Sample records for small raspberry producers

  1. Raspberry Pi- A Small, Powerful, Cost Effective and Efficient Form Factor Computer: A Review


    Anand Nayyar; Vikram Puri


    Raspberry Pi, an efficient and cost effective credit card sized computer comes under light of sun by United Kingdom-Raspberry Pi foundation with the aim to enlighten and empower computer science teaching in schools and other developing countries. Since its inception, various open source communities have contributed tons towards open source apps, operating systems and various other small form factor computers similar to Raspberry Pi. Till date, researchers, hobbyists and other embe...

  2. Risk Preferences Estimation for Small Raspberry Producers in the Bío-Bío Region, Chile Estimación de Preferencias por Riesgo para Pequeños Productores de Frambuesa de la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Toledo T


    Full Text Available Decisions are strongly influenced by risk and risk preferences of decision makers; however, in Chile there are few studies in the agricultural sector focused on this topic. The present paper analyzes the risk preferences of small producers of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and the production function associated with their production system in the Bio-Bio Region of Chile. Under a mean-variance approach, the estimation procedure uses a flexible utility function to incorporate a variety of risk preference alternatives. Three different estimation procedures were used: Least Squares Estimation, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Full Information Maximum Likelihood, which revealed the same conclusions. Results showed that small farmers are risk averse (γ = 0.104 and present increasing relative and absolute aversion to risk (θ = 0.099 Las decisiones son fuertemente influenciadas por el riesgo y las preferencias por riesgo de los agentes que las toman, sin embargo, en Chile existen pocos estudios en el sector agrícola que se enfoquen en este tema. El presente estudio analiza las preferencias por riesgo de pequeños productores de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L., y la función de producción asociada a este sistema productivo, en la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile. Utilizando un modelo de media-varianza, se estima una función de utilidad flexible de manera de incorporar diferentes alternativas de preferencias por riesgo. Para la estimación se utilizaron tres procedimientos: Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios, Sistemas de Ecuaciones Aparentemente no Relacionadas y Máxima Verosimilitud con Información Completa, arrojando similares resultados. Los resultados revelan que los productores son aversos al riesgo (γ = 0,104 y tienen aversión absoluta y relativa creciente (θ = 0,099 < 1 y θ < γ, respectivamente. Se rechazan las hipótesis de neutralidad (γ = 0 y aversión absoluta constante al riesgo (θ = 1, con un 94% y un 99% de confianza, respectivamente. La

  3. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  4. Market analysis of Serbia's raspberry sector and cluster development initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraušić Vesna


    Full Text Available Authors analyze competitive strength and weakness of raspberry producers in Serbia and propose key prerequisites of which fulfilling will depend develop of successful cluster initiative in Serbian raspberry sector. The research results indicate that Serbian raspberry growers can develop successful cluster and they can keep leading position in the global market of raspberries, only with following many assumptions, like: (a better organized marketing channel through the vertically and horizontal integration of all actors in this sector,(b strengthening specialized cooperatives for raspberry production and associations of raspberry growers, and in the future setting up of producer organizations and associations; (c inclusion of producers of other berries and producers of processed berries; (d introducing innovations, scientific knowledge, and research and development in production, processing, packing, logistics, export of raspberries, etc. An analysis is based on case study in Šumadija and Western Serbia region, which is major region in raspberry production in Serbia.

  5. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M.; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D.; Hall, Robert D.


    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is

  6. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum (United States)


    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-07-0077; FV-07-705-PR-2B] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry... delays indefinitely the referendum to determine whether producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries approve the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion...

  7. Transitioning EEG experiments away from the laboratory using a Raspberry Pi 2. (United States)

    Kuziek, Jonathan W P; Shienh, Axita; Mathewson, Kyle E


    Electroencephalography (EEG) experiments are typically performed in controlled laboratory settings to minimise noise and produce reliable measurements. These controlled conditions also reduce the applicability of the obtained results to more varied environments and may limit their relevance to everyday situations. Advances in computer portability may increase the mobility and applicability of EEG results while decreasing costs. In this experiment we show that stimulus presentation using a Raspberry Pi 2 computer provides a low cost, reliable alternative to a traditional desktop PC in the administration of EEG experimental tasks. Significant and reliable MMN and P3 activity, typical event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with an auditory oddball paradigm, were measured while experiments were administered using the Raspberry Pi 2. While latency differences in ERP triggering were observed between systems, these differences reduced power only marginally, likely due to the reduced processing power of the Raspberry Pi 2. An auditory oddball task administered using the Raspberry Pi 2 produced similar ERPs to those derived from a desktop PC in a laboratory setting. Despite temporal differences and slight increases in trials needed for similar statistical power, the Raspberry Pi 2 can be used to design and present auditory experiments comparable to a PC. Our results show that the Raspberry Pi 2 is a low cost alternative to the desktop PC when administering EEG experiments and, due to its small size and low power consumption, will enable mobile EEG experiments unconstrained by a traditional laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C


    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Raspberry Pi gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Shea


    If you are someone who loves to play games and are interested in learning more about the capabilities of your Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Raspberry Pi programming is expected.

  10. Perancangan Papan Informasi Digital Berbasis Web pada Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Panuntun


    Full Text Available Digital signage is information boards migrate from conventional forms to digital form. Form of digital signage used in computer by connecting to monitor to display the information. Digital notice board (digital signage puts a digital-based information services in one direction. Many digital signage applications appear with the development of information technology. Unfortunately, if used as a digital signage devices, the implementation of existing digital signage applications using a desktop computer is unefficient. Signage applications that developed to be implemented on a single board computers such as raspberry-pi is still rare. In that case, there are any idea to implement a mini computer raspberry-pi as digital signage devices. Mini computer raspberry-Pi was chosen because of its small size and power saving. so it can be efficient and flexible than a regular desktop computer. Forming of this thesis includes designing web server using PHP and MySQL and raspberry pi configuration. The results of this research is to implement digital signage in raspbeery pi that produce a web-based digital information boards that efficient and power saving.

  11. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice. (United States)

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G


    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  12. Impacts of the use of nonnative commercial bumble bees for pollinator supplementation in raspberry. (United States)

    Lye, G C; Jennings, S N; Osborne, J L; Goulson, D


    Evidence for pollinator declines has led to concern that inadequate pollination services may limit crop yields. The global trade in commercial bumble bee (Bombus spp.) colonies provides pollination services for both glasshouse and open-field crops. For example, in the United Kingdom, commercial colonies of nonnative subspecies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. imported from mainland Europe are widely used for the pollination of raspberries, Rubus idaeus L. The extent to which these commercial colonies supplement the services provided by wild pollinators has not been formally quantified and the impact of commercial bumble bees on native bees visiting the crop is unknown. Here, the impacts of allowing commercially available bumble bee colonies to forage on raspberry canes are assessed in terms of the yield of marketable fruit produced and the pollinator communities found foraging on raspberry flowers. No differences were found in the abundance, diversity, or composition of social bee species observed visiting raspberry flowers when commercial bumble bees were deployed compared with when they were absent. However, weight of marketable raspberries produced increased when commercial bees were present, indicating that wild pollinator services alone are inadequate for attaining maximum yields. The findings of the study suggests that proportional yield increases associated with deployment of commercial colonies may be small, but that nevertheless, investment in commercial colonies for raspberry pollination could produce very significant increases in net profit for the grower. Given potential environmental risks associated with the importation of nonnative bumble bees, the development of alternative solutions to the pollination deficit in raspberry crops in the United Kingdom may be beneficial.

  13. Kelayakan Raspberry Pi sebagai Web Server: Perbandingan Kinerja Nginx, Apache, dan Lighttpd pada Platform Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Dawood


    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a small-sized computer, but it can function like an ordinary computer. Because it can function like a regular PC then it is also possible to run a web server application on the Raspberry Pi. This paper will report results from testing the feasibility and performance of running a web server on the Raspberry Pi. The test was conducted on the current top three most popular web servers, which are: Apache, Nginx, and Lighttpd. The parameters used to evaluate the feasibility and performance of these web servers were: maximum request and reply time. The results from the test showed that it is feasible to run all three web servers on the Raspberry Pi but Nginx gave the best performance followed by Lighttpd and Apache.Keywords: Raspberry Pi, web server, Apache, Lighttpd, Nginx, web server performance

  14. Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Three services were given particular attention in the case studies: marketing, access to technology, and business and management skills acquisition. Each case study – from Bolivia, Bangladesh, El Salvador, Ghana, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe – shows how small producers were introduced to new production and marketing ...

  15. How to Produce a Small Newspaper. (United States)

    Miller, Edward; And Others

    A how-to manual for people interested in the mechanics of newspaper production, this book was produced by the editors of a small town newspaper. Chapters about content, printing, typography, pasteup, design and layout, advertising, circulation and distribution, financial matters, and deadlines contain practical discussions of details such as what…

  16. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben


    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  17. Meet the Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben


    The essential preview guide to getting started with Raspberry Pi ʼ computing and programming Originally conceived of as a fun, easy way for kids (and curious adults) to learn computer programming, the Raspberry Pi quickly evolved into a remarkably robust, credit-card-size computer that can be used for everything from playing HD videos and hacking around with hardware to learning to program! Co-authored by one of the creators of the Raspberry Pi, this special preview eBook fills you in on everything you need to know to get up and running on your Raspberry Pi in no time, including how to:

  18. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne


    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  19. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.


    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  20. Building Businesses with Small Producers : Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Businesses with Small Producers présente les constatations et une analyse comparative de sept études de cas qui remettent en question les croyances actuelles sur la bonne pratique dans ... Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU.

  1. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone are needed (United States)

    Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietar...

  2. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures (United States)


    ...-705-FR] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum... referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order) is favored by producers of raspberries for processing and importers of...

  3. 76 FR 25618 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (United States)


    ...; FV-07-705-PR-2B] RIN 0581-AC79 Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information...: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries to determine whether they favor the establishment of an...

  4. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K


    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  5. Raspberry Pi for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Sean


    Embrace the exciting new technology of Raspberry Pi! With the invention of the unique credit-card sized single-board computer, the Raspberry Pi, comes a new wave of hardware geeks, hackers, and hobbyists who are excited about the possibilities of the Raspberry Pi, and this is the perfect guide to get you started in this exhilarating new arena. With this fun and friendly book, you'll quickly discover why the supply for the Pi cannot keep up with the demand! Veteran tech authors Sean McManus and Mike Cook show you how to download and install the operating system, use the installe

  6. Raspberry Pi projects

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew


    Learn to build software and hardware projects featuring the Raspberry Pi! Raspberry Pi represents a new generation of computers that encourages the user to play and to learn and this unique book is aimed at the beginner Raspberry Pi user who is eager to get started creating real-world projects. Taking you on a journey of creating 15 practical projects, this fun and informative resource introduces you to the skills you need to have in order to make the most of the Pi. The book begins with a quick look at how to get the Pi up and running and then encourages you to dive into the array of exciti

  7. Raspberry Pi hardware projects 1

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew


    Learn how to take full advantage of all of Raspberry Pi's amazing features and functions-and have a blast doing it! Congratulations on becoming a proud owner of a Raspberry Pi, the credit-card-sized computer! If you're ready to dive in and start finding out what this amazing little gizmo is really capable of, this ebook is for you. Taken from the forthcoming Raspberry Pi Projects, Raspberry Pi Hardware Projects 1 contains three cool hardware projects that let you have fun with the Raspberry Pi while developing your Raspberry Pi skills. The authors - PiFace inventor, Andrew Robinson and Rasp

  8. Raspberry Pi robotics projects

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard


    This book is for enthusiasts who want to use the Raspberry Pi to build complex robotics projects. With the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex robotics projects that can move, talk, listen, see, swim, or fly. No previous Raspberry Pi robotics experience is assumed, but even experts will find unexpected and interesting information in this invaluable guide.

  9. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  10. ‘Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry (United States)

    ‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  11. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.


    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  12. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth


    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  13. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A


    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  14. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  15. Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Her specialities include small business development in South Asia and Africa, women's information income generation, the acquisition of employable and entrepreneurial ... Une baisse importante de la mortalité et de la natalité, ou transition démographique, est survenue il y a plus d'un siècle dans les pays développés.

  16. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda


    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  17. Safety characteristics of small heat producing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.


    The primary objectives of protection in nuclear power plants are the possibility to shut the reactor down in case of emergency and keep it subcritical in the long run, the existence of a heat sink for post-decay heat removal in order to avoid overheating, let alone core meltdown, and the containment of radioactivity within the barriers designed for this purpose, thus preventing significant activity release. In principle, these objectives can be met in various ways, namely by active, passive or inherent technical safeguards systems. In practice, a mixture of these approaches is employed in almost all cases. What matters in the end is the assessment of the overall concept, not of some outstanding feature. Inherent characteristics are easier to achieve in small reactors. However, also in this case, inherent safety does not mean absolute safety. If inherent safety characteristics were all encompassing, they would have to include self-healing effects. However, inanimate matter is incapable of such self-organization. Consequently, inherent characteristics in nuclear technology by definition should include the increased use of dissipative processes in the thermal part of the plant. (author)

  18. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A


    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  19. Raspberry Pi projects for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Mike; Craft, Brock


    Join the Raspberry revolution with these fun and easy Pi projects The Raspberry Pi has opened up a whole new world of innovation for everyone from hardware hackers and programmers to students, hobbyists, engineers, and beyond. Featuring a variety of hands-on projects, this easy-to-understand guide walks you through every step of the design process and will have you creating like a Raspberry Pi pro in no time. You'll learn how to prepare your workspace, assemble the necessary tools, work with test equipment, and find your way around the Raspberry Pi before moving on to a series of fun, livel

  20. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee


    Full Text Available Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility that they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietary supplements. Currently, the amount of raspberry ketone in dietary supplements (currently sold in the US is well above the maximum concentration recommended for food and fragrance products, so additional toxicology work is needed to ensure that such concentrations of raspberry ketone are safe. In addition to safety data, clinical studies are also needed to validate any health benefits. Without research on the effects of consuming high concentrations of raspberry ketone, consumers should be wary of unsubstantiated claims and mindful of potential harm to their health.

  1. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo


    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  2. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  3. Novel member of the Luteoviridae associated with raspberry leaf curl disease (United States)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) was first reported in the 1920s, is limited to the genus Rubus and is transmitted in a persistent manner by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. It is only reported from North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and i...

  4. Learning Python with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Bradbury, Alex


    The must-have companion guide to the Raspberry Pi User Guide! Raspberry Pi chose Python as its teaching language of choice to encourage a new generation of programmers to learn how to program. This approachable book serves as an ideal resource for anyone wanting to use Raspberry Pi to learn to program and helps you get started with the Python programming language. Aimed at first-time developers with no prior programming language assumed, this beginner book gets you up and running.Covers variables, loops, and functionsAddresses 3D graphics programmingWalks you through programming MinecraftZero

  5. Raspberry Pi mechatronics projects hotshot

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanoor, Sai


    This book is targeted towards beginners and intermediate designers of mechatronic systems and embedded system design. Some familiarity with the Raspberry Pi and Python programming is preferred but not required.

  6. Remote laboratory with Raspberry Pi


    Dvorščak, Mihael


    The thesis is intended for teachers in junior high school and students of technology education in planning innovational and different learning lessons using information and communication technologies and inductive methods. In thesis is represented an indicative layout of the remote laboratory for educational purposes on the basis of the Raspberry Pi computer. Thesis features used hardware components for this theme, Raspberry Pi computer, its development and commonly used peripheral device...

  7. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer


    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda


    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  8. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network (United States)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.


    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  9. The management of radioactive wastes from small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Medicine, research and industry generate various type of radioactive wastes which have to be managed by the ANDRA, the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes. This educative booklet explains the missions of the ANDRA with respect to these small producers: collection, selection, conditioning, control and storage of wastes. (J.S.)

  10. Improved small stock production between scientist and producer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    small stock production involves close cooperation between the animal scientist and the producer. ... Presented at the Symposium on 'The scientist serving animal production' at the 25th Annual Congress of the .... This fact rendered the other type of abortion identified of very little practical significance. Further observations in ...

  11. Applications of Raspberry Pi computers in the education system




    The article puts forward a thesis about the possibility and necessity of using single-board computer Raspberry Pi in education. The main advantages of Raspberry Pi are small size, low power consumption, a complete operating system, free software and low price. Due to the presence of general-purpose input/output ports it allows one to program real devices, physical systems and objects, which allows a better visual representation of the results of the work than creation of virtual images on the...

  12. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali


    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  13. Public service of radioactive waste management for small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.


    By Governmental decree of May 1999, the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorized as a state public service for managing radioactive waste from small producers. By this decree the ARAO also became the operator of the Central Interim Storage intended for radioactive waste from industry, medicine and research, located in Brinje near Ljubljana. In this paper the current situation will be presented, together with plans for improving public service and the necessary refurbishment and modernization of the storage facility. Execution of the proposed measures, modifications and a modernization will ensure proper and safe storing of all radioactive waste from small producers produced in Slovenia, thus fulfilling the requirements for full operation of the public service of radioactive waste management.(author)

  14. Verticillium survey results: Is it in red raspberry production fields? (United States)

    Preliminary results of the survey for Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, in the Washington Red Raspberry industry were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Verticillium was found in many field soils, but was rarely isolated from plants and was just as likely to ...

  15. Study of Remontant Raspberry Frost Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushchina M.Yu.


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the second component of remontant raspberry cold hardiness - frost resistance, namely the ability of this raspberry type to tolerate the lowest temperature. Series of artificial freezing was carried out to check the frost-resistance. According to the data obtained the most frost-resistant varieties of remontant raspberries were detected. The critical low temperature for all studied varieties and forms of remontant raspberries was estimated.

  16. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  17. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 7, 2012 ... In this paper, the bacteriostatic action of purified raspberry flavonoid was explored. A study was conducted on the effect of raspberry flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best.

  18. Laying the foundation to use Raspberry Pi 3 V2 camera module imagery for scientific and engineering purposes (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Cazenavette, George; Gold, Maxwell; Harlan, Ryan; Leggett, Edward; Pagnutti, James


    A comprehensive radiometric characterization of raw-data format imagery acquired with the Raspberry Pi 3 and V2.1 camera module is presented. The Raspberry Pi is a high-performance single-board computer designed to educate and solve real-world problems. This small computer supports a camera module that uses a Sony IMX219 8 megapixel CMOS sensor. This paper shows that scientific and engineering-grade imagery can be produced with the Raspberry Pi 3 and its V2.1 camera module. Raw imagery is shown to be linear with exposure and gain (ISO), which is essential for scientific and engineering applications. Dark frame, noise, and exposure stability assessments along with flat fielding results, spectral response measurements, and absolute radiometric calibration results are described. This low-cost imaging sensor, when calibrated to produce scientific quality data, can be used in computer vision, biophotonics, remote sensing, astronomy, high dynamic range imaging, and security applications, to name a few.

  19. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková


    Full Text Available Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and restaurants. In a smaller scale it is done through internet sales, own outlets and wine auctions. According to the research of Focus agency, Marketing & Social Research, done in 2009, customers buy wine mostly in retail chains and decide on sort and quality of wine directly at the moment of purchase. Selection is based except wine quality also on the shape of the bottle, etiquette, and also cork (consumers explicitly prefer cork, and the screw top rather discourages. Certain part of customers – specifically those, who are more acquainted with wine – buy wine in special wine-shops. The research shows a decrease of direct wine-sales.When using services of independent trade organizations, producers have to control the intensity of commercial activities and knowledge of technical characteristics of products. Small wine producers, though, do not have to use this distribution channel, and can focus only on direct sales. For some small wine producers, specifically those operating in the areas with an extended possibility for wine-tourism, this channel can be more suitable and effective than using retail chains. This way of distribution does not require extensive start-up investments, it is directly dependent on producers own effort, and can be done as a supplementary activity to the main source of income.Regardless the particular choice of a distribution channel by a small wine producer it is necessary to be judged not only from the viewpoint of its advantages and

  20. Expanding the scope of a single pathogen survey to solve the mystery of the ailing red raspberries (United States)

    Washington state produces almost 60% of the processed raspberries ($79 M value) in the U.S. Production is severely limited by Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV) and the soilborne pathogens Phytophthora rubi and Pratylenchus penetrans. However, in 2012, growers began noticing plants with unusual symp...

  1. Raspberry Pi in oddaljeni laboratorij


    Dvorščak, Mihael


    Diplomsko delo je namenjeno učiteljem Tehnike v osnovnih šolah in študentom Tehnike pri načrtovanju inovativnih, drugačnih učnih ur ob uporabi informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij in induktivnih metod poučevanja. V diplomskem delu je predstavljena okvirna postavitev oddaljenega laboratorija za izobraževalne namene na podlagi računalnika Raspberry Pi. Predstavljene so uporabljene strojne komponente, računalnik Raspberry Pi, pogosto uporabljene periferne naprave in čutilniki ter povezava...

  2. Raspberry Pi projects for kids

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Daniel


    This tutorial contains all-important information about how to use your Raspberry Pi to develop any application you like. It is broken down into several action-packed projects, each containing easy-to-follow steps, just to show you how easy and fun computer programming can be!If you are someone with a big imagination and would like to dive straight into the realm of technology and computers, then this is the book for you. With only a Raspberry Pi and no prior experience required, you will be shown how to translate your ideas into computer programs, creating any game, tool, or animation you can

  3. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.


    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  4. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan


    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  5. New Vertical Marketing of Producers and Small Traders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija


    Full Text Available In relations of producers and small traders, diferent forms of vertical marketing develop a long time. However, under the contemporary conditions of retail global companies, the question is frst about conception of products categories called category management – CM. Namely, the prerequisites of business success of contemporary retail economic subjects in new highly competitive environment hide in the implementation of new managing conceptions and new technologies. This paper first gives a short analysis of some former theoretical cooperation viewpoints of producers and traders in marketing channels; later, it analyzes the basic assumptions of new vertical marketing on which rests the conception of category management. Besides, the paper states the application possibilities of the stated conception from the trader’s point of view. The basic hypothesis from which the authors start is the indispensability of vertical marketing application in the relations of contemporary retail economic subjects and producers in all market economies and the implementation of category management in its structure.

  6. Improvement of production capacity and export raspberry from Republic of Serbia


    Radosavljević Katica


    In order to promote the Republic of Serbia as an investment destination and boost exports is necessary to improve the image of Republic of Serbia. The target is to produce sufficient amounts of high quality raspberries. It is necessary to promote Republic of Serbia as an attractive destination for foreign investment and promote exports of raspberries. The way to achieve the above objectives is determined strategy of international marketing. Republic of Serbia should find its way of realizatio...

  7. A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schlobohm


    Full Text Available Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ m .

  8. Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, L.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Fonager, J.


    Norovirus outbreaks occur frequently in Denmark and it can be difficult to establish whether apparently independent outbreaks have the same origin. Here we report on six outbreaks linked to frozen raspberries, investigated separately over a period of 3 months. Norovirus from stools were sequence...... capsid P2 region. In one outbreak at a hospital canteen, frozen raspberries was associated with illness by cohort investigation (relative risk 6·1, 95% confidence interval 3·2–11). Bags of raspberries suspected to be the source were positive for genogroup I and II noroviruses, one typable virus...... was genotype GI.6 (capsid). These molecular investigations showed that the apparently independent outbreaks were the result of one contamination event of frozen raspberries. The contaminated raspberries originated from a single producer in Serbia and were originally not considered to belong to the same batch...

  9. Heterologous production of raspberry ketone in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae via pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion. (United States)

    Lee, Danna; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Pretorius, Isak S; Borneman, Anthony R


    Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in raspberries and naturally derived raspberry ketone is a valuable flavoring agent. The economic incentives for the production of raspberry ketone, combined with the very poor yields from plant tissue, therefore make this compound an excellent target for heterologous production in synthetically engineered microbial strains. A de novo pathway for the production of raspberry ketone was assembled using four heterologous genes, encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxlase, coumarate-CoA ligase and benzalacetone synthase, in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic protein fusions were also explored as a means of increasing yields of the final product. The highest raspberry ketone concentration achieved in minimal media exceeded 7.5 mg/L when strains were fed with 3 mM p-coumaric acid; or 2.8 mg/L for complete de novo synthesis, both of which utilized a coumarate-CoA ligase, benzalacetone synthase synthetic fusion protein that increased yields over fivefold compared to the native enzymes. In addition, this strain was shown to be able to produce significant amounts of raspberry ketone in wine, with a raspberry ketone titer of 3.5 mg/L achieved after aerobic fermentation of Chardonnay juice or 0.68 mg/L under anaerobic winemaking conditions. We have shown that it is possible to produce sensorially-relevant quantities of raspberry ketone in an industrial heterologous host. This paves the way for further pathway optimization to provide an economical alternative to raspberry ketone derived from plant sources.

  10. OpenDomo en Raspberry Pi


    Sánchez Herrero, David


    Portabilidad del sistema de control domótico OpenDomo a la arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Portabilitat del sistema de control domòtic OpenDomo a l'arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Master thesis for the Free software program.

  11. Raspberry Pi home automation with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K


    If you are new to the Raspberry Pi, the Arduino, or home automation and wish to develop some amazing projects using these tools, then this book is for you. Any experience in using the Raspberry Pi would be an added advantage.

  12. IoT con Raspberry Pi


    García Muelas, Carlos


    Estudio de diferentes plataformas software y hardware del internet de las cosas. Aplicación real con Raspberry Pi. Estudi de diferents plataformes programari i maquinari de l'internet de les coses. Aplicació real amb Raspberry Pi. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  13. Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ready producers in least developed countries with potential buyers in Canada, and provide active mentoring. At the same time, the Thailand-based Mekong Institute will work with women entrepreneurs and business development providers, ...

  14. Raspberry Pi programming day | 12 April

    CERN Multimedia

    William Bell


    CERN is hosting a Raspberry Pi programming day on 12 April 2014 (see here).   The event includes a hands-on workshop and a series of presentations of different projects with the Raspberry Pi. The presentations and workshop provide an ideal introduction for beginners and information for those with more advanced computer programming skills. Basic programming techniques will be discussed using Scratch, Python and C, through a set of worked examples and additional electronics. The electronics examples will include a LEGO NXT interface, other expansion boards and a variety of basic I/O components and sensors. This event is free, but it is necessary to sign up to be able to attend. If you would like to present a project or bring your Raspberry Pi project to discuss in the tutorial session, please also email with the details of your presentation or project.

  15. Supplies of stock control system proposal for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Theodoro Silva


    Full Text Available Inventory management is an essential practice to support decision-making across the enterprises, including rural organizations, that could avoid the risk of loss of raw materials and goods by expiration date, disuse or even theft. Many smaller farmers find it difficult to perform a control of their inventories due to the complexity of the technological tools that require users basic skills in using information technology resources. Assuming that the need for an inventory control is directly related to reduction costs, understood that an effective diagnosis of stocks in real time, and can be extremely important in the productive activity of the small farmer. In this sense, we propose a technology application to be used in inventory control of small farms, to assist in the administrative proceedings and facilitate decision making when buying inputs and maintain precise control of outgoing goods. The proposed application is based be easy on visual interpretation and be used by mobile devices, so it can be accessed anywhere on the property.

  16. Bioconversion to Raspberry Ketone is Achieved by Several Non-related Plant Cell Cultures (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi T.; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko


    Bioconversion, i.e., the use of biological systems to perform chemical changes in synthetic or natural compounds in mild conditions, is an attractive tool for the production of novel active or high-value compounds. Plant cells exhibit a vast biochemical potential, being able to transform a range of substances, including pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial by-products, via enzymatic processes. The use of plant cell cultures offers possibilities for contained and optimized production processes which can be applied in industrial scale. Raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one] is among the most interesting natural flavor compounds, due to its high demand and significant market value. The biosynthesis of this industrially relevant flavor compound is relatively well characterized, involving the condensation of 4-coumaryl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by Type III polyketide synthase to form a diketide, and the subsequent reduction catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent reductase. Raspberry ketone has been successfully produced by bioconversion using different hosts and precursors to establish more efficient and economical processes. In this work, we studied the effect of overexpressed RiZS1 in tobacco on precursor bioconversion to raspberry ketone. In addition, various wild type plant cell cultures were studied for their capacity to carry out the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using either 4-hydroxybenzalacetone or betuligenol as a substrate. Apparently plant cells possess rather widely distributed reductase activity capable of performing the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using cheap and readily available precursors. PMID:26635853

  17. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng


    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  18. Improvement of production capacity and export raspberry from Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica


    Full Text Available In order to promote the Republic of Serbia as an investment destination and boost exports is necessary to improve the image of Republic of Serbia. The target is to produce sufficient amounts of high quality raspberries. It is necessary to promote Republic of Serbia as an attractive destination for foreign investment and promote exports of raspberries. The way to achieve the above objectives is determined strategy of international marketing. Republic of Serbia should find its way of realization of the set goals. A good example of prosperity and international promotion of the industry raspberry we can see the competitors Poland and Chile, who have been well positioned in the global market. International marketing should be supported by intensive promotion in all media and the Internet, participation in international fairs.

  19. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka


    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  20. Molecular characterization of aphid resistance in black raspberry germplasm (United States)

    Black raspberry is a minor but lucrative crop with most of the acreage in the U.S. found in Oregon. Rapid decline of plantings results from virus infection vectored by the North American large raspberry aphid and is the most limiting factor for growing black raspberry. Existing cultivars are suscept...

  1. A Low-Cost Wireless Multi-Presentation on Single Screen in Classroom Using Raspberry Pi (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Layona, Rita; Dewi, Lusiana Citra


    Smartphone has become a daily necessity in supporting the mobility of users, including teachers and students. The need of users to make multi-presentation via a smartphone wirelessly does not fit with the cost and multiplatform support. This study aims to produce a solution by using Raspberry Pi as a wireless digital media player that will be…

  2. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador (United States)

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  3. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.). (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F


    Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters

  5. Power Monitoring Using the Raspberry Pi (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.


    The Raspberry Pi is a credit card size low powered compute board with Ethernet connection, HDMI video output, audio, full Linux operating system run from an SD card, and more, all for $45. With cables, SD card, etc., the cost is about $70. Originally designed to help teach computer science principles to low income children and students, the Pi has…

  6. 27 CFR 24.278 - Tax credit for certain small domestic producers. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax credit for certain... Taxpaid Removals § 24.278 Tax credit for certain small domestic producers. (a) General. A person who produces not more than 250,000 gallons of wine during the calendar year may take a credit against any tax...

