was determined that the gap breakdown at elevated pressure was caused by diffusive jets which propagate from the electrodes with a small radius of curvature. The electric field increased in the intersection of counter-propagating jets, with the effect that the threshold of lasing in the C 3 Π u - B 3 Π g (λ = 337.1 nm) molecular nitrogen band was attained for low average electric fields (below 60 V cm -1 Torr -1 ) and at pressures of 760 Torr and above. With lowering the pressure from 760 to 20 Torr, the voltage of gap breakdown in the nonuniform electric field was observed to increase for a voltage pulse rise time of ∼300 ps and to decrease for a pulse rise time of ∼2 ns.

  13. A comparative presentation of implementation of ISO 22000 versus HACCP and FMEA in a small size Greek factory producing smoked trout: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Palaiokostas, Christos; Panagiotaki, Panagiota

    2009-02-01

    ISO 22000 is the new standard bound to replace HACCP on issues related to food safety. Although several companies, especially the big ones, have either implemented or are on the point of implementing ISO 22000, there are many others which are rather timid and/or reluctant to implement it. The main reason behind that is the lack of information and the fear that the new standard is too demanding in terms of bureaucratic work. This paper aims at making a comparative presentation of how the two systems can be applied to a small smoked salmon producing company thereby facilitating the emergence of the differences. The main difference is that in ISO 22000 systems like Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Hygiene Practice are prerequisites thus leading to lower number of CCPs. In this case study for example, the number of CCPs dropped from eight (8) in HACCP to four (4) in ISO 22000. Furthermore, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis was applied to the smoked trout manufacturing process in an attempt to calculate quantitatively the Risk Priority Number (RPN) and to find out whether it can be effectively correlated to ISO 22000 and/or HACCP. RPN was found to be higher than 130 for eight steps, in close agreement with HACCP, thereby indicating that corrective actions will have to be undertaken.

  14. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  15. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of hybrid microparticles/Montmorillonite composite with raspberry-like morphology for Atorvastatin controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Perla; Medina-Torres, Luis; Calderas, Fausto; Bernad-Bernad, María Josefa; Gracia-Mora, Jesús; Mena, Baltasar; Manero, Octavio

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we prepared a novel composite based on hybrid gelatin carriers and montmorillonite clay (MMT) to analyze its viability as controlled drug delivery system. The objective of this research involves the characterization of composites formed by structured lipid-gelatin micro-particles (MP) and MMT clay. This analysis included the evaluation of the composite according to its rheological properties, morphology (SEM), particle size, XRD, FT-IR, and in vitro drug release. The effect of pH in the properties of the composite is evaluated. A novel raspberry-like or armor MP/MMT clay composite is reported, in which the pH has an important effect on the final structure of the composite for ad-hoc drug delivery systems. For pH values below the isoelectric point, we obtained defined morphologies with entrapment efficiencies up to 67%. The pH level controls the MP/MMT composite release mechanism, restringing drug release in the stomach-like environment. Intended for oral administration, these results evidence that the MP/MMT composite represents an attractive alternative for intestinal-colonic controlled drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifikasi Jumlah dan Tingkat Aktivitas Orang Berbasis Pengolahan Citra Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Krisrenanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioner (AC merupakan suatu perangkat yang paling banyak digunakan sebagai pendingin ruangan. Walaupun AC saat ini sudah menggunakan teknologi hemat energi, namun apabila tidak digunakan dengan baik maka penggunaan AC hanya menjadi suatu pemborosan listrik saja. Untuk mengurangi pemborosan listrik pada AC, maka pengaturan suhu harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi ruangan. Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kondisi ruangan antara lain adalah jumlah orang serta tingkat aktivitas dalam ruangan. Sebagai upaya penghematan konsumsi listrik pada AC, maka dalam penelitian ini dilakukan rancang bangun suatu sistem identifikasi jumlah orang dan tingkat aktivitas. Pada sistem ini digunakan kamera USB sebagai perangkat pengambil citra. Pada pengolahan citra menggunakan metode Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG sebagai penghitung jumlah orang, sedangkan metode background subtraction digunakan sebagai penghitung tingkat aktivitas. Sistem ini diimplementasikan ke dalam Raspberry Pi 3 sebagai mikrokontroler. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem dapat mendeteksi orang dari jarak 3 m sampai 9 m dan membedakan 2 orang dengan jarak antara 30 cm sampai 150 cm. Sistem juga dapat membedakan tingkat aktivitas sedikit, sedang dan tinggi.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raspberries (Rubus idaeus treated with different doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raspberries exposed to different radiation doses. The fruits were harvested in the city of Campestre, MG, packed in polyethylene bags, and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, where they were separated into 4 lots. Irradiation was performed at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology in Belo Horizonte, MG. The doses used were 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, the fruits were transported back to UFLA and stored at 1 ºC and 95% relative humidity (RH for 12 days. The physicochemical analyses for mass loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble sugars, total soluble pectin, firmness, vitamin C content, total antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, and the microbiological assays (coliform at 35 and 45 ºC, psychrotrophic and filamentous fungi and yeasts were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage. Lower loss of mass and filamentous fungi and yeast count were observed in the irradiated fruits, and 2 kGy was determined as the most effective dose for microbial control, but this irradiation dose also resulted in increased loss of fruit firmness.

  19. A low-cost touchscreen operant chamber using a Raspberry Pi™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-03-08

    The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze. These include improved translation of preclinical models, as well as high throughput and the automation of animal testing. However, these systems are relatively expensive, which can impede progress for researchers with limited resources. Here we describe a low-cost touchscreen operant chamber based on the single-board computer, Raspberry Pi TM , which is capable of performing tasks similar to those supported by current state-of-the-art systems. This system provides an affordable alternative for cognitive testing in a touchscreen operant paradigm for researchers with limited funding.

  20. Dual-fluorophore Raspberry-like Nanohybrids for Ratiometric pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Isaac; Roh, Jinkyu; Ahn, Dong June

    2017-07-18

    We report on the development of raspberry-like silica structures formed by the adsorption of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (HPTS)@silica nanoparticles (NPs) on rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBTIC)@silica NPs for ratiometric fluorescence-based pH sensing. To overcome the well-known problem of dye leaching which occurs during encapsulation of anionic HPTS dye in silica NPs, we utilized a polyelectrolyte-assisted incorporation of the anionic HPTS. The morphological and optical characterization of the as-synthesized dye-doped NPs and the resulting nanohybrids were carried out. The pH-sensitive dye, HPTS, incorporated in the HPTS-doped silica NPs provided a pH-dependent fluorescence response while the RBITC-doped silica provided the reference signal for ratiometric sensing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the nanohybrids for pH sensing; the ratio of the fluorescence emission intensity at 510 nm and 583 nm at excitation wavelengths of 454 nm and 555 nm, respectively. The results showed a dynamic response in the acidic pH range. With this approach, nanohybrids containing different dyes or receptors could be developed for multifunctioning and multiplexing applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. STUDY OF RASPBERRY EXTRACT APPLICATIONS AS TEXTILE COLORANT ON NATURAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Diana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  3. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Erica the Rhino: A Case Study in Using Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers for Interactive Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Basford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erica the Rhino is an interactive art exhibit created by the University of Southampton, UK. Erica was created as part of a city wide art trail in 2013 called “Go! Rhinos”, curated by Marwell Wildlife, to raise awareness of Rhino conservation. Erica arrived as a white fibreglass shell which was then painted and equipped with five Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers (SBC. These computers allowed the audience to interact with Erica through a range of sensors and actuators. In particular, the audience could feed and stroke her to prompt reactions, as well as send her Tweets to change her behaviour. Pi SBCs were chosen because of their ready availability and their educational pedigree. During the deployment, ‘coding clubs’ were run in the shopping centre where Erica was located, and these allowed children to experiment with and program the same components used in Erica. The experience gained through numerous deployments around the country has enabled Erica to be upgraded to increase reliability and ease of maintenance, whilst the release of the Pi 2 has allowed her responsiveness to be improved.

  5. Application of image processing to calculate the number of fish seeds using raspberry-pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadiansah, A.; Kusumawardhani, A.; Duanto, F. N.; Qoonita, F.

    2018-03-01

    Many fish cultivator in Indonesia who suffered losses due to the sale and purchase of fish seeds did not match the agreed amount. The loss is due to the calculation of fish seed still using manual method. To overcome these problems, then in this study designed fish counting system automatically and real-time fish using the image processing based on Raspberry Pi. Used image processing because it can calculate moving objects and eliminate noise. Image processing method used to calculate moving object is virtual loop detector or virtual detector method and the approach used is “double difference image”. The “double difference” approach uses information from the previous frame and the next frame to estimate the shape and position of the object. Using these methods and approaches, the results obtained were quite good with an average error of 1.0% for 300 individuals in a test with a virtual detector width of 96 pixels and a slope of 1 degree test plane.

  6. RANCANG BANGUN DATABASE DUA ARAH DENGAN KENDALI RASPBERRY PI PADA INTEGRASI SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS PENYAKIT MENULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Prasetyo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puskesmas sebagai unit kesehatan tingkat pertama memiliki tugas pokok yaitu pengobatan, perawatan kesehatan, kesehatan lingkungan, membina kesehatan ibu dan anak, pencegahan penyakit menular, pencatatan dan pelaporan. Dari keseluruhan tugas tampaknya tidak seluruhnya digarap oleh puskesmas terutama pencatatan dan pelaporan untuk pencegahan penyakit menular serta pola penyebarannya. untuk mengawasi dan mengendalikan perencananan program kesehatan termasuk penekanan penyebaran penyakit menular, puskesmas belum memiliki alat bantu yang terintegrasi satu atap secara real time dengan dinas kesehatan, untuk itu dibutuhkan sistem informasi geografis (SIG untuk memvisualisasikan data penyakit menular, hal ini juga perlu ditunjang perangkat yang optimal dengan biaya yang murah dengan menggunakan raspberry pi sebagai kendali otomasi server data dalam replikasi. Proses memanfaatkan replikasi database dua arah menggunakan dua server dengan server satu sebagai master sedangkan server lainnya berfungsi sebagai slave. Hasil pengujian replikasi pada transaction rate untuk meminimalkan antrian data node 1 pada nilai 1,99/detik setiap transaksi data, node 2 nilai 2,02/detik, sedangkan balancer dengan nilai 1,91/detik, sedangkan response time atau kecepatan replikasi database dalam menangkap dan mengirimkan data sangat efektif, pada node 1 0,33/s untuk kecepatan proses, node 2 dengan waktu 0,01/s, dan balancer 0,13/s. Kata kunci: puskesmas, replikasi database dua arah, penyakit menular, dinas kesehatan, sistem informasi geografis (SIG.