  7. Real-time ground motions monitoring system developed by Raspberry Pi 3 (United States)

    Chen, P.; Jang, J. P.; Chang, H.; Lin, C. R.; Lin, P. P.; Wang, C. C.


    Ground-motions seismic stations are usually installed in the special geological area, like high possibility landslide area, active volcanoes, or nearby faults, to real-time monitor the possible geo-hazards. Base on the demands, three main issues needs to be considered: size, low-power consumption and real-time data transmission. Raspberry Pi 3 has the suitable characteristics to fit our requests. Thus, we develop a real-time ground motions monitoring system by Raspberry Pi 3. The Raspberry Pi has the credit-card-sized with single-board computers. The operating system is based on the programmable Linux system.The volume is only 85.6 by 53.98 by 17 mm with USB and Ethernet interfaces. The power supply is only needed 5 Volts and 2.1 A. It is easy to get power by using solar power and transmit the real-time data through Ethernet or by the mobile signal through USB adapter. As Raspberry Pi still a kind of small computer, the service, software or GUI can be very flexibly developed, such as the basic web server, ftp server, SSH connection, and real-time visualization interface tool etc. Until now, we have developed ten instruments with on-line/ real-time data transmission and have installed in the Taiping Mountain in Taiwan to motor the geohazard like mudslide.

  8. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti


    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  9. The Governance of Fair Trade System: Evidence from Small Honey Producers in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira


    Full Text Available This paper discusses Fair Trade [FT] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from RS to meet these criteria. A new trading system such as FT has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. The method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by Paul (2005 to analyse FT as development projects. This study is three-fold: first to characterise the FT system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as FLO-CERT and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with FT, such as export and organisation capacity. Our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the FT system. The certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.

  10. Seeing the forest for the trees: annotating small RNA producing genes in plants. (United States)

    Coruh, Ceyda; Shahid, Saima; Axtell, Michael J


    A key goal in genomics is the complete annotation of the expressed regions of the genome. In plants, substantial portions of the genome make regulatory small RNAs produced by Dicer-Like (DCL) proteins and utilized by Argonaute (AGO) proteins. These include miRNAs and various types of endogenous siRNAs. Small RNA-seq, enabled by cheap and fast DNA sequencing, has produced an enormous volume of data on plant miRNA and siRNA expression in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent progress in using small RNA-seq data to produce stable and reliable annotations of miRNA and siRNA genes in plants. In addition, we highlight key goals for the future of small RNA gene annotation in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  12. Global standards and local knowledge building: upgrading small producers in developing countries. (United States)

    Perez-Aleman, Paola


    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities.

  13. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.



    Aho, Henri


    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli Raspberry Pi-alustalle suunnitellun etäluettavan ja -hallittavan mittausjärjes-telmän toteuttaminen Nab Labs Oy:n ilmatutkimusyksikölle. Työn tavoitteena oli automatisoida mit-taustulosten keräämistä ja käsittelyä. Rinnakkain kulkeva teorian ja käytännön kuvaus jakaantuu kolmeen eri osa-alueeseen: Raspberry Pi ja siihen liitetyt laitteet, järjestelmän toiminta ja sen ohjelmointi sekä internet-käyttöliityntä ja www-ohjelmointi. Työn tuloksena syntyi mittalaitt...

  15. Door Security using Face Detection and Raspberry Pi (United States)

    Bhutra, Venkatesh; Kumar, Harshav; Jangid, Santosh; Solanki, L.


    With the world moving towards advanced technologies, security forms a crucial part in daily life. Among the many techniques used for this purpose, Face Recognition stands as effective means of authentication and security. This paper deals with the user of principal component and security. PCA is a statistical approach used to simplify a data set. The minimum Euclidean distance found from the PCA technique is used to recognize the face. Raspberry Pi a low cost ARM based computer on a small circuit board, controls the servo motor and other sensors. The servo-motor is in turn attached to the doors of home and opens up when the face is recognized. The proposed work has been done using a self-made training database of students from B.K. Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan, India.

  16. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal


    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  17. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun


    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  18. The management of radioactive wastes from small producers; La gestion des dechets radioactifs des petits producteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Medicine, research and industry generate various type of radioactive wastes which have to be managed by the ANDRA, the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes. This educative booklet explains the missions of the ANDRA with respect to these small producers: collection, selection, conditioning, control and storage of wastes. (J.S.)

  19. Sistem Informasi Lalu Lintas Berbasis Raspberry Pi PC Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmadina


    Full Text Available Due to increasing routine society in the era of globalization, the growth rate of the road and the vehicle becomes unbalanced so that cause traffic jams. Utilization of mini computers can help in the monitor of traffic density. This system implements Raspberry Pi equipped cameras to take pictures of the density of highways. The system is placed in a certain angle and height so that it can monitor the state of traffic. This research aims to build information systems using computer vision with background subtraction model. Image processed to produce data from calculation of contour feature such as traffic density which will be sent to the server. So in the end with this system information data traffic density directly can be known with accuracy of 87,6%.

  20. Comparing the microbiological status of pre- and postharvest produce from small organic production. (United States)

    Xu, Aixia; Pahl, Donna M; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A


    Consumption of locally, organically grown produce is increasing in popularity. Organic farms typically produce on a small scale, have limited resources, and adopt low technology harvest and postharvest handling practices. Data on the food safety risk associated with hand harvesting, field packing, and packing-house handling with minimal treatment, at this production scale, are lacking. We followed produce from small organic farms from the field through postharvest handling and packing. Pre- and postharvest produce (177 samples) and water (29 samples) were collected and analyzed quantitatively for Escherichia coli, total coliforms (TC), aerobic bacteria (APC), yeasts, molds (M), and enteric pathogens. No pathogens were recovered. E. coli was detected in 3 (3.6%) of 83 preharvest produce samples, 2 (6.3%) of 32 unwashed and 0 of 42 washed postharvest produce samples, and 10 (34.5%) of 29 water samples. No correlation was found between bacterial levels in irrigation water and those on produce. Postharvest handling without washing was a factor for APC and M counts on tomatoes, with lower frequencies postharvest. Postharvest handling with washing was a factor for leafy greens for TC counts, with higher frequencies postharvest. APC (P = 0.03) and yeast (P = 0.05) counts were higher in preharvest than in unwashed postharvest tomatoes. Washed postharvest leafy greens had higher M counts (P = 0.03) and other washed produce had higher TC counts (P = 0.01) than did their preharvest counterparts. Barriers were found to the use of sanitizer in wash water for leafy greens among small farms using organic practices. Hand harvesting and dry handling did not appear to be associated with a significant food safety risk, but washed leafy greens carried higher levels of some microbial indicators, possibly because of the lack of sanitizer in the wash water. The development of resources and materials customized for this sector of growers could enhance dissemination of information on best

  1. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.


    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  2. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  3. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.


    In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of

  4. Chemotaxonomy of Black Raspberry: deception in the marketplace? (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. Over the last eight years, we have analyzed the fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes, and found the ant...

  5. Molecular evaluation of aphid-resistant black raspberry germplasm for improved durability in black and red raspberry (United States)

    Over the last century, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) industry in the U.S. has undergone a slow contraction because of a lack of adapted and disease resistant cultivars. The Pacific Northwest is the major black raspberry production region in North America, with the value of $9.6 million pr...

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.


    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  7. Evaluation of the Possibility of Shaking Off Raspberry Fruits with a Pulsating Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of harvesting raspberries with a pulsating air stream that causes the shoots of plants to vibrate. Two tractor-driven test devices were developed under this specific objective. The first one was a high capacity compressor, and the stream of air produced by it was directed onto one side of a row of plants. The second one was a device producing two counter-flowing air streams colliding in the middle of a row of plants. The frequency of the air pulses was adjusted steplessly by varying the rotational velocity of the shutters closing and opening the outlets of the fans. In the field trials with the device based on a compressor-generated air stream, two air pulse frequencies were used: 500 and 540 pulses per minute (8.3 and 9 Hz. The mean detachment force was 0.727 N. About 50% of ripe raspberries were removed from the bushes. The results achieved during harvesting with the device operating on the principle of colliding two pulsating air streams were markedly better and put the harvesting effectiveness within the range achieved in the trials with combine harvesters with mechanical finger shakers conducted by other researchers. For two pulse frequencies (8 and 9 Hz, almost 62% of fruits were harvested. Increasing the pulse frequency of the counter-flowing air streams above 9 Hz did not improve the effectiveness of detaching raspberry fruits from shoots.

  8. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong; Hwang, Yoon Kyun


    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO 2 nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures

  9. Brokering as an impediment to the development of small producers in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Caicedo Díaz del Castillo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify market constraints in agricultural products between the various actors in the production and marketing chain. It starts with understanding the inequalities of opportunities for vulnerable communities, and events or traditions outside those communities, which generate the conditions that perpetuate poverty from generation to generation. Agents involved in this market are immersed in these economic and sociocultural dynamics, favoring exclusion of social groups with less power, as in the case of small producers in Colombia. By means of a survey to fifty small farmers in the township of San Cristobal (Medellin, we inquire about socioeconomic variables such as buying and selling prices, production costs, family expenses, marketing methods, transformation of production, among others. Once tabulated and analyzed the information, we found that the vast majority of the population perceives that middle man as the main cause for not finding improvements in their quality of life. The relationships between the different actors in the production and marketing chain were established by comparing prices of each of the agents, taking as a basis for comparison, the price of the small producer. We found that profit margins are low for the producer, which discourages the permanence of agricultural activities in the long term.

  10. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus. (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide


    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  11. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia. (United States)

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K


    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and biosecurity practices as well as the motivations of these producers keeping pigs in small

  12. Prediction of small spark ignited engine performance using producer gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homdoung


    Full Text Available Producer gas from biomass gasification is expected to contribute to greater energy mix in the future. Therefore, effect of producer gas on engine performance is of great interest. Evaluation of engine performances can be hard and costly. Ideally, they may be predicted mathematically. This work was to apply mathematical models in evaluating performance of a small producer gas engine. The engine was a spark ignition, single cylinder unit with a CR of 14:1. Simulation was carried out on full load and varying engine speeds. From simulated results, it was found that the simple mathematical model can predict the performance of the gas engine and gave good agreement with experimental results. The differences were within ±7%.

  13. Raspberry Pi cookbook for Python programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Tim


    ""Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers"" is written in a Cookbook format, presenting examples in the style of recipes.This allows you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain a thorough in-depth knowledge.The aim of this book is to bring you a broad range of Python 3 examples and practical ideas which you can develop to suit your own requirements. By modifying and combining the examples to create your own projects you learn far more effectively with a much greater understanding. Each chapter is designed to become a foundation for further e

  14. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph


    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  15. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman


    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  16. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority (Revised) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

  17. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt. (United States)

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E


    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy


    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  19. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Victoria H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  20. Raspberry Leaf and Hypoglycemia in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I; Nguyen, Thanh T; Karjane, Nicole W; Salley, Kelsey E S


    Raspberry leaf is commonly consumed by pregnant women. Hypoglycemic effects have been documented with other species within the plant family. Whether raspberry leaf affects glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. A 38-year-old nulliparous woman with GDM developed hypoglycemia requiring lowered insulin dose after consuming raspberry leaf tea at 32 weeks of gestation. The temporal relationship was confirmed by the patient's self-withdrawal and reintroduction of the herb. Fetal surveillance and growth were reassuring. A cesarean delivery was performed at 39 weeks of gestation. The neonate did not experience hypoglycemia or other complications. Placental biopsy revealed normal findings. Consumption of raspberry leaf may lead to reduced insulin requirements in GDM. Women with GDM should be cautioned about its use and their glucose levels more closely monitored.

  1. Glucanolytic Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the Causal Agent of Raspberry Root Rot. (United States)

    Valois, D; Fayad, K; Barasubiye, T; Garon, M; Dery, C; Brzezinski, R; Beaulieu, C


    A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to grow on fragmented Phytophthora mycelium and to produce metabolites that inhibit Phytophthora growth. Thirteen strains were selected, and all produced (beta)-1,3-, (beta)-1,4-, and (beta)-1,6-glucanases. These enzymes could hydrolyze glucans from Phytophthora cell walls and cause lysis of Phytophthora cells. These enzymes also degraded other glucan substrates, such as cellulose, laminarin, pustulan, and yeast cell walls. Eleven strains significantly reduced the root rot index when inoculated on raspberry plantlets.

  2. Raspberry Pi: käyttöönotto ja sovellustestaus


    Sarja, Jari


    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua Raspberry Pi:n, luottokortin kokoisen Linux-tietokoneen käyttöönottoon ja sovellustestaukseen. Raspberry Pi -tietokone esiteltiin Linux Format -lehdessä syksyllä 2012, josta opinnäytetyön aihe on löydetty. Raspberry Pi -tietokone on kehitetty Englannissa Raspberry Pi -säätiön toimesta tietokoneista kiinnostuneille nuorille. Raspberry Pi:n erityisominaisuuksia ovat pieni koko, keveys ja vähäinen sähkönkulutus. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin Raspberry Pi -...

  3. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi


    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan


    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  4. Methods for detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on raspberry


    Koprivica Mirjana; Dulić-Marković Ivana; Jevtić Radivoje; Cooke Dave E.L.


    Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox and Duncan), a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I.), Dundee, UK. Necrotic ...

  5. Semiochemical-based pest insect management in strawberry and raspberry


    Wibe, Atle; Baroffio, Catherine; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Cross, Jerry; Fountain, Michelle; Hall, David; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Ralle, Baiba; Sigsgaard, Lene; Trandem, Nina


    Introduction: For many insect species, pheromones and host plant volatiles are of major importance in mate finding and host plant location. Therefore, there is potential for using these interactions to develop new strategies and effective control measures. The strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi), the European tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) and the raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) cause large losses (10->80%) in both conventional and organic strawberry and raspberry prod...

  6. Phenolic antioxidants extraction from raspberry wastes assisted by-enzymes


    Laroze,Liza; Soto,Carmen; Zúñiga,María Elvira


    The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on phenolic antioxidant extraction was studied in raspberry solid wastes. This by-product possesses high content of crude fiber (60%) and low values of protein, oil and ash. Raspberry fiber composition suggests that biocatalysts with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities would be useful for carrying out an enzymatically assisted antioxidant extraction. Hydro-alcoholic extraction was done using different commercial enzymes. Total phenol content an...

  7. Pathway and protein engineering approaches to produce novel and commodity small molecules. (United States)

    Bhan, Namita; Xu, Peng; Koffas, Mattheos A G


    Nature has provided us the basis of designing the most integrated and efficacious production platforms. Cell factories via their millions of years of evolution have nearly perfected each of their production systems. We have been trying to imitate, utilize and tweak this system to our advantage by using slightly overlapping and greatly interdependent approaches such as metabolic engineering and systems biology to make nature work for us in an efficient and robust way, without producing toxic waste and/or unnecessary side products. Systems biology, metabolic engineering and 'omics' technologies have paved the way for protein and pathway engineering. To this end we will talk about the recent advances in production of novel pharmaceutical and commodity small molecules by designing novel proteins and pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chres W. Sørensen


    Full Text Available In the near future, upcoming communications and storage networks are expected to tolerate major difficulties produced by huge amounts of data being generated from the Internet of Things (IoT. For these types of networks, strategies and mechanisms based on network coding have appeared as an alternative to overcome these difficulties in a holistic manner, e.g., without sacrificing the benefit of a given network metric when improving another. There has been recurrent issues on: (i making large-scale deployments akin to the Internet of Things; (ii assessing and (iii replicating the obtained results in preliminary studies. Therefore, finding testbeds that can deal with large-scale deployments and not lose historic data in order to evaluate these mechanisms are greatly needed and desirable from a research perspective. However, this can be hard to manage, not only due to the inherent costs of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications requiring results replicability.

  9. Decay resistance to Botrytis cinerea and quality characteristics during storage of raspberry genotypes (United States)

    Raspberries are a delicate, high value crop with an extremely short shelf life exacerbated by postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is the most widely grown. Yellow (R. idaeus L.), black (R. occidentalis L.) and purple raspberries (R. ×neglectus ...

  10. A new virus in Luteoviridae is associated with raspberry leaf curl disease (United States)

    To determine the etiology of Raspberry Leaf Curl Disease (RLCD), which causes leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf chlorosis, shoot dwarfing, shoot proliferation in raspberries and can kill plants within three years, a next generation sequences approach was applied. Two red raspberry plants collected...

  11. The costs and benefits of pollinator dependence: empirically-based simulations predict raspberry fruit quality. (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Morales, Juan M; Morales, Carolina L; Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A


    Globally, agriculture increasingly depends on pollinators to produce many seed and fruit crops. However, what constitutes optimal pollination service for pollinator-dependent crops remains unanswered. We developed a simulation model to identify the optimal pollination service that maximizes fruit quality in crops. The model depicts the pollination (i.e. autonomous self-fertilization, pollen deposition) and post-pollination (i.e. pollen germination, and time from germination to ovule fertilization) processes leading to fruit and seed set and allows for negative flower-pollinator interactions, specifically pistil damage. We parameterized and validated the model based on empirical observations of commercial raspberry in western Argentina. To assess the effects of pollination intensity for fruit production, we conducted simulations over a range of visit number per flower by the two primary managed pollinators worldwide, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris. Simulations identified that ~15-35 visits per flower by A. mellifera or ~10-20 visits by B. terrestris provide adequate pollination and maximize raspberry fruit quality (i.e. estimated as the proportion of ovules that develop into drupelets). Visits in excess of these optima reduce simulated fruit quality, and flowers receiving > 670 honey-bee visits or > 470 bumble-bee visits would produce fruits of poorer quality than those receiving no bee visits. The simulations generated consistent, unbiased predictions of fruit quality for 12 raspberry fields. This model could be adapted easily to other animal-pollinated crops and used to guide efficient pollinator management in any agro-ecosystem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.


    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  13. Impact of coffee crop renewal program on small producers in department Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarín N. Carlos Andrés


    Full Text Available

    The modernization of crops through renewal is a vital option for the restoration of the productivity and competitiveness of the coffee crop. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee is banking on a strategy that promotes renewal by providing resources to stimulate growers. As a result of the implementation of the program, it is hoped that it will reverse the aging process of coffee crops, consolidate a productive and competitive market, provide appropriate ages and densities and promote the use of coffee rust resistant varieties. Similarly, it is expected that small producers, who constitute the majority of farmers and who presumably suffer major limitations to independent renewal, will be the main beneficiaries.

  14. Structure of Amphiphilic Terpolymer Raspberry Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo


    Full Text Available Terpolymer raspberry vesicles contain domains of different chemical affinities. They are potential candidates as multi-compartment cargo carriers. Their efficacy depends on their stability and load capacity. Using a model star terpolymer system in an aqueous solution, a dissipative particle dynamic (DPD simulation is employed to investigate how equilibrium aggregate structures are affected by polymer concentration and pairwise interaction energy in a solution. It is shown that a critical mass of polymer is necessary for vesicle formation. The free energy of the equilibrium aggregates are calculated and the results show that the transition from micelles to vesicles is governed by the interactions between the longest solvophobic block and the solvent. In addition, the ability of vesicles to encapsulate solvent is assessed. It is found that reducing the interaction energy favours solvent encapsulation, although solvent molecules can permeate through the vesicle’s shell when repulsive interactions among monomers are low. Thus, one can optimize the loading capacity and the release rate of the vesicles by turning pairwise interaction energies of the polymer and the solvent. The ability to predict and control these aspects of the vesicles is an essential step towards designing vesicles for specific purposes.

  15. Tracking (Poly)phenol components from raspberries in ileal fluid. (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Conner, Sean; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Gonzalez-Barrio, Rocio; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Moffet, Tanya; Ibars, Maria; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R


    The (poly)phenols in ileal fluid after ingestion of raspberries were analyzed by targeted and nontargeted LC-MS(n) approaches. Targeted approaches identified major anthocyanin and ellagitannin components at varying recoveries and with considerable interindividual variation. Nontargeted LC-MS(n) analysis using an orbitrap mass spectrometer gave exact mass MS data which were sifted using a software program to select peaks that changed significantly after supplementation. This method confirmed the recovery of the targeted components but also identified novel raspberry-specific metabolites. Some components (including ellagitannin and previously unidentified proanthocyanidin derivatives) may have arisen from raspberry seeds that survived intact in ileal samples. Other components include potential breakdown products of anthocyanins, unidentified components, and phenolic metabolites formed either in the gut epithelia or after absorption into the circulatory system and efflux back into the gut lumen. The possible physiological roles of the ileal metabolites in the large bowel are discussed.

  16. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid


    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...

  17. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi. (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Akçay, Çağlar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances


    Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  18. Understanding the Performance of Low Power Raspberry Pi Cloud for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Hajji


    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet-of-Things (IoT devices generate data at high speed and large volume. Often the data require real-time processing to support high system responsiveness which can be supported by localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. However, there are considerably large deployments of IoT such as sensor networks in remote areas where Internet connectivity is sparse, challenging the localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi, a credit card-sized single board computer, there is a great opportunity to construct low-cost, low-power portable cloud to support real-time data processing next to IoT deployments. In this paper, we extend our previous work on constructing Raspberry Pi Cloud to study its feasibility for real-time big data analytics under realistic application-level workload in both native and virtualised environments. We have extensively tested the performance of a single node Raspberry Pi 2 Model B with httperf and a cluster of 12 nodes with Apache Spark and HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System. Our results have demonstrated that our portable cloud is useful for supporting real-time big data analytics. On the other hand, our results have also unveiled that overhead for CPU-bound workload in virtualised environment is surprisingly high, at 67.2%. We have found that, for big data applications, the virtualisation overhead is fractional for small jobs but becomes more significant for large jobs, up to 28.6%.

  19. The Complex Sol–Gel Process for producing small ThO{sub 2} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brykala, Marcin, E-mail:; Rogowski, Marcin


    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø <50 μm). Their application involves using powder-free process, called the Complex Sol–Gel Process. The source sols used for the processes were prepared by the method where in the starting ascorbic acid solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate gel were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article. - Highlights: • ThO{sub 2} were prepared for the first time using combination of ICHTJ methods. • The homogeneous thorium-ascorbate sol was used as starting solutions in CSGP method. • The gelation by IChTJ Process to microspheres (Ø <50 μm) with 100% efficiency was used. • ThO{sub 2} microspheres exhibit a high sphericity, crack-free surface and microstructure. • The cubic crystalline structure of ThO{sub 2} was produced at 700 °C.

  20. Synthesis of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhizhong; Xia Ao; Wang Changchun; Yang Wuli; Fu Shoukuang


    Raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres were prepared via soap-free emulsion polymerization using 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V50) as initiator. The effect of polymerization parameters, such as initiator type, initiator content and the feeding sequence on the particle size and morphology of magnetic polystyrene microspheres, were examined. The final magnetic polystyrene microspheres were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results showed that V50 was a suitable initiator for preparation of raspberry-like magnetic polystyrene microspheres

  1. Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar. (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Baik, Sang-Ho


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture-independent methods. During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L(-1) until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL(-1) . After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL(-1) until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L(-1) . In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis in selected parts of Chongwe district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chileshe


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to establish the level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (BTB, one of the neglected zoonotic diseases. Materials and Methods: In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 369 small-scale milk producers were interviewed using a pretested interviewer questionnaire. Using a computer, data obtained from the operator-administered questionnaires were entered in Epidata® and exported to Stata 10.0® for analysis with which descriptive statistics were generated for analysis. The level of knowledge on BTB for both male and female small-scale milk producers was analyzed in relation to membership to cooperative, frequency of TB tests in cattle, availability of extension services, and milk handling and utilization practices. The relationships between the different hypothesized confounders and the binary outcome (BTB testing were investigated with Pearson’s Chi-squared test for association. Logistic regression model describing the BTB cattle testing among the farmers controlling for hypothesized confounders was finalized using likelihood ratio testing to screen the significance of posited confounders in the model. To ensure validity and eliminate bias of data, the interviews were limited to three interviewers. The questionnaires were pre-tested for clarity as well as to avoid confounding questions. Results: Majority (95% of the small-scale milk producers across the study had heard about BTB. The proportion of those who knew that it is transmittable to humans was low (43.8%. The proportion of those who knew its mode of transmission to humans was also low (32.4%. However, it was high in milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives followed by producers in livestock cooperatives. It was noted that a small proportion of small-scale milk producers ensured that their cattle were tested for BTB. Logistic regression showed that there was 73 times likelihood that

  3. Quantitative farm-to-fork human norovirus exposure assessment of individually quick frozen raspberries and raspberry puree. (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Stals, A; De Keuckelaere, A; Deliens, B; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M


    A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV. The model was built simulating that a collection center received berries from ten farms with a total of 245 food handlers picking soft red fruits during a 10-hour day shift. Given 0, 5 and 20 out of 245 berries' pickers were shedding NoV, these conditions were calculated to result in a mean NoV contamination of respectively 0.47, 14.1 and 36.2 NoV particles per kg raspberries in case all raspberries are mixed to one day-batch of 11tons. The NoV contamination of the fruits was mainly driven by the route of NoV shedding food pickers (95.8%) rather than by spraying contaminated pesticide water (4.2%) (baseline scenario with 5 shedding pickers and contaminated pesticide water). Inclusion of appropriate hand washing procedures or hand washing followed by hand disinfection resulted in estimated reductions of the mean NoV levels from 14.1 to 0.16 and 0.17 NoV particles per kg raspberries, respectively, for the baseline scenario with 5 out of 245 food pickers shedding NoV. The use of a mild heat treatment (30s at 75°C) during further processing of berries to purees was noted to reduce mean NoV levels substantially from 14.1 to 0.2 NoV particles per kg raspberry puree. For IQF raspberries, the NoV contamination is heterogeneously distributed and resulted in a mean contamination of 3.1 NoV particles per 250g

  4. Values-Based Supply Chains as a Strategy for Supporting Small and Mid-Scale Producers in the United States


    Gail Feenstra; Shermain Hardesty


    Consumers are increasingly interested in the “values” associated with the food they eat and are often willing to pay more for food for which there is a “story” that links farm to fork. The “values” associated with these foods may be that they are locally produced, by small or mid-scale farms, or use production practices that enhance the environment. Wholesale channels that provide marketing options for small and mid-scale producers and support these values are referred to as “values-based sup...

  5. Teaching Direct Marketign and Small Farm Viability, 2nd Edition. Unit 2 - Overview of Produce Marketing



    The choice of a produce marketing channel is one of the most critical decisions produce farmers must make. This unit introduces students to the history of produce marketing and provides information on the most common marketing options. Lecture 1 provides an historical overview and discusses the changes growers made to their marketing practices after the advent of supermarkets and 20th century technology. It also introduces Agricultural Marketing Orders and their unique role in market...

  6. Identification by PCR of Fusarium culmorum Strains Producing Large and Small Amounts of Deoxynivalenol (United States)

    Bakan, B.; Giraud-Delville, C.; Pinson, L.; Richard-Molard, D.; Fournier, E.; Brygoo, Y.


    Thirty deoxynivalenol-producing F. culmorum strains, isolated from wheat grains, were incubated in vitro and analyzed for trichothecene production. Seventeen strains produced more than 1 ppm of deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenol and were considered high-deoxynivalenol-producing strains, whereas 13 F. culmorum strains produced less than 0.07 ppm of trichothecenes and were considered low-deoxynivalenol-producing strains. For all strains, a 550-base portion of the trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) was amplified and sequenced. According to the tri5 data, the F. culmorum strains tested clustered into two groups that correlated with in vitro deoxynivalenol production. For three high-producing and three low-producing F. culmorum strains, the tri5-tri6 intergenic region was then sequenced, which confirmed the two separate clusters within the F. culmorum strains. According to the tri5-tri6 sequence data, specific PCR primers were designed to allow differentiation of high-producing from low-producing F. culmorum strains. PMID:12406740

  7. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Excretion of Anthocyanins, and Microbial Diversity in Rats Fed Blackcurrants, Blackberries, and Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir


    Full Text Available Introduction. Berries contain high amounts of dietary fibre and flavonoids and have been associated with improved metabolic health. The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important. The potent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of flavonoids could also be a factor, but little is known about their fate in the gastrointestinal tract. Aim. To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids. Results and Conclusions. Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries. However, the microbial diversity of the gut microbiota was higher in rats fed raspberries. The high content of soluble fibre in blackcurrants and the high proportion of mannose-containing polymers might explain these effects. Anthocyanins could only be detected in urine of rats fed blackcurrants, and the excretion was lower with HEAL19. No anthocyanins or anthocyanidins were detected in caecal content or blood. This may indicate uptake in the stomach or small intestine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yuwono


    Full Text Available Limitations of the data processing device is large enough shape so it is less flexible in mobile functionality. Raspberry Pi is a single board computer (single-board computer or a credit card-sized SBC. Raspberry Pi has been equipped with all functions like a complete computer, using a SoC (System-on-a-chip ARM packaged and integrated on the PCB. CCTV is one device that is expected to reduce the crime rate in public areas. But the high cost of installation constraints (either electrical or network and limited mobility placement tool makes use of the device is not maximal yet. This study offers an alternative solution to fix the above problems. Prototype Development of Public Monitoring System Using a Raspberry Pi is an initial sub-study of grand research Intelligent Application Integration Public Monitoring System. The output will be achieved is to build a device for monitoring systems that have mobility design that can be placed in various places. With this research is expected to provide the use of Raspberry Pi discourse to establish a monitoring system that is inexpensive and power-efficient government support programs.

  9. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2003; Gercekcioglu et al., 2003; Kaplan et al., 2003; Kurt et al., 2003; Eyduran and Agaoglu, 2006; Eyduran et al.,. 2006; Atila et al., 2006; Eyduran et al., 2007;. Gercekcioglu, 2008). However, there was no published information on estimation of fruit weight (g/berry) by cane traits of raspberry cultivars.