  7. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Creación de un clúster/cloud a partir de Raspberry Pi 2 para un sistema distribuido

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Villahermosa, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo dentro del marco tecnológico de las Smart City. Los objetivos principales del proyecto son plantear una estructura teórica de sistema distribuido mediante placas Raspberry Pi 2 para una Smart City, y la realización experimental de pruebas sobre las placas mencionadas para soportar distintas funcionalidades necesarias para un sistema distribuido. En la memoria del proyecto se realiza un estudio teórico del hardware necesario para implementar un sistema distrib...

  9. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  10. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  11. Proposed method of producing large optical mirrors Single-point diamond crushing followed by polishing with a small-area tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G.; Bryan, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Faster production of large optical mirrors may result from combining single-point diamond crushing of the glass with polishing using a small area tool to smooth the surface and remove the damaged layer. Diamond crushing allows a surface contour accurate to 0.5 microns to be generated, and the small area computer-controlled polishing tool allows the surface roughness to be removed without destroying the initial contour. Final contours with an accuracy of 0.04 microns have been achieved.

  12. Crystal Structure of Serine Racemase that Produces Neurotransmitter font-variant:small-caps">d-Serine for Stimulation of the NMDA Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masaru

    font-variant:small-caps">d-Serine is an endogenous coagonist for the N-methyl-font-variant:small-caps">d-aspartate receptor and is involved in excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Mammalian pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-dependent serine racemase, which is localized in the mammalian brain, catalyzes the racemization of font-variant:small-caps">l-serine to yield font-variant:small-caps">d-serine and vice versa. We have determined the structures of three forms of the mammalian enzyme homolog from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Lys57 and Ser82 located on the protein and solvent sides, respectively, with respect to the cofactor plane, are acid-base catalysts that shuttle protons to the substrate. The modified enzyme, which has a unique lysino-font-variant:small-caps">d-alanyl residue at the active site, also binds the substrate serine in the active site, suggesting that the lysino-font-variant:small-caps">d-alanyl residue acts as a catalytic base in the same manner as Lys57 of the wild type enzyme.

  13. Preferences for berries among consumers in southern Chile: blueberries are produced but are they consumed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-09-01

    Blueberry plantations in Chile are oriented exclusively towards exports to northern hemisphere countries; however, this fruit has recently been introduced into the domestic market due to the increased supply and a fall in export market prices. Based on the previously mentioned, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate consumer preferences for 3 species of berries (blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries), sold loose (unpackaged) as opposed to packaged and branded, at different prices, in one of the principal blueberry producing areas of Chile; and to distinguish consumer segments by their preferences. To do this a survey was applied to 400 people in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, who were responsible for purchasing fruit for their households. Conjoint analysis showed a preference for raspberries and strawberries over blueberries, packaged and branded, at the lowest price. Total of 2 principal segments were distinguished by cluster analysis: "price sensitive" (42.7%), who preferred strawberries, and "sensitive to species of berry" (47.5%), who preferred raspberries and strawberries. The segments presented different profiles in their demographic make-up and fruit consumption behavior. Strategies are discussed that might reverse the low acceptance of blueberries in the Chilean domestic market. This study presents information on the introduction of new fresh foods into the market. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  15. Raspberry Pi Kullanılarak bir Akıllı Ev Uygulaması Geliştirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    YÜZGEÇ, Uğur; ABA, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Raspberry Pi mikrodenetleyici tabanlı bir akıllı ev uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmakapsamında 64 Bit BCM2837 Chip, 1.2 GHz ARM Cortex A53 dört çekirdekli işlemci özelliklerine sahip RaspberryPi 3 mikrodenetleyici ile ultrasonik, hareket algılayıcı, sıcaklık/nem, titreşim modülü, servo motoru, buzzer (sesmodülü), kamera, ateş algılayıcı, DC motor, LDR, RGB led, tuş takımı, su tespit, RFID kit sensörleri kullanılmıştır.Uygulama kısmında çeşitli senaryo durumları için yapıl...

  16. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol–gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH 4 OH, TEOS, Fe 3 O 4 , and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs

  17. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  18. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive authentication of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone from raspberries, using constant flow MDGC-C/P-IRMS and enantio-MDGC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewenig, Sabine; Bullinger, Dino; Hener, Uwe; Mosandl, Armin

    2005-02-23

    A new coupling system of GC-GC, connected via a Multi Column Switching Device MCS2 for measuring isotope ratios, is introduced. By means of several standard substances the precise and accurate measurement of isotopic values is proved. First applications concerning the authentication of raspberry aroma compounds are established. Consequently, the combination of constant flow multidimensional gas chromatography-combustion/pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MDGC-C/P-IRMS) is applied to the authenticity assessment of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone from six different raspberry cultivars. Furthermore, 12 commercially available raspberry products and samples of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone, some declared to be natural, are investigated. delta(2)Eta(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone are determined, and characteristic authenticity ranges were concluded from raspberries by correlation of both delta(2)Eta(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C( V)(-)(PDB) values. The results are correlated with the determination of enantiomeric purities of (E)-alpha-ionone, using stir bar sorptive extraction enantio-multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SBSE-enantio-MDGC-MS).

  20. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  1. Effect of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli on the survival of Escherichia coli and Listeria in a dynamic model of the stomach and the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gänzle, M.G.; Hertel, C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Hammes, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 (bac+) and (bac-) in combination with Escherichia coli LTH 1600 or Listeria innocua DSM20649 during transit through a dynamic model of the human stomach and small intestine (GIT model) was studied. Furthermore, we determined the digestion of curvacin A

  2. Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for Al-Al4C3 System Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Besterci, M.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, B.; Sülleiová, K.; Kvačkaj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2011), s. 205-210 ISSN 0334-6455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA AV ČR IAA200410801 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 2/0025/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Equal channel angular pressing * small-punch creep * fracture * metal-matrix composites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2011

  3. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  5. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  6. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wilkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  7. Alternative Food Networks and Social Media in Marketing : A multiple case study exploring how Alternative Food Networks use social media in order to help small local food producers reach the market

    OpenAIRE

    Puranen, Niklas; Jansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The food provision system of today has been argued to be unsustainable with large scale production, price-pressure and outbreaks of diseases. Many consumers in the EU and Sweden are reacting to these issues and are becoming increasingly interested in finding local food alternatives that they consider to be safer and of higher quality. However, the small local food producers due to scarce budgets and marketing skills have problems in reaching this target market. Partly due to this, there has b...

  8. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  9. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  10. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Biomarkers during Experimental Oral Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Black Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Oghumu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide. Recently conducted clinical trials demonstrate the ability of black raspberries (BRBs to modulate biomarkers of molecular efficacy that supports a chemopreventive strategy against oral cancer. However, it is essential that a preclinical animal model of black raspberry (BRB chemoprevention which recapitulates human oral carcinogenesis be developed, so that we can validate biomarkers and evaluate potential mechanisms of action. We therefore established the ability of BRBs to inhibit oral lesion formation in a carcinogen-induced rat oral cancer model and examined potential mechanisms. F344 rats were administered 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO (20 µg/ml in drinking water for 14 weeks followed by regular drinking water for 6 weeks. At week 14, rats were fed a diet containing either 5 or 10% BRB, or 0.4% ellagic acid (EA, a BRB phytochemical. Dietary administration of 5 and 10% BRB reduced oral lesion incidence and multiplicity by 39.3 and 28.6%, respectively. Histopathological analyses demonstrate the ability of BRBs and, to a lesser extent EA, to inhibit the progression of oral cancer. Oral lesion inhibition by BRBs was associated with a reduction in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers Cxcl1, Mif, and Nfe2l2 as well as the anti-apoptotic and cell cycle associated markers Birc5, Aurka, Ccna1, and Ccna2. Cellular proliferation (Ki-67 staining in tongue lesions was inhibited by BRBs and EA. Our study demonstrates that, in the rat 4NQO oral cancer model, dietary administration of BRBs inhibits oral carcinogenesis via inhibition of pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

  11. Small and medium sized wine producers dealing with business to business e-commerce: Towards a relational model for enhancing value (co- creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has produced a forward-looking shift in the way we communicate, think and run economic activities around the globe. The revolution in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has generated an innovating process in the agri-food sector that is far from being unwind. The wine industry is a case in point. Indeed, the industry has attempted to address the multifaceted challenges posed by electronic commerce since always. Business to business electronic commerce has been slower to develop than its counterpart, i.e. business to consumer E-commerce. However business to business e-commerce is starting to attract an increased interest, by showing a significant business value in terms of potential. Against this background, the slow development of B2B e-commerce has been linked to regulatory and economic reasons. In order to deal with such stumbling blocks, the paper suggests a shift towards an open platform that is aimed at facilitating transactions and interactions among businesses through a continuous problem-solving process in which trust and value is co-created by producers and customers through relational contracting.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author)

  14. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author).

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Adapts to Oxidative Stress by Producing H2O2-Resistant Small-Colony Variants via the SOS Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kimberley L.; Strange, Elizabeth; Bamford, Kathleen B.; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The development of chronic and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is associated with the emergence of slow-growing mutants known as small-colony variants (SCVs), which are highly tolerant of antibiotics and can survive inside host cells. However, the host and bacterial factors which underpin SCV emergence during infection are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of S. aureus to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 leads to a specific, dose-dependent increase in the population frequency of gentamicin-resistant SCVs. Time course analyses revealed that H2O2 exposure caused bacteriostasis in wild-type cells during which time SCVs appeared spontaneously within the S. aureus population. This occurred via a mutagenic DNA repair pathway that included DNA double-strand break repair proteins RexAB, recombinase A, and polymerase V. In addition to triggering SCV emergence by increasing the mutation rate, H2O2 also selected for the SCV phenotype, leading to increased phenotypic stability and further enhancing the size of the SCV subpopulation by reducing the rate of SCV reversion to the wild type. Subsequent analyses revealed that SCVs were significantly more resistant to the toxic effects of H2O2 than wild-type bacteria. With the exception of heme auxotrophs, gentamicin-resistant SCVs displayed greater catalase activity than wild-type bacteria, which contributed to their resistance to H2O2. Taken together, these data reveal a mechanism by which S. aureus adapts to oxidative stress via the production of a subpopulation of H2O2-resistant SCVs with enhanced catalase production. PMID:25690100

  16. Characterization of clinically isolated thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Kasuga, Eriko; Natori, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Mina; Ogiwara, Naoko; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Nagano, Noriyuki; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are difficult to detect or test for antimicrobial susceptibility. We investigated the characteristics of clonal TD-SCVs of Escherichia coli, both with and without blaCTX-M-3, isolated from a patient. Mutation in the thyA gene was analysed by sequencing, and morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of the isolates were examined. Additionally, conjugational transfer experiments were performed to prove the horizontal transferability of plasmids harbouring resistance genes. The TD-SCVs contained a single nucleotide substitution in the thyA gene, c.62G>A, corresponding to p.Arg21His. Morphologically, their colonies were more translucent and flattened than those of the wild-type strain. In addition, cells of the TD-SCVs were swollen and elongated, sometimes with abnormal and incomplete divisions; a large amount of cell debris was also observed. Changing c.62G>A back to the wild-type sequence reversed these abnormalities. Conjugational transfer experiments showed that the TD-SCV of E. coli with blaCTX-M-3 failed to transfer blaCTX-M-3 to E. coli CSH2. However, the TD-SCV of E. coli without blaCTX-M-3 experimentally received the plasmid encoding blaSHV-18 from Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and transferred it to E. coli CSH2. Mutation in the thyA gene causes morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of E. coli, as well as inducing thymidine auxotrophy. In addition, TD-SCVs horizontally transmit plasmids encoding resistance genes. It is important to detect TD-SCVs based on their characteristics because they serve as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.

    1988-01-01

    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  18. K19 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii is produced via a Wzy polymerase encoded in a small genomic island rather than the KL19 capsule gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Siniagina, Maria N; Malanin, Sergey Y; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-08-01

    Polymerization of the oligosaccharides (K units) of complex capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) requires a Wzy polymerase, which is usually encoded in the gene cluster that directs K unit synthesis. Here, a gene cluster at the Acinetobacter K locus (KL) that lacks a wzy gene, KL19, was found in Acinetobacter baumannii ST111 isolates 28 and RBH2 recovered from hospitals in the Russian Federation and Australia, respectively. However, these isolates produced long-chain capsule, and a wzy gene was found in a 6.1 kb genomic island (GI) located adjacent to the cpn60 gene. The GI also includes an acetyltransferase gene, atr25, which is interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) in RBH2. The capsule structure from both strains was →3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→4)-α-d-GalpNAcA-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→, determined using NMR spectroscopy. Biosynthesis of the K unit was inferred to be initiated with QuiNAc4NAc, and hence the Wzy forms the β-(1→3) linkage between QuipNAc4NAc and GalpNAc. The GalpNAc residue is 6-O-acetylated in isolate 28 only, showing that atr25 is responsible for this acetylation. The same GI with or without an IS in atr25 was found in draft genomes of other KL19 isolates, as well as ones carrying a closely related CPS gene cluster, KL39, which differs from KL19 only in a gene for an acyltransferase in the QuiNAc4NR synthesis pathway. Isolates carrying a KL1 variant with the wzy and atr genes each interrupted by an ISAba125 also have this GI. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis normally found at the KL located elsewhere in A. baumannii genomes.

  19. Small millets, big potential

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  20. EurepGAP certification for small producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of agriculture practitioners worldwide are smallholders. Compliance with market related standards, such as set by EurepGAP, is crucial for obtaining and maintaining international market access, particularly to the European Union. Private standards must allow for innovative and cost

  1. Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The book also highlights issues concerning the assessment of impact, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of such services. ... experience as a development economist, including several long-term assignments in eastern and southern Africa.

  2. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Observers fear that new patterns of supply and marketing are biased in ... these concerns in the following countries: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, ... prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive ...

  3. Building Businesses with Small Producers : Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche analysée dans cet ouvrage apporte une contribution ... de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux projets de recherche conjoints. ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  4. Relationship Between Level Of Education Of Farmers And Use Of Information And Communication Technologies In Marketing Of Farm Produce By Small Scale Farmers In Manga Sub-County Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morwani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited access to accurate and timely market information continues to be a major impediment in the marketing of farm produce by farmers in Africa and in Kenya especially in Manga Sub-County Nyamira County. This limited access to market information has led to high cost of transaction and emergence of middlemen. Information and Communication Technologies ICTs have the potential to assist in addressing this problem by creating awareness linking and distributing information on marketing. It is evident that farmers in Kenya have focused their attention in acquisition of ICT resources because of widespread coverage of mobile telephony low call rates affordable data bundles increasing internet connectivity and other forms of ICT applications for example the M-pesa services with little application in marketing. This study aimed to determine the relationship between level of education of farmers and use of ICTs in marketing of farm produce by small scale farmers in Manga Sub-County in Nyamira County Kenya. Descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The target population of the study was 11040 commercial farmers in Manga Sub-County from which a sample size of 109 small scale farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. A questionnaire administered to farmers in the Sub-County was used to collect data. Validity of the instrument was enhanced by subjecting the instrument to examination by three experts in the Department of Agricultural Education and Extension of Egerton University. Analysis of piloting results using Cronbachs coefficient alpha method yielded a reliability index of 0.896 indicating the instrument was reliable. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were the frequency and percentages. Pearsons correlation coefficient analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used in data analysis. The

  5. Systematic approach to the treatment of crude oil produced by small concessionaires in marginal areas of the Reconcavo Basin; Abordagem sistematizada para o tratamento do oleo produzido em campos marginais da Bacia do Reconcavo por pequenos concessionarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Edson Jorge Alves [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Araujo, Marcia Queiroz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    The establishment of the 'Petroleum Law' (Law No. 9.478/97) abolished the Exploration and Production State Monopoly in Brazil. Attaining concessions through the bidding rounds promoted by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) became the only legal means for exploring and/or producing oil and natural gas in Brazil. In order to attract small and medium companies to this niche, inactive areas with marginal accumulations were offered by the Agency. These areas were returned to ANP by PETROBRAS. Currently, six small companies operate in the Reconcavo Oil Province, extracting and processing different types of oil. The available infrastructure is mostly deteriorated and obsolete. Additionally, there are serious limitations in the separation and storage capacity. This scenario resulted in the fragmentation of the old PETROBRAS production infrastructure. A possible solution to this problem could involve the establishment of a collective treatment unit which would work as a condominium. However, the operation of this plant must take into account the diversity of oils being produced in the Reconcavo Basin (physical-chemicals characteristics). This paper is aimed at (1) establishing a preliminary characterization of the different types of oil which will be delivered by local producers; (2) the critical variables for the oil model (it includes all oils received from different areas of the Reconcavo); (3) the identification of the main stake holders within this process; and (4) suggestions for operating models for the treatment unit taking into account the potential innovations and opportunities for R and D and spin-offs. (author)

  6. Bottom-up meets top-down: tailored raspberry-like Fe3O4-Pt nanocrystal superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fen; Vervuurt, René H J; Verheijen, Marcel A; Zaia, Edmond W; Creel, Erin B; Kim, Youngsang; Urban, Jeffrey J; Bol, Ageeth A

    2018-03-29

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition, chemical structure, and interface of the nanoparticle catalyst and oxide support. Here we firstly combine a bottom up colloidal synthesis method with a top down atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to achieve a raspberry-like Pt-decorated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4-Pt) nanoparticle superlattices. This nanocomposite ensures the precision of the catalyst/support interface, improving the catalytic efficiency of the Fe3O4-Pt nanocomposite system. The morphology of the hybrid nanocomposites resulting from different cycles of ALD was monitored by scanning transmission electron microscopy, giving insight into the nucleation and growth mechanism of the ALD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the anticipated electron transfer from Fe3O4 to Pt through the nanocomposite interface. Photocurrent measurement further suggests that Fe3O4 superlattices with controlled decoration of Pt have substantial promise for energy-efficient photoelectrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. This work opens a new avenue for designing supported catalyst architectures via precisely controlled decoration of single component superlattices with noble metals.

  7. Development of intelligent surveillance system (ISS) in region of interest (ROI) using Kalman filter and camshift on Raspberry Pi 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghun; Hong, Kicheon

    2017-06-01

    Due to the improvement of the picture quality of closed-circuit television (CCTV), the demand for CCTV has increased rapidly and its market size has also increased. The current system structure of CCTV transfers compressed images without analysis received from CCTV to a control center. The compressed images are suitable for the evidence required for a criminal arrest, but they cannot prevent crime in real time, which has been considered a limitation. Thus, the present paper proposes a system implementation that can prevent crimes by applying a situation awareness system at the back end of the CCTV cameras for image acquisition to prevent crimes efficiently. In the system implemented in the present paper, the region of interest (ROI) is set virtually within the image data when a barrier, such as fence, cannot be installed in actual sites and unauthorized intruders are tracked constantly through data analysis and recognized in the ROI via the developed algorithm. Additionally, a searchlight or alarm sound is activated to prevent crime in real time and the urgent information is transferred to the control center. The system was implemented in the Raspberry Pi 2 board to be run in real time. The experiment results showed that the recognition success rate was 85% or higher and the track accuracy was 90% or higher. By utilizing the system, crime prevention can be achieved by implementing a social safety network.