  10. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images. (United States)

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira


    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  11. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (United States)


    ... countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78 percent) and Canada (17 percent). The 1996 Act... found that it is in the national public interest and vital to the welfare of the agricultural economy of... decreased to 50.3 million pounds in 2010. Chile, which is the predominate importer of processed raspberries...

  12. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry (United States)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  13. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out" (United States)

    Jaokar, Ajit


    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  14. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best inhibition effect on S. aureus, followed by B. subtilis, E. coli and Penicillium. However, it cannot inhibit the growth of S. cerevisiae, Rhizopus and Mucor.

  15. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry (United States)

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  16. ‘Kokanee’ primocane-fruiting red raspberry (United States)

    'Kokanee' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station. 'Kokanee' is a high-yielding cultivar tha...

  17. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva


    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  18. Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice. (United States)

    Luo, T; Miranda-Garcia, O; Sasaki, G; Shay, N F


    Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.

  19. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers. (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K


    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  1. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel


    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  2. Risks of using social media as a marketing tool for small producers in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhitha, K. M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this secondary research is to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers. Secondary research was used to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers in an emerging country. The growth in the craft market is also associated with the rise in local interest in South African craft fuelled by trends towards ethnic, rustic, earthy styles and increasing national pride and the return of local values. The consulted secondary resources confirm that social media has the potential to help crafters to create better brand awareness, better relationships with customers, and increase sales via these mechanisms. However, the major challenge for craft producers to use social media as a communication tool will be limited resources and illiteracy. The research recommends that the South African government provide support in the form of a centralized marketing agency that uses social media to promote craft producers products

  3. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de


    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  4. Sequence-independent characterization of viruses based on the pattern of viral small RNAs produced by the host. (United States)

    Aguiar, Eric Roberto Guimarães Rocha; Olmo, Roenick Proveti; Paro, Simona; Ferreira, Flavia Viana; de Faria, Isaque João da Silva; Todjro, Yaovi Mathias Honore; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Meignin, Carine; Gatherer, Derek; Imler, Jean-Luc; Marques, João Trindade


    Virus surveillance in vector insects is potentially of great benefit to public health. Large-scale sequencing of small and long RNAs has previously been used to detect viruses, but without any formal comparison of different strategies. Furthermore, the identification of viral sequences largely depends on similarity searches against reference databases. Here, we developed a sequence-independent strategy based on virus-derived small RNAs produced by the host response, such as the RNA interference pathway. In insects, we compared sequences of small and long RNAs, demonstrating that viral sequences are enriched in the small RNA fraction. We also noted that the small RNA size profile is a unique signature for each virus and can be used to identify novel viral sequences without known relatives in reference databases. Using this strategy, we characterized six novel viruses in the viromes of laboratory fruit flies and wild populations of two insect vectors: mosquitoes and sandflies. We also show that the small RNA profile could be used to infer viral tropism for ovaries among other aspects of virus biology. Additionally, our results suggest that virus detection utilizing small RNAs can also be applied to vertebrates, although not as efficiently as to plants and insects. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Values-Based Supply Chains as a Strategy for Supporting Small and Mid-Scale Producers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Feenstra


    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly interested in the “values” associated with the food they eat and are often willing to pay more for food for which there is a “story” that links farm to fork. The “values” associated with these foods may be that they are locally produced, by small or mid-scale farms, or use production practices that enhance the environment. Wholesale channels that provide marketing options for small and mid-scale producers and support these values are referred to as “values-based supply chains” (VBSCs. Goals of VBSCs are to: (1 provide greater economic stability for producers and others along the supply chain; and (2 provide high quality, regional food to consumers. After a brief overview of VBSCs, we then describe three cases—a specialty food manufacturer, a natural food cooperative and a regional “food hub”—representing different entry points along the food supply chain. We analyze them regarding the common benefits of VBSCs: transparency, fair prices to farmers and ease of purchasing from small and mid-scale producers. We conclude with common themes that emerge for VBSCs of the future and what it will take to strengthen them within regional food systems.

  6. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice. (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M


    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez


    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  8. Pulsed EPR studies of small reactive radicals produced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, R.G.


    For several years we have participated in a collaborative research effort to apply the pulsed EPR-pulse radiolysis technique to several problems associated with the dynamics of small reactive radicals formed during radiolysis of aqueous solutions using 3 MeV electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator. We will discuss experimental techniques and applications arising from this work, with particular emphasis on problems requiring high initial radical concentrations and EPR time resolution of one microsecond or better. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Upgrading Wood-Based Industries: Harnessing the Social Network of Small-Scale Furniture Producers and Their Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melati ,


    Full Text Available Furniture is a major export commodity in Indonesia with a total value of USD 1.96 million in 2007.  Jepara District is one of the key location for wood furniture production with 15,271 furniture related business units employing 176,469 workers.  However, inefficiencies and power imbalances throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in overharvesting and uneven distribution of gains among the industry’s actors.  In contrast to price-setting international furniture retailers, small-scale producers enjoy the least value from their products.  In order to increase added value and competitiveness, small-scale furniture producers have made efforts to upgrade by harnessing their social network and institutions.  This paper describes small-scale furniture producers’ efforts to upgrade by utilising their social network and institutions in Jepara.  Data was collected through in-depth interviews with members of the small-scale furniture producers’ association.  The research provides insight into the nature of social networks and information flow and develops future scenarios to upgrade.  The scenarios will not only benefit the furniture industry in Jepara, but may also be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and the world, and potentially improve many people’s economies and livelihoods.Keywords: wood-based industry, furniture, small-scale, social network, institution

  10. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi. (United States)

    Sapes, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc


    Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  11. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sapes


    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  12. Characteristics of blackberry and raspberry seeds and oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the determination of technological quality characteristics of dried pomaces, i.e. blackberry and raspberry seeds, along with the quality parameters, content of total carotenoids and chlorophyl and transparency of crude extracted oil (using organic solvent. Blackberry seeds (Rubus fruticosus L. were obtained from a domestic variety Čačanska bestrna, while the raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus L. were of the variety Willamette. Oil content of the blackberry pomace was 13.97 and 14.34%, while the oil content of the raspberry pomace was 13.44 and 14.33% on dry basis (d.b.. In regard to technological characteristics of the pomaces, i.e. volumetric and specific weight, no considerably difference was found. However, a weight test for 1000 seeds showed a significant difference in weight: 3.5 g (d.b. for the blackberry pomace and 1.5 g for the raspberry pomace (d.b.. Proximate analysis of blackberry seed oil showed that this oil had better quality since the FFA value was 3.43% (sample B1 and 3.53% (sample B2, while the peroxide value was 8.89 and 11.16 mmol/kg, respectively. Raspberry seed oil had higher FFA (8.59 and 8.83% for sample R1 and R2 and peroxide values (13.99 and 13.84 for sample R1 and R2 than the blackberry seed oil. Crude extracted blackberry seed oil had a brown-greenish color due to the high total chlorophyll content (around 3000 mg/kg dissolved in cyclohexane. Raspberry seed oil had a dark yellowishorange color, due to lower chlorophyll content (around 200 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil, while the content of total carotenoids was slightly higher in this oil (around 40 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil (33 mg/kg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  13. Agribusiness and Contract Farming: the Case of Small-Scale Cucumber Producers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Echánove Huacuja


    Full Text Available La agricultura por contrato constituye un mecanismo de abasto de las agroindustrias que se ha expandido rápidamente en los últimos años. Entre los factores que han motivado esta expansión se encuentran los cambios en el consumo alimentario, el crecimiento y fortalecimiento de las agroindustrias y otros distribuidores y la aplicación de políticas de ajuste estructural. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis de las características del régimen contractual bajo el cual se produce cierta hortaliza de exportación ('el pepinillo', así como sus efectos en los productores, en los mercados de trabajo y tierras, y en el medio ambiente. Encontramos que el ingreso obtenido por los productores contratados no los ha exentado de la necesidad de diversificar sus actividades y que, en general, su situación como productores de bienes no-tradicionales es vulnerable y dependiente de los cambios en los mercados mundiales. English: Contract farming comprises an agribusiness supply mechanism that has undergone rapid expansion in recent years. Among the factors influencing that expansion are changes in consumption, the growth and strengthening of agribusinesses and other distributors, and the application of structural adjustment policies. The objective of this article is the analysis of the characteristics of the type of contract farming practiced with regard to the production of an export vegetable crop (pickling cucumbers, as well as its effects on producers, labor and land markets, and the environment. We find that the income obtained by contracted producers has not freed them from the necessity of diversifying their activities, and that in general, their situation as producers of non-traditional commodities is vulnerable and dependent upon the changing scenarios of global markets.

  14. Training small producers in Good Manufacturing Practices for the development of goat milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí RAMÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.

  15. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries. (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew


    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  16. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry. (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G


    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Rural Associativity of Small Milk Producers and Collective Actions in the Free Market and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Cortés Millán


    Full Text Available This paper emerges as a result of the research “Design of public policies for the Associativity o milk producers in Colombia”. The creation process of milk producers associations in Cundinamarca is shown, with the goal of offering a framework for public policy that makes it possible to support and recognize rural communities immersed in globalization processes, involved in free commerce treaties with the United States and the European Union. The methodology defined for the project had a qualitative framework, expressed through an interpretative discursive typology. Thorough interviews were made with a focus on categorization that, for the project, linked the narrations and perceptions of the collective identity components, traditional practices and collective political action. On the other hand, the methodological experience made it possible to link complementary strategies such as social cartography, documentary collection and ethnographic diaries, with which it was possible not only to collect information related to the categories of the study in an important proportion, but also to enrich the analysis itself, with the diversity and plurality that suggests an investigation of this nature.

  18. Iris movement based wheel chair control using raspberry pi (United States)

    Sharma, Jatin; Anbarasu, M.; Chakraborty, Chandan; Shanmugasundaram, M.


    Paralysis is considered as a major curse in this world. The number of persons who are paralyzed and therefore dependent on others due to loss of self-mobility is growing with the population. Quadriplegia is a form of Paralysis in which you can only move your eyes. Much work has been done to help disabled persons to live independently. Various methods are used for the same and this paper enlists some of the already existing methods along with some add-ons to improve the existing system. Add-ons include a system, which will be designed using Raspberry Pi and IR Camera Module. OpenCV will be used for image processing and Python is used for programming the Raspberry Pi.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aisa


    Full Text Available The continued development and widespread use of current technology so that accessing and managing data from a personal computer to make private users become inflexible due to the personal computer requires a power source directly and storage areas are static, therefore, the author plans to implement a service private cloud that uses raspberry pi as a server and will be tested by the test Blackbox. Our research by collecting data that we did put a literature study, experiments, and observations. The design method using UML use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and sequence diagrams. This application is built using Django, Python, Raspberry Pi, MySQL. Hopefully the benefit of this implementation can help a person in terms of managing data from a wide variety of resources (resource quickly and anywhere.

  20. Design of Lightweight e Attendance Prototype Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Nurbahyah Hamdan; Abdul Muin Abd Rahman


    E-Attendance is a system that has been extensively used to record attendance in most of the official ceremony of Nuclear Malaysia. Currently, a computer is used as the client to record the input from the proximity card. However, further study on Raspberry Pi, the single board computer that use system on a chip (SoC) in the current market, discover that it is capable of delivering a simple light task of the e-attendance. With a compact memory and in linux environment, a prototype for lightweight e-attendance is being developed. This prototype of Raspberry Pi is believe to have potential in computer based system of Nuclear Technology such as access control, monitoring system and even robotic assistance. This paper will discuss the design of the prototype that resemble e-attendance to improve the robustness of the system. (author)

  1. Fennel and raspberry leaf as possible inhibitors of acetaminophen oxidation. (United States)

    Langhammer, Astrid Jordet; Nilsen, Odd Georg


    In addition to CYP2E1, several CYP isoenzymes, notably CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4, are suggested to contribute in acetaminophen oxidation and formation of the hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). The in vitro CYP2E1 inhibitory potentials of fennel and raspberry leaf, herbs previously found to inhibit CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 activities in vitro, were investigated. Extracts from commercially available herbal products were incubated with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP2E1. A validated LC/MS/MS methodology was applied for determination of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formation with disulfiram used as a positive inhibitory control. CYP2E1 IC50 inhibition constants were found to be 23 ± 4 and 27 ± 5 µg/ml for fennel and raspberry leaf, respectively, constants significantly lower than those presented in the literature for other herbal extracts. Together with previous findings, the presented in vitro data for CYP2E1 inhibition suggest that fennel and raspberry leaf have a significant potential of inhibiting all the major metabolic pathways for acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Both herbs should be further investigated for their in vivo ability of inhibiting acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Stable isotope ratio analysis of different European raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, currants and strawberries. (United States)

    Perini, M; Giongo, L; Grisenti, M; Bontempo, L; Camin, F


    To date the stable isotope ratios of berries have never been extensively explored. In this work the H, C, N and O isotopic ratios of 190 samples of different soft fruits (strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries and currants) produced in a northern Italian region and at two sites in Romania and Poland collected over three harvest years are presented and discussed. The different soft fruits showed a typical range for one or more isotopic parameters that can be used to verify the authenticity of the fruit composition declared on the label. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N of pulp and the δ 18 O of juice can be considered effective tools for identifying the different geographical origin of fruit. A significant effect of crop cover on juice δ 18 O and fertilisation practices on pulp δ 15 N was demonstrated and must be considered with attention when evaluating data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo


    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  4. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope. (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E; Ponce, Arturo


    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  5. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assisted shape-controlled synthesis of catalytically active raspberry-like gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Layek, Rama K.; Kim, Nam Hoon; Samdani, Jitendra; Kang, Myung Chul; Lee, Joong Hee


    Graphical abstract: A facile method was developed for the synthesis of raspberry-like Au nanostructure and it was used as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. - Highlights: • Raspberry-like gold nanostructures have been synthesized. • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plays an important role in the synthesis. • Raspberry-like Au nanostructure has an excellent electrocatalytic activity in methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction. - Abstract: We describe the shape-controlled growth of raspberry-like gold (Au) nanostructures and their application in the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) plays a vital role in the growth of raspberry-like Au nanostructures. The preferential adsorption of NAD + onto the (011) facets of Au favors the growth of raspberry-like morphology. In the absence of NAD + , icosahedral Au nanostructures were obtained. The raspberry-like Au nanostructures have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and electrochemical measurements. The FESEM image shows that the raspberry-like morphology has an average size of 170 nm. The spectral profile shows a broad band between 650 and 795 nm. Compared to Au nanoseeds and icosahedral Au nanostructures that were grown in the absence of NAD + , the raspberry-like morphology has excellent catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. On the raspberry-like nanoparticle-based electrode, the oxidation of methanol was observed at 0.35 V in alkaline pH, and the reduction of oxygen was observed at -0.06 and -0.4 V in 0.1 M PBS. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen occurs in two steps: (i) reduction of oxygen to H 2 O 2 and (ii) further reduction of electrogenerated H 2 O 2 to water. The electrochemical performance of the raspberry-like nanostructure-based electrode is highly

  6. Composition of Unrecorded Distilled Alcohol (bai jiu) Produced in Small Rural Factories in Central China. (United States)

    Newman, Ian; Qian, Ling; Tamrakar, Niran; Feng, Yonghua; Xu, Ganrong


    Unrecorded traditional distilled spirits (bai jiu, ) are made and used throughout rural China for everyday use and special occasions. Nearly every town or village has a distiller to supply the demand. In rural China, distilling bai jiu is legal and regulated lightly or not at all. The World Health Organization estimates that as much as 25% of all alcohol consumed in China is unrecorded alcohol, of which an unknown portion is unrecorded bai jiu. Little is known about the composition of unrecorded Chinese spirits from rural parts of the country. This study focused on white spirits because the high ethanol (EtOH) concentration makes them more likely to contribute to health risks compared to other types of lower alcohol by volume (ABV) Chinese unrecorded alcohol. Researchers purchased samples of Chinese white spirits from small-factory distillers in central China. An independent laboratory conducted the analysis. Alcohol strength (ABV) was determined by hydrometer. Gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds: EtOH, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and higher alcohols. Samples were tested for 3 heavy metals-arsenic, cadmium, and lead. We used the guidelines developed by the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) of the European Commission to assess risk. ABV ranged from 35.7 to 61.4%, and 58 of the 61 samples exceeded 40% ABV. The concentration of methanol, ethyl acetate, lead, arsenic, and cadmium was below AMPHORA guideline. The sum of higher alcohols exceeded the AMPHORA maximum in just 1 sample. Forty of the 61 samples had acetaldehyde levels beyond the AMPHORA guideline. The unrecorded Chinese alcohols we analyzed had a high EtOH concentration-a public health concern that is also presented by recorded alcohols. The high percentage of samples (65.5%) that had elevated acetaldehyde suggests the need to investigate the causes for this result and the need for steps to reduce acetaldehyde levels

  7. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J.; Meloni, Giovanni; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Vereecken, Luc; Leone, Stephen R.


    The reactions of the methylidyne radical (CH) with ethylene, acetylene, allene, and methylacetylene are studied at room temperature using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and time-resolved mass spectrometry. The CH radicals are prepared by 248 nm multiphoton photolysis of CHBr3 at 298 K and react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow. Analysis of photoionization efficiency versus VUV photon wavelength permits isomer-specific detection of the reaction products and allows estimation of the reaction product branching ratios. The reactions proceed by either CH insertion or addition followed by H atom elimination from the intermediate adduct. In the CH + C2H4 reaction the C3H5 intermediate decays by H atom loss to yield 70(+-8)percent allene, 30(+-8)percent methylacetylene and less than 10percent cyclopropene, in agreement with previous RRKM results. In the CH + acetylene reaction, detection of mainly the cyclic C3H2 isomer is contrary to a previous RRKM calculation that predicted linear triplet propargylene to be 90percent of the total H-atom co-products. High-level CBS-APNO quantum calculations and RRKM calculation for the CH + C2H2 reaction presented in this manuscript predict a higher contribution of the cyclic C3H2 (27.0percent) versus triplet propargylene (63.5percent) than these earlier predictions. Extensive calculations on the C3H3 and C3H2D system combined with experimental isotope ratios for the CD + C2H2 reaction indicate that H-atom assisted isomerization in the present experiments is responsible for the discrepancy between the RRKM calculations and the experimental results. Cyclic isomers are also found to represent 30(+-6)percent of the detected products in the case of CH + methylacetylene, together with 33(+-6)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 37(+-6)percent vinylacetylene. The CH + allene reaction gives 23(+-5)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 77(+-5)percent vinylacetylene, whereas cyclic isomers are produced below the detection limit

  8. An ecohealth assessment of poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood and biosecurity improvement of small poultry producers in Asia. (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Basuno, Edi; Nguyen, Tuan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Ilham, Nyak; Li, Xiaoyun


    Poultry production cluster (PPC) programs are key strategies in many Asian countries to engage small commercial poultry producers in high-value production chains and to control infectious poultry diseases. This study assessed the multiple impacts of PPCs through a transdisciplinary ecohealth approach in four Asian countries, and drew the implications for small producers to improve their livelihoods and reduce the risk of spreading infectious diseases in the poultry sector. The data collection combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. It comprised: formal structured household survey questionnaires, measuring the biosecurity level of poultry farms with a biosecurity score card; and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to process the quantitative data and a content analysis was used to process the qualitative data. This research found that poultry farms in clusters do not necessarily have better economic performance than those outside PPCs. Many farmers in PPCs only consider them to be an advantage for expanding the scale of their poultry operations and improving household incomes, and they are less concerned about-and have limited capacities to-enhancing biosecurity and environmental management. We measured the biosecurity level of farms in PPCs through a 14-item checklist and found that biosecurity is generally very low across all sample sites. The increased flies, mosquitoes, rats, and smells in and around PPCs not only pollute the environment, but also cause social conflicts with the surrounding communities. This research concluded that a poultry cluster, mainly driven by economic objectives, is not necessarily a superior model for the control of infectious diseases. The level of biosecurity in PPCs was found to be low. Given the intensity of poultry operations in PPCs (farms are densely packed into clusters), and the close proximity to residential areas of some PPCs, the risk of spreading infectious diseases, in fact, increases

  9. Raspberry viruses affect the behaviour and performance of Amphorophora agathonica in single and mixed infections (United States)

    Pathogens may alter their hosts which consequently increases transmission efficiency by vectors. We examined the effects Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV; genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV; genus Reovirus, family Reoviridae) alone and in a co-infection in...

  10. 75 FR 6131 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (United States)


    ... raspberries imported into the United States. These countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78... to the welfare of the agricultural economy of the United States to maintain and expand existing... million pounds in 2008. Chile, which is the predominate importer of processed raspberries to the United...

  11. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements (United States)

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  12. Winter Hardiness of Annual-Fruiting Raspberries in the South of the Irkutsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachenko, M. A.


    Full Text Available The winter hardiness of different varieties of annual-fruiting raspberries in field and laboratory conditions was studied. The hardiness of annual-fruiting raspberry, mow culture and two-year shoots was assessed. We select the most winter-hardy genotypes promising for cultivation in the South of the Irkutsk region.

  13. Effect of application timing of oxamyl in nonbearing raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans management (United States)

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate (active ingredient oxamyl) to non-bearing raspberry for the suppression of the root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). This is a new use pattern of this nematicide f...

  14. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt)) (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  15. Effects of three novel resistant black raspberry selections on Amphorophora agathonica feeding behavior and performance (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a practical and cost-effective approach for growers to manage insect pests. Recently, three new sources of resistance in black raspberry (selections ORUS 3778-1, ORUS 3817-1, and ORUS 4109-1) against the large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica, were identified. We stu...

  16. Forget About Busing--Concentrate on Education; A Response to Raspberry (United States)

    Raspberry, William; Meyers, Michael


    Raspberry argues that there is no persuasive evidence that racial balancing is worth the effort in terms of increased educational opportunity for the children; Meyers asserts that Raspberry's objections are based on several misconceptions about the goals of integrationists. (Author/JM)

  17. Analysis of the pore structure of activated carbons produced from paper mill sludge using small angle neutron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, G.; Khalil, N. R.; Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.


    A novel, cost-effective, and environmentally benign process was developed to produce highly efficient carbon-based adsorbents (CBAs) from paper mill sludge. The production process required chemical activation of sludge using zinc chloride and pyrolysis at 750 C in N{sub 2} gas. The produced CBAs were characterized according to their surface area and pore size distribution using N{sub 2}-BET adsorption isotherm data. Further characterization of the surface and pore structure was conducted using a unified exponential/power law approach applied to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The structural features analyzed by SANS revealed the dependence of porosity with zinc chloride concentration. The presence of inaccessible pores was also determined by contrast-match experiments.

  18. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions. (United States)

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom


    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit


    Human disease outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) following consumption of contaminated raspberries are an increasing problem. An efficient method to decontaminate the fragile raspberries and the equipment used for processing would be an important step in ensuring food safety. A potential surface...... treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts......, respectively; while a 3.7-log (99.9%) reduction of MNV was reached after 3 s of treatment. However, on fresh raspberries only a 1-log reduction (∼89%) of MS2 could be achieved after 1 s of treatment, at which point damage to the texture of the fresh raspberries was evident. Increasing treatment time (0 to 3 s...

  20. Volatile compounds of raspberry fruit: from analytical methods to biological role and sensory impact. (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia


    Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.

  1. Nanostructured raspberry-like gelatin microspheres for local delivery of multiple biomolecules. (United States)

    Diba, Mani; Pape, Bram; Klymov, Alexey; Zhang, Yang; Song, Jiankang; Löwik, Dennis W P M; Seyednejad, Hajar; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G


    Multicompartment particles, which are particles composed of smaller building units, have gained considerable interest during the past decade to facilitate simultaneous and differential delivery of several biomolecules in various applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) processing is an industrial technology widely used for large-scale synthesis and processing of materials. However, the application of this technology for production of multicompartment particles from colloidal particles has not yet been explored. Here, we report the formation of raspberry-like gelatin (RLG) microparticles composed of gelatin nanoparticles as colloidal building blocks through supercritical CO 2 processing. We show that these RLG microparticles exhibit a high stability upon dispersion in aqueous media without requiring chemical cross-linking. We further demonstrate that these microparticles are cytocompatible and facilitate differential release of two different model compounds. The strategy presented here can be utilized as a cost-effective route for production of various types of multicompartment particles using colloidal particles with suitable interparticle interactions. Multicompartment particles have gained considerable interest during the past decade to facilitate simultaneous and differential delivery of multiple biomolecules in various biomedical applications. Nevertheless, common methods employed for the production of such particles are often complex and only offer small-scale production. Here, we report the formation of raspberry-like gelatin (RLG) microparticles composed of gelatin nanoparticles as colloidal building blocks through supercritical CO 2 processing. We show that these microparticles are cytocompatible and facilitate differential release of two model compounds with different molecular sizes, promising successful applications in various biomedical areas. Summarizing, this paper presents a novel strategy that can be utilized as a cost-effective route for

  2. Entrapped Styrene Butadiene Polymer Chains by Sol-Gel-Derived Silica Nanoparticles with Hierarchical Raspberry Structures. (United States)

    Vaikuntam, Sankar Raman; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner; Subramani Bhagavatheswaran, Eshwaran; Wießner, Sven; Scheler, Ulrich; Saalwächter, Kay; Formanek, Petr; Heinrich, Gert; Das, Amit


    A sol-gel transformation of liquid silica precursor to solid silica particles was carried out in a one-pot synthesis way, where a solution of styrene butadiene elastomer was present. The composites, thus produced, offered remarkable improvements of mechanical and dynamic mechanical performances compared to precipitated silica. The morphological analysis reveals that the alkoxy-based silica particles resemble a raspberry structure when the synthesis of the silica was carried out in the presence of polymer molecules and represent a much more open silica-network structure. However, in the absence of the polymer, the morphology of the silica particles is found to be different. It is envisaged that the special morphology of the in situ synthesized silica particles contributes to the superior reinforcement effects, which are associated with a strong silica-rubber interaction by rubber chains trapped inside the raspberry-like silica aggregates. Therefore, the interfaces are characterized in detail by low-field solid-state 1 H NMR spectroscopy, 29 Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Low-field 1 H NMR-based double-quantum experiments provide a quantitative information about the cross-link density of the silica-filled rubber composites and about the influence of silane coupling agent on the chemical cross-link density of the network and correlates well with equilibrium swelling measurements. The special microstructure of the alkoxy-based silica was found to be associated with the interaction between alkoxy-based silica and rubber chains as a consequence of particle growth in the presence of rubber chains.

  3. [Effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering]. (United States)

    Ding, Jun-Ying; Meng, Qing-Ling; Guo, Min-Zhuo; Yi, Yao; Su, Qiu-Dong; Lu, Xue-Xin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Sheng-Li


    To study the effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering. Based on the colon preference of E. coli, the HDV small antigen original gene from GenBank was optimized. Both the original gene and the optimized gene expressed in prokaryotic cells, SDS-PAGE was made to analyze the protein expression yield and to decide which protein expression style was more proportion than the other. Furthermore, two antigens were purified by chromatography in order to compare the purity by SDS-PAGE and Image Lab software. SDS-PAGE indicated that the molecular weight of target proteins from two groups were the same as we expected. Gene optimization resulted in the higher yield and it could make the product more soluble. After chromatography, the purity of target protein from optimized gene was up to 96.3%, obviously purer than that from original gene. Gene optimization could increase the protein expression yield and solubility of genetic engineering HDV small antigen. In addition, the product from the optimized gene group was easier to be purified for diagnosis usage.

  4. Diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing lamina propria macrophages in the small intestine. (United States)

    Ochi, Takanori; Feng, Yongjia; Kitamoto, Sho; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kuffa, Peter; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Kamada, Nobuhiko


    Intestinal resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis via production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Although a constant replenishment by circulating monocytes is required to maintain the pool of resident Mϕs in the colonic mucosa, the homeostatic regulation of Mϕ in the small intestine (SI) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that direct stimulation by dietary amino acids regulates the homeostasis of intestinal Mϕs in the SI. Mice that received total parenteral nutrition (TPN), which deprives the animals of enteral nutrients, displayed a significant decrease of IL-10-producing Mϕs in the SI, whereas the IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells remained intact. Likewise, enteral nutrient deprivation selectively affected the monocyte-derived F4/80(+) Mϕ population, but not non-monocytic precursor-derived CD103(+) dendritic cells. Notably, in contrast to colonic Mϕs, the replenishment of SI Mϕs and their IL-10 production were not regulated by the gut microbiota. Rather, SI Mϕs were directly regulated by dietary amino acids. Collectively, our study highlights the diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing resident Mϕs in the SI.

  5. Laitetilan Etäseuranta : Raspberry Pi & SNMP


    Holmén, Joonas


    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu. Toimeksiantajalla oli tarve seurata laitetilan ilmastoa, keskeytymättömän virransyötön tilannetietoja sekä näiden muutoksia. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa järjestelmä, jolla seurattavat kohteet saadaan luettavaksi käyttäen SNMP-ohjelmistoa sekä graafinen käyttöliittymä, jolla ilmaston tilaa ja muutoksia voidaan monitoroida. Työn alustaksi määritettiin Raspberry Pi 2 -pientietokone. Järjestelmä rakentui avoimen lähdekoodin ohj...

  6. Escaner 3D autonomo con RaspberryPi




    [ES] El proyecto realizado tiene la finalidad de encontrar una solución sencilla y barata al escaneado tridimensional. Como centro de procesamiento hemos utilizado una Raspberry Pi para el control de una línea láser y de un motor stepper, este último va unido a una plataforma giratoria donde se colocarán los objetos para ser escaneados. Por lo que respecta a la captura de imágenes, usaremos una cámara de la marca Creative, capaz de hacer fotos en HD720p; para el movimiento d...

  7. Testing Three Types of Raspberry Pi People Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Cintron


    Full Text Available The Hudson County Community College (HCCC Library tested three different types of Raspberry Pi based people counters between 6/14/2017 and 7/9/2017. This article will describe how we created each type of counter, will compare the accuracy of each sensor, and will compare them to the college’s existing 3M 3501 gate counters. It will also describe why and how our team decided to make this project, discuss lessons learned, and provide instructions for how other libraries can create their own gate counters.