  8. Improving Smart Home Concept with the Internet of Things Concept Using RaspberryPi and NodeMCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Yasirli; Andri Setiawan, Mukhammad

    2018-03-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) is getting more tractions in recent years. One of the usage scenario of IoT is smart home. Smart home basically provides home automation for installed devices at home such as thermostat, lighting, air conditioning, etc and allows devices connected to the Internet to be monitored and controlled remotely by user. However many studies on smart home concept focusing only on few main features. They still lack of important usage of IoT i.e. providing energy efficiency, energy monitoring, dealing with security, and managing privacy. This paper proposes a smart home system with RaspberryPi and NodeMCU as the backend that not only serves as home automation and merely a switch replacement, but to also record and report important things to the owner of the house e.g. when someone trespasses the house (security perimeter), or to report the calculation of how much money has been spent in consuming the electrical appliances. We successfully examine our proposed system in a real life working scenario. The communication between user and the system is done using Telegram Bot.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  10. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by black raspberry anthocyanins involved the modulation of gut microbiota and SFRP2 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Jiang, Bowen; Zhong, Chunge; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lihao; Mu, Teng; Zhang, Qiuhua; Bi, Xiuli

    2018-03-08

    Freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated C57BL/6J mice with a diet containing BRB anthocyanins for 12 weeks, and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared with AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibrio sp. and Enterococcus spp., was increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota. BRB anthocyanins also caused the demethylation of the SFRP2 gene promoter, resulting in increased expression of SFRP2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression levels of DNMT31 and DNMT3B, as well as of p-STAT3 were downregulated by BRB anthocyanins in these animals. Taken together, these results suggested that BRB anthocyanins could modulate the composition of gut commensal microbiota, and changes in inflammation and the methylation status of the SFRP2 gene may play a central role in the chemoprevention of CRC.

  11. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  12. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-03-15

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  13. Using a Raspberry Pi as a Versatile and Inexpensive Display Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Iglesias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the process by which a library took some unused equipment and added a cheap computing device to produce very inexpensive but effective electronic signage. Hardware and software issues as well as a step-by-step guide through the process are included.

  14. Experimental study of mini SCADA renewable energy management system on microgrid using Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridianto, E.; Permatasari, P. D.; Ali, I. R.

    2018-03-01

    Renewable Energy Management System (REMS) is a device that can be able to monitor power through a microgrid. The purpose of this system is to optimize power usage that produced from renewable energy with the result that reduces power demand from the grid. To reach the goal this device manage the load power needs fully supplied by renewable energy when the power produced from renewable energy is higher than load demand, besides power surplus will be stored in battery in this way energy stored in battery can be used when it needed. When the power produced from renewable energy can not satisfy the power demand, power will supply by renewable energy and grid. This device uses power meters for record any power flow through microgrid. In order to manage power flow in microgrid this system use relay module. The user can find out energy consumption (consumed by the load) and production (produced by renewable energy) in a period of time so that the user can switch on the load in right time.

  15. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  16. Rhododenol and raspberry ketone impair the normal proliferation of melanocytes through reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of GADD45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Baek, Heung Soo; Lee, Miri; Park, Hyeonji; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Dal Woong; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-04-01

    Rhododenol or rhododendrol (RD, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol) occurs naturally in many plants along with raspberry ketone (RK, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone), a ketone derivative, which include Nikko maple tree (Acer nikoense) and white birch (Betula platyphylla). De-pigmenting activity of RD was discovered and it was used as a brightening ingredient for the skin whitening cosmetics. Recently, cosmetics containing RD were withdrawn from the market because a number of consumers developed leukoderma, inflammation and erythema on their face, neck and hands. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying the toxicity of RD and RK against melanocytes using B16F10 murine melanoma cells and human primary epidermal melanocytes. Treatment with RD or RK resulted in the decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner which appeared from cell growth arrest. Consistently, ROS generation was significantly increased by RD or RK as determined by DCF-enhanced fluorescence. An antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase was depleted as well. In line with ROS generation, oxidative damages and the arrest of normal cell proliferation, GADD genes (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage) that include GADD45 and GADD153, were significantly up-regulated. Prevention of ROS generation with an anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly rescued RD and RK-suppressed melanocyte proliferation. Consistently, up-regulation of GADD45 and GADD153 was significantly attenuated by NAC, suggesting that increased ROS and the resultant growth arrest of melanocytes may contribute to RD and RK-induced leukoderma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of Proinflammatory and Prosurvival Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Patients Consuming a Black Raspberry Phytochemical-Rich Troche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Thomas J; Uhrig, Lana K; Pearl, Dennis K; Casto, Bruce C; Warner, Blake M; Clinton, Steven K; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L; Ferguson, Jeanette M; Daly, Brett T; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Black raspberries (BRB) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce proinflammatory and antiapoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and noninvolved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of prosurvival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and proinflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated grade 3-4 toxicities or adverse events, and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark antiapoptotic and proinflammatory molecular biomarkers were overexpressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. As these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. ©2015 American Association for Cancer

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Regulation of Primocane Apex Rooting in Raspberry (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Ming, Yuetong; Cheng, Yunqing; Zhang, Yuchu; Xing, Jiyang; Sun, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Raspberries ( Rubus spp.) exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1) vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1), SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward) gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm-plant (ko04712) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus . These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop.

  19. Black Raspberries Enhance Natural Killer Cell Infiltration into the Colon and Suppress the Progression of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Kang, Siwen; Wang, Youwei; Liu, Ka; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Jianying; Yearsley, Martha; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Li-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity against cancer development. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate immune-modulating effects using dietary compounds. Our laboratory has been investigating the chemopreventive potential of black raspberries (BRBs) and previously demonstrated their beneficial modulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study investigated their potential on modulating NK cells. To avoid the excessive inflammation caused by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment that leads to colitis, we treated the mice with overnight DSS so that it would slightly irritate the colon but still promote colon carcinogenesis with 100% incidence in both the ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice. A significant decrease of tissue-infiltrating NK cells along the progression of microadenoma-to-adenoma and adenoma-to-adenocarcinoma was observed in the ApcMin/+/DSS and AOM/DSS mice, respectively. Depletion of NK cells significantly promoted the development of CRC, suggesting a critical role of NK cells in combating CRC progression. BRBs significantly suppressed the CRC progression and increased the number of tissue-infiltrating NK cells in both mouse models. Moreover, we further determined BRBs’ effects on NK cells in the human biopsy specimens collected from our previously completed clinical trial, in which CRC patients consumed BRBs for an average of 4 weeks during a presurgical window. We observed an increased number and an enhanced cytotoxicity of NK cells by BRB intervention. The current study provides evidence that BRBs have the potential to enhance the tumor immunesurveillance of NK cells that can be beneficial in the setting of CRC prevention and treatment. PMID:28861089

  20. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  1. Fabrication of TiO2@Yeast-Carbon Hybrid Composites with the Raspberry-Like Structure and Their Synergistic Adsorption-Photocatalysis Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report the preparation and photocatalytic properties of TiO2@yeast-carbon with raspberry-like structure using a pyrolysis method. The products are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, respectively. The results show that the hybrid TiO2@yeast-carbon microspheres have ordered elliptic shapes of uniform size (length = 3.5±0.3 μm; width = 2.5±0.5 μm. UV-VIS ascertains that the as-prepared microspheres possess an obvious light response in a wide range of 250–400 nm. In the decomposition of typical model pollutants including methylene blue and congo red, the hybrid composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the methylene blue due to the enhanced adsorption ability. Further investigation reveals that the combined effect of adsorption from the yeast-carbon core and photocatalytic degradation from the attached TiO2 nanoparticles were responsible for the improvement of the photocatalytic activities. Hereby, the raspberry-like TiO2@yeast-carbon has promising applications in water purification.

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  3. Measurement of the energy spectra relative to neutrons produced at very small angle in $\\mathrm{\\sqrt{s} = 13 ~ TeV}$ proton-proton collisions using the LHCf Arm2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00533910

    In the last years, several ground-based experiments have measured flux and composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays - i.e. cosmic rays having energies above $10^{18} ~ eV$ - up to the GZK cutoff region. Nevertheless, these analyses suffer of large uncertainties due to the fact that they must rely on hadronic interaction models, that exhibit very different behavior in the forward region due to the lack of high energy calibration data. To provide measurements that can be useful to tune these models is exactly the main aim of the LHC-forward (LHCf) experiment. Thanks to two small sampling calorimeter, Arm1 and Arm2, installed at $\\pm 140 ~ m$ from LHC IP1, LHCf can detect neutral particles produced in the very forward region ($\\eta > 8.4$) by proton-proton and proton-ion high energy collisions (proton-proton interaction at $\\sqrt{s} = 14 ~ TeV$ is equivalent to the collision of a $10^{17} ~ eV$ proton with a proton at rest, hence it is possible to perform measurements at an energy close to the typical one of...

  4. Resistencia transgénica para el control del virus motoso del enanismo de la frambuesa (raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv Transgenic resistance for the control of raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel J.

    1998-06-01

    , los cuales dieron diferentes grados de protección. La construcción pJAD-10 (secuencia de la cápside de la cepa de RBDV R-15 generó el más alto nivel de protección entre las construcciones analizadas y algunas líneas de Nicotiana benthamiana transformadas con esta construcción mostraron inhibición o retardo en la aparición de síntomas de la infección con RBDV. Por otra parte, el resultado de la infección de líneas transgénicas transformadas con una secuencia no traducible de la cápside o con la anti-secuencia de ésta, sugiere que la resistencia puede ser generada o mediante la expresión de la proteína o por medio de transcriptos de RNAm para esta proteína. Estas construcciones están ahora disponibles para ser introducidas en frambuesa.