  8. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  9. Assessment of feasibility of running RSNA's MIRC on a Raspberry Pi: a cost-effective solution for teaching files in radiology. (United States)

    Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa; Rogalla, Patrik; Huynh, Thien; O'Malley, Martin E


    The value of a teaching case repository in radiology training programs is immense. The allocation of resources for putting one together is a complex issue, given the factors that have to be coordinated: hardware, software, infrastructure, administration, and ethics. Costs may be significant and cost-effective solutions are desirable. We chose Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) to build our teaching file. It is offered by RSNA for free. For the hardware, we chose the Raspberry Pi, developed by the Raspberry Foundation: a small control board developed as a low cost computer for schools also used in alternative projects such as robotics and environmental data collection. Its performance and reliability as a file server were unknown to us. For the operational system, we chose Raspbian, a variant of Debian Linux, along with Apache (web server), MySql (database server) and PHP, which enhance the functionality of the server. A USB hub and an external hard drive completed the setup. Installation of software was smooth. The Raspberry Pi was able to handle very well the task of hosting the teaching file repository for our division. Uptime was logged at 100 %, and loading times were similar to other MIRC sites available online. We setup two servers (one for backup), each costing just below $200.00 including external storage and USB hub. It is feasible to run RSNA's MIRC off a low-cost control board (Raspberry Pi). Performance and reliability are comparable to full-size servers for the intended purpose of hosting a teaching file within an intranet environment.

  10. Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assey Vincent D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. Methods We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing. Results The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm, with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p Conclusion Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.

  11. Characteristics of hydrogen produced by partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming in a small methanol reformer (United States)

    Horng, Rong-Fang; Chou, Huann-Ming; Lee, Chiou-Hwang; Tsai, Hsien-Te

    This paper investigates experimentally, the transient characteristics of a small methanol reformer using partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) for fuel cell applications. The parameters varied were heating temperature, methanol supply rate, steady mode shifting temperature, O 2/C (O 2/CH 3OH) and S/C (H 2O/CH 3OH) molar ratios with the main aim of promoting a rapid response and a high flow rate of hydrogen. The experiments showed that a high steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a faster temperature rise at the catalyst outlet and vice versa and that a low steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a lower final hydrogen concentration. However, when the mode shifting temperature was too high, the hydrogen production response was not necessarily improved. It was subsequently shown that the optimum steady mode shifting temperature for this experimental set-up was approximately 75 °C. Further, the hydrogen concentration produced by the auto-thermal process was as high as 49.12% and the volume flow rate up to 23.0 L min -1 compared to 40.0% and 20.5 L min -1 produced by partial oxidation.

  12. PTX3 in small-vessel vasculitides: an independent indicator of disease activity produced at sites of inflammation. (United States)

    Fazzini, F; Peri, G; Doni, A; Dell'Antonio, G; Dal Cin, E; Bozzolo, E; D'Auria, F; Praderio, L; Ciboddo, G; Sabbadini, M G; Manfredi, A A; Mantovani, A; Querini, P R


    To verify whether the prototypical long pentraxin PTX3 represents an indicator of the activity of small-vessel vasculitis. Concentrations of PTX3, a pentraxin induced in endothelium by cytokines, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sera of 43 patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, and microscopic polyangiitis. PTX3 was also measured in the sera of 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 22 with rheumatoid arthritis, and 16 with CREST syndrome (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasias). Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by immunoturbidimetry. The cells involved in PTX3 production in vivo were identified in skin biopsy samples. Patients with active vasculitis had significantly higher concentrations of PTX3 than did those with quiescent disease (P < 0.001). PTX3 levels in the latter group were similar to those in healthy controls. PTX3 levels were higher in patients with untreated vasculitis and lower in patients who underwent immunosuppressive treatments (P < 0.005). In contrast, patients with active SLE had negligible levels of the pentraxin. PTX3 levels did not correlate with CRP levels in vasculitis patients. Endothelial cells produced PTX3 in active skin lesions. PTX3 represents a novel acute-phase reactant produced at sites of active vasculitis.

  13. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.


    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  14. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi (United States)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn


    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  15. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn


    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  16. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap [B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn, E-mail: [Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani (Thailand)


    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  17. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system (United States)

    Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.


    In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.

  18. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer. (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława


    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  19. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages. (United States)

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck


    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  20. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.


    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  1. Ferrugem em framboesa no estado de Santa Catarina Red raspberry rust in Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa


    Full Text Available Folhas e frutos de framboesa (Rubus idaeus L. da cultivar Batum coletados de plantas do pomar do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, CAV, município de Lages-SC, apresentando pústulas de ferrugem, foram encaminhados para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do CAV. A diagnose indireta indicou a presença de pústulas com uma massa de esporos de cor amarela na face abaxial das folhas e superfície dos frutos. No exame ao microscópio, observou-se urédia e urediniósporos pequenos, obovados ou elipsoides, medindo 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm sobre a epiderme da folha e frutos, sem a presença de télias. Suspensão de urediniósporos (50.000 esporos mL-1 em água esterilizada foi pulverizada em folhas destacadas da mesma cultivar, mantidas por 24 h no escuro e 12 h de fotoperíodo em câmara úmida a 20ºC. Folhas-controle foram pulverizadas com água esterilizada. Após 10 dias detectaram-se urédias contendo urediniósporos na face abaxial das folhas, cujas características morfológicas e mensuração dos urediniósporos, sintomas e patogenicidade permitiram a identificação do agente causal como sendo Pucciniastrum americanum (Farl. Arthur pela primeira vez no Estado de Santa Catarina.Leaves and fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. of the cultivar Batum collected from the Agriculture and Life Science College - CAV orchard in Lages, SC, presenting rust pustules were analyzed in the CAV Plant Pathology Laboratory. Indirect diagnosis indicated in the abaxial side of the infected leaves and fruits surface pustules filled with masses of yellow spores. Under microscope exam, uredia and small, obovate or elliptical and averaged 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm urediniospores become evident in leaves and fruit surface. Telia were not observed. Urediniopores (50.000 esporos mL-1 were suspended in sterile water and sprayed onto same cultivar leaves that were maintained in a darkened mist chamber at 20ºC for 24 h and transferred to a 20ºC and 12 h

  2. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan


    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...... consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less...

  3. State-of-the-art production, conservation and transfer of in-vitro-produced embryos in small ruminants. (United States)

    Cognié, Yves; Poulin, Nati; Locatelli, Yann; Mermillod, Pascal


    Today, although not efficient enough to replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production for small ruminants is a platform for new reproductive technologies, such as embryo sexing, transgenesis and cloning. The in vitro embryo-production system developed for sheep and goats is more efficient now than 15 years ago, but could still be improved. Laparoscopic collection of oocytes in live animals treated with gonadotrophin indicates a promising future for the application of this technology to genetic improvement programmes. Oocyte maturation in defined medium with epidermal growth factor and cysteamine appears as efficient as oocyte maturation in follicular fluid-supplemented medium and allows future study of the effect of other factors involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from these species. Further efforts have to be made to standardise the semen-capacitating process and to improve the quality and freezability of in-vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The optimisation of IVP procedures for deer species has required the study of the seasonal variation of oocyte competence and the development of a specific methodology to allow the culture of embryos up to the blastocyst stage.

  4. Fossil fuel reform in developing states: The case of Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing small Island developing State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobie, Michelle


    Trinidad and Tobago is an oil exporting small island developing state (SIDS) with a 0.12% contribution to global emissions and with important socio-economic challenges. It has producer, electricity and transport fuel subsidies. It is at an interesting juncture in subsidy reform: the government faces the embeddedness of distributive justice norms that are contested by fiscal prudence and environmental stewardship norms. The value of the paper is twofold. First it develops a subsidy intractability framework to explain reform global narratives that highlights: the power of agents, the nature of contested economic, justice and environmental norms and the availability of mechanisms for reform. Second, this framework is used to explain reform narratives and trajectories in Trinidad and Tobago using data from public documents and from a unique elite survey of former and present heads of state, politicians, policy makers and stakeholders. Even in conditions of falling oil prices and national revenue and pressures to reduce emissions, where redistributive justice arguments are heavily embedded in public discourses, those aspects of the subsidy that have developmental or distributive justice goals are more intractable. The results of the study have implications for carbon emission reduction strategies in developing states with fossil fuel reserves. - Highlights: • A subsidy intractability framework is used to analyse fuel subsidy reform. • A sense of entitlement to resources contributes to subsidy intractability. • Global environmental stewardship norms matter less for fuel subsidy reform in SIDS. • Policy space is most determined by international economic conditions in SIDS.

  5. Water sorption and glass transition temperatures in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M.; Sablani, Shyam S.; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph; Swanson, Barry G.


    Water sorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of raspberries were determined to understand interactions between water and biopolymers. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms of raspberries were determined with an isopiestic method. Thermal transitions of raspberries equilibrated at selected water concentrations using adsorption and desorption were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sorption isotherm data were modeled by BET and GAB equations, while the plasticizing influence of water on glass transition was modeled by the Gordon-Taylor equation. Equilibrium water concentrations varied at equivalent water activities during adsorption and desorption indicating occurrence of hysteresis and irreversibility of thermodynamic processes. The monolayer water concentrations of 0.099 and 0.108 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids obtained by BET and GAB models during desorption were larger than those during adsorption (0.059 and 0.074 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids). The glass transition temperature of raspberries decreased with increasing water concentrations. The Gordon-Taylor parameters T gs and k obtained for raspberries during adsorption were 42.6 o C and 4.73 and during desorption were 44.9 o C and 5.03, respectively. The characteristic glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze concentrated solution T ' g was -63.1 ± 5 o C and the onset of ice crystal melting temperature T ' m was -32.3 ± 0.4 o C. Although the water activity differed significantly at equivalent water concentrations obtained using absorption or desorption, the glass transition temperatures of raspberries were dependent on the concentration of water present not the method of equilibration.

  6. Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaioanou


    Full Text Available Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’. Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents, plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry.

  7. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda


    controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... of detection was 119 and 140 RT-qPCR units/25g for NoV GI or GII, respectively. Nineteen (37%) of 51 raspberry samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoVs with the respective geometric mean values of 70 (range 22-330) or 29 (range 3-217) detectable genome copies/g of raspberries, when corrected using...... mengovirus recoveries. A 100% identical GI.6 sequence was detected in both raspberries and patient stool samples associated to one outbreak. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating quantified virus levels of contaminated raspberries linked to illness. These data can contribute...

  8. Effect of Application Timing of Oxamyl in Nonbearing Raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans Management. (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Walters, Thomas W


    In 2012, the Washington raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L ® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans . This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans . Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington.

  9. Profitability of raspberry production on holdings in the territory of Arilje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Nataša


    Full Text Available Raspberry is the most important kind of berries and specific in many of its characteristics - biological properties, economic importance, agro-ecological, technological and organizational requirements, the market value of the product, as well as very high interdependence and correlation between the individual phases of the reproductive cycle. Due to its extremely pleasant smell and taste and high nutritional value, raspberry represents a very esteemed and sought fruit which has a high price in the world market and is very suitable for processing. In addition to financial effect, the cultivation of raspberries enables recruitment of labour force, which is in our economic situation of great socio-economic importance, especially in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Based on real data examples, this paper analyzes the economic profitability of this production. Investments in the establishment and cultivation of a raspberry plantation under irrigation amount to 12.140 €/ha. In the production of raspberries a very favourable annual financial result (profit in the amount of 9300 €/ha is achieved, production is very cost-effective, accumulation is significant (about 77% and return on equity is in the second year of exploitation. The established economic and financial results show that the production of raspberries is very profitable.

  10. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages. (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata


    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  11. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis


    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  12. The family house control system based on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the design and implementation of a smart household based on simple wireless modules, which are monitoring (collecting data and controlling smart household supporting devices. The central unit processes measured parameters, and in relation to resulting values, a pre-set action is performed. Those actions variety can be configured by user via the user interface so that a set of smart rules for reaction on by household devices generated stimuli or problems can be created. That all together composes a control system based on Raspberry Pi, which manages indoor and outdoor temperature measurement, the lighting control, RF transmitter, jalousie, motion sensor control etc. There is a GUI for a PC and for a mobile phone as a part of that system.

  13. Upon a Home Assistant Solution Based on Raspberry Pi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florentin IFTIMIE


    Full Text Available Our ongoing research on Internet of Things (IoT has been focused on a project aiming to creating a proof of concept for a distributed system capable of controlling common devices found in a house such as TVs, air conditioning units, and other electrical devices. In order to automate these devices, the system integrates various sensors and actuators and, depending of user’s needs and creativity in conceiving and implementing new commands, the system is able to take care and execute the respective commands in a safe and secure manner. This paper presents our current research results upon a personal home assistant solution designed and built around Raspberry Pi V3 platform. The distributed, client-server approach enables users to control home electric and electronic devices from an Android based mobile application.

  14. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica


    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  15. I-124 labeled recombinant human annexin V produced by E. coli for apoptosis image using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. H.; Lee, I. S.; Woo, S. K.; Woo, G. S.; Chung, W. S.; Kang, J. H.; Cheon, G. J.; Choi, C. W.; Urn, S. M. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Annexin V labeled with radioisotope and optical probe has been used to detect apoptosis. To evaluate annexin V as a multimodal apoptosis imaging agent, large-scale preparation of Annexin V (AV) is preliminary. The aim of this study is to produce and purify recombinant human Annexin V (rh-AV) in E. coli system and radiolabeled rh-AV evaluate in vitro and in vivo apoptosis model system. Annexin V cDNA was obtained from human placenta and rh-AV cloning vector used fusion E. coli vector. Expression vector was based on the E. coli pET system. Induction of rh-AV was used Isopropyl--D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and purification was used TALON metal affinity resin and T7 - Taq. Purification yield confirmed through SDS-PAGE. In camptothecin (0, 50, 100 uM) induced Jurkat T cell apoptosis model, AV-PI flow cytometry analysis and in vitro binding assay of I-124 labeled rh - AV were performed and compared. Small animal PET images of I-124 labeled rh-AV were obtained in Fas-mediated hepatic apoptosis model. Optimum expression condition was at 37, 250 rpm, 8 hr in 2X YT media including 1mM IPTG, Through two step purification process, rh-AV confirmed about 35 Kd single band by SDS-PAGE. As camptothecin concentration increasing, annexin V-FITC positive % increased in flow cytometry analysis and uptake of I-124 labeled rh-AV also increased. Annexin V-FITC positive % was correlated with and uptake of I-124 labeled rh-AV (R{sup 2}=0.99). In Fas-mediated hepatic apoptosis model, I-124 labeled rh-AV was selectively localized in liver region in PET image. Recombinant Human annexin V was produced by E. coli system and purified using two step affinity chromatography. Radiolabeled rh-AV was useful for the evaluation of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo model. Recombinant human annexin V could be used as apoptosis imaging agent with various radiolabel and optical probe.

  16. Blackberry, raspberry and black raspberry polyphenol extracts attenuate angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells. (United States)

    Feresin, Rafaela G; Huang, Jingwen; Klarich, DawnKylee S; Zhao, Yitong; Pourafshar, Shirin; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Salazar, Gloria


    Activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling during aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to vascular senescence, a process linked to the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly berries, is associated with decreased incidence of CVD, which has mainly been attributed to the polyphenol content of these foods. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of blackberry (BL), raspberry (RB), and black raspberry (BRB) polyphenol extracts in attenuating Ang II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. BL, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts (200 μg ml -1 ) attenuated Ang II-induced senescence, denoted by decreased number of cells positive for senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and down-regulation of p21 and p53 expression, which were associated with decreased ROS levels and Ang II signaling. BL polyphenol extract increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 expression, attenuated the up-regulation of Nox1 expression and the phosphorylation of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by Ang II, and reduced senescence in response to Nox1 overexpression. In contrast, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts up-regulated the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), but exerted no effect on Nox1 expression nor on senescence induced by Nox1 overexpression. BRB reduced signaling similar to BL, while RB was unable to reduce Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 as well as down-regulation of Nox1 by siRNA prevented senescence induced by Ang II. Our findings indicate that Ang II-induced senescence is attenuated by BL polyphenols through a Nox1-dependent mechanism and by RB and BRB polyphenols in a Nox1-independent manner, likely by increasing the cellular antioxidant capacity.

  17. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer. (United States)

    Shen, Bailey Y; Mukai, Shizuo


    Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm × 91mm × 45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  18. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen


    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  19. A combination of Raspberry Pi and SoftEther VPN for controlling research devices via the Internet. (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu


    Remote control over devices for experiments may increase the efficiency of operant research and expand the area where behavior can be studied. This article introduces a combination of Raspberry Pi ® (Pi) and SoftEther VPN ® that allows for such remote control via the Internet. The Pi is a small Linux computer with a great degree of flexibility for customization. Test results indicate that a Pi-based interface meets the requirement for conducting operant research. SoftEther VPN ® allows for establishing an extensive private network on the Internet using a single private Wi-Fi router. Step-by-step instructions are provided in the present article for setting up the Pi along with SoftEther VPN ® . Their potential for improving the way of conducting research is discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera (United States)

    Patteson, Crystal


    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  1. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun


    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera). (United States)

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H


    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.

  3. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  4. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans, but not Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  5. Contribution of a winter wheat cover crop to the maintenance of Pratylenchus penetrans populations in the raspberry production system with management considerations (United States)

    One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers in the Pacific Northwest confront is root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). In this perennial production system, raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a ne...

  6. Foreign matter contaminating ethanolic extract of propolis: a filth-test survey comparing products from small beekeeping farms and industrial producers. (United States)

    Canale, Angelo; Cosci, Francesca; Canovai, Roberto; Giannotti, Paolo; Benelli, Giovanni


    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees from the exudates and buds of plants. It has been widely used as a remedy by humans since ancient times, as well as for dietary supplements and cosmetics. European legislation recently focused on the quality and hygiene standards of foods, including beehive products, and extensive efforts have been made to avoid the presence of chemical contaminants, whilst in contrast few studies have investigated the magnitude of contamination by physical ones. We conducted a filth-test survey to evaluate the contamination of ethanolic extract of propolis by foreign materials. We also compared the abundance of contaminants in propolis extracts currently marketed by small beekeepers and industrial producers. We found different foreign materials in the ethanol extract of propolis. Contaminants differed in abundance, with a higher number of carbon particles (small beekeepers: 2.70 ± 0.63; industrial producers: 1.25 ± 0.49; mean (n/30 ml) ± SE) and other inorganic fragments (small beekeepers: 3.50 ± 0.31; industrial producers: 3.88 ± 1.11) than arthropod fragments (small beekeepers: 0.30 ± 0.21; industrial producers: 0.38 ± 0.26) and mammal hairs (small beekeepers: 0.10 ± 0.10; industrial producers: 0.38 ± 0.26). No differences in the abundance of foreign matter between propolis from small beekeepers and industrial producers were found, allowing us to point out an increased awareness by small producers of issues inherent in hygiene management. Contamination of propolis extracts by animal body parts, such as insect fragments, mites and rodent hairs, indicates poor management of hygiene in the production process and low effectiveness of the filtration phase. Animal-borne contaminants can act as pathogen vectors as well as introducing dangerous allergens when ingested or applied to human skin. The filth-test applied to ethanolic propolis extract quality control can be considered a promising tool, also for small beekeeper

  7. The raspberry model for hydrodynamic interactions revisited. I. Periodic arrays of spheres and dumbbells. (United States)

    Fischer, Lukas P; Peter, Toni; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost


    The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and Langevin molecular dynamics scheme for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. This technique has been used in many simulation studies on the behavior of colloids. However, there are fundamental questions with regards to the use of this model. In this paper, we examine the accuracy with which the raspberry method is able to reproduce Stokes-level hydrodynamic interactions when compared to analytic expressions for solid spheres in simple-cubic crystals. To this end, we consider the quality of numerical experiments that are traditionally used to establish these properties and we discuss their shortcomings. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobility reproduced by the simple raspberry model and present a way to numerically remedy this problem by adding internal coupling points. Finally, we examine a non-convex shape, namely, a colloidal dumbbell, and show that the filled raspberry model replicates the desired hydrodynamic behavior in bulk for this more complicated shape. Our investigation is continued in de Graaf et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084108 (2015)], wherein we consider the raspberry model in the confining geometry of two parallel plates.

  8. Nonsense Mutation Inside Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene Controls Pigmentation in Yellow Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad Z; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan


    Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase ( Ans ) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry ("Anne"). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans +5 . The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans / ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans +5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  9. Nonsense mutation inside anthocyanidin synthase gene controls pigmentation in yellow raspberry (Rubus idaeus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Rafique


    Full Text Available Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry (Anne. A 5-bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect i.e. nonsense-mRNA mediated decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  10. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev


    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country....

  11. Uptake and partitioning of nutrients in blackberry and raspberry and evaluating plant nutrient status for accurate assessment of fertilizer requirements (United States)

    Raspberry and blackberry plantings have a relatively low nutrient requirement compared to many other perennial fruit crops. Annual total N accumulation ranged from 62-110 lb/a in red raspberry and 33-39 lb/a in blackberry. Primocanes rely primarily on fertilizer N for growth, whereas floricane growt...

  12. Black raspberry fruit composition over two years from seedling populations grown at four U.S. geographic locations (United States)

    Black raspberry is a caneberry fruit recognized as a source of several phytoactive compounds. Fruit are most often used for processed products. As a specialty crop, black raspberry production is limited by its susceptibility to viruses, which reduce fruit size and yield and can kill the plant in a...

  13. Chain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development : a guide to multi-stakeholder processes for linking small-scale producers to modern markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Woodhill, A.J.; Proctor, F.; Delnoye, R.


    This guide provides a set of concepts and analytical tools for finding ways to better link small-scale producers to the modern markets associated with today’s largescale supermarket retail and wholesale operations. It is has been developed through iterative testing with partners in several

  14. Tailoring the morphology of raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene composite microspheres for fabricating superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yubin; Li, Qiuying; Xue, Pengfei; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Jibin; Guo, Weihong; Wu, Chifei


    In our previous report, raspberry-like carbon black/polystyrene (CB/PS) composite microsphere was prepared through heterocoagulation process. Based on the previous study, in the present work, the morphology of raspberry-like CB/PS particle is tailored through adjusting the polarity and the concentration ratio of CB/PS colloidal suspension with the purpose to prepare particulate film for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms the morphology of raspberry-like particle and the coverage of CB. Rough surfaces fabricated by raspberry-like particles with proper morphology are observed by SEM and clear evidence of superhydrophobic surface is shown. The structure of raspberry-like particle is analyzed by atom force microscope. The proposed relationship between the hydrophobicity and the structure of CB aggregates on the surface of PS microsphere is discussed in details.

  15. Black raspberries in cancer clinical trials: Past, present and future. (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Stoner, Gary D

    Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including in vivo models of oral, esophageal, colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or patients at increased risk for cancer development. To summarize clinical investigations targeting cancer or precancerous lesions with BRB and discuss future directions. A thorough literature search was conducted through December 1, 2015 to identify all published studies evaluating BRB in cancer focused clinical trials. Research investigating BRB in clinical settings report positive effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and colon. BRB treatment resulted in: histologic regression of oral intraepithelial neoplasia associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, modulated genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling; in the colon, BRB inhibited FAP-associated polyp progression, demethylated tumor suppressor genes and improved plasma cytokine profiles; in Barrett's patients, BRB consumption increased tissue levels of GST-pi and decreased 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress. The precise dose, duration and optimum mode of BRB delivery for cancer inhibition remains to be fully elucidated. Common themes across studies support that BRB are anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory, reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity. Future directions are included in the conclusions section.

  16. Synthesis engineering of iron oxide raspberry-shaped nanostructures. (United States)

    Gerber, O; Pichon, B P; Ihiawakrim, D; Florea, I; Moldovan, S; Ersen, O; Begin, D; Grenèche, J-M; Lemonnier, S; Barraud, E; Begin-Colin, S


    Magnetic porous nanostructures consisting of oriented aggregates of iron oxide nanocrystals display very interesting properties such as a lower oxidation state of magnetite, and enhanced saturation magnetization in comparison with individual nanoparticles of similar sizes and porosity. However, the formation mechanism of these promising nanostructures is not well understood, which hampers the fine tuning of their magnetic properties, for instance by doping them with other elements. Therefore the formation mechanism of porous raspberry shaped nanostructures (RSNs) synthesized by a one-pot polyol solvothermal method has been investigated in detail from the early stages by using a wide panel of characterization techniques, and especially by performing original in situ HR-TEM studies in temperature. A time-resolved study showed the intermediate formation of an amorphous iron alkoxide phase with a plate-like lamellar structure (PLS). Then, the fine investigation of PLS transformation upon heating up to 500 °C confirmed that the synthesis of RSNs involves two iron precursors: the starting one (hydrated iron chlorides) and the in situ formed iron alkoxide precursor which decomposes with time and heating and contributes to the growth step of nanostructures. Such an understanding of the formation mechanism of RSNs is necessary to envision efficient and rational enhancement of their magnetic properties.

  17. Sistem Keamanan pada Lingkungan Pondok Pesantren Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ahmad Syahid


    Full Text Available Salah satu pelanggaran kedisiplinan yang sering dilakukan oleh para santri ialah keluar dari pondok pesantren pada saat jam belajar pondok maupun saat tidak ada kegiatan pondok, oleh karena itu diperlukan alat bantu modern untuk membantu para ustad mengawasi lingkungan pondok pesantren. Dimana alat tersebut diimplementasikan dengan  Raspberry Pi dan sensor PIR (passive infrared serta modul kamera yang digunakan untuk mengawasi santri. Sensor PIR digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya gerakan. Setelah terdeteksi sebuah gerakan, modul kamera akan diaktifkan kemudian akan melihat dan mendeteksi objek menggunakan histogram oriented of gradient (HOG. Ketika objek terdeteksi adalah manusia maka objek itu difoto kemudian pesan pemberitahuan pelanggaran yang berisi gambar hasil foto dan pesan singkat akan dikirim melalui email ke email ustad.Dari Uji coba sistem yang dibuat didapatkan hasil pendeteksian gerakan oleh sensor PIR dengan maksimal jarak 6 meter dan jarak pendeteksian oleh HOG berikisar antara 2 meter hingga 6 meter dan idealnya alat ini diletakkan 3 meter dari objek sehingga alat ini tepat digunakan untuk membantu meningkatkan penerapan ilmu kedisiplinan di lingkungan pondok pesantren.

  18. Raspberry Pi camera with intervalometer used as crescograph (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Surducan, Vasile


    The intervalometer is an attachment or facility on a photo-camera that operates the shutter regularly at set intervals over a period. Professional cameras with built in intervalometers are expensive and quite difficult to find. The Canon CHDK open source operating system allows intervalometer implementation on Canon cameras only. However finding a Canon camera with near infra-red (NIR) photographic lens at affordable price is impossible. On experiments requiring several cameras (used to measure growth in plants - the crescographs, but also for coarse evaluation of the water content of leaves), the costs of the equipment are often over budget. Using two Raspberry Pi modules each equipped with a low cost NIR camera and a WIFI adapter (for downloading pictures stored on the SD card) and some freely available software, we have implemented two low budget intervalometer cameras. The shutting interval, the number of pictures to be taken, image resolution and some other parameters can be fully programmed. Cameras have been in use continuously for three months (July-October 2017) in a relevant environment (outside), proving the concept functionality.

  19. Preparation of raspberry-like polypyrrole composites with applications in catalysis. (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Wang, Chuanxi; Wu, Jie; Lin, Quan; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Kui; Yang, Bai


    Raspberry-like composites were prepared by coating the silver/polypyrrole core/shell composites onto the surface of silica spheres via oxidation polymerization of pyrrole monomer with [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions as oxidants. The whole process allowed the absence of stabilizers, which greatly improved the quality of the conducting polymer composites. The morphology of the resulting composites was investigated, which can be described as raspberry-like; also, the structure and composition of the composites were characterized in detail. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. The present synthetic strategy substantially extended the scope of metal/conducting polymer composite synthesis. The raspberry-like composites exhibited excellent catalytic properties in the reduction of methylene blue dye with the reducing agent of sodium borohydride.

  20. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto


    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  1. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhong


    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT.

  2. Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer with black raspberries, their component anthocyanins, and a major anthocyanin metabolite, protocatechuic acid. (United States)

    Peiffer, Daniel S; Zimmerman, Noah P; Wang, Li-Shu; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Carmella, Steven G; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Siddiqui, Jibran; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hecht, Stephen S; Stoner, Gary D


    Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (ACs) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats. The present study was conducted to determine whether PCA, a major microbial metabolite of black raspberry (BRB) ACs, also prevents NMBA-induced esophageal cancer in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for 5 weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRBs, an anthocyanin (AC)-enriched fraction derived from BRBs, or protocatechuic acid (PCA). Animals were exsanguinated at weeks 15, 25, and 35 to quantify the development of preneoplastic lesions and tumors in the esophagus, and to relate this to the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. At weeks 15 and 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC and PCA diets. Furthermore, all experimental diets inhibited inflammation in the esophagus via reducing biomarker (COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB, and sEH) and cytokine (PTX3) expression. Overall, our data suggest that BRBs, their component ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, at least in part, by their inhibitory effects on genes associated with inflammation. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Low-cost small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments-Mass produced factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsiepe, C.; Sievers, S.; Seifert, T.; Stefanidis, G.D.; Vlachos, D.G.; Schnitzer, H.; Muster, B.; Brunner, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.; Schembecker, G.