    RBDV is transmitted in association with pollen and genetic resistance has been the only effective control measure. However, recently a virus strain (R-15 has appeared which can overcome the viral resistance of most modern raspberry cultivars. A solution to this problem could be the development of transgenic resistance. The main objective of this project was to assess the resistance to RBDV infection that would be conferred by different RBDV gene sequences and to understand the mechanisms of resistance generated by these gene sequences. To assess the RBDV transgenic resistance, seven constructs containing RBDV gene sequences were introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens by triparental mating and the resulting cultures were used to transform leaf pieces from plants of glasshouse grown Nicotiana tabacum or in vitro-cultured N. benthamiana. Plants regenerated from kanamycin-resistant callus were allowed to set seed and seedlings of the F1 generation were tested for resistance to RBDV

  5. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  6. A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Leccese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  7. A smart city application: a fully controlled street lighting isle based on Raspberry-Pi card, a ZigBee sensor network and WiMAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele

    2014-12-18

    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  8. Development and evaluation of a self-cleaning custom-built auto sampler controlled by a low-cost RaspberryPi microcomputer for online enzymatic activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    A fully automated on-site device (SAMP-FIL) that enables water sampling with simultaneous filtration and effective cleaning procedures of the device's components was developed and field-tested. The SAMP-FIL was custom-built using commercially available components and was controlled by a RaspberryPi single-board computer operating open-source software. SAMP-FIL was designed for sample pre-treatment with minimal sample alteration to meet the requirements of on-site measurement devices that cannot handle coarse suspended solids within the measurement procedure or cycle. A highly effective cleaning procedure provides a fresh and minimally altered sample for the connected measurement device. The construction and programmed software facilitates the use of SAMP-FIL for different connected measurement devices. The SAMP-FIL sample pretreatment was tested for over one year for rapid and on-site enzymatic activity (beta-d-glucuronidase, GLUC) determination (BACTcontrol) in sediment-laden stream water. The formerly used proprietary sampling set-up was assumed to lead to significant damping of the measurement signal due to its susceptibility to clogging, debris accumulation and bio-film accumulation. The implementation of SAMP-FIL considerably increased the error-free running time and measurement accuracy of BACTcontrol devices. This paper describes how low-cost microcomputers, such as the RaspberryPi, can be used by operators to substantially improve established measuring systems via effective sampling devices. Furthermore, the results of this study highlight the importance of adequate sample pretreatment for the quality of on-site measurements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One-pot hydrothermal growth of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} on CuO microsphere as copper-based catalyst for Rochow reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Laishun, E-mail: lshunsh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ji, Yongjun, E-mail: yjji@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhong, Ziyi [School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Su, Fabing, E-mail: fbsu@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ce–CuO composites were prepared via a one-pot and template-free hydrothermal method. • Ce–CuO consisted of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} particles dispersed on porous CuO microspheres. • CuO microspheres were formed by self-assembly of nanorods. • Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic activity for dimethyldichlorosilane synthesis. - Abstract: In this work, we prepared a novel structure comprising of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} deposited on CuO microspheres (Ce–CuO) for Rochow reaction. The synthesis was carried out via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction without using any template, in which, the basic copper carbonate microspheres were first formed via self-assembly of basic copper carbonate nanorods, followed with deposition of cerium hydroxide. After calcination, they were transformed into Ce–CuO but still maintained the hierarchical structure, and meanwhile, mesoporous structure was formed (for simplicity, we will only state them as metal oxide in the following context). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. When used as a Cu-based catalyst, Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic property to the single CuO, CeO{sub 2} and their physically mixture in the Rochow reaction with dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity increased from ca. 65 to 83.7%. The higher M2 selectivity of Ce–CuO is mainly due to its larger surface area and the synergistic effect between CuO and CeO{sub 2}. This work demonstrates that catalytic performance of the Cu-based can be improved by adding Ce rare-earth element and by carefully controlling their structures.

  10. Synthesis of raspberry-like monodisperse magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres by coating polystyrene template with Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Hongyan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for the preparation of raspberry-like monodisperse magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres with γ-Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2) particles as the outer shell. PS@Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene, and then raspberry-like magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres with large cavities were achieved by means of calcinations, simultaneously, the magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) was transformed into maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the obtained magnetic hollow silica nanospheres with the perfect spherical profile were well monodisperse and uniform with the mean size of 253nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) provided the sufficient evidences for the presence of Fe(3)O(4) in the silica shell. Moreover, the magnetic hollow silica nanospheres possessed a characteristic of superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization value of about 7.84emu/g by the magnetization curve measurement. In addition, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement exhibited that the pore size, BET surface area, pore volume of magnetic hollow silica nanospheres were 3.5-5.5nm, 307m(2)g(-1) and 1.33cm(3)g(-1), respectively. Therefore, the magnetic hollow nanospheres possess a promising future in controlled drug delivery and targeted drug applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Raspberry Pi Server essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kula, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The book is an example based, hands-on guide where you will learn how to make a game from scratch, and learn how to develop games on the iOS platform.If you have great ideas for games and want to learn iOS game development, then this book is the right choice for you. Being familiar with iOS development is a plus, but is not mandatory. You will gradually get to grips with the new Sprite Kit framework with the help of this book.

  12. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  13. Role of surface functionality on the formation of raspberry-like polymer/silica composite particles: Weak acid–base interaction and steric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lan; Song, LinYong; Chao, ZhiYin; Chen, PengPeng; Nie, WangYan; Zhou, YiFeng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Core–shell structured polymer/SiO 2 was obtained with carboxylic-functionalized templates. • Raspberry-like structure was observed with carboxylic and poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-functionalized polymer microspheres. • Carboxylic groups contributed to the nucleation and the poly(ethylene glycol) chains was used to control the growth of silica particles. • Super-hydrophobic surface was obtained and the contact angle of water on the dual-sized structured surface was up to 160°. - Abstract: The surface functionality of polymer microspheres is the crucial factor to determine the nucleation and growth of silica particles and to construct the organic/inorganic hierarchical structures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the surface functionality and hierarchical morphology relationship via in situ sol–gel reaction. Carboxylic-functionalized poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) [P(S-co-MA)], poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) [P(S-co-PEGMA)], and hybrid functionalized poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) [P(S-co-MA-co-PEGMA)] microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free polymerization and used as templates. The morphologies of the composite particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that core–shell structure was obtained with P(S-co-MA) as templates; raspberry-like structure was observed by using P(S-co-MA-co-PEGMA) as templates; and no silica particles were attached onto the surface of P(S-co-PEGMA) microspheres. These results indicated that the carboxylic groups on the surface formed by hydrolysis of anhydride groups were the determinate factor to control the nucleation of silica nanoparticles, and the PEG chains on the surface can affect the growth of silica particles. In addition, the particulate films were constructed by assembling these

  14. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale; O desempenho eco-ambiental de tres usinas produtoras de alcool combustivel de pequeno, medio e grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Monitoramento Ambiental e de Recursos Naturais por Satelite

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized.

  15. Small scale hydraulic power. Hydraulics: the wheel spins. Power producers: times are getting better; MWh are negotiating with fishes; Inspection: game of drones; Moulin de Courteron: a true environment-friendly renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Patrick; Bongrain, Timothee

    2017-01-01

    This document addresses the evolution of small-scale hydraulic power in France. It contains 5 articles which concern the small-scale hydro-electric power sector which is gaining confidence, thanks to new regulations (notably about financial incentives and 'call for tender' procedures) and new technologies such as smart drones for site inspection. However, the sector is increasingly faced with environmental issues and oppositions. Presentation of the 'Moulin de Courteron' project, an ancient water mill that has been renovated (installation of 3 x 45 kW turbines) in an exemplary way from the environmental and social points of view (the project has been crowd-funded)

  16. The influence of after-treatments on dyeability of raw and bleached cotton with curcumin, and visibility of anthotype produced motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkič Nuša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing of raw and bleached cotton fabrics with a natural dye of curcumin was studied to implement the ancient and environmentally friendly technique of developing photos called anthotype. With the aim of achieving diff erent colours of dyed cotton fabrics, several modifi cations were performed, such as extraction of curcumin in hard and soft water, after-treatments of dyed cotton, i.e. with ferrous sulphate, zinc chloride and silver nitrate, aftertreatment in alkaline bath, and aftertreatment with other natural dyes (blueberry and raspberry. The colour values of dyed samples were determined using a refl ectance spectrophotometer. Colour stability to light was determined by the standard method in Xenotest. It was found that the use of various metal salts, natural dyes, alkalinity and hardness of water infl uenced the colour changes of the substrate. Yellow, red, greenish and brownish colours of fabrics were produced by diff erent treatments. Since the use of metal ions improved the stability of curcumin to light, the motifs produced by anthotype technique were hardly visible. It was found that the natural dye of blueberries and raspberries did not infl uence the light stability, therefore a larger colour contrast between exposed and unexposed areas of the fabric was visible, and consequently good visibility of the motifs was achieved.