    The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Claudia


    Full Text Available The leading national states in the tomato market are mainly Sinaloa and Jalisco. They determine the amount of production will sell in the country meanwhile smallholders depend about that decision to calculate the quantity of tomato they be able to place into local supply markets. Large producers invest in other aspects, such as in Information Technology Management (ITM, in order to obtain international and updated information they need for their strategic decision-making, as well as to establish effective communication with other producers, with suppliers and with customers. The question posed in the present investigation is: Will the lack of investment in ITM be a factor that affects the competitiveness of smallholders? This article has the objective to estimate the relevance of investing in the ITM, in order to increase the production through the application of the Cournot and Branding model; for two players who decide to sell simultaneously, resulting in two models: The first one, where the player 1 it will be a big producer who decides to invest in ITM to increase its market, while player 2 is a smallholder who does not have the capacity to invest in ITM. In the second resulting model, both players are big producers, who decide to invest in ITM to increase their market. In both models, we would be expected that the player who sells the most, whoever invests in ITM; however, as will be observed in the conclusions, investing in ITM is not always the solution to sell more.

  5. Real-time geomagnetic data from a Raspberry Pi magnetometer network in the UK


    Beggan, Ciaran


    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current sci...

  6. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šustek Michal


    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  7. Weed control practices on Costa Rican coffee farms: is herbicide use necessary for small-scale producers?


    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson


    Abstract This paper presents research conducted during two coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The study examined coffee farmers? weed management practices and is presented in the form of a case study of small-scale farmers? use of labor and herbicides in weed management practices. Over 200 structured interviews were conducted with coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor and family labor, weed management activities, support services, and expectations about the future o...

  8. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio


    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry

  9. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)


    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee


    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Field application of farm-food safety risk assessment (FRAMp) tool for small and medium fresh produce farms. (United States)

    Soon, J M; Davies, W P; Chadd, S A; Baines, R N


    The objective of this study was to develop a farm food safety-risk assessment tool (FRAMp) which serves as a self-assessment and educational tool for fresh produce farms. FRAMp was developed in Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet software using standard mathematical and logical functions and utilised a qualitative risk assessment approach for farmers to evaluate their food safety practices. The FRAMp tool has since been tested on 12 fresh produce farms throughout UK. All the farms determined that FRAMp was interesting but 17% found it too long while 25% of the farms felt the tool was too complicated. The instructions on FRAMp usage were revised and farmers were given the options to skip and select specific steps in the farm risk assessment. The end users (farmers/farm managers) determined that developing their own action plans and using it as proof of assessment for future third-party audits were most useful to them. FRAMp tool can be described as an illustrative risk ranking tool to facilitate farms to identify potential risk factors during their crop production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated touch sensing in the mouse tapered beam test using Raspberry Pi. (United States)

    Ardesch, Dirk Jan; Balbi, Matilde; Murphy, Timothy H


    Rodent models of neurological disease such as stroke are often characterized by motor deficits. One of the tests that are used to assess these motor deficits is the tapered beam test, which provides a sensitive measure of bilateral motor function based on foot faults (slips) made by a rodent traversing a gradually narrowing beam. However, manual frame-by-frame scoring of video recordings is necessary to obtain test results, which is time-consuming and prone to human rater bias. We present a cost-effective method for automated touch sensing in the tapered beam test. Capacitive touch sensors detect foot faults onto the beam through a layer of conductive paint, and results are processed and stored on a Raspberry Pi computer. Automated touch sensing using this method achieved high sensitivity (96.2%) as compared to 'gold standard' manual video scoring. Furthermore, it provided a reliable measure of lateralized motor deficits in mice with unilateral photothrombotic stroke: results indicated an increased number of contralesional foot faults for up to 6days after ischemia. The automated adaptation of the tapered beam test produces results immediately after each trial, without the need for labor-intensive post-hoc video scoring. It also increases objectivity of the data as it requires less experimenter involvement during analysis. Automated touch sensing may provide a useful adaptation to the existing tapered beam test in mice, while the simplicity of the hardware lends itself to potential further adaptations to related behavioral tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In Silico Analysis of the Small Molecule Content of Outer Membrane Vesicles Produced by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Indicates an Extensive Metabolic Link between Microbe and Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Bryant


    Full Text Available The interactions between the gut microbiota and its host are of central importance to the health of the host. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are produced ubiquitously by Gram-negative bacteria including the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. These vesicles can interact with the host in various ways but until now their complement of small molecules has not been investigated in this context. Using an untargeted high-coverage metabolomic approach we have measured the small molecule content of these vesicles in contrasting in vitro conditions to establish what role these metabolites could perform when packed into these vesicles. B. thetaiotaomicron packs OMVs with a highly conserved core set of small molecules which are strikingly enriched with mouse-digestible metabolites and with metabolites previously shown to be associated with colonization of the murine GIT. By use of an expanded genome-scale metabolic model of B. thetaiotaomicron and a potential host (the mouse we have established many possible metabolic pathways between the two organisms that were previously unknown, and have found several putative novel metabolic functions for mouse that are supported by gene annotations, but that do not currently appear in existing mouse metabolic networks. The lipidome of these OMVs bears no relation to the mouse lipidome, so the purpose of this particular composition of lipids remains unclear. We conclude from this analysis that through intimate symbiotic evolution OMVs produced by B. thetaiotaomicron are likely to have been adopted as a conduit for small molecules bound for the mammalian host in vivo.

  14. What’s really in our black raspberry products? – chemotaxonomy by anthocyanin (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  15. ‘Razz’ highbush blueberry: A specialty cultivar with raspberry-flavored fruit (United States)

    ‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Razz’ represents a distinct a...

  16. Whole Genome Sequences of the Raspberry and Strawberry Pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae. (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Kronmiller, Brent A; Press, Caroline M; Tyler, Brett M; Zasada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J


    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely, raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of these two Phytophthora species as a first step toward understanding the genomic processes underlying plant host adaptation in these pathogens.

  17. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt). (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W


    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  18. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate. (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E


    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  19. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  20. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields (United States)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  1. Distribution and longevity of Pratylenchus penetrans in the red raspberry production system (United States)

    One of the major production constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on pre-plant soil fumigation, however regulations have made the practice more d...

  2. Novel colon-available triterpenoids identified in raspberry fruits exhibit antigenotoxic activities in vitro. (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Latimer, Cheryl; McMullan, Geoff; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R


    Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into digestion of food, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites important to gut health. We previously reported the consistent increase of components in ileal fluids of ileostomates after consumption of raspberries with use of nontargeted LC-MS n techniques and data deconvolution software highlighting two major unknown components (m/z 355 and 679). In-depth LC-MS n analyses suggested that the ileal m/z 355 components were p-coumaroyl glucarates. These compounds have not been identified previously and were confirmed in raspberry extracts after partial purification. The major ileal component with m/z 679 was a glycoside with an aglycone of m/z 517 and was present as two peaks in extracts of whole puree, unseeded puree, and isolated seeds. These components were purified using Sephadex LH20 and C18 SPE units and identified as major, novel raspberry triterpenoid glycosides. This triterpenoid-enriched fraction (100 nM) protected against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage in both colon cancer and normal cell lines and altered expression of cytoprotective genes. The presence of these novel raspberry triterpenoid components in ileal fluids indicates that they would be colon-available in vivo, so confirmation of their anticancer bioactivities is of key physiological relevance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington. (United States)

    Lightle, D M; Quito-Avila, D; Martin, R R; Lee, J C


    Amphorophora agathonica (Hottes) is the primary vector of aphid-transmitted viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the lower developmental threshold and studied the seasonal activity of A. agathonica in commercial fields in northern Washington state. In addition, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (raspberry latent virus and raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was estimated to be 2.7°C. In the field, apterous and alate aphid populations began rapidly increasing at ≍800 growing degree-days and peaked at 1,050 growing degree-days. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30-60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible relationship between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

  4. Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum. (United States)

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Lipińska, Lidia; Nowak, Adriana


    The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) seed oil and its major constituents. (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lin, Qiyang; Li, Kang; Yuan, Benyao; Song, Hongbo; Peng, Hongquan; Yi, Lunzhao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Battino, Maurizio; Cespedes Acuña, Carlos L; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jianbo


    Raspberry seed is a massive byproduct of raspberry juice and wine but usually discarded. The present study employed a microwave-assisted method for extraction of raspberry seed oil (RSO). The results revealed that omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid) were the major constituents in RSO. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in HepG2 cells treated with RSO. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in H 2 O 2 -exposed HepG2 cells was found. RSO increased the enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx in H 2 O 2 -exposed HepG2. Furthermore, RSO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the possible mechanisms to increase antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 may through the suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Raspberry seed oil exhibited good effects on the activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the inhibition of MAPKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mapping and expression of genes associated with raspberry fruit ripening and softening. (United States)

    Simpson, Craig G; Cullen, Danny W; Hackett, Christine A; Smith, Kay; Hallett, Paul D; McNicol, Jim; Woodhead, Mary; Graham, Julie


    QTL mapping identifies a range of underlying and unrelated genes with apparent roles in raspberry fruit ripening and softening that show characteristic developing fruit expression profiles. Fruit softening is an important agronomical trait that involves a complex interaction of plant cell processes. We have used both qualitative and quantitative scoring of fruit firmness, length, mass, and resistance to applied force to identify QTL in a raspberry mapping population. QTLs were located primarily on linkage group (LG) 3 with other significant loci on LG 1 and LG 5 and showed mostly additive effects between the two parents. The expression of key genes that underlie these QTLs with roles in cell-wall solubility, water uptake, polyamine synthesis, transcription, and cell respiration was tested across five stages of fruit development, from immature green to red ripe fruit, using real-time RT-qPCR. Gene expression patterns showed variable expression patterns across fruit development with a highly significant positive and negative correlation between genes, supporting precise regulation of expression of different cell processes throughout raspberry fruit development. Variable timing in expression was also found in some genes at different fruit development stages between soft and firm cultivars. Multiple processes have a role to play in fruit softening and this will require development of multiple marker combinations to genes that characterise raspberry fruit softening.

  7. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.


    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  8. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  9. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links12 (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika


    Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease—all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. PMID:26773014

  10. Method for Reduction of Pesticide Residue Levels in Raspberry and Blackcurrant Based on Utilization of Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balawejder Maciej


    Full Text Available The method for the reduction of pesticide residues in soft fruits based on utilization of ozone was proposed. The procedure allows for effective reduction of boscalid residues by 38% in raspberries, and about 58% thiram in blackcurrants. Furthermore, it can be used on an industrial scale.

  11. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  12. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor J. Hernández Marcano


    Full Text Available Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been a popular network node choice due to its reduced size, processing capabilities, low cost and its support by widely-used operating systems. For information transport, network coding is a new paradigm for fast and reliable data processing in networking and storage systems, which overcomes various limitations of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work, we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC-based schemes for the Raspberry Pi Models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less in these scenarios.

  13. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo


    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  14. Measurement of Global Solar Radiation data using Raspberry Pi and its estimation using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S.Shanmuga


    Full Text Available The demand for more efficient and environmentally benign, non-conventional sources of energy came into picture due to increasing demands for human comforts. Solar energy is now the ultimate option. In this paper, the instruments used to measure the solar radiation at Innovation Centre, MIT Manipal were connected to a Raspberry Pi to access the data remotely. Genetic Algorithms were formulated, so that the monthly mean global solar radiation in Manipal can be effectively estimated. Meteorological data such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc. were used as inputs to train the networks. A successful network was made between the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi. The data collected by the data loggers from the devices are transmitted to the Raspberry Pi which in turn sends the data to an internal server. The Raspberry Pi can be accessed using any SSH client such as PuTTY. The meteorological data was collected for the years 2010-2014 in order to formulate the Artificial Intelligence models. The validity of the formulated models were checked by comparing the measured data with the estimated data using tools such as RMSE, correlation coefficient, etc. The modelling of solar radiation using GA was carried out in GeneXpro tools version 5.0.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages. (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa


    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  16. Evaluation of radio-activated compounds produced in the walls and adjacent areas of a small medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kyoko; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Kanzaki, Takao; Shimada, Hirotaka; Otake, Hidenori; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo


    According to the 18 O(p, n) 18 F reaction, fast neutrons produced in the target will cause residual radioactivity in a cyclotron itself and in the concrete walls mainly after thermalization of neutrons. As exploratory work prior to decommissioning of a medical cyclotron facility, surface and core samples of the facility's concrete walls were collected after confirming the external radiation was at a low level based on hollow ionization chamber-type survey meter and glass dosimeter measurements. The residual radioactivity in these samples was measured by gamma-spectrometry. Residual radioactivity was detected in all of the components of the cyclotron. In the concrete, eight residual radioactive nuclides were identified. However, radioactivity concentrations of these radionuclides were less than that of 40 K which may exist generally in a natural environment. A clearance level for radioactive solid waste has not been defined nor implemented at present in Japan, and reliable evaluation will be required to minimize radioactive waste at the time of decommissioning. The present results provide basic data for establishment of regulatory guidelines for decommissioning of medical cyclotrons. (author)

  17. Red Raspberry Phenols Inhibit Angiogenesis: A Morphological and Subcellular Analysis Upon Human Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Sousa, M; Machado, V; Costa, R; Figueira, M E; Sepodes, B; Barata, P; Ribeiro, L; Soares, R


    Polyphenols are a class of natural compounds whose potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenesis has been reported in many pathological conditions. Red raspberry extract, rich in polyphenols, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects and prevent cell proliferation in distinct animal models. However, the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Herein, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to determine the influence of red raspberry phenolic compound extract concentrations, ranging from 10 to 250 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL, on endothelium viability (MTS assay), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), migration (injury assay), and capillary-like structures formation (Matrigel assay). Protein expression in cell lysates was determined by Western blot analysis. We showed that red raspberry extracts reduced cell viability (GI50  = 87,64 ± 6,59 μg GAE/mL) and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant abrogation of cells ability to migrate to injured areas, even at low concentrations, was observed by injury assay. Cell assembly into capillary-like structures on Matrigel also decreased in a dose dependent-manner for higher extract concentrations, as well as the number of branching points per unit of area. Protein expression analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Phospho-VEGFR2 expression, implying abrogation of VEGF signaling activity. We also showed for the first time that red raspberry phenolic compounds induce the rearrangement of filamentous actin cytoskeleton, with an isotropy increase found for higher testing concentrations. Taken together, our findings corroborate the anti-angiogenic potential of red raspberry phenolic compounds and provide new insights into their mode of action upon endothelium. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1604-1612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Comparison of the antioxidant properties of selected parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) (United States)

    Zielonka-Brzezicka, Joanna; Nowak, Anna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Klimowicz, Adam

    Antioxidants contained in plant raw materials prevent oxidative stress, and reduce the degenerative effects of free radical reactions and damage caused by UV radiation. Antioxidant activity is exhibited, for example, in raspberry (Rubus idaeus), and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), which have a high content of tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins and minerals. The raw plant material consisted of fresh and dried leaves and fruits of raspberries and blackberries harvested in 2014. This material was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and by an ultrasound-assisted technique. To evaluate antioxidant activity DPPH and FRAP methods were used in the first year and DPPH and ABTS methods in the second year of the study. The highest antioxidant activity, evaluated by the DPPH method in 2015, was demonstrated by both raspberry and blackberry fresh leaf extracts, whereas the highest reductive ability, assessed by FRAP, was demonstrated in fresh and dried blackberry leaves. In the next year of the study (2016), the activity of samples evaluated using the DPPH method did not differ significantly, with the exception of fresh raspberry leaf. In this year, the highest antioxidant properties, assessed using the ABTS method, were shown by extracts made of fresh blackberry leaves and fruits, and dried blackberry leaves. All the studied material, both ethanolic leaves and fruit extracts of raspberry and blackberry, reduced free radicals, which was examined using three methods of evaluation of the antioxidative properties (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS). The storage of ethanolic extracts at ambient temperature had no significant impact on the activity reduction of the evaluated plant material. The antioxidant activity of most examined extracts remained consistently high, which may be reflected in the use of the studied materials as sources of antioxidants in the cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries.

  19. Función de las organizaciones de productores de leche al servicio del pequeño productor The role of producers organizations serving the small milk producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco V. Alfredo


    Full Text Available El trabajo plantea la problemática de los pequeños productores de leche en América Tropical, caracterizada por el ambiente individualista en que se desenvuelven, los escasos recursos con que laboran y las experiencias negativas en la superación de sus limitaciones. Así mismo, argumenta que la ausencia de organizaciones de pequeños productores dificulta las actividades de abastecimiento de insumos y la comercialización/transformación de la leche, constituyéndose en el principal obstáculo para dinamizar su proceso de desarrollo limitando el acceso a la capacitación y a la asistencia técnica, y sugiere, en consecuencia, impulsar en América Tropical organizaciones formales de pequeños
    productores que sean locales, homogéneos en su composición, democráticas y autogestadas para a través de ellas buscar la superación de los limitantes anotados.The paper states the problems faced by the small milk producers in tropical America which are characterized by the individualistic environment in which they play, the scarity of resources which they operate and the negative experiences for the over coming of their lirnitatiens. It also points out that the lack of small farmers organizations brings more difficulties to such activities as the availability of inputs and the marketing/processing of milk; it also constitutes the main obstacle for the acceleration of their development process limiting their access to capacitation and technical assitence
    programs. Consequently, the paper sugest for Tropical America to promote formal organizations of small milk producers which should be local, homogeneous in their compositions, with democratic management in order to overcome the stated limitations.

  20. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña


    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  1. Guatemala: Country of small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This paper presents the antecedents of the private electrification in Guatemala since approval of the General Law of Electricity in 1996 that promoted hydroelectric power generation. The current situation in generation, transmission, and distribution is described as well the rural electrification covering and the financing of projects in this sector. Incentives to private investment is discussed with the proposal of an energy information center, proposal of fiscal incentives and promotion of renewable energy sources

  2. Proposal for creation of a small producer of electric power to the care of isolated communities; Proposta de criacao do pequeno produtor de energia eletrica para o atendimento de comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Vicente Gomes; Bortoni, Edson da Costa [Ministerio de Minas e Energia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    The absence of a legal order regarding to the small-sized generation and distribution enterprises impede the power supplying of areas of noticeable interest, such as Amazon communities and national security areas, which depends on distribution network expansion, sometimes without economical feasibility. For such cases, this work proposes the creation of the small energy producer, which congregates the prerogatives of the Independent- and the self- producers of energy and, moreover, the small distribution systems. (author)

  3. Annual and Perennial Alleyway Cover Crops Vary in Their Effects on Pratylenchus penetrans in Pacific Northwest Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus). (United States)

    Rudolph, Rachel E; Zasada, Inga A; DeVetter, Lisa W


    Cover crops can provide many benefits to agroecosystems, such as lessening soil erosion and increasing water infiltration. However, cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) fields in the Pacific Northwest. Raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans , which has a wide host range and has been shown to reduce raspberry plant vigor and yield. A 2-yr study was conducted in an established 'Meeker' raspberry field in northwest Washington to evaluate the effects of nine alleyway cover crops, mowed weed cover, and the industry standard of bare cultivated soil on P. penetrans population dynamics, raspberry yield, and fruit quality. The host status for P. penetrans of cover crops included in the field experiment, as well as Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold' and Sinapis alba 'Ida Gold', was also evaluated in greenhouse experiments. In the field experiment, P. penetrans population densities did not increase in alleyway cover crop roots over time or in alleyway soil surrounding cover crop roots (means range from 0 to 116 P. penetrans /100 g of soil) compared with the bare cultivated control (means range from 2 to 55 P. penetrans /100 g of soil). Pratylenchus penetrans populations did not increase over time in raspberry grown adjacent to alleyways with cover crops (means range from 1,081 to 6,120 P. penetrans /g of root) compared with those grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil alleyways (means range from 2,391 to 5,536 P. penetrans /g of root). Raspberry grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil did not have significantly higher yield or fruit quality than raspberry grown adjacent to cover crops in either year of the experiment. In the greenhouse assays, 'Norwest 553' wheat and a perennial ryegrass mix were poor hosts for P. penetrans , whereas 'Nora' and 'TAM 606' oat and 'Pacific Gold' and 'Ida

  4. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy (United States)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.


    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  5. Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment. (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Jankowska, M; Rutkowska, E; Hrynko, I


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. The most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). Twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.003% to 3.183% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for adults 0.008% and 9.7% for toddlers, respectively. The most critical case is procymidone, the acute risk was 180.9% of acute reference dose (ARfD) for toddlers and for adults (83% of ARfD) which is high.

  6. A hands-on course in sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemann, Volker


    A Hands-On Course in Sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi is the first book to give a practical and wide-ranging account of how to interface sensors and actuators with micro-controllers, Raspberry Pi and other control systems. The author describes the progression of raw signals through conditioning stages, digitization, data storage and presentation. The collection, processing, and understanding of sensor data plays a central role in industrial and scientific activities. This book builds simplified models of large industrial or scientific installations that contain hardware and other building blocks, including services for databases, web servers, control systems, and messaging brokers. A range of case studies are included within the book, including a weather station, geophones, a water-colour monitor, capacitance measurement, the profile of laser beam, and a remote-controlled and fire-seeking robot This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking hands-on laboratory course...

  7. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.


    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  8. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein


    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mochamad subianto


    Full Text Available Saat ini pengendalian on/off berbagai piranti listrik kebanyakan masih dikendalikan dengan menekan tombol saklar atau remote yang penggunaannya dengan jarak yang dekat. Untuk menjawab kebutuhan masyarakat tentang sistem kontrol yang cepat dan dinamis diperlukan suatu teknologi sistem kontrol jarak jauh yang memungkinkan proses secara cepat agar dapat menghemat waktu dan tenaga khususnya pengendalian beberapa alat pendingin ruangan yang berada di beberapa ruangan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian lanjutan dari peneliti terdahulu dan menggunakan perangkat yang mempunyai teknolgi terbaru yaitu Raspberry Pi sebagai pengendali untuk membuat suatu sistem kontrol beberapa AC (Air Conditioning pada ruangan yang berbeda secara jarak jauh. Diharapkan dapat sebagai salah satu solusi untuk perkembangan gaya hidup dan dinamika sosial saat ini yang semakin mementingkan kepraktisan dan efisiensi. Metodologi penelitian yang akan digunakan menggunakan metodologi waterfall dengan tahap-tahapannya yaitu tinjauan pustaka, analisa kebutuhan pengguna, analisis sistem, perancangan sistem, implementasi dan pengujian. Hasil akhir dari penelitian adalah prototipe pengendali jarak jauh beberapa perangkat AC Raspberry Pi.

  10. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga


    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  11. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP Pada Jaringan Nirkabel Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Handayani


    Full Text Available Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan satu teknologi telekomunikasi yang mampu melewatkan layanan komunikasi dalam jaringan Internet Protocol sehingga memungkinkan antar pengguna berkomunikasi suara dalam jaringan IP. Kelebihan dari VoIP ini mampu melakukan efisiensi bandwith dan biaya pengelolaan dengan memanfaatkan Raspberry Pi sebagai server VoIP. Dalam penelitian ini, VoIP dibangun pada Sistem Operasi Linux dengan aplikasi Asterisk dan RasPBX yang diintegrasikan pada Raspberry Pi dengan menggunakan jaringan nirkabel lokal sebagai media transmisi. Sistem ini diujikan dengan menggunakan dua tipe client, yaitu PC dan smartphone dengan mengukur QoS dengan rata-rata delay 0.4463ms, rata-rata throughput 16.36KBps, rata-rata packet loss 0.889% dan jitter 1.102ms.

  12. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W


    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  13. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  14. Design and Experimentation of a Control System Implemented on Raspberry Pi 3 Board for Photovoltaic Systems Using SEPIC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutouba


    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage regulation system is proposed for photovoltaic energy sources (PV, using Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter as a DC-DC converter to feed loads working with specific input voltage. The choose of SEPIC converter is due to the output voltage ripple of developed-type converters are usually small and can be lower than 2%, also it considered as a buck and boost converter and thereafter loads with lower or higher voltage could be powered. Matlab Simulink is used as environment to develop control strategies to guaranties a stable voltage at the loads terminals. Two algorithms are used to fulfill this role: A Conventional PID and PI-Fuzzy logic controller to generate the PWM signal for the SEPIC converter. Hence, to validate the work some real-time simulations are treated by implemented the control strategies on a low-cost control board: The Raspberry Pi 3 in order to manage the operation of system and collecting the simulation data. Also, and for verification purposes, several simulations were treated to verify the good behavior of the proposed system.

  15. Uav Photogrammetric Solution Using a Raspberry pi Camera Module and Smart Devices: Test and Results (United States)

    Piras, M.; Grasso, N.; Jabbar, A. Abdul


    Nowadays, smart technologies are an important part of our action and life, both in indoor and outdoor environment. There are several smart devices very friendly to be setting, where they can be integrated and embedded with other sensors, having a very low cost. Raspberry allows to install an internal camera called Raspberry Pi Camera Module, both in RGB band and NIR band. The advantage of this system is the limited cost (light weight and their simplicity to be used and embedded. This paper will describe a research where a Raspberry Pi with the Camera Module was installed onto a UAV hexacopter based on arducopter system, with purpose to collect pictures for photogrammetry issue. Firstly, the system was tested with aim to verify the performance of RPi camera in terms of frame per second/resolution and the power requirement. Moreover, a GNSS receiver Ublox M8T was installed and connected to the Raspberry platform in order to collect real time position and the raw data, for data processing and to define the time reference. IMU was also tested to see the impact of UAV rotors noise on different sensors like accelerometer, Gyroscope and Magnetometer. A comparison of the achieved results (accuracy) on some check points of the point clouds obtained by the camera will be reported as well in order to analyse in deeper the main discrepancy on the generated point cloud and the potentiality of these proposed approach. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be analysed.

  16. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi


    Rebecca M. Reck; R. S. Sreenivas


    Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC ...

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the storage life elongation of fresh strawberries and raspberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.


    The possibility of preserving strawberries and raspberries at room temperature by irradiation is studied. The fruits were packed in perforated plastic bags and irradiated on gamma-device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min. Strawberries were irradiated with 250 krad, raspberries of ''Rubin'' variety with 150 or 200 krad. Irratiated and control fruits were stored at 20sup(o) - 22sup(o)C and examined every day until the first signs of microbial decay appeared. It is found that the total number of microorganisms drops immediately after irradiation. The earliest signs of decay in control strawberries appeared on the second day after they had been packed; in irradiated strawberries - on the fourth or fifth day, with a rapid progress of decay thereafter. Decay of control raspberries started on the first day and by the fourth day all packages were completely moldy, while irradiated fruits had a very good appearance. Single mold spots appeared on the third or fourth day after exposure to 150 krad and later than the fifth day after exposure to 200 krad. Physico-chemical studies disclosed a tendency toward decrease in the sugar content immediately after irradiation. A post-irradiation decrease in the content of total pectine substances and ascorbic acid was also observed. At the end of preservation ascorbic acid in strawberries was reduced by 33 per cent and in raspberries by 19 - 70 per cent. The spectra of antecyonic substances showed that during the preservation of irradiated fruits oxidation has been more intensive. (Ch.K.)

  18. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications. (United States)

    Tivnan, Matthew; Gurjar, Rajan; Wolf, David E; Vishwanath, Karthik


    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications.

  19. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics. (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie


    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  20. The raspberry model for protein-like particles: Ellipsoids and confinement in cylindrical pores (United States)

    Ustach, Vincent D.; Faller, Roland


    The study of protein mass transport via atomistic simulation requires time and length scales beyond the computational capabilities of modern computer systems. The raspberry model for colloidal particles in combination with the mesoscopic hydrodynamic method of lattice Boltzmann facilitates coarse-grained simulations that are on the order of microseconds and hundreds of nanometers for the study of diffusive transport of protein-like colloid particles. The raspberry model reproduces linearity in resistance to motion versus particle size and correct enhanced drag within cylindrical pores at off-center coordinates for spherical particles. Owing to the high aspect ratio of many proteins, ellipsoidal raspberry colloid particles were constructed and reproduced the geometric resistance factors of Perrin and of Happel and Brenner in the laboratory-frame and in the moving body-frame. Accurate body-frame rotations during diffusive motion have been captured for the first time using projections of displacements. The spatial discretization of the fluid leads to a renormalization of the hydrodynamic radius, however, the data describes a self-consistent hydrodynamic frame within this renormalized system.

  1. Bioactivity of Meeker and Willamette raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) pomace extracts. (United States)

    Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Cetković, Gordana S; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna T; Vulić, Jelena J; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna M; Djilas, Sonja M


    Taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, Meeker and Willamette, were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. Willamette pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did Meeker pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). The most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line, reaching EC50 values of 34.8 and 60.3 μg/ml for Willamette and Meeker extracts, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated favourable non-tumor/tumor cell growth ratios and potently increased the apoptosis/necrosis ratio in breast adenocarcinoma and cervix carcinoma cells. In reference and wild bacterial strains, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were achieved in a concentration range from 0.29 to 0.59 mg/ml, and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in a range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/ml. The results indicate significant antioxidant, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antibacterial activities of raspberry pomace and favour its use as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Otomatisasi Pelayanan Binatu Berbasis Raspberry Pi Untuk Meningkatkan Efektivitas Dan Efisiensi Kegiatan Operasional Dan Pelayanan Binatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Habsyi Yesa


    Full Text Available Bisnis binatu (laundry atau bisnis jasa cuci pakaian merupakan bisnis yang menggiurkan saat sekarang ini. Proses layanan binatu umumnya terdiri dari pendaftaran, pengolahan, dan pengambilan pakaian. Proses ini memiliki banyak kekurangan yaitu pendaftaran manual tidak efektif dan efisien, pengolahan pakaian hanya diketahui oleh penyedia layanan binatu, dan pelanggan tidak mengetahui pakaian telah selesai. Ditengah persaingan bisnis yang begitu ketat, pelayanan konsumen merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting. Penyedia jasa dituntut untuk berinovasi untuk menyediakan layanan jasa yang efektif dan efisien. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan otomatisasi pelayanan binatu berbasis raspberry pi. Sistem ini menggunakan timbangan digital berbasis load cell, teknologi radio frequency identification (RFID sebagai masukan data otomatis, Raspberry Pi sebagai pusat dari pengolahan basis data (database, dan webserver sebagai pusat informasi bagi pelanggan. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan beberapa kesimpulan. Timbangan digital memiliki eror rata-rata 0,88 %, metode RFID dapat memasukan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan metode pengambilan nomor identitas jenis hex 8 digit, Raspberry Pi dapat mengakomodasi aplikasi yang efektif dan efisien untuk menyimpan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan pemakaian CPU rata-rata 5%, dan webserver yang digunakan dapat menyediakan informasi layanan binatu bagi pelanggan.

  3. Black Raspberries and Their Anthocyanin and Fiber Fractions Alter the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota in F-344 Rats. (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Lam, Vy; Salzman, Nita; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Li-Shu


    Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed. We observed distinct patterns of microbiota from different diet groups. Beta diversity analysis suggested that all diet groups exerted time-dependent changes in the bacterial diversity. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that post-diet fecal microbiota was segregated from baseline fecal microbiota within each diet. It is interesting to note that fractions of BRBs induced different changes in gut bacteria compared to whole BRBs. The abundance of specific microbial species known to have anti-inflammatory effects, such as Akkermansia and Desulfovibrio, was increased by whole BRBs and their residue. Further, butyrate-producing bacteria, e.g., Anaerostipes, were increased by whole BRBs. Our results suggest that whole BRBs and their fractions alter the gut microbiota in ways that could significantly influence human health.

  4. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia. (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A


    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 10 5  CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  5. An exploratory study of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) (poly)phenols/metabolites in human biological samples. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhuiqun; Sandhu, Amandeep; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt


    Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota. However, chronic exposure to red raspberry polyphenols may alter metabolite patterns depending on adaptions in the xenobiotic machinery and/or microbiota composition. Understanding the metabolic fate of these compounds and their composition in different biological specimens relative to the exposure time/dose will aid in designing future health benefit studies, including the mechanism of action studies. The present exploratory study applied ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometries to characterize red raspberry polyphenols in fruit and then their appearance, including metabolites in human biological samples (plasma, urine and breast milk) after the chronic intake of red raspberries. The results suggested that the most abundant polyphenols in red raspberries included cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, sanguiin H6 and lambertianin C. Sixty-two (poly)phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the plasma, urine and breast milk samples after the intake of red raspberries. In general, urine contained the highest content of phenolic metabolites; phase II metabolites, particularly sulfated conjugates, were mainly present in urine and breast milk, and breast milk contained fewer parent anthocyanins compared to urine and plasma.

  6. Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits. (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Pereira, Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta; da Silva, Thais Lomônaco Teodoro; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana


    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal


    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  8. Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains. (United States)

    Choe, D W; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Hair-Bejo, M; Awis, Q S


    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.

  9. Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders. (United States)

    Si, Xu; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wu, Xinye; Yi, Jianyong; Zhou, Linyan; Li, Zhaolu


    Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations such as bakery and dairy products. In this study, raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA-EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR-MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared on physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. FD led to significantly higher (P raspberry powder compared with other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods, were superior to FD in final total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg(-1) dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg(-1) dw). Additionally, IR-MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, were found to result in better quality of raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR-MVD could be recommended for use in the drying industry because of its advantages in time saving and nutrient retention. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Synergistic interaction of sumac and raspberry mixtures in their antioxidant capacities and selective cytotoxicity against cancerous cells. (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Marcone, Massimo F


    Previous works on staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) were mostly dedicated to its phytochemical profiles, antioxidant properties, and antidiabetic potentials. This study explored the potential of staghorn-sumac-derived functional ingredients for food and pharmacological applications. Sumac may have other biological functions, such as inhibitory effect on cancerous cells independent of its antioxidant properties. We characterized sumac and raspberry interactions, and their antioxidant capacities (ACs) and their inhibitory effect on both normal and cancerous cells. Mixing sumac and raspberry extracts yielded significantly higher ACs than the sum of sumac and raspberry as evaluated by three in vitro AC assays. However, the potential use of staghorn sumac as a natural source of dietary antioxidant supplement for oxidative-stress-related disorders might be challenged by its cytotoxicity in culturing normal cells. Remarkably, mixing sumac and raspberry showed maximal inhibition of the growth of both rat colon and human breast cancer cells with relatively low cytotoxicity toward normal rat colon and human breast epithelial cells, as compared with sumac or raspberry treatment alone. Sumac-derived products and their synergistic interactions with other food ingredients have great promise as functional food or nutraceutical products that would target cancer cells with minimal toxic effects to normal cells.

  11. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun


    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  12. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka


    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  13. Chemical composition of defatted strawberry and raspberry seeds and the effect of these dietary ingredients on polyphenol metabolites, intestinal function, and selected serum parameters in rats. (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Karlińska, Elżbieta; Macierzyński, Jakub; Jańczak, Rafał; Rój, Edward


    Strawberry and raspberry seeds were chemically analyzed and added as dietary ingredients to investigate the physiological response of rats. In both cases the main component was dietary fiber and the main polyphenols were ellagitannins (ET). The strawberry ET were mainly constituted by monomers and a dimer, agrimoniin, whereas raspberry ET were mainly constituted by a dimer, sanguiin-H-6, and a trimer, lambertianin-C. The lower content and the less polymerized structure of strawberry ET resulted in a higher cecal metabolites concentration (mainly nasutin and urolithin-A) in comparison to rats fed diet containing raspberry seeds. Dietary raspberry seeds, a source of dietary fiber, despite being richer in polyphenol compounds, were better utilized in fermentation processes, resulting in enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids. As opposed to strawberry seeds, the treatment with raspberry seeds beneficially improved the atherogenic index of a diet, mainly due to reduced triacylglycerol concentration in the serum.

  14. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities. (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo


    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  15. Influence of Sugars, Modified Starches and Hydrocolloids Addition on Colour and Thermal Properties of Raspberry Cream Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler Anita


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of the addition of sugars (sucrose, fructose and trehalose, modified starches (tapioca or waxy maize starch and hydrocolloids (karaya or guar gum on colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings. In addition, the influence of the above-mentioned additives on the colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings stored at room temperature over a period of 8 and 16 months was investigated. Results showed that the highest anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were detected in raspberry cream filling prepared with sucrose and trehalose in combination with guar gum. During storage, after 8 and 16 months at room temperature, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content decreased. Results also showed that the kind of sugar and added modified starches or hydrocolloids influenced the thermal properties of cream fillings. During storage, a decrease was observed in both freezing temperature as well as enthalpy of cream fillings.

  16. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  17. Changes in the level and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during storage of enzymatically treated raspberry juices and syrups. (United States)

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula


    Berry juices are a rich source of phenolic compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity. Unfortu- nately, polyphenols and especially anthocyanins are degraded during storage. The levels of total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antho- cyanins as well as antioxidant activity (radical scavenging ability against DPPH and ABTS+• and chelating power Fe2+) were determined in raspberry juices (obtained after enzymatic treatment with three commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations) and syrups (obtained by the addition of sucrose at concentrations of 30% and 70%) during storage. During the five-month storage of juices and syrups at room temperature, there was significant re- duction in the level of phenolic compounds, in particular anthocyanins (up to 95% in relation to the initial content). Storage of raspberry juices and syrups also resulted in a reduction in antioxidant activity. The enzymatic treatment of the raspberry mash generally increased the losses of anthocyanins. The addition of sugar to fruit juices only slightly reduced these losses.

  18. Potential antioxidant retention and quality maintenance in raspberries and strawberries treated with calcium chloride and stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Turmanidze


    Full Text Available Abstract Raspberry and strawberry fruits were stored at 0 °C and relative humidity (RH of 95% for eight days. The fruits were treated with calcium chloride and their quality parameters and weight loss monitored and compared with those of untreated ones. A higher weight loss was observed for the untreated raspberries (16% than for the fruits treated with 2% calcium chloride (5.3%. Similarly, untreated strawberry fruits lost more weight (8.5% than those treated with 2% calcium chloride – only 4.1%. The application of calcium chloride did not significantly influence the total acid content of the fruits. After 8 days storage the total soluble solids (TSS had decreased to 10.22 ± 0.06, 9.60 ± 0.05 and 9.65 ± 0.12 in the raspberry fruits treated with 0%, 1% and 2% calcium chloride, respectively, and to 7.00 ± 0.17, 6.57 ± 0.08 and 6.35 ± 0.04 in the strawberry fruits treated with 0%, 1% and 2% calcium chloride, respectively. After storage, the ascorbic acid contents were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in samples of raspberry and strawberry fruits subjected to 2% calcium chloride dips. The CaCl2 treatments had a significant effect on retaining the ascorbic acid contents in these fruits. The treatment of raspberry and strawberry fruits with calcium chloride had a positive effect (p< 0.05 on the retention of the total phenolic contents (TPC during the storage period. 66% and 74% of the antioxidant potentials were retained in the untreated samples of raspberries and strawberries, as against 78% and 89% in the 2% calcium chloride treated samples of these fruits.

  19. Lasing from the domain of collision of ionisation waves produced due to electric field concentration at electrodes with a small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tel'minov, A E; Burachenko, A G; Rybka, D V; Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Vil'tovskii, P O


    The characteristics of UV lasing in nitrogen and of diffusive discharge produced without an additional ionisation source were experimentally investigated in a nonuniform electric field formed by electrodes with different profiles. High-voltage nanosecond pulses were applied to the blade- and cylinder-shaped electrodes. It was determined that the gap breakdown at elevated pressure was caused by diffusive jets which propagate from the electrodes with a small radius of curvature. The electric field increased in the intersection of counter-propagating jets, with the effect that the threshold of lasing in the C 3 Π u - B 3 Π g (λ = 337.1 nm) molecular nitrogen band was attained for low average electric fields (below 60 V cm -1 Torr -1 ) and at pressures of 760 Torr and above. With lowering the pressure from 760 to 20 Torr, the voltage of gap breakdown in the nonuniform electric field was observed to increase for a voltage pulse rise time of ∼300 ps and to decrease for a pulse rise time of ∼2 ns.

  20. A comparative presentation of implementation of ISO 22000 versus HACCP and FMEA in a small size Greek factory producing smoked trout: a case study. (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Palaiokostas, Christos; Panagiotaki, Panagiota


    ISO 22000 is the new standard bound to replace HACCP on issues related to food safety. Although several companies, especially the big ones, have either implemented or are on the point of implementing ISO 22000, there are many others which are rather timid and/or reluctant to implement it. The main reason behind that is the lack of information and the fear that the new standard is too demanding in terms of bureaucratic work. This paper aims at making a comparative presentation of how the two systems can be applied to a small smoked salmon producing company thereby facilitating the emergence of the differences. The main difference is that in ISO 22000 systems like Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Hygiene Practice are prerequisites thus leading to lower number of CCPs. In this case study for example, the number of CCPs dropped from eight (8) in HACCP to four (4) in ISO 22000. Furthermore, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis was applied to the smoked trout manufacturing process in an attempt to calculate quantitatively the Risk Priority Number (RPN) and to find out whether it can be effectively correlated to ISO 22000 and/or HACCP. RPN was found to be higher than 130 for eight steps, in close agreement with HACCP, thereby indicating that corrective actions will have to be undertaken.

  1. Real-time Geomagnetic Data from a Raspberry Pi Magnetometer Network in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Case, N.; Beggan, C.; Marple, S. R.


    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK to enable citizen science. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current scientific-level instrument, but given its relatively low-cost, at about £250 ($325) per unit, this is an excellent price-to-performance ratio given we could not improve the sensitivity unless we spent a lot more money. The magnetic data are sampled at a 5 second cadence and sent to the AuroraWatch website at Lancaster University every 2 minutes. The data are freely available to view and download. The primary aim of the project is to encourage students from 14-18 years old to look at how sensors can be used to collect geophysical data and integrate it together to give a wider understanding of physical phenomena. A second aim is to provide useful data on the spatial variation of the magnetic field for analysis of geomagnetic storms, alongside data from the BGS observatory and University of Lancaster's SAMNET variometer network. We show results from the build, testing and running of the sensors including some recent storms and we reflect on our experiences in engaging schools and the general public with information about the magnetic field. The information to build the system and logging and analysis software for the Raspberry Pi is all freely available, allowing those interested to participate in the project as citizen scientists.

  2. Aromatic Polyketide Synthases (Purification, Characterization, and Antibody Development to Benzalacetone Synthase from Raspberry Fruits). (United States)

    Borejsza-Wysocki, W.; Hrazdina, G.


    p-Hydroxyphenylbutan-2-one, the characteristic aroma compound of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), is synthesized from p-coumaryl-coenzyme A and malonyl-coenzyme A in a two-step reaction sequence that is catalyzed by benzalacetone synthase and benzalacetone reductase (W. Borejsza-Wysocki and G. Hrazdina [1994] Phytochemistry 35: 623-628). Benzalacetone synthase condenses one malonate with p-coumarate to form the pathway intermediate p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (p-hydroxybenzalacetone) in a reaction that is similar to those catalyzed by chalcone and stilbene synthases. We have obtained an enzyme preparation from ripe raspberries that was preferentially enriched in benzalacetone synthase (approximately 170-fold) over chalcone synthase (approximately 14-fold) activity. This preparation was used to characterize benzalacetone synthase and to develop polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Benzalacetone synthase showed similarity in its molecular properties to chalcone synthase but differed distinctly in its substrate specificity, response to 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylene glycol, and induction in cell-suspension cultures. The product of the enzyme, p-hydroxybenzalacetone, inhibited mycelial growth of the raspberry pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var rubi at 250 [mu]M. We do not know whether the dual activity in the benzalacetone synthase preparation is the result of a bifunctional enzyme or is caused by contamination with chalcone synthase that was also present. The rapid induction of the enzyme in cell-suspension cultures upon addition of yeast extract and the toxicity of its product, p-hydroxybenzalacetone, to phytopathogenic fungi also suggest that the pathway may be part of a plant defense response.

  3. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on Frozen Red Raspberries by Using UV-C Light. (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Zhang, Hongchao; Killinger, Karen; Sablani, Shyam


    In this study, the efficacy of UV-C treatment was determined on the reduction of foodborne pathogens on artificially contaminated frozen food surfaces. At first, the UV-C inactivation rates on 100 μl of the respective cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Listeria monocytogenes covered underneath 0.5-cm-thick ice were examined. Simultaneously, the energy percentage of UV-C transmitted through the ice was determined. The experiments showed that more than 65% of the UV-C light energy passed through the ice and that UV-C susceptibility was in the descending order of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and L. monocytogenes . L. monocytogenes , the most UV-C-resistant strain, was then selected to test on frozen raspberries. The UV-C inactivation kinetic data of L. monocytogenes were well described using the Weibull equation. During 720 s of UV-C exposure, with a total dose of 7.8 × 10 2 mJ/cm 2 , a 1.5-log CFU/g reduction of L. monocytogenes population on the surface of frozen red raspberries was noted. No significant differences in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and total antioxidant activity were observed between UV-C-treated and untreated frozen berries immediately after treatment. At the end of 9 months of storage at -35°C, UV-C-treated berries had statistically lower total phenolics, higher total anthocyanins, and similar total antioxidant activity compared with untreated berries. This study shows that UV-C light can be used to reduce the L. monocytogenes population on frozen raspberries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh


    Full Text Available Papan informasi digital adalah media digital untuk menampilkan informasi dalam bentuk visual yang dapat dinikmati oleh orang-orang disekitarnya. Media digital bisa menjadi sarana informasi, promosi produk, dan juga sebagai sarana berita terbaru. Papan informasi digital yang ada di kantor atau sekolah biasanya menggunakan layar LED TV dilengkapi 1 unit komputer (CPU dan menggunakan media transmisi kabel. Banyaknya jumlah TV dan CPU yang digunakan menimbulkan masalah biaya dan tempat. Disamping itu manajemen konten informasi yang ditampilkan menjadi tidak praktis karena dilakukan langsung satu persatu di setiap CPU. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi terpadu berbasis web yang ditanam pada mini komputer berupa raspberry pi menggunakan jaringan wireless distribution system (WDS. Perangkat digital berupa LED TV dipasang raspberry-pi sebagai interface, yang dapat menghemat daya, biaya dan tempat. Manajemen konten informasi terintegrasi dengan komputer server yang menyediakan layanan edit fitur dan update informasi video streaming dan live streaming. Dari hasil pengukuran Quality of Service (QOS menggunakan Transmission Control Protocol (TCP untuk layanan video dan live streaming dengan kondisi Line of Sight (LOS dan Non Line of Sight (NLOS direkomendasikan menggunakan kondisi LOS dengan nilai Throughput sebesar 585 KBps dan 230 KBps, delay sebesar 1.7 ms dan 3.3 ms, dan Jitter sebesar 2.5 ms dan 6.19 ms. Nilai parameter tersebut memenuhi standar Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON. Cakupan WDS dari server ke raspberry-pi client mencapai 70 meter dengan kondisi LOS maupun NLOS. Pengujian Mean Opinion Score (MOS didapatkan nilai rata-rata sebesar 4 atau dalam kategori puas dengan sistem yang dibuat.

  5. Analisis Kelayakan Sistem Monitoring dan Kontrol Lampu Menggunakan Web Server Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslan - Maslan


    Full Text Available As technology develops progressively over time, system developers continue to strive to create more efficient monitoring systems. The problem that often happens is the control room and light control is currently not utilize an integrated system based web server. Room control systems still utilize large equipment such as televisions and large computers, so that every problem occurs in the room is difficult to control. From these problems then the purpose of this study to create an efficient control system that utilizes super mini-based Raspberry Pi. To create a system based on Raspberry P microcontroller then required an initial observation to perform the feasibility test on the system to be developed. The feasibility test system is the successful monitoring of the room using CCTV (Closed Circuit Television equipment and control the lamp automatically by using prototyping method. The CCTV feasibility test is viewed from the resolution while the control of room light control is seen from the success of controlling the life of the lights on the test. Based on the testing concluded that the monitoring of the room using Raspberry Pi-based web server is feasible to use, seen the test results when the light control goes smoothly, because the lights controlled through the webserver managed to live and die. Similarly, when monitoring the room with live CCTV also runs well. And while conducting Room monitoring experiments with Webcam at 800 x 600 resolution there is a lot of variation value of frame rate sometimes up and down. The up and down frame is caused by an unstable network connection.

  6. On the Application of the Raspberry Pi as an Advanced Acoustic Sensor Network for Noise Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Noriega-Linares


    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Cities and the monitoring of environmental parameters is an area of research that has attracted scientific attention during the last decade. These environmental parameters are well-known as important factors in their affection towards people. Massive monitoring of this kind of parameters in cities is an expensive and complex task. Recent technologies of low-cost computing and low-power devices have opened researchers to a wide and more accessible research field, developing monitoring devices for deploying Wireless Sensor Networks. Gathering information from them, improved urban plans could be carried out and the information could help citizens. In this work, the prototyping of a low-cost acoustic sensor based on the Raspberry Pi platform for its use in the analysis of the sound field is described. The device is also connected to the cloud to share results in real time. The computation resources of the Raspberry Pi allow treating high quality audio for calculating acoustic parameters. A pilot test was carried out with the installation of two acoustic devices in the refurbishment works of a neighbourhood. In this deployment, the evaluation of these devices through long-term measurements was carried out, obtaining several acoustic parameters in real time for its broadcasting and study. This test has shown the Raspberry Pi as a powerful and affordable computing core of a low-cost device, but also the pilot test has served as a query tool for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood to be more aware about the noise in their own place of residence.

  7. Raspberry Pi as an environment for learning to program


    Peternel, Darja


    The thesis discusses the projects which might encourage primary school children in the third triad to programme when the programming language Scratch becomes too restrictive. Lately, the answer has been to use proper programming languages and microcontrollers, which can be connected to camera, sensors and other devices. With this, children learn the basics of electrical engineering, and are only one step away from creating their own game or a small project. The thesis consists of assignments,...

  8. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii). (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun


    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 induces TGF-β expression in dendritic cells and activates TLR2 signal to produce IgA in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Sakai

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria provide benefits in enhancing host immune responses and protecting against infection. Induction of IgA production by oral administration of probiotic bacteria in the intestine has been considered to be one reason for this beneficial effect, but the mechanisms of the effect are poorly understood. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055 is a probiotic bacterium with properties such as bile tolerance, ability to improve the intestinal environment, and it has preventive effects related to abdominal adiposity. In this study, we have found that oral administration of LG2055 induced IgA production and increased the rate of IgA(+ cell population in Peyer's patch and in the lamina propria of the mouse small intestine. The LG2055 markedly increased the amount of IgA in a co-culture of B cells and bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC, and TLR2 signal is critical for it. In addition, it is demonstrated that LG2055 stimulates BMDC to promote the production of TGF-β, BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10, all critical for IgA production from B cells. Combined stimulation of B cells with BAFF and LG2055 enhanced the induction of IgA production. Further, TGF-β signal was shown to be critical for LG2055-induced IgA production in the B cell and BMDC co-culture system, but TGF-β did not induce IgA production in a culture of only B cells stimulated with LG2055. Furthermore, TGF-β was critical for the production of BAFF, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β itself from LG2055-stimulated BMDC. These results demonstrate that TGF-β was produced by BMDC stimulated with LG2055 and it has an autocrine/paracrine function essential for BMDC to induce the production of BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10.

  10. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A


    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Evaluation of Red Raspberry Cultivars Used for Breeding and Commercial Growing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lācis Gunārs


    Full Text Available The structure of raspberry cultivars and genetic resources in the Baltic countries have been influenced by the historical political situation in the 20th century and climatic conditions, especially winterhardiness. The genetic resources consist of some old European and American cultivars, but mostly of cultivars and hybrids bred in Russia. Currently, targeted breeding programmes are active only in Estonia and Latvia, which aim to develop winterhardy, disease-resistant cultivars, well adapted to the local climate. Therefore, parent material for hybridisation has been chosen from local advanced hybrids and introduced cultivars suitable to the regional climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity of Rubus germplasm and assess inter-specific and intra-specific relationships using phenotypical characterisation and molecular markers. Forty one Rubus genotypes were evaluated by 41 phenotypical traits and 15 previously described SSR markers. Both characterisation approaches discovered high correspondence with pedigree and a low level of diversity. A limited amount of the diversity of raspberry genetic material has been used in various breeding programmes, despite their broad geographical origin. The obtained results indicate the need for including local wild R. idaeus plant material into breeding programmes.

  12. Effects of plastic mulches and high tunnel raspberry production systems on soil physicochemical quality indicators (United States)

    Domagała-Świątkiewicz, Iwona; Siwek, Piotr


    In horticulture, degradable materials are desirable alternatives to plastic films. Our aim was to study the impact of soil plastic mulching on the soil properties in the high tunnel and open field production systems of raspberry. The raised beds were mulched with a polypropylene non-woven and two degradable mulches: polypropylene with a photodegradant and non-woven polylactide. The results indicated that the system of raspberry production, as well as the type of mulching had significant impact on soil organic carbon stock, moisture content and water stable aggregate amount. Soils taken from the open field system had a lower bulk density and water stability aggregation index, but higher organic carbon and capillary water content as compared to soils collected from high tunnel conditions. In comparison with the open field system, soil salinity was also found to be higher in high tunnel, as well as with higher P, Mg, Ca, S, Na and B content. Furthermore, mulch covered soils had more organic carbon amount than the bare soils. Soil mulching also enhanced the water capacity expressed as a volume of capillary water content. In addition, mulching improved the soil structure in relation to the bare soil, in particular, in open field conditions. The impact of the compared mulches on soil quality indicators was similar.

  13. Diagnostics vehicle’s condition using obd-ii and raspberry pi technology: study literature (United States)

    Moniaga, J. V.; Manalu, S. R.; Hadipurnawan, D. A.; Sahidi, F.


    Transportation accident rate are still being a major challenge in many countries. There are many factors that could be cause transportation accident, especially in vehicle’s internal system problem. To overcome this problem, OBD-II technology has been created to diagnostics vehicle’s condition. OBD-II scanner plugged to OBD-II port or usually called Data Link Connector (DLC), and after that it sends the diagnostics to Raspberry Pi. Compared from another microcontrollers, Arduino, Raspberry Pi are chosen because it sustains the application to receive real-time diagnostics, process the diagnostics and send command to automobiles at the same time, rather than Arduino that must wait for another process finished to run another process. Outcome from this application is to enable automobile’s user to diagnostics their own vehicles. If there is found something unusual or a problem, the application can told the problem to user, so they could know what to fix before they use their vehicle safely.

  14. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus). (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio


    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum. (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A


    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  16. Electrodeposited nanostructured raspberry-like gold-modified electrodes for electrocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy


    A facile method for fabrication of raspberry-like Au nanostructures (Au NRBs)-modified electrode by electrodeposition and its applications toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (MOR) in alkaline medium and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic media are demonstrated. The Au NRBs are characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectra, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical measurements. The growth of Au NRBs was monitored by recording the in-situ absorption spectral changes during electrodeposition using spectroelectrochemical technique. Here we systematically studied the MOR by varying several reaction parameters such as potential scan rate and methanol concentration. The electrocatalytic poisoning effect due to the MOR products are not observed at the Au NRBs-modified electrode. At the alkaline medium the Au NRBs-modified electrode shows the better catalytic activities toward the MOR and ORR when compared to the poly crystalline gold and bare glassy carbon electrodes. The Au NRBs-modified electrode is a promising and inexpensive electrode material for other electrocatalytic applications.Graphical AbstractRaspberry-like Au nanostructures modified electrode is prepared and used for electrocatalytic applications

  17. Raspberry ketone protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. (United States)

    Khan, Vasim; Sharma, Sumit; Bhandari, Uma; Ali, Syed Mansoor; Haque, Syed Ehtaishamul


    The cardioprotective role of raspberry ketone (RK) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was assessed. Rats were randomly divided into Group I - Vehicle control; Group II - Toxic control ISO (85mg/kg, s.c.); Group III, IV and V - RK (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, respectively) with ISO; Group VI- RK (200mg/kg) alone; Group VII - Propranolol (10mg/kg) with ISO; and Group VIII - Propranolol (10mg/kg) alone. After twenty-four hours of the last dose, animals were sacrificed and creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein, low-density-lipoprotein, very-low-density-lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Na + , K + -ATPase, nitric oxide, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis (tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase) were performed. Treatment with ISO significantly deviated the biochemical parameters from the normal levels, which were considerably restored by RK at 100 and 200mg/kg doses. 50mg/kg dose, however, did not demonstrate any significant cardioprotective action. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis further substantiated these findings. Our study showed a dose-dependent reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation and dyslipidemia by RK in ISO-intoxicated rats, which signifies that RK from the European red raspberry plant might be a valuable entity for the management of MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun


    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  19. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phenolics isolated from fruits of Himalayan yellow raspberry (Rubus ellipticus). (United States)

    Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena


    Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.

  20. Low Delay Video Streaming on the Internet of Things Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jennehag


    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.

  1. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavour and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft geno...

  2. Monodisperse raspberry-like multihollow polymer/Ag nanocomposite microspheres for rapid catalytic degradation of methylene blue. (United States)

    Tian, Qiong; Yu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yu, Demei


    Raspberry-like multihollow polymer microspheres were prepared by seeded swelling polymerization and decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) which acted as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Formation mechanism of the raspberry-like multihollow microsphere was discussed on the basis of water absorption of sulfonated groups in the seeded swelling polymerization. Effects of weight ratio of sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate to styrene (NaSS/St) of the seed particles, the concentration of PVP and [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + ions on the properties of polymer/Ag nanocomposite microspheres were investigated by microscopic observation, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrated that the raspberry-like multihollow microspheres were successfully fabricated by controlling over the NaSS/St of the seed particles in the seeded swelling polymerization by which the fabrication of hollow structure became simple and convenient. The spherical AgNPs were loaded on the polymer microsphere by in-situ chemical reduction due to the stabilization and reduction of PVP and the attraction between sulfonated groups and [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + ions. The raspberry-like multihollow polymer/Ag microspheres showed good catalytic activity and reusability in the degradation of methylene blue in the presence of NaBH 4 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae. (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi


    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013. (United States)

    Einöder-Moreno, M; Lange, H; Grepp, M; Osborg, E; Vainio, K; Vold, L


    In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.

  5. Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars. (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Viškelis, Pranas; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas


    The aim of this study was to assess the level of some phytochemicals in 19 raspberry cultivars grown in Lithuania. The content of total ellagic acid measured after 20h acidic hydrolysis of investigated raspberry cultivars, varied from 119.8 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 323.5mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The content of total phenolics ranged from 278.6 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 714.7mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The total anthocyanins content varied from 2.1 (yellow cv. 'Beglianka') to 325.5mg/100g (black cv. 'Bristol'). The radical scavenging capacity of the tested raspberry cultivars highly correlating with their total phenolics and total ellagic acid content (r=0.90 and 0.92, respectively). The results of this study expand the knowledge about variation in the content of valuable bioactive compounds in raspberries and may help for the selection and validation of the most productive cultivars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation. (United States)

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N


    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluations of sustained vigor and winter hardiness of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) grown in the Southeastern U.S (United States)

    Demand for fresh berry products continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial raspberry production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate and fluctuating winter temperatures, where heat degrades plant vigor and fruit quality, and chilling r...

  8. Solubility Determination and Modeling and Dissolution Thermodynamic Properties of Raspberry Ketone in Binary Solvent Mixtures of Ethanol and Water (United States)

    Shu, Min; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Yan-fei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Liyu; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Du, Wei


    The solubility and dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in a set of binary solvent mixtures (ethanol + water) with different compositions were experimentally determined by static gravimetrical method in the temperature range of 283.15-313.15 K at 0.10 MPa. The solubility of raspberry ketone in this series of ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures was found to increase with a rise in temperature and the rising mole fraction of ethanol in binary solvent mixtures. The van't Hoff, modified Apelblat and 3D Jouyban-Acree-van't Hoff equations were increasingly applied to correlate the solubility in ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures. The former two models could reach better fitting results with the solubility data, while the 3D model can be comprehensively used to estimate the solubility data in all the ratios of ethanol and water in binary solvent mixtures at random temperature. Furthermore, the changes of dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water solvent mixtures were obtained by van't Hoff equation. For all the above experiments, these dissolution processes of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures were estimated to be endothermic and enthalpy-driven.