  17. Red-shifted fluorescent proteins mPlum and mRaspberry and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Roger Y [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-07-01

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  18. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (g m ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (T leaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of g m temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of g m with increasing T leaf irrespective of leaf chamber O 2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (g s ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of g m . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of g m and g s were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of g m under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of g m can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rapid Identification of Flavonoid Constituents Directly from PTP1B Inhibitive Extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL(-1) Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3: and 4: , Compounds 6: and 7: and Compounds 15: and 16: were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8: , 9: and 10: were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11: and 12: were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2: , 8: , 9: and 10: possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported inR. idaeus for the first time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Preparation of raspberry-like γ-Fe2O3/crackled nitrogen-doped carbon capsules and their application as supports to improve catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshuai; Yao, Tongjie; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Jie

    2016-11-10

    In this manuscript, we have introduced a novel method to improve the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles via optimizing the support structure. To this end, raspberry-like γ-Fe 2 O 3 /crackled nitrogen-doped carbon (CNC) capsules were prepared by a two-step method. Compared with traditional magnetic capsules, in γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules, the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were embedded in a CNC shell; therefore, they neither occupied the anchoring sites for metal nanoparticles nor came into contact with them, which was beneficial for increasing the metal nanoparticle loading. Numerous tiny cracks appeared on the porous CNC shell, which effectively improved the mass diffusion and transport in catalytic reactions. Additionally, the coordination interaction could be generated between the precursor metal ions and doped-nitrogen atoms in the capsule shell. With the help of these structural merits, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules were ideal supports for Pd nanoparticles, because they were beneficial for improving the Pd loading, reducing the nanoparticle size, increasing their dispersity and maximizing the catalytic performance of Pd nanoparticles anchored on the inner shell surface. As expected, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC@Pd catalysts exhibited a dramatically enhanced catalytic activity towards hydrophilic 4-nitrophenol and hydrophobic nitrobenzene. The reaction rate constant k was compared with recent work and the corresponding reference samples. Moreover, they could be easily recycled by using a magnet and reused without an obvious loss of catalytic activity.

  1. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2 gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  2. Chemical characterization of a red raspberry fruit extract and evaluation of its pharmacological effects in experimental models of acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, M E; Câmara, M B; Direito, R; Rocha, J; Serra, A T; Duarte, C M M; Fernandes, A; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Marques, M C; Bronze, M R; Sepodes, B

    2014-12-01

    Berries are an important dietary source of fibres, vitamins, minerals and some biologically active non-nutrients. A red raspberry fruit extract was characterized in terms of phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects were evaluated in two experimental models of inflammation. The antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst were also studied to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract was administered in a dose of 15 mg kg(-1), i.p. and significantly inhibited paw oedema formation in the rat. The same dose was administered via i.p. and p.o. routes in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat. The extract showed pharmacological activity and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and markedly reduce the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, preventing articular destruction in treated animals.

  3. Rapid Identification of Flavonoid Constituents Directly from PTP1B Inhibitive Extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves by HPLC–ESI–QTOF–MS-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL−1. Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3 and 4, Compounds 6 and 7 and Compounds 15 and 16 were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8, 9 and 10 were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11 and 12 were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2, 8, 9 and 10 possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported in R. idaeus for the first time. PMID:26896347

  4. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  5. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  6. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  7. Embedded Volttron specification - benchmarking small footprint compute device for Volttron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodworth, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-17

    An embedded system is a small footprint computing unit that typically serves a specific purpose closely associated with measurements and control of hardware devices. These units are designed for reasonable durability and operations in a wide range of operating conditions. Some embedded systems support real-time operations and can demonstrate high levels of reliability. Many have failsafe mechanisms built to handle graceful shutdown of the device in exception conditions. The available memory, processing power, and network connectivity of these devices are limited due to the nature of their specific-purpose design and intended application. Industry practice is to carefully design the software for the available hardware capability to suit desired deployment needs. Volttron is an open source agent development and deployment platform designed to enable researchers to interact with devices and appliances without having to write drivers themselves. Hosting Volttron on small footprint embeddable devices enables its demonstration for embedded use. This report details the steps required and the experience in setting up and running Volttron applications on three small footprint devices: the Intel Next Unit of Computing (NUC), the Raspberry Pi 2, and the BeagleBone Black. In addition, the report also details preliminary investigation of the execution performance of Volttron on these devices.

  8. Implementación de un sistema de administración energética mediante raspberry PI 3, bajo las condiciones de la norma ISO 50001 aplicado a cargas domésticas.

    OpenAIRE

    Román Párraga, Abel Andrés; Vega Sánchez, Jorge Washington

    2017-01-01

    En la actualidad, cada vez son más los usuarios conscientes de los beneficios acarreados por el ahorro energético y la conservación de las fuentes energéticas y recursos naturales. En este contexto, el proyecto de desarrollo e investigación propuso la creación de un sistema electrónico capaz de administrar el consumo energético a nivel residencial. El dispositivo fue compuesto de una tarjeta Arduino UNO y de un Raspberry Pi 3, además de diversos sensores y actuadores. Dicho dispositivo servir...

  9. Um laboratório portátil de baixo custo: medição de g utilizando um pêndulo e a placa Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Corrêa Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentaremos a placa Raspberry Pi como solução de baixo custo para um laboratório portátil com múltiplas aplicações, podendo ser utilizado tanto no ensino básico quanto no ensino superior. Utilizaremos a placa com um LDR (Light Dependent Resistor para medir o período de um pêndulo e obter a aceleração da gravidade. Apesar de simples, o experimento possui excelente acordo com valor encontrado na literatura, diferindo em apenas 0,07%.

  10. Suppression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival biomarkers in oral cancer patients consuming a black raspberry phytochemical-rich troche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Thomas J.; Uhrig, Lana K.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Casto, Bruce C.; Warner, Blake M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L.; Ferguson, Jeanette M.; Daly, Brett T.; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J.; Schuller, David E.; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Black raspberries (BRBs) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and non-involved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of pro-survival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and pro-inflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated Grade 3–4 toxicities or adverse events and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory molecular biomarkers were over-expressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. Since these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26701664

  11. A case study on toxicological aspects of the pest and disease control in the production of the high-quality raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Grodzicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The field studies on the residue levels of the fungicides and insecticides used in commercial raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantation have been performed. Starting on the first day of harvesting (on June 19), 20 laboratory samples of fruit, 10 laboratory samples of leaves and 4 samples of soil were analyzed and the residue levels were compared to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI). All analyses were carried out using extraction method and gas chromatography technique. Esfenwalerate (Sumi-alpha 050 EC) and beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 EC), the insecticides belonging to the group of synthetic pyrethroids, were not found in harvested ripe fruits, while cypermethrin residues (Cyperkill 25 EC) applied on May 24, 25 days later was still found on low levels in fruits (0.026 mg kg(-1)) and in leaves (2.58 mg kg(-1)). In turn, residues of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 EC), applied to the soil on May 15 against the cockchafers Melolontha melolontha and Otiorhynchus sp., were found at the level 0.004 mg kg(-1). The content of pesticides in ripe fruits depended mainly on the dose and on the time that has elapsed from the date of their application and were as follows: boscalid -0.950, pyrimethanil -0.917, pyraclostrobin -0.253 cypermethrin -0.026 and chlorpyrifos -0.004 mg kg(-1) while in leaves: boscalid -30.64, pyrimethanil -8.13, pyraclostrobin -15.82, cypermethrin -2.58 and chlorpyrifos -0.15 mg kg(-1). The highest average daily intake was in the case of boscalid, and in fruits and leaves reached the levels 0.205 and 6.63, in total 0.33% and 12.18% of ADI, respectively.

  12. Dehydration of berry purees to produce value-added powders of high quality for use in nutritional supplements: year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    In year two of this three year proposal, we were to dry raspberry and blackberry on a freeze dryer located at the WSU pilot plant (Pullman, WA) and the Radiant Zone Dryer (RZD) at Columbia PhytoTechnology, LLC (Dallesport, WA). We instead focused on RZD processing of cranberry and raspberry because ...

  13. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  14. Evaluation of an Improved U.S. Food and Drug Administration Method for the Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Produce Using Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Helen R; Lee, Seulgi; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2017-07-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan parasite that causes human diarrheal disease associated with the consumption of fresh produce or water contaminated with C. cayetanensis oocysts. In the United States, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been linked to various types of imported fresh produce, including cilantro and raspberries. An improved method was developed for identification of C. cayetanensis in produce at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The method relies on a 0.1% Alconox produce wash solution for efficient recovery of oocysts, a commercial kit for DNA template preparation, and an optimized TaqMan real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for molecular detection of the parasite. A single laboratory validation study was performed to assess the method's performance and compare the optimized TaqMan real-time PCR assay and a reference nested PCR assay by examining 128 samples. The samples consisted of 25 g of cilantro or 50 g of raspberries seeded with 0, 5, 10, or 200 C. cayetanensis oocysts. Detection rates for cilantro seeded with 5 and 10 oocysts were 50.0 and 87.5%, respectively, with the real-time PCR assay and 43.7 and 94.8%, respectively, with the nested PCR assay. Detection rates for raspberries seeded with 5 and 10 oocysts were 25.0 and 75.0%, respectively, with the real-time PCR assay and 18.8 and 68.8%, respectively, with the nested PCR assay. All unseeded samples were negative, and all samples seeded with 200 oocysts were positive. Detection rates using the two PCR methods were statistically similar, but the real-time PCR assay is less laborious and less prone to amplicon contamination and allows monitoring of amplification and analysis of results, making it more attractive to diagnostic testing laboratories. The improved sample preparation steps and the TaqMan real-time PCR assay provide a robust, streamlined, and rapid analytical procedure for surveillance, outbreak response, and regulatory testing of foods for

  15. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  16. Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public policies can help overcome these entry barriers into global markets. ... Institute will work with women entrepreneurs and business development providers, ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  17. Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, while tariffs have fallen, non-tariff barriers —sanitary and phytosanitary measures and lack of knowledge about destination markets — have become more significant barriers for export growth. Public policies can help overcome these entry barriers into global ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Bouba Housseini ...

  18. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  19. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  20. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Farklı Eğim Açılarındaki Fotovoltaik Panellerin Elektriksel Ölçümlerinin Raspberry Pi ile İzlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun ÖZBAY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Güneş enerjisinden elektrik enerjisi elde etmek için fotovoltaik (FV paneller kullanılmaktadır. FV panellerden elde edilen enerji, panellerin kurulduğu coğrafi konuma, mevsimsel değişimlere ve çevre koşullarına göre sürekli olarak değişiklik göstermektedir. Dolayısıyla FV panellerden maksimum güç elde edilmesi amacıyla panellerin optimum eğim açısının aylık, mevsimsel ve yıllık olarak değiştirilmesi gerekir. Bu çalışmada, farklı açılarda yerleştirilen FV paneller ile Bilecik ilinde güneş enerjisinden elde edilecek maksimum gücün hangi eğim açılarında gerçekleştiğinin tespiti için verilerin toplanması, kayıt altına alınması ve analiz çalışmaları Raspberry Pi (RPi üzerine kurulu web sunucu aracılığı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda FV panellerin gerilimleri gün boyunca ölçülmektedir. Ölçülen veriler analog-dijital dönüştürücü (mikrodenetleyici ile sayısal bilgiye çevrilmektedir. RPi ile sayısal bilgilerin her 10 dakikada bir ortalaması alınarak kendi hafıza ortamında saklama işlemi gerçekleştirilmektedir. Aynı zamanda RPi’ye kurulan Linux temelli Raspbian işletim sisteminde oluşturulan betik yardımıyla ve web ara yüzünden aynalama işlemi yapılarak verilerin bilgisayar ortamına kaydedilmesi ile yedekleme işlemi gerçekleştirilmektedir. Farklı eğim açılarındaki FV panellerden elde edilen elektriksel ölçümler RPi üzerine kurulu web sunucu aracılığıyla günün her saatinde canlı olarak izlenebilmektedir. Ayrıca elektriksel veriler aylık ve yıllık olarak tarih ve zaman bilgileri ile kayıt altına alınmaktadır. Geliştirilen sistemin kullanıcı ara yüzüne http://solar.bilecik.edu.tr adresinden ulaşılabilmektedir.

  3. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  4. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  5. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  6. Why raspberries flourish in Cambridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne; Brown, Kerry

    The activities and role of entrepreneurial milieu in fostering novel products are examined in this research. Creative ideas that initiate disjuncture from prevailing paradigms and form from the aggregation of individuals and concentrated efforts coalescing around a common problem are the subject...

  7. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  8. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  9. Cross-reacting and heterospecific monoclonal antibodies produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, E A; Stace-Smith, R

    1992-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus (AMV). A hybridoma screening procedure was applied which involved the testing of culture supernatants, before the hybridomas were cloned to single cell lines, for their reaction with eight nepoviruses [AMV, cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), peach rosette mosaic virus, raspberry ringspot virus (RRSV), tobacco ringspot virus, tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and tomato ringspot virus]. In addition to AMV-specific MAbs, this screening technique has allowed the selection of two cross-reacting MAbs: one reacting with AMV and GFLV, and one reacting with AMV and RRSV. This is the first report of MAbs cross-reacting with these nepoviruses. In addition, five heterospecific MAbs (HS-MAbs) could be selected: two reacting with RRSV, two with CLRV and one with TBRV. The usefulness of the screening technique that was applied for the selection of cross-reacting MAbs and HS-MAbs, and the potential use of such antibodies are discussed.

  10. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  11. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  12. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  13. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  14. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  15. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  16. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  17. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  18. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  19. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  20. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  1. Tipo de luz na multiplicação in vitro de framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. 'Batum' Light type in the in vitro multiplication of raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus L. 'Batum'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar um possível tipo de luz mais ativo que a luz branca, de forma a aumentar a eficiência da multiplicação in vitro de framboeseira 'Batum', em relação ao número de brotos, de folhas e a taxa de multiplicação. Para isso, os tratamentos consistiram em cinco diferentes tipos de luz sob os quais os explantes cresceram (branca - testemunha, vermelha, amarela, azul e verde, fornecidas por meio da modificação do espectro luminoso das lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas-frias, utilizando filtros coloridos de acetato celulose, do tipo Lee Filters (Walworth Ind. Estate, Andover, England. O meio de cultura constituiu-se dos sais e vitaminas de MS, adicionado de mioinositol (100mgL-1, sacarose (30gL-1, ágar (6gL-1 e de BAP (4,44µM. A eficiência da multiplicação in vitro de framboeseira 'Batum', em relação às variáveis analisadas, aumentou com a utilização da luz verde. A luz vermelha também incrementou o número médio de brotos; no entanto, sua morfologia foi modificada, com uma menor expansão das folhas, os brotos finos e os entrenós alongados.The aim of this work was to determine a possible light type more active than the white light, in way to increase the efficiency of the in vitro multiplication of raspberry 'Batum', in relation to the shoots and leaves number, and the multiplication rate. For that, the treatments consisted of five different light types (white - control, red, yellow, blue and green, under which the explants grew, supplied through the modification of the luminous spectrum of the white-cold fluorescent lamps, using colored filters of acetate cellulose, Lee Filters type (Walworth Ind. Estate, Andover, England. The culture medium was constituted of MS salts and vitamins, added of myo-inositol (100mgL-1, sucrose (30gL-1, agar (6gL-1 and BAP (4.44µM. The efficiency of the in vitro multiplication of raspberry 'Batum', in relation to the analyzed variables, increased with the use of

  2. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  3. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  4. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  5. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  6. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  7. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  8. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  9. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  11. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  12. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in 2006. With the current economic and political situation in Zimbabwe improving, the drive by the Government to encourage independent power producers, the prospects for the development of small hydropower are promising....

  13. Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on foodchains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1980-10-01

    The environmental impact of radioactivities produced from fossil fuel burning is not necessarily small compared with that of nuclear energy. The effect of these radioactivities on the foodchain through seafoods is discussed.

  14. ebibliographical compilation of phd theses produced at the faculty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... comprehensive list of Ph.D theses produced by the following ... Science: Applied and Plant Biology, Micro-Biology, ... Communities. ... Water Purification Potentials and in-vivo ... Cultivation at Small-Hoiders Level in Semi.

  15. Desenvolvimento de tecnologia para a fabricação de doce em massa com araçá-pêra (Psidium acutangulum D. C. para o pequeno produtor Development of a technology for the processing of araça pera jam for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Maria Ferreira C. Wille

    2004-12-01

    presents excessive acid content to be pleasant when eaten raw (pH 2.77; free acidity 2.67% citric acid, has a good amount of vitamin C (60.98 mg/100g, dietary fiber (9.6%, The objective of this study was to develop a formulation and technique for fruit processing by small producers in the region. Three formulations were tested using techniques of sensory analysis; in two formulations, the excess of acid was buffered with sodium citrate, equivalent to 65% (Formulation B and 40% (Formulation C of the amount of free acid present in the fruit, and commercial pectin (1.5% was added to speed the cooking process. For formulation A, a fruit very common in the region and relatively inexpensive (chayote -7% of total ingredients was chosen to buffer the acidity, and no pectin was needed. The ingredients simmered for 5 minute after temperature stabilized, and were poured into sterilized bottles, yielding 77.3% of jam, with a pH and free acidity of A-3.1/ 1.16; B-3.57/1.62; C-3.36/1.70. Physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were performed showing good performance of the jams, easily reproducible by small producers.

  16. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  17. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  18. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Effects of silica-based nanostructures with raspberry-like morphology and surfactant on the interfacial behavior of light, medium, and heavy crude oils at oil-aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Korte, Caroline; Huibers, Britta M. J.; Pales, Ashley R.; Liang, Wei-zhen; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2017-11-01

    were ranked as follows: (1) Prudhoe Bay > (2) Lloydminster > and (3) West Texas Intermediate. The level of asphaltenes and resins in these crude oil samples reflected these rankings. A decrease in the IFT also indicated the potential of the SiO2 NPs to decrease capillary pressure and induce the movement and recovery of oil in original water-wet reservoirs. Conversely, an increase in IFT indicated the potential of SiO2 NPs to increase capillary pressure and oil recovery in reservoirs subject to wettability reversal under water-wet conditions. Raspberry-like morphology particles were discovered in 5 wt% brine-surfactant-SiO2 nanofluid-oil systems. The development of raspberry-like particles material with high surface area, high salt stability, and high capability of interfaces alteration and therefore wettability changes offers a wide range of applications in the fields of applied nanoscience, environmental engineering, and petroleum engineering.

  20. Produção de mudas de framboeseira negra por diferentes métodos de propagação vegetativa Seedling production of black raspberry by different methods of vegetative propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nascimento Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar técnicas de propagação vegetativa da framboeseira negra (Rubus niveus por estaquia e mergulhia, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o potencial rizogênico de estacas caulinares, radiculares, mergulhia de ponta e alporquia dessa espécie. No primeiro experimento, estacas radiculares e caulinares de 10 cm foram tratadas com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB: 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000mg L-1 por 10 segundos, além do controle composto somente por água. No segundo experimento, as estacas foram armazenadas a frio por 10, 20 e 30 dias, além do controle sem armazenamento. Em ambos os experimentos, as estacas caulinares foram enterradas 2/3 de seu comprimento na posição vertical e as estacas radiculares foram totalmente imersas na posição horizontal, utilizando a vermiculita de grânulos finos como substrato, em telado com sombreamento de 50% e, após 60 dias, foram avaliadas. No terceiro experimento, a mergulhia de ponta e alporquia foram realizadas na porção mediana dos ramos, aplicando-se no local diferentes concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 2000 e 3000mg L-1 e, em seguida, foram envolvidos pelo substrato casca de pinus umedecido. Passados 45 dias, foram removidos para a mensuração. Concluiu-se que as estacas caulinares apresentam resultados superiores em comparação com as estacas radiculares, não necessitando armazenar a frio e não tratar com AIB; a mergulhia de ponta promoveu maior emissão de raízes em comparação com a alporquia.Aiming to develop a propagation protocol through black raspberry (Rubus niveus cutting and layering, the objective of the present research was to quantify the rizogenic potential of stems and roots cuttings, point and air layering of this specie. In the first experiment, the stems and roots cuttings of 10 cm of length were treated with different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA: 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000mg L-1 for 10 seconds. In the second experiment

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  2. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  3. Who needs a small reactor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet.

    1991-01-01

    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  4. 77 FR 52678 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... research, consumer information, advertising, sales promotion, producer information, market development and...: 364. Agricultural Marketing Service Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program. OMB Control Number: 0581-0258. Summary of Collection: The Processed Raspberry Promotion...