  9. Health profile and efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle herds owned by small-scale producers in the region of Piracicaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD, enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, and neosporosis. The laboratory tests were conducted according to the methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. All herds had at least one animal that tested positive for one or more reproductive system diseases. Brucellosis was detected in 3/20 (15% herds, IBR and BVD in 19/20 (95%, EBL in 20/20 (100%, neosporosis in 13/20 (65%, and tuberculosis in 8/8 (100%. Six months later, cows (n=203 of the different herds were submitted to hormone treatment consisting of estradiol-progesterone and PGF2α for heat synchronization and ovulation and subsequent FTAI. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rates at 30 and 60 days after FTAI were 55.7% and 48.3%, respectively. These rates were not influenced by herd, inseminator, body score, post-calving days, or number of lactations. The calving rate (42.4% differed from the pregnancy rate at 30 (P=0.01, but not at 60 (P=0.27 days after FTAI. The gestation loss until calving was 23.2% (26/112, but no exact cause of this event was identified. Despite the presence (seroreactivity of reproductive diseases, cattle herds owned by small-scale producers exhibit acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI. However, additional prophylactic measures such as vaccination and improvement of livestock management should be adopted.

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of 1,2-Diarylpropane Type Phenylpropanoid Enantiomers from Red Raspberry against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells. (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Yao, Guo-Dong; Song, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jie; Lin, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang


    Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an edible fruit-producing species belonging to the Rosaceae family. In our search for the health-promoting constituents from this fruit, four pairs of enantiomeric phenylpropanoids (1a/1b-4a/4b), including three new compounds (1a and 2a/2b), were isolated from red raspberry. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of the extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and comparison between the experimental measurements of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and calculated ECD spectra by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). In addition, their neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were investigated, and the results showed enantioselectivity, in which that 3a exhibited noticeable neuroprotective activity, while its enatiomer 3b exhibited no obvious protective effect. Further study demonstrated that 3a could selectively inhibit the apoptosis induction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by enhancing the activity of catalase (CAT) in H 2 O 2 -treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. These findings shed much light on a better understanding of the neuroprotective effects of these enantiomers and provide new insights into developing better treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

  11. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Gordon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  12. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.). (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Lewers, Kim S; Staton, Margaret E; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Saski, Christopher A


    Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a source of SSRs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders. Leaf and meristem tissue from 'Heritage' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 'Bristol' black raspberry (R. occidentalis) were utilized for RNA extraction. After conversion to cDNA and library construction, ESTs were sequenced, quality verified, assembled and scanned for SSRs.  Primers flanking the SSRs were designed and a subset tested for amplification, polymorphism and transferability across species. ESTs containing SSRs were functionally annotated using the GenBank non-redundant (nr) database and further classified using the gene ontology database. To accelerate development of EST-SSRs in the genus Rubus (Rosaceae), 1149 and 2358 cDNA sequences were generated from red raspberry and black raspberry, respectively. The cDNA sequences were screened using rigorous filtering criteria which resulted in the identification of 121 and 257 SSR loci for red and black raspberry, respectively. Primers were designed from the surrounding sequences resulting in 131 and 288 primer pairs, respectively, as some sequences contained more than one SSR locus. Sequence analysis revealed that the SSR-containing genes span a diversity of functions and share more sequence identity with strawberry genes than with other Rosaceous species. This resource of Rubus-specific, gene-derived markers will facilitate the construction of linkage maps composed of transferable markers for studying and manipulating important traits in this economically important genus.

  13. Evaluating warp of 2 by 4s sawn from panels produced through green gluing dimension lumber from small ponderosa pine logs (United States)

    Richard Bergman; William T. Simpson; Chris Turk


    Overstocked small-diameter softwood timber in western US forests has created a serious forest health and fire hazard, and the costs of removing this material are high. One way to lower costs is to reduce loss because of warp on lumber sawn from these small logs. Using a green-gluing process, standard 38 by 89-mm (nominal 2 by 4-in.) pieces (2 by 4s) ripped from pressed...

  14. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy. (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio


    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice. (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Chew, Boon P; Ivanov, Ivan


    Early diagnosis of risks of heart disease can be critical to fight cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with obesity and diabetes and for the implementation of nutritional interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of red raspberry consumption in the obese diabetic (db/db) mice using proteomic analysis as a tool. Hearts harvested from db/db mice fed an isocaloric diet (AIN-93G, control group) or AIN-93G supplemented with freeze-dried raspberry (raspberry group) for eight weeks were analyzed for changes in protein expression. Bioinformatics and pathway analysis of proteomic data detected in >50% samples were scrutinized with Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Histologic analysis, adipokines and lipid quantification in heart tissues were assessed as end points for disease biomarkers. Results from proteomic data identified five proteins unique to the control group involved in cardiac remodeling and one involved in stress response. Twenty-five proteins expressed in both groups were differentially downregulated in the raspberry group (p raspberry and control groups were detected in heart lipid composition, adipokines, and morphology within the study timeframe. In conclusion, raspberry consumption may be effective in decreasing the levels of oxidative and inflammatory stress that promote morphological changes in the heart at an older age, thus preventing or delaying heart diseases.

  16. Raspberry-like Nanostructured Silicon Composite Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Fang, Shan; Tong, Zhenkun; Nie, Ping; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Xiaogang


    Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers is a promising method to hold the volume expansion of Si for its practical application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize raspberry-like hollow silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance; a high reversible specific capacity of 886.2 mAh g -1 at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 after 200 cycles is achieved. Moreover, even after 500 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g -1 , a stable capacity of 516.7 mAh g -1 still can be obtained.

  17. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang


    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  18. Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael


    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  19. Raspberry-Like Bismuth Oxychloride on Mesoporous Siliceous Support for Sensitive Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Cadmium. (United States)

    Song, Yiyan; Xu, Zhihui; Yu, Xinyu; Shi, Xueyan; Jiang, Huijun; Li, Xiaoming; Kong, Yan; Xu, Qin; Chen, Jin


    BiOCl-SiO₂ KIT-6 composite materials with raspberry-like structures are facilely prepared under hydrothermal conditions. The mesoporous siliceous support of SiO₂ KIT-6-incorporated BiOCl with enlarged yet refined surface morphology characterized by physiochemical methods exhibits an improved electrochemical performance. A sensitive electrochemical detection method of cadmium concentration using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry was developed based on BiOCl-SiO₂ KIT-6 composite-modified glassy carbon electrodes, which displayed wide linear ranges of 0.5 to 10 μg/L and 10 to 300 μg/L and a detection limit of 65 ng/L. The sensitive, versatile and eco-friendly sensor was successfully applied for the determination of cadmium-spiked human blood samples.

  20. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Reck


    Full Text Available Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC motor and 3D printed parts. The kit has two different configurations. The first (base configuration is a DC motor system with a position and speed sensor. The second configuration adds a Furuta inverted pendulum attachment with another position sensor. These configurations replicate most of the student learning outcomes for the two control systems courses for which they were designed.

  1. Design and Implementation of Smart Attendance System Based On Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Fadhil Abdulsada


    Full Text Available The attendance system proposed is used to manage attendance system in large and branched factory or university from central unit. It consists of terminal units and a central unit. Each terminal unit consists of Raspberry pi, screen GUI, RFID, transponder card with each user (like student and GSM board. The central unit consists of Arduino, GSM board and a computer. Each unit has a special program to achieve its purpose. The terminal unit is responsible of making a connection with a transponder card to bring its ID's and make a comparison with the names listed in the database of SQL server to get the names of the absent students and send their serial numbers by using GSM message. The central unit is considered as a heart of system where it is responsible of collecting all the information from the terminal units, displaying them and making special processing to take a decision about persons whose absence exceed the threshold line.

  2. Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Pasquali


    Full Text Available A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms. The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate.

  3. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Cloutier


    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  4. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhuo Xu


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  5. Building IoT Applications with Raspberry Pi and Low Power IQRF Communication Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo


    Full Text Available Typical Internet of Things (IoT applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1 good computing power/cost ratio; (2 high availability; it has become a de facto hardware standard; and (3 ease of use; it is based on operating systems with a big community of users. In IoT applications, data are frequently carried by means of wireless sensor networks in which energy consumption is a key issue. Energy consumption is especially relevant for smart sensors that are scattered over wide geographical areas and may need to work unattended on batteries for long intervals of time. In this scenario, it is convenient to ease the construction of IoT applications while keeping energy consumption to a minimum at the sensors. This work proposes a possible gateway implementation with specific technologies. It solves the following research question: how to build gateways for IoT applications with Raspberry Pi and low power IQRF communication modules. The following contributions are presented: (1 one architecture for IoT gateways that integrates data from sensor nodes into a higher level application based on low-cost/low-energy technologies; (2 bindings in Java and C that ease the construction of IoT applications; (3 an empirical model that describes the consumption of the communications at the nodes (smart sensors and allows scaling their batteries; and (4 validation of the proposed energy model at the battery-operated nodes.

  6. Effect of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli on the survival of Escherichia coli and Listeria in a dynamic model of the stomach and the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gänzle, M.G.; Hertel, C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Hammes, W.P.


    The survival of Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 (bac+) and (bac-) in combination with Escherichia coli LTH 1600 or Listeria innocua DSM20649 during transit through a dynamic model of the human stomach and small intestine (GIT model) was studied. Furthermore, we determined the digestion of curvacin A

  7. Identifying inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms using a rapid small-scale screening method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Edwin C.; Vaessen, Evelien; Weusthuis, Ruud A.; Eggink, Gerrit


    Sugars obtained from pretreated lignocellulose are interesting as substrate for the production of lactic acid in fermentation processes. However, by-products formed during pretreatment of lignocellulose can inhibit microbial growth. In this study, a small-scale rapid screening method was used to

  8. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.


    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  9. Raspberry Ketone (United States)

    ... a pounding heart beat (palpitations). Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, Glucophage, Riomet), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), ...

  10. Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for Al-Al4C3 System Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Besterci, M.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, B.; Sülleiová, K.; Kvačkaj, T.


    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2011), s. 205-210 ISSN 0334-6455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA AV ČR IAA200410801 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 2/0025/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Equal channel angular pressing * small-punch creep * fracture * metal-matrix composites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2011

  11. Interaction with the small subunit of geranyl diphosphate synthase modifies the chain length specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase to produce geranyl diphosphate. (United States)

    Burke, Charles; Croteau, Rodney


    Geranyl diphosphate synthase belongs to a subgroup of prenyltransferases, including farnesyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, that catalyzes the specific formation, from C(5) units, of the respective C(10), C(15), and C(20) precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes. Unlike farnesyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, which are homodimers, geranyl diphosphate synthase from Mentha is a heterotetramer in which the large subunit shares functional motifs and a high level of amino acid sequence identity (56-75%) with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases of plant origin. The small subunit, however, shares little sequence identity with other isoprenyl diphosphate synthases; yet it is absolutely required for geranyl diphosphate synthase catalysis. Coexpression in Escherichia coli of the Mentha geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit with the phylogenetically distant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Taxus canadensis and Abies grandis yielded a functional hybrid heterodimer that generated geranyl diphosphate as product in each case. These results indicate that the geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit is capable of modifying the chain length specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (but not, apparently, farnesyl diphosphate synthase) to favor the production of C(10) chains. Comparison of the kinetic behavior of the parent prenyltransferases with that of the hybrid enzyme revealed that the hybrid possesses characteristics of both geranyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

  12. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)


    Park, Soo J.; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.


    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters...

  13. Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Fruits After Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Turmanidze


    Full Text Available Post-harvested blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits were immediately treated with 1% and 2% calcium chloride by immersion at 20 ± 1°C for 2.5 min and kept for 8 days at 0 ± 0.5°C and relative humidity (RH 90 ± 5%. The application of calcium did not significantly effect on total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids. Maximum weight lost was observed for untreated berries and minimum lost was observed for fruits treated with 2% calcium chloride. After storage, ascorbic acid content was significantly higher in samples of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits subjected to 2% calcium chloride dip. Treatment of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits with calcium chloride had a positive effect on retention of total polyphenols content during the storage period. Depletion of antioxidant capacity of untreated fresh blackberry fruits during 8 days cold storage was 25%; raspberries and strawberries - 34 and 26 % respectively. Whereas depletion of antioxidant activity in the 2% calcium chloride treated samples of these fruits was 8, 22 and 11% respectively. In case of storage of untreated blackberry fruits content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 6.33 mg per 100 g of fruit. While, in fruit samples treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 32.06 and 11.35 mg per 100 g of fruit, respectively. Content of pelargonidin 3–O- monoglucoside increased by 2.29 mg per 100 g of the untreated blackberry fruits and by 26.87 and 8.45 mg per 100 g of fruits treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride respectively. Change of content of cyanidin 3–O- (6 - p – coumaroyl - glucoside in blackberry fruits was not statistically significant.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco. (United States)

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal


    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens.

  15. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life. (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos


    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data. (United States)

    Jibran, Rubina; Dzierzon, Helge; Bassil, Nahla; Bushakra, Jill M; Edger, Patrick P; Sullivan, Shawn; Finn, Chad E; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Mockler, Todd C; Liachko, Ivan; Davies, Kevin M; Foster, Toshi M; Chagné, David


    Black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavor and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft genome for black raspberry (ORUS 4115-3) lacks assembly of scaffolds to chromosome scale. We used high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and Proximity-Guided Assembly (PGA) to cluster and order 9650 out of 11,936 contigs of this draft genome assembly into seven pseudo-chromosomes. The seven pseudo-chromosomes cover ~97.2% of the total contig length (~223.8 Mb). Locating existing genetic markers on the physical map resolved multiple discrepancies in marker order on the genetic map. Centromeric regions were inferred from recombination frequencies of genetic markers, alignment of 303 bp centromeric sequence with the PGA, and heat map showing the physical contact matrix over the entire genome. We demonstrate a high degree of synteny between each of the seven chromosomes of black raspberry and a high-quality reference genome for strawberry ( Fragaria vesca L.) assembled using only PacBio long-read sequences. We conclude that PGA is a cost-effective and rapid method of generating chromosome-scale assemblies from Illumina short-read sequencing data.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphenolic-Enriched Red Raspberry Extract in an Antigen Induced Arthritis Rat Model† (United States)

    Jean-Gilles, Dinorah; Li, Liya; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Chichester, Clinton O.; Seeram, Navindra P.


    The red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit contains bioactive polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins with reported anti-inflammatory properties. Here we sought to investigate the cartilage protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents) using: 1) an in vitro bovine nasal explant cell culture model and, 2) an in vivo adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. RRE contained 20% total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalents), 5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) and 9.25% ellagitannins (as ellagic acid equivalents). In the in vitro studies, bovine nasal explants were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β to induce the release of proteoglycan and type II collagen. On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/Kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals. Also, histological analyses revealed significant inhibition of inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage damage, and bone resorption by RRE. This study suggests that red raspberry polyphenols may afford cartilage protection and/or modulate the onset and severity of arthritis. PMID:22111586

  18. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz


    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  19. The Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Raspberry Fruit on Ovarian follicles and serum parameters in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat

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    mohamad Nabiuni


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is an endocrine disorder leading to lack of ovulation and has inflammatory aspects. Raspberry extract, with possession of bioactive compounds such as Anthocyanins and polyphenols, have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract on the development process of ovarian follicles and hormones level of pituitary, ovarian, and liver in rats suffering from PCOS were examined. Methods: In the present experimental study, 120 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, PCOS, and treated with raspberry. The induction of syndrome was done by 2mg Estradiol valerate. After a period of 60 days, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW raspberry extract was injected intraperitoneally. Control group received no injection. Ten days after the last injection, all groups were anesthetized by chloroform and the serum and ovary of all groups were collected in order to investigate the histological and serologic changes. Data obtained were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Raspberry-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hormones rate of testosterone, estradiol, LH, and CRP compared with PCOS (p<0.05, whereas a significant increase was observed in the serum level of Progesterone and FSH (p<0.05. A significant increase was observed in the number of corpus luteum and granulosa layer thickness in the raspberry-treated group compared with PCOS (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract was effective on regulating the hormones, CRPand improving of cysts which led to the initiation of ovulation.

  20. Small and medium sized wine producers dealing with business to business e-commerce: Towards a relational model for enhancing value (co- creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Andrea


    Full Text Available The internet has produced a forward-looking shift in the way we communicate, think and run economic activities around the globe. The revolution in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has generated an innovating process in the agri-food sector that is far from being unwind. The wine industry is a case in point. Indeed, the industry has attempted to address the multifaceted challenges posed by electronic commerce since always. Business to business electronic commerce has been slower to develop than its counterpart, i.e. business to consumer E-commerce. However business to business e-commerce is starting to attract an increased interest, by showing a significant business value in terms of potential. Against this background, the slow development of B2B e-commerce has been linked to regulatory and economic reasons. In order to deal with such stumbling blocks, the paper suggests a shift towards an open platform that is aimed at facilitating transactions and interactions among businesses through a continuous problem-solving process in which trust and value is co-created by producers and customers through relational contracting.

  1. Preferences for berries among consumers in southern Chile: blueberries are produced but are they consumed? (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán


    Blueberry plantations in Chile are oriented exclusively towards exports to northern hemisphere countries; however, this fruit has recently been introduced into the domestic market due to the increased supply and a fall in export market prices. Based on the previously mentioned, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate consumer preferences for 3 species of berries (blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries), sold loose (unpackaged) as opposed to packaged and branded, at different prices, in one of the principal blueberry producing areas of Chile; and to distinguish consumer segments by their preferences. To do this a survey was applied to 400 people in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, who were responsible for purchasing fruit for their households. Conjoint analysis showed a preference for raspberries and strawberries over blueberries, packaged and branded, at the lowest price. Total of 2 principal segments were distinguished by cluster analysis: "price sensitive" (42.7%), who preferred strawberries, and "sensitive to species of berry" (47.5%), who preferred raspberries and strawberries. The segments presented different profiles in their demographic make-up and fruit consumption behavior. Strategies are discussed that might reverse the low acceptance of blueberries in the Chilean domestic market. This study presents information on the introduction of new fresh foods into the market. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C


    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

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    Margarita Shternshis


    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  4. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi


    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author)

  5. Interfacial structure of multi-layered thin-films produced by pulsed laser deposition for use in small-scale ceramic capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Hino, Takanori; Ohara, Masahiro


    The aim of this study was to develop thin film capacitors with superior properties that could provide an alternative to materials currently used in conventional multi-layer ceramic capacitors fabricated by sintering. To this end, an artificial dielectric super lattice technique, incorporating pulsed laser deposition, was applied to improving the dielectric properties of thin film capacitors. This method permits the A-site atoms of a perovskite ABO 3 structure to be selected layer by layer at a nanoscopic scale; consequently, multi-layer BaTiO 3 - SrTiO 3 thin films were produced on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) and SrTiO 3 (111) substrates. Hetero-epitaxial grain growth was observed between BaTiO 3 and SrTiO 3 , with the lattice mismatch between them introducing a compressive residual strain at the interface. The dielectric properties of these multi-layer thin-film capacitors were found to be superior to those of conventional solid-solution thin films once the thickness of the layers and the ratio of the two oxides were optimized

  6. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama (Japan))


    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author).

  7. The small heat shock protein B8 (HSPB8) efficiently removes aggregating species of dipeptides produced in C9ORF72-related neurodegenerative diseases. (United States)

    Cristofani, Riccardo; Crippa, Valeria; Vezzoli, Giulia; Rusmini, Paola; Galbiati, Mariarita; Cicardi, Maria Elena; Meroni, Marco; Ferrari, Veronica; Tedesco, Barbara; Piccolella, Margherita; Messi, Elio; Carra, Serena; Poletti, Angelo


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two neurodegenerative diseases in which similar pathogenic mechanisms are involved. Both diseases associate to the high propensity of specific misfolded proteins, like TDP-43 or FUS, to mislocalize and aggregate. This is partly due to their intrinsic biophysical properties and partly as a consequence of failure of the neuronal protein quality control (PQC) system. Several familial ALS/FTD cases are linked to an expansion of a repeated G4C2 hexanucleotide sequence present in the C9ORF72 gene. The G4C2, which localizes in an untranslated region of the C9ORF72 transcript, drives an unconventional repeat-associated ATG-independent translation. This leads to the synthesis of five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs), which are not "classical" misfolded proteins, but generate aberrant aggregation-prone unfolded conformations poorly removed by the PQC system. The DPRs accumulate into p62/SQSTM1 and ubiquitin positive inclusions. Here, we analyzed the biochemical behavior of the five DPRs in immortalized motoneurons. Our data suggest that while the DPRs are mainly processed via autophagy, this system is unable to fully clear their aggregated forms, and thus they tend to accumulate in basal conditions. Overexpression of the small heat shock protein B8 (HSPB8), which facilitates the autophagy-mediated disposal of a large variety of classical misfolded aggregation-prone proteins, significantly decreased the accumulation of most DPR insoluble species. Thus, the induction of HSPB8 might represent a valid approach to decrease DPR-mediated toxicity and maintain motoneuron viability.

  8. Characterization of clinically isolated thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase. (United States)

    Negishi, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Kasuga, Eriko; Natori, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Mina; Ogiwara, Naoko; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Nagano, Noriyuki; Honda, Takayuki


    Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are difficult to detect or test for antimicrobial susceptibility. We investigated the characteristics of clonal TD-SCVs of Escherichia coli, both with and without blaCTX-M-3, isolated from a patient. Mutation in the thyA gene was analysed by sequencing, and morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of the isolates were examined. Additionally, conjugational transfer experiments were performed to prove the horizontal transferability of plasmids harbouring resistance genes. The TD-SCVs contained a single nucleotide substitution in the thyA gene, c.62G>A, corresponding to p.Arg21His. Morphologically, their colonies were more translucent and flattened than those of the wild-type strain. In addition, cells of the TD-SCVs were swollen and elongated, sometimes with abnormal and incomplete divisions; a large amount of cell debris was also observed. Changing c.62G>A back to the wild-type sequence reversed these abnormalities. Conjugational transfer experiments showed that the TD-SCV of E. coli with blaCTX-M-3 failed to transfer blaCTX-M-3 to E. coli CSH2. However, the TD-SCV of E. coli without blaCTX-M-3 experimentally received the plasmid encoding blaSHV-18 from Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and transferred it to E. coli CSH2. Mutation in the thyA gene causes morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of E. coli, as well as inducing thymidine auxotrophy. In addition, TD-SCVs horizontally transmit plasmids encoding resistance genes. It is important to detect TD-SCVs based on their characteristics because they serve as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Adapts to Oxidative Stress by Producing H2O2-Resistant Small-Colony Variants via the SOS Response (United States)

    Painter, Kimberley L.; Strange, Elizabeth; Bamford, Kathleen B.; Armstrong-James, Darius


    The development of chronic and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is associated with the emergence of slow-growing mutants known as small-colony variants (SCVs), which are highly tolerant of antibiotics and can survive inside host cells. However, the host and bacterial factors which underpin SCV emergence during infection are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of S. aureus to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 leads to a specific, dose-dependent increase in the population frequency of gentamicin-resistant SCVs. Time course analyses revealed that H2O2 exposure caused bacteriostasis in wild-type cells during which time SCVs appeared spontaneously within the S. aureus population. This occurred via a mutagenic DNA repair pathway that included DNA double-strand break repair proteins RexAB, recombinase A, and polymerase V. In addition to triggering SCV emergence by increasing the mutation rate, H2O2 also selected for the SCV phenotype, leading to increased phenotypic stability and further enhancing the size of the SCV subpopulation by reducing the rate of SCV reversion to the wild type. Subsequent analyses revealed that SCVs were significantly more resistant to the toxic effects of H2O2 than wild-type bacteria. With the exception of heme auxotrophs, gentamicin-resistant SCVs displayed greater catalase activity than wild-type bacteria, which contributed to their resistance to H2O2. Taken together, these data reveal a mechanism by which S. aureus adapts to oxidative stress via the production of a subpopulation of H2O2-resistant SCVs with enhanced catalase production. PMID:25690100

  10. K19 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii is produced via a Wzy polymerase encoded in a small genomic island rather than the KL19 capsule gene cluster. (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Siniagina, Maria N; Malanin, Sergey Y; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A


    Polymerization of the oligosaccharides (K units) of complex capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) requires a Wzy polymerase, which is usually encoded in the gene cluster that directs K unit synthesis. Here, a gene cluster at the Acinetobacter K locus (KL) that lacks a wzy gene, KL19, was found in Acinetobacter baumannii ST111 isolates 28 and RBH2 recovered from hospitals in the Russian Federation and Australia, respectively. However, these isolates produced long-chain capsule, and a wzy gene was found in a 6.1 kb genomic island (GI) located adjacent to the cpn60 gene. The GI also includes an acetyltransferase gene, atr25, which is interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) in RBH2. The capsule structure from both strains was →3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→4)-α-d-GalpNAcA-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→, determined using NMR spectroscopy. Biosynthesis of the K unit was inferred to be initiated with QuiNAc4NAc, and hence the Wzy forms the β-(1→3) linkage between QuipNAc4NAc and GalpNAc. The GalpNAc residue is 6-O-acetylated in isolate 28 only, showing that atr25 is responsible for this acetylation. The same GI with or without an IS in atr25 was found in draft genomes of other KL19 isolates, as well as ones carrying a closely related CPS gene cluster, KL39, which differs from KL19 only in a gene for an acyltransferase in the QuiNAc4NR synthesis pathway. Isolates carrying a KL1 variant with the wzy and atr genes each interrupted by an ISAba125 also have this GI. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis normally found at the KL located elsewhere in A. baumannii genomes.

  11. A low-cost touchscreen operant chamber using a Raspberry Pi™. (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M


    The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze. These include improved translation of preclinical models, as well as high throughput and the automation of animal testing. However, these systems are relatively expensive, which can impede progress for researchers with limited resources. Here we describe a low-cost touchscreen operant chamber based on the single-board computer, Raspberry Pi TM , which is capable of performing tasks similar to those supported by current state-of-the-art systems. This system provides an affordable alternative for cognitive testing in a touchscreen operant paradigm for researchers with limited funding.

  12. Development and characterization of different black raspberry confection matrices designed for delivery of phytochemicals. (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H; Vodovotz, Yael


    Three forms of confections containing black raspberries (BRB) powder were developed to provide controlled release of phytochemicals for oral disease prevention. Our objective was to investigate the impact of varying confection matrices on the release rate of BRB phytochemicals. Confections were developed and prepared. Textural properties of confections were analyzed, compared and correlated with the release rate of phytochemicals from BRB confections with in vitro dissolution test. In the results, BRB content reached 22% in hard candy and pectin-based confections and 40% in starch-based confections, respectively. Pectin- and starch-based confections retained >93% of its original anthocyanins after processing while hard candy had 59%. Starch confections showed higher G' in rheological analysis and higher hardness but lower cohesiveness and springiness in textural profile analysis than pectin confections (P hard candy), intermediate (pectin confections), and slow (starch confections) release rates with a final releasing time of 90, 150, and 540 min in dissolution studies. Three confections were rated between neither like nor dislike to like slightly (n = 60). Pectin confections had the highest overall acceptance (like slightly) and 62% of subjects rated this type of confection as the most liked ones. These results indicate that delivery matrix could modulate the phytochemical release rate from BRB confection and also influence sensory preference. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Genetic parameters of yield components and pomologic properties in raspberry seedlings

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    Fotirić-Akšić Milica


    Full Text Available Over a three-year period yield components and pomologic properties were studied in 20 raspberry seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker`s yellow clone. The primary goals of this research were to determine its variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense. The analysis of the components of total variance evidenced that higher proportion of genotypic variance was found with fruit shape index (30.84% and sucrose content (35.61%. The results revealed that genotypic coefficient of variation were less than its corresponding estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation for all traits which indicated significant role of environment in the expression of these characters. The values of heritability coefficients, in a broader sense, were high except for number of flowers per inflorescens (9.47%, titratable acidity (6.38% and inverted sugar content (28.88%. Nine characters had h2 in interval from 50 to 80% but for fruit weight and fruit length was greater than 80% which implies the high potential of genetic improvement in those traits.

  14. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor


    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


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    COMAN Diana


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  16. Raspberry ketone supplement promotes early sexual maturation in male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Mendez, Vivian; Morelli, Renata; Pérez, Jeanneth; Taylor, Phillip W


    Raspberry ketone (RK) is highly attractive to sexually mature, but not immature, males of many Bactrocera species, including Queensland fruit fly ('Qfly', Bactrocera tryoni), and acts as a metabolic enhancer in a wide diversity of animals. We considered the possibility that, as a metabolic enhancer, RK in adult diet might accelerate sexual maturation of male Qflies. Recently emerged adult Qfly males (0-24 h old) were exposed to RK-treated food for 48 h and were then provided only sugar and water. Four doses of RK (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) along with control (0%) were tested with two types of food: sugar alone and sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate (3:1). For flies tested when 4-10 days old all RK doses increased mating probability of flies fed sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate but did not show any effect on mating probability of flies fed only sugar. No effects of RK were found for flies tested when 10-30 days old for either diet group. There was no evidence that RK affected longevity at any of the doses tested. Feeding of RK together with yeast hydrolysate to immature Qfly increases mating propensity at young ages and accordingly shows significant potential as a pre-release supplement that might increase the proportion of released flies that attain sexual maturation in Sterile Insect Technique programmes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum. (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa


    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raspberries (Rubus idaeus treated with different doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guimarães


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raspberries exposed to different radiation doses. The fruits were harvested in the city of Campestre, MG, packed in polyethylene bags, and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, where they were separated into 4 lots. Irradiation was performed at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology in Belo Horizonte, MG. The doses used were 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, the fruits were transported back to UFLA and stored at 1 ºC and 95% relative humidity (RH for 12 days. The physicochemical analyses for mass loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble sugars, total soluble pectin, firmness, vitamin C content, total antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, and the microbiological assays (coliform at 35 and 45 ºC, psychrotrophic and filamentous fungi and yeasts were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage. Lower loss of mass and filamentous fungi and yeast count were observed in the irradiated fruits, and 2 kGy was determined as the most effective dose for microbial control, but this irradiation dose also resulted in increased loss of fruit firmness.

  19. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland


    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Application of image processing to calculate the number of fish seeds using raspberry-pi (United States)

    Rahmadiansah, A.; Kusumawardhani, A.; Duanto, F. N.; Qoonita, F.


    Many fish cultivator in Indonesia who suffered losses due to the sale and purchase of fish seeds did not match the agreed amount. The loss is due to the calculation of fish seed still using manual method. To overcome these problems, then in this study designed fish counting system automatically and real-time fish using the image processing based on Raspberry Pi. Used image processing because it can calculate moving objects and eliminate noise. Image processing method used to calculate moving object is virtual loop detector or virtual detector method and the approach used is “double difference image”. The “double difference” approach uses information from the previous frame and the next frame to estimate the shape and position of the object. Using these methods and approaches, the results obtained were quite good with an average error of 1.0% for 300 individuals in a test with a virtual detector width of 96 pixels and a slope of 1 degree test plane.

  1. Inhibitory effect of raspberry ketone on α-glucosidase: Docking simulation integrating inhibition kinetics. (United States)

    Xiong, Shang-Ling; Yue, Li-Mei; Lim, Gyu Tae; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jinhyuk; Park, Yong-Doo


    Inhibition of α-glucosidase is directly associated with treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, we conducted enzyme kinetics integrated with computational docking simulation to assess the inhibitory effect of raspberry ketone (RK) on α-glucosidase. RK bound to the active site of α-glucosidase and interacted with several key residues such as ASP68, TYR71, HIS111, PHE157, PHE158, PHE177, GLN181, ASP214, THR215, ASP349, ASP408, and ARG439, as detected by protein-ligand docking simulation. Subsequently, we confirmed the action of RK on α-glucosidase as the non-competitive type of inhibition in a reversible and rapidly binding manner. The relevant kinetic parameters were IC 50 =6.17±0.46mM and K i =7.939±0.211mM. Regarding the structure-activity relationship, the higher concentration of RK induced slight modulation of the shape of the active site as monitored by hydrophobic exposure. The tertiary conformational change was linked to RK inhibition, and mostly involved regional changes of the active site. Our study provides insight into the functional role of RK due to its structural property of a hydroxyphenyl ring that interacts with the active site of α-glucosidase. We suggest that similar hydroxyphenyl ring compounds targeting the key residues of the active site might be potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Climate influences vegetative and reproductive components of primocane-fruiting red raspberry cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prive, J.P.; Sullivan, J.A.; Proctor, J.T.A.; Allen, O.B.


    Climatic elements (solar radiation, daylength, water supply, growing degree days (GDD), corn heat units (CHU), soil, and air temperatures) were monitored to determine which elements could account for the variability in yield of primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. The climatic elements were classed as either having a major or minor influence on the vegetative and reproductive components, based on the frequency of the significance of the multiple regression coefficients. Soil temperature and water supply had a major influence, while daylength, solar radiation, and above ground temperature (i.e., air, GDD, or CHU) had a lesser influence on these components. Soil temperature had the largest influence during April and May, while water supply was equally influential at all times during the season. Air temperature and solar radiation had their largest influence during the period of flower initiation and development (i.e., June and July), while daylength was most influential from June to October. Berry count, weight, and yield had the highest frequency of associations among the climatic elements, indicating the complexity of the association between these yield components and climate. Total number of nodes/cane, length of the fruiting section/cane, and the harvest period showed the fewest number of associations. Not all cultivars responded similarly to changes in their yield components. 'Autumn Bliss' was less sensitive to climatic variation than either 'Heritage' or 'Redwing'. When 'Redwing' was the anomaly, it was usually related to air or soil temperatures

  3. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons. (United States)

    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti


    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits. (United States)

    Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing


    A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry. (United States)

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried


    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Identifikasi Jumlah dan Tingkat Aktivitas Orang Berbasis Pengolahan Citra Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Krisrenanto


    Full Text Available Air conditioner (AC merupakan suatu perangkat yang paling banyak digunakan sebagai pendingin ruangan. Walaupun AC saat ini sudah menggunakan teknologi hemat energi, namun apabila tidak digunakan dengan baik maka penggunaan AC hanya menjadi suatu pemborosan listrik saja. Untuk mengurangi pemborosan listrik pada AC, maka pengaturan suhu harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi ruangan. Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kondisi ruangan antara lain adalah jumlah orang serta tingkat aktivitas dalam ruangan. Sebagai upaya penghematan konsumsi listrik pada AC, maka dalam penelitian ini dilakukan rancang bangun suatu sistem identifikasi jumlah orang dan tingkat aktivitas. Pada sistem ini digunakan kamera USB sebagai perangkat pengambil citra. Pada pengolahan citra menggunakan metode Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG sebagai penghitung jumlah orang, sedangkan metode background subtraction digunakan sebagai penghitung tingkat aktivitas. Sistem ini diimplementasikan ke dalam Raspberry Pi 3 sebagai mikrokontroler. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem dapat mendeteksi orang dari jarak 3 m sampai 9 m dan membedakan 2 orang dengan jarak antara 30 cm sampai 150 cm. Sistem juga dapat membedakan tingkat aktivitas sedikit, sedang dan tinggi.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Prasetyo


    Full Text Available Puskesmas sebagai unit kesehatan tingkat pertama memiliki tugas pokok yaitu pengobatan, perawatan kesehatan, kesehatan lingkungan, membina kesehatan ibu dan anak, pencegahan penyakit menular, pencatatan dan pelaporan. Dari keseluruhan tugas tampaknya tidak seluruhnya digarap oleh puskesmas terutama pencatatan dan pelaporan untuk pencegahan penyakit menular serta pola penyebarannya. untuk mengawasi dan mengendalikan perencananan program kesehatan termasuk penekanan penyebaran penyakit menular, puskesmas belum memiliki alat bantu yang terintegrasi satu atap secara real time dengan dinas kesehatan, untuk itu dibutuhkan sistem informasi geografis (SIG untuk memvisualisasikan data penyakit menular, hal ini juga perlu ditunjang perangkat yang optimal dengan biaya yang murah dengan menggunakan raspberry pi sebagai kendali otomasi server data dalam replikasi. Proses memanfaatkan replikasi database dua arah menggunakan dua server dengan server satu sebagai master sedangkan server lainnya berfungsi sebagai slave. Hasil pengujian replikasi pada transaction rate untuk meminimalkan antrian data node 1 pada nilai 1,99/detik setiap transaksi data, node 2 nilai 2,02/detik, sedangkan balancer dengan nilai 1,91/detik, sedangkan response time atau kecepatan replikasi database dalam menangkap dan mengirimkan data sangat efektif, pada node 1 0,33/s untuk kecepatan proses, node 2 dengan waktu 0,01/s, dan balancer 0,13/s. Kata kunci: puskesmas, replikasi database dua arah, penyakit menular, dinas kesehatan, sistem informasi geografis (SIG.

  8. Erica the Rhino: A Case Study in Using Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers for Interactive Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Basford


    Full Text Available Erica the Rhino is an interactive art exhibit created by the University of Southampton, UK. Erica was created as part of a city wide art trail in 2013 called “Go! Rhinos”, curated by Marwell Wildlife, to raise awareness of Rhino conservation. Erica arrived as a white fibreglass shell which was then painted and equipped with five Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers (SBC. These computers allowed the audience to interact with Erica through a range of sensors and actuators. In particular, the audience could feed and stroke her to prompt reactions, as well as send her Tweets to change her behaviour. Pi SBCs were chosen because of their ready availability and their educational pedigree. During the deployment, ‘coding clubs’ were run in the shopping centre where Erica was located, and these allowed children to experiment with and program the same components used in Erica. The experience gained through numerous deployments around the country has enabled Erica to be upgraded to increase reliability and ease of maintenance, whilst the release of the Pi 2 has allowed her responsiveness to be improved.

  9. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes. (United States)

    Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Chuanshu


    The chemopreventive properties of edible berries have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, however, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects are largely unknown. Our previous studies have shown that a methanol extract fraction of freeze-dried black raspberries inhibits benzoapyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. This fraction also blocks activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by benzoapyrene diol-epoxide (BaPDE) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl 41 cells. To determine if different berry types exhibit specific mechanisms for their anti-cancer effects, we compared the effects of extract fractions from both black raspberries and strawberries on BaPDE-induced activation of various signaling pathways in Cl 41 cells. Black raspberry fractions inhibited the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by BaPDE as well as their upstream PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, strawberry fractions inhibited NFAT activation, but did not inhibit the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB or the PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Consistent with the effects on NFAT activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction by BaPDE was blocked by extract fractions of both black raspberries and strawberries, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which depends on AP-1 activation, was suppressed by black raspberry fractions but not strawberry fractions. These results suggest that black raspberry and strawberry components may target different signaling pathways in exerting their anti-carcinogenic effects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag(4) conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica. (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V


    We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.

  11. EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn.) [Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn.) And its application in food sistem


    Tensiska1); Een Sukarmina1); Dita Natalia2)


    Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid) with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %...

  12. Comparison of the protein-coding gene content of Chlamydia trachomatis and Protochlamydia amoebophila using a Raspberry Pi computer. (United States)

    Robson, James F; Barker, Daniel


    To demonstrate the bioinformatics capabilities of a low-cost computer, the Raspberry Pi, we present a comparison of the protein-coding gene content of two species in phylum Chlamydiae: Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted infection of humans, and Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila, a recently discovered amoebal endosymbiont. Identifying species-specific proteins and differences in protein families could provide insights into the unique phenotypes of the two species. Using a Raspberry Pi computer, sequence similarity-based protein families were predicted across the two species, C. trachomatis and P. amoebophila, and their members counted. Examples include nine multi-protein families unique to C. trachomatis, 132 multi-protein families unique to P. amoebophila and one family with multiple copies in both. Most families unique to C. trachomatis were polymorphic outer-membrane proteins. Additionally, multiple protein families lacking functional annotation were found. Predicted functional interactions suggest one of these families is involved with the exodeoxyribonuclease V complex. The Raspberry Pi computer is adequate for a comparative genomics project of this scope. The protein families unique to P. amoebophila may provide a basis for investigating the host-endosymbiont interaction. However, additional species should be included; and further laboratory research is required to identify the functions of unknown or putative proteins. Multiple outer membrane proteins were found in C. trachomatis, suggesting importance for host evasion. The tyrosine transport protein family is shared between both species, with four proteins in C. trachomatis and two in P. amoebophila. Shared protein families could provide a starting point for discovery of wide-spectrum drugs against Chlamydiae.

  13. The composition of potentially bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in red raspberry is influenced by tissue, extraction procedure and genotype. (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Latimer, Cheryl; Dobson, Gary; Stewart, Derek; Ternan, Nigel G; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R


    The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies. Sequential extractions of raspberry puree, isolated seeds and unseeded puree showed that certain TTPN components (e.g. peak T1 m/z 679, and T2 m/z 1358) had different extractabilities in water/solvent mixes and were differentially associated with the seeds. Purified seed TTPNs (mainly T1 and T2) were shown to be anti-genotoxic in HT29 and CCD841 cell based in vitro colonocyte models. Further work confirmed that the seeds contained a wider range of TTPN-like components which were also differentially extractable in water/solvent mixes. This differential extractability could influence the TTPN composition and potential bioactivity of the extracts. There was considerable variation in total content of TTPNs (∼3-fold) and TTPN composition across 13 Rubus genotypes. Thus, TTPNs are likely to be present in raspberry juices and common extracts used for bioactivity studies and substantial variation exists in both content and composition due to genetics, tissue source or extraction conditions, which may all affect observed bioactivity.

  14. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit


    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  15. Automating mouse weighing in group homecages with Raspberry Pi micro-computers. (United States)

    Noorshams, Omid; Boyd, Jamie D; Murphy, Timothy H


    Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell. Each mouse was identified using an RFID tag placed under the skin of the neck. A single-board computer (Raspberry Pi; RPi) controls the task, logging RFID tag, load cell weights, and time stamps from each RFID detection until the animal leaves the chamber. Collected data were statistically analyzed to estimate mouse weights. We anticipate integration with tasks where automated imaging or behaviour is assessed in homecages. Mice frequently move between the two cages, an average of 42+-16 times/day/mouse at which time we obtained weights. We report accurate determination of mouse weight and long term monitoring over 53days. Comparison with existing methods Although commercial systems are available for automatically weighing rodents, they only work with single animals, or are not open source nor cost effective for specific custom application. This automated system permits automated weighing of mice ∼40 times per day. The system employs inexpensive hardware and open-source Python code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults. (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taylor, Phillip W


    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly') to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  17. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed (United States)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.


    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with Raspberry Seed Oil Modulates Liver Functions, Inflammatory State, and Lipid Metabolism in Rats. (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon


    Although raspberry seed oil (RO) is rich in essential fatty acids, there is a lack of experiments assessing benefits of its consumption. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with RO on healthy rats and rats with low-grade systemic inflammation, liver disorders, and dyslipidemia induced by a high-fat/low-fiber (HF/LF) diet. Thirty-two rats were allocated into 4 groups of 8 rats each and fed for 8 wk a control (C; 7% lard and 5% cellulose) or HF/LF (21% lard and 2% cellulose) diet or modifications of these diets in which 7% RO replaced all (C+RO group) or a proportion of (HF/LF+RO group) the lard. Effects of diet and RO and their interaction on bacterial activity and metabolite formations in the distal intestine, liver fat and glutathione concentration, plasma lipid profile, transaminase activities, and plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were tested. Dietary RO decreased plasma alanine and aspartate transaminase activities (43.4 and 157 vs. 25.6 and 115 U/L, respectively; P livers of the C+RO group, the fat concentration was decreased, whereas the glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio was increased compared with the C group (30.1% and 6.20 μmol/g vs. 23.3% and 7.25 μmol/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05); however, those differences were not observed between the HF/LF groups (P-interaction Dietary RO improves plasma lipid profile and liver functions and reduces low-grade systemic inflammation in rats; however, the extent of these beneficial effects is partly dependent on the diet type. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Raspberry seed flour attenuates high-sucrose diet-mediated hepatic stress and adipose tissue inflammation. (United States)

    Kang, Inhae; Espín, Juan Carlos; Carr, Timothy P; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Chung, Soonkyu


    Chronic intake of high sucrose (HS) diet exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Previously, we have demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA), an abundant polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, exerts distinct lipid-lowering characteristics in hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that EA supplementation inhibits HS diet-mediated hepatic toxicity and its accompanied metabolic dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to three isocaloric HF diets (41% calories from fat) containing either no-sucrose (HF), high-sucrose (HFHS), or high-sucrose plus EA (HFHS-R) from raspberry seed flour (RSF, equivalent to 0.03% of EA), and fed for 12weeks. The inclusion of EA from RSF significantly improved HFHS diet-mediated dyslipidemia and restored glucose homeostasis levels similar to the HF diet-fed mice. Despite marginal difference in hepatic triglyceride content, the addition of EA substantially reversed the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative damage triggered by HFHS diet in the liver. These effects of EA were further confirmed in human hepatoma cells by reducing ER stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HFHS-R diet significantly decreased visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation evidenced by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage infiltration. In summary, EA supplementation from RSF was effective in reducing HFHS diet-mediated metabolic complication by attenuating hepatic ER and oxidative stresses as well as adipocyte inflammation. Our results suggest that the inclusion of EA in diets may normalize metabolic insults triggered by HS consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Akter

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT, whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT, whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly' to raspberry ketone (RK mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  1. EurepGAP certification for small producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.


    The majority of agriculture practitioners worldwide are smallholders. Compliance with market related standards, such as set by EurepGAP, is crucial for obtaining and maintaining international market access, particularly to the European Union. Private standards must allow for innovative and cost

  2. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will carry out an analysis of production and market conditions in the fresh fruit and vegetable, dairy and (in one case) beef, and chicken sectors in a selected province or district of each country. Against this baseline data, ... Institution. International Institute for Environment and Development. Pays d' institution.

  3. Building Businesses with Small Producers : Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On a accordé une attention particulière à trois services dans le contexte d'études de cas : marketing, accès à la technologie et acquisition de connaissances spécialisées en administration et gestion des affaires. Chaque étude de cas - portant ... Understanding digital access and use in the Global South. As it increasingly ...

  4. Systematic approach to the treatment of crude oil produced by small concessionaires in marginal areas of the Reconcavo Basin; Abordagem sistematizada para o tratamento do oleo produzido em campos marginais da Bacia do Reconcavo por pequenos concessionarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Edson Jorge Alves [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Araujo, Marcia Queiroz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada


    The establishment of the 'Petroleum Law' (Law No. 9.478/97) abolished the Exploration and Production State Monopoly in Brazil. Attaining concessions through the bidding rounds promoted by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) became the only legal means for exploring and/or producing oil and natural gas in Brazil. In order to attract small and medium companies to this niche, inactive areas with marginal accumulations were offered by the Agency. These areas were returned to ANP by PETROBRAS. Currently, six small companies operate in the Reconcavo Oil Province, extracting and processing different types of oil. The available infrastructure is mostly deteriorated and obsolete. Additionally, there are serious limitations in the separation and storage capacity. This scenario resulted in the fragmentation of the old PETROBRAS production infrastructure. A possible solution to this problem could involve the establishment of a collective treatment unit which would work as a condominium. However, the operation of this plant must take into account the diversity of oils being produced in the Reconcavo Basin (physical-chemicals characteristics). This paper is aimed at (1) establishing a preliminary characterization of the different types of oil which will be delivered by local producers; (2) the critical variables for the oil model (it includes all oils received from different areas of the Reconcavo); (3) the identification of the main stake holders within this process; and (4) suggestions for operating models for the treatment unit taking into account the potential innovations and opportunities for R and D and spin-offs. (author)

  5. Valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace through the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. (United States)

    Šarić, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Mandić, Anamarija; Nedeljković, Nataša; Pojić, Milica; Pestorić, Mladenka; Đilas, Sonja


    Successful valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace was achieved through their application, as dried and ground powders, in the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. Simplex-lattice mixture design approach was applied to obtain the product with the best sensory properties, nutritional profile and antioxidant activity. The highest desirability of 90.0 % was accomplished with the substitution of gluten-free flour mixture with 28.2 % of blueberry and 1.8 % of raspberry pomace. The model was verified. Optimized cookies had similar protein (3.72 %) and carbohydrate (66.7 %) contents as gluten-containing counterparts used for comparison, but significantly lower fat content (10.97 %). Daily portion of the optimized cookies meets: 5.00 % and 7.73 % of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for linoleic acid, 23.6 % and 34.3 % of DRIs for α-linolenic acid and 10.3 % and 15.6 % of DRIs for dietary fibers, for male and female adults, respectively. The nutritional profile of the optimized formulation makes it comparable with added-value gluten-containing counterparts.

  6. A method for automatic segmentation and splitting of hyperspectral images of raspberry plants collected in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Williams


    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperspectral imaging is a technology that can be used to monitor plant responses to stress. Hyperspectral images have a full spectrum for each pixel in the image, 400–2500 nm in this case, giving detailed information about the spectral reflectance of the plant. Although this technology has been used in laboratory-based controlled lighting conditions for early detection of plant disease, the transfer of such technology to imaging plants in field conditions presents a number of challenges. These include problems caused by varying light levels and difficulties of separating the target plant from its background. Here we present an automated method that has been developed to segment raspberry plants from the background using a selected spectral ratio combined with edge detection. Graph theory was used to minimise a cost function to detect the continuous boundary between uninteresting plants and the area of interest. The method includes automatic detection of a known reflectance tile which was kept constantly within the field of view for all image scans. A method to split images containing rows of multiple raspberry plants into individual plants was also developed. Validation was carried out by comparison of plant height and density measurements with manually scored values. A reasonable correlation was found between these manual scores and measurements taken from the images (r2 = 0.75 for plant height. These preliminary steps are an essential requirement before detailed spectral analysis of the plants can be achieved.

  7. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females. (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés


    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  8. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun


    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol–gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH 4 OH, TEOS, Fe 3 O 4 , and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs

  9. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)


    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  10. Red de comunicación xbee entre minicomputadora raspberry pi y pc con capacidad WIFI para el almacenamiento de información en base de datos remota. (octubre 2013)


    Espinoza Moran, Cinthia Leonor; Cando Cevallos, Christian Fernando; Valdivieso Armendariz, Carlos


    El objetivo de este proyecto es de entregar una guía práctica, y un material indispensable para todo estudiante que desee conocer sobre la Tecnología RASPBERRY PI. Este proyecto se basa en una red de comunicación XBee con una minicomputadora RASPBERRY PI, implementando una comunicación wifi para el almacenamiento de información en una base de datos remota. Aquí vamos a tratar puntos importantes de comunicación de la RASPBERRY PI que son: wifi, VPN y procesamiento de datos mediante los m...

  11. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats. (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy


    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  13. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  14. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  15. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species. (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek


    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  16. "The Other"--A Threat or a Resource? Polar Interpretations of Two Children's Stories: "The Ugly Duckling" by H. C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenhav (United States)

    Israeli, Liora


    This article examines the educational work towards tolerance by analyzing two opposed social views in children's stories: "The ugly duckling" by H.C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenav. "The ugly duckling" depicts a social state based on the evolutional ladder, where the white entity is at the top, and the black one is at the bottom,…

  17. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma


    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  18. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera. (United States)

    Wilkes, Thomas C; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Pering, Tom D; Taggart, Angus J; White, Benjamin S; Bryant, Robert G; Willmott, Jon R


    Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV) camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  19. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts. (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil


    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  20. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus. (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W


    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.

  1. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wilkes


    Full Text Available Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  2. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats. (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon


    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  3. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki


    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  4. Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells. (United States)

    God, Jason; Tate, Patricia L; Larcom, Lyndon L


    Berries and berry extracts possess properties that make them important in the prevention of cancer. The high antioxidant levels of these extracts play a role, but components of the berries can have other effects on cell replication and survival. We chose to test the hypothesis that (i) although the antioxidant capacity of raspberry extracts is important for inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells, other characteristics of the berry extracts are responsible for a major part of their antiproliferative activity, and that (ii) the relative importance of the antioxidant effect can depend on the cell type being studied. The aim of this study was to assess the relative roles of low pH and high antioxidant levels in the killing of 3 cell types by an aqueous extract from Meeker red raspberries. Stomach, colon, and breast cancer cells were treated with berry extract and with HCl and ascorbic acid solutions of the same pH. A dilution of 7.5% ascorbic acid solution, of the same pH and slightly higher antioxidant concentration than the berry extract, killed less than 10% of the stomach and colon cancer cells. In contrast, the berry extract at this same dilution killed more than 90% of these cells. Antioxidants played a more significant role in the killing of breast cancer cells, however. For these cells, approximately 50% of the killing could be attributed to antioxidant effects. We conclude that the antioxidant effect plays a minor role in the killing of 2 gastrointestinal cell types, but its role in inactivating a breast cancer cell line is much more significant. No evidence of apoptosis was observed, and caspase activation did not contribute to cell killing by the extract. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a novel pelletization technique through an extremely high-shear process using a mechanical powder processor to produce high-dose small core granules suitable for film coating. (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Kato, Aya; Niwa, Toshiyuki


    We established an extremely high-shear melt pelletization technique using a mechanical powder processor to produce high-dose granules smaller than 300 μm with properties suitable for film coating. A mixture of ethenzamide and polyethylene glycol (used as a low-melting binder) at various weight ratios was mechanically treated under various jacket temperatures. When the jacket temperature was set to 50 °C or greater, the product temperature reached the melting point of the binder, resulting in pelletization. The drug powder were pelletized with a small amount of binder to yield pellets of approximately 150 μm with a drug content of more than 90%. The mechanism of melt pelletization through ultrahigh shearing involves a series of nucleation, consolidation, coalescence and breakage stages. The power consumption profile corresponding to each stage in the pelletization revealed that pellets between 75 and 300 μm were effectively obtained at a large power consumption peak. The resultant pellets showed comparative sphericity and smoothness, and higher durability than commercial core granules for film coating. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the extremely high-shear melt pelletization technique can give drug pellets with desirable properties as core particles for the coating process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the energy spectra relative to neutrons produced at very small angle in $\\mathrm{\\sqrt{s} = 13 ~ TeV}$ proton-proton collisions using the LHCf Arm2 detector

    CERN Document Server


    In the last years, several ground-based experiments have measured flux and composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays - i.e. cosmic rays having energies above $10^{18} ~ eV$ - up to the GZK cutoff region. Nevertheless, these analyses suffer of large uncertainties due to the fact that they must rely on hadronic interaction models, that exhibit very different behavior in the forward region due to the lack of high energy calibration data. To provide measurements that can be useful to tune these models is exactly the main aim of the LHC-forward (LHCf) experiment. Thanks to two small sampling calorimeter, Arm1 and Arm2, installed at $\\pm 140 ~ m$ from LHC IP1, LHCf can detect neutral particles produced in the very forward region ($\\eta > 8.4$) by proton-proton and proton-ion high energy collisions (proton-proton interaction at $\\sqrt{s} = 14 ~ TeV$ is equivalent to the collision of a $10^{17} ~ eV$ proton with a proton at rest, hence it is possible to perform measurements at an energy close to the typical one of...

  7. Meio de cultura, concentração de AIB e tempo de cultivo no enraizamento in vitro de amoreira-preta e framboeseira Culture environment, IBA concentration and cultivation time on in vitro rooting of blackberry and raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Nolasco Leitzke


    type and the best concentration of IBA in the culture environment for the in vitro rooting of the blackberry 'Xavante' and the raspberry 'Batum' and 'Heritage'. The vegetable material used was atex microcutting with two leaves, measuring about 1 cm of length, originated from the in vitro cultivation. The studied factors were the kinds of culture (MS and WPM, the IBA concentration in the culture environment and the time of cultivation of the microcutting in an environment with IBA. The WPM environment, in low concentrations, less than 3 µM of IBA, together with T1, induced larger rooting averages and length. High concentrations of AIB induced the callus formation for blackberry 'Xavante'. For raspberry, using WPM environment with smaller concentrations of AIB (0 and 3 , µM, it was shown the best average in the number of roots, length of roots and small callus intensity, with the largest concentrations of IBA it happened larger callus emergence.

  8. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light. (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing


    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  9. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.


    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  10. Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses. (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L


    Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.

  11. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach. (United States)

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E


    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  12. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo


    Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species. PMID:15113427

  13. Gene expression analysis of enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway involved in β-cryptoxanthin accumulation in wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus. (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko


    β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles using template-free low-temperature hydrothermal method and their application as humidity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pál, Edit; Hornok, Viktória; Kun, Robert; Chernyshev, Vladimir; Seemann, Torben; Dékány, Imre; Busse, Matthias


    Zinc oxide particles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal method at 60–90 °C. The structure formation was controlled by the addition rate and temperature of hydrolyzing agent, while the particles size (10 nm–2.5 μm) was influenced by the preparation (hydrothermal) temperature. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles were prepared, whose average size decreased with increasing reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction investigations confirmed that ZnO particles with hexagonal crystal structure formed in all syntheses. The raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles showed a weak UV-emission in the range of 390–395 nm and strong visible emission with a maximum at 586, 593 and 598 nm, respectively. Morphology effect on electrical and water vapour sensing properties of ZnO samples was investigated by impedance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, respectively. The absolute impedance of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles was found to be strong dependent on the morphology. Space-charge-limited conductivity transport mechanism was proved by the oscillatory behaviour of impedance. Humidity sensor tests also revealed morphology and specific surface area dependency on the sensitivity and water vapour adsorption property.

  15. Analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry bud preparations of different cultivars. (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Carlen, Christoph; Ançay, André; Cerutti, Alessandro K; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bounous, Giancarlo


    The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the raspberry bud extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. Rubus idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars. In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. This study developed a useful tool for R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins. (United States)


    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  17. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan


    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  18. 文系大学生を対象とした Raspberry Pi 活用事例


    山﨑, 智子


    近年は、私たちの日常生活の隅々へのICT の導入と実用化が進む中で、理系大学生や専門学生に限らず、文系大学生も大学卒業後にICT に関する知識や活用する力が求められるようになってきている。本稿は、これまでICT 分野に触れる機会が少なかった文系大学生を対象とし、Raspberry Pi を活用したものづくり体験をとおしてICT 分野への興味関心をもたせることを試行した事例報告である。ものづくり体験では、コンピュータや情報通信の基本的な原理を自分の手を動かしながら学び、「自分のアイデアを形にする」という目標を設定することにより、主体的かつ楽しみながら学習に取り組むことができた。その結果、学生はICT 分野への興味関心と理解をより深め、日常生活においてICT がより身近なものだと感じることができた。以上のことから、ICT 分野に抵抗感を抱きがちな文系大学生にとってRaspberry Pi を教材として活用することは効果的であると考えられる。...

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho


    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  20. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters. (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P


    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  1. Development of intelligent surveillance system (ISS) in region of interest (ROI) using Kalman filter and camshift on Raspberry Pi 2 (United States)

    Park, Junghun; Hong, Kicheon


    Due to the improvement of the picture quality of closed-circuit television (CCTV), the demand for CCTV has increased rapidly and its market size has also increased. The current system structure of CCTV transfers compressed images without analysis received from CCTV to a control center. The compressed images are suitable for the evidence required for a criminal arrest, but they cannot prevent crime in real time, which has been considered a limitation. Thus, the present paper proposes a system implementation that can prevent crimes by applying a situation awareness system at the back end of the CCTV cameras for image acquisition to prevent crimes efficiently. In the system implemented in the present paper, the region of interest (ROI) is set virtually within the image data when a barrier, such as fence, cannot be installed in actual sites and unauthorized intruders are tracked constantly through data analysis and recognized in the ROI via the developed algorithm. Additionally, a searchlight or alarm sound is activated to prevent crime in real time and the urgent information is transferred to the control center. The system was implemented in the Raspberry Pi 2 board to be run in real time. The experiment results showed that the recognition success rate was 85% or higher and the track accuracy was 90% or higher. By utilizing the system, crime prevention can be achieved by implementing a social safety network.

  2. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek


    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET.

  3. Cost effective raspberry pi-based radio frequency identification tagging of mice suitable