  5. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ESOI energy stored on invested IC integrated circuit RC radio controlled RPM revolutions per minute UPS uninterruptible power supply...used in microgrid systems. The additional electrical power produced could be enough to offset the power required to start up heavy machinery, or power...include automobile 3 turbochargers and small permanent magnet motors commonly used in remote controlled devices. The pairing of these two technologies

  6. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  7. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  8. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  9. Method of producing granulated ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    For the production of granulated ceramic nuclear fuels with a grain size spectrum as narrow as possible it is proposed to suspend the nuclear fuel powder in a non-aqueous solvent with small content of hydrogen (e.g. chloridized hydrocarbons) while adding a binding agent and then dry it by means of rays. As binding agent polybutyl methane acrylate in dibutyl phthalate is proposed. The method is described by the example of UO 2 -powder in trichloroethylene. The dry granulated material is produced in one working step. (UWI) [de

  10. The future of UK gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallas, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, an oil company wishing to develop UK gas reserves almost always faced a protracted gas sales negotiation with British Gas. British Gas then had an effective monopoly in the resale of that gas to final consumers. This traditional pattern is now in a process of fundamental change, as a result of recent UK gas market re-regulation and the emergence of a new large scale opportunity to sell gas for power generation. The impact of these changes is still not very well understood outside a relatively small group of gas specialists but is likely to be significant for British Gas, consumers and UK gas producers. This paper outlines the background to the recent changes, the possible future of UK gas marketing and the likely impact on gas producers in the North Sea

  11. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long ( e.g . Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short ( e.g . Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  12. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  13. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  14. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  15. Financial methodology for Brazilian market of small producers of oil and natural gas, based on Canadian and North American experiences in reserves quantification, evaluation and certification; Metodologia de financeiamento para pequenos produtores do mercado brasileiro de petroleo e gas natural, baseado nas experiencias canadense e americana na quantificacao, valoracao e certificacao de reservas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Enrico Brunno Zipoli de Sousa e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia; Coelho, Jose Mario [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Minas

    2008-07-01

    ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural gas and Biofuels), through auctions of exploratory blocks in the subsequent years from the break of the monopoly of PETROBRAS with the Law 9.478 of 1997, had important role in the opening of the section and in the attainment of the self-sufficiency of petroleum. However the petroleum production in ripe and marginal fields were left off, since the initial interest in the first rounds was to attract the major companies. - International Oil Companies (IOC) - when ANP granted great blocks offshore. Ripe fields are defined as fields in phase of irreversible declination and marginal fields are also defined as economical concept, certain for business decision and external economical factors (price of the oil, etc.). Canada and USA, worldwide leaders in the market of petroleum and gas, possess politics that benefit and maintain the small companies protected of the competition of INOC's by assuring small companies finance through the guarantee of proved reserves of oil. This paper assemble Canadian and American experiences in regulation for small companies investments and compares it with Brazilian financing types, which is restricted due to the Brazilian finance agent's despite about oil and gas activity. (author)

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  18. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  19. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  20. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  1. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  2. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  3. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  4. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  5. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  6. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  7. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  8. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  9. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  10. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  11. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  12. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  13. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  14. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  15. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  16. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  17. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  18. Small but super

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  19. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  20. Minijets at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  1. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  2. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  3. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  5. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  6. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  7. Small nuclear reactors for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, K.

    1978-01-01

    Small nuclear reactors are considered to have an output of not more than 400MW thermal. Since they can produce steam at much higher conditions than needed by the brine heater of a multi-flash desalination unit, it may be economically advantageous to use small reactors for a dual-purpose installation of appropriate size, producing both electricity and desalted water, rather than for a single-purpose desalination plant only. Different combinations of dual-purpose arrangements are possible depending principally on the ratio of electricity to water output required. The costs of the installation as well as of the products are critically dependent on this ratio. For minimum investment costs, the components of the dual-purpose installation should be of a standardised design based on normal commercial power plant practice. This then imposes some restrictions on the plant arrangement but, on the other hand, it facilitates selection of the components. Depending on the electricity to water ratio to be achieved, the conventional part of the installation - essentially the turbines - will form a combination of back-pressure and condensing machines. Each ratio will probably lead to an optimum combination. In the economic evaluation of this arrangement, a distinction must be made between single-purpose and dual-purpose installations. The relationship between output and unit costs of electricity and water will be different for the two cases, but the relation can be expressed in general terms to provide guidelines for selecting the best dimensions for the plant. (author)

  8. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  9. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  10. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  11. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  12. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  13. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND UV LIGHT TREATMENT OF PRODUCE CONTAMINATED WITH EIMERIA ACERVULINA AS A CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS SURROGATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence, size, genome, and life cycle of Eimeria acervulina make this organism a good surrogate for Cyclospora cayetanensis, a protozoan that causes gastroenteritis in humans, including recent outbreaks in the United States and Canada associated with contaminated raspberries and basil. Labora...

  14. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  15. Hollow rods for the oil producing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalimova, L M; Elyasheva, M A

    1970-01-01

    Hollow sucker rods have several advantages over conventional ones. The hollow rods actuate the well pump and at the same time conduct produced fluids to surface. When paraffin deposition occurs, it can be minimized by injecting steam, hot oil or hot water into the hollow rod. Other chemicals, such as demulsifiers, scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, etc., can also be placed in the well through the hollow rods. This reduces cost of preventive treatments, reduces number of workovers, increases oil production, and reduces cost of oil. Because the internal area of the rod is small, the passing liquids have a high velocity and thereby carry sand and dirt out of the well. This reduces pump wear between the piston and the plunger. Specifications of hollow rods, their operating characteristics, and results obtained with such rods under various circumstances are described.

  16. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  17. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  18. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  19. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  20. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  1. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  2. Small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  3. Producing chopped firewood with firewood processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Jouhiaho, A.

    2009-01-01

    The TTS Institute's research and development project studied both the productivity of new, chopped firewood processors (cross-cutting and splitting machines) suitable for professional and independent small-scale production, and the costs of the chopped firewood produced. Seven chopped firewood processors were tested in the research, six of which were sawing processors and one shearing processor. The chopping work was carried out using wood feeding racks and a wood lifter. The work was also carried out without any feeding appliances. Altogether 132.5 solid m 3 of wood were chopped in the time studies. The firewood processor used had the most significant impact on chopping work productivity. In addition to the firewood processor, the stem mid-diameter, the length of the raw material, and of the firewood were also found to affect productivity. The wood feeding systems also affected productivity. If there is a feeding rack and hydraulic grapple loader available for use in chopping firewood, then it is worth using the wood feeding rack. A wood lifter is only worth using with the largest stems (over 20 cm mid-diameter) if a feeding rack cannot be used. When producing chopped firewood from small-diameter wood, i.e. with a mid-diameter less than 10 cm, the costs of chopping work were over 10 EUR solid m -3 with sawing firewood processors. The shearing firewood processor with a guillotine blade achieved a cost level of 5 EUR solid m -3 when the mid-diameter of the chopped stem was 10 cm. In addition to the raw material, the cost-efficient chopping work also requires several hundred annual operating hours with a firewood processor, which is difficult for individual firewood entrepreneurs to achieve. The operating hours of firewood processors can be increased to the required level by the joint use of the processors by a number of firewood entrepreneurs. (author)

  4. The decision making of an electric power producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, F.

    2002-01-01

    How can choose an electric power producer when he has to decide an investment of a supplementary power plant? Which were the criteria to choose a small or a medium power reactor? In this framework, the economical profitability, the technical feasibility and the associated risks are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Supply chain risks and smallholder fresh produce farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes smallholder farmers to forego market share to commercial producers who ... In the specific case of this research, it implied black farmers with new and/or small ... develop strategies and policies to overcome these perils. ... communications, energy infrastructure and services ...... Concepts, applications, and extensions.

  6. On performing semantic queries in small devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, C.; Petrovan, A.; Neamţ, L.; Chiver, O.

    2016-08-01

    The sensors have a well-defined role in control or monitoring industrial processes; the data given by them can generate valuable information of the trend of the systems to which they belong, but to store a large volume of data and then analysis offline is not always practical. One solution is on-line analysis, preferably as close to the place where data have been generated (edge computing). An increasing amount of data generated by a growing number of devices connected to the Internet resulted in processing data sensors to the edge of the network, in a middle layer where smart entities should interoperate. Diversity of communication technologies outlined the idea of using intermediate devices such as gateways in sensor networks and for this reason the paper examines the functionality of a SPARQL endpoint in the Raspberry Pi device.

  7. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  8. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  9. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  10. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  11. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  12. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  13. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  14. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  15. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  16. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  17. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  18. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  19. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  20. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  1. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  2. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  3. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAEL T. SCHAPER; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  4. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  5. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  7. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  8. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  9. Method of producing ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliskirk, G; Yates, H J

    1978-09-13

    Ethanol was produced from whey by removing protein from the whey by ultrafiltration, concentrating the deproteinized whey by reverse osmosis to a lactose content of at least 8 g/100 mL, fermenting with Candida pseudotropicalis NCYC 744, and distilling. E.g., milk whey was deproteinized to give a permeate containing 8.3 g lactose/100 mL. After fermentation, the final lactose content was 0.1 g/100 mL and the ethanol concentration was 3.55 g/100 mL, representing a 42% conversion of lactose to ethanol.

  10. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  11. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  12. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  13. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  14. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  15. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enormous growth in whole genome sequencing. Hence today, genome sequence ... Similarly, during the embryo development of zebrafish, 58 aa long toddler polypeptide produced by a short ORF within a lncRNA, regulates cell migration ...

  16. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  17. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  18. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  19. Small and micro enterprises – aspects of knowledge, attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HACCP) awareness among managers of food-producing small and micro enterprises (SMEs) as well as selected aspects of the knowledge, attitude and practices of respective food handlers regarding food safety. Setting. SMEs within a 30 km range ...

  20. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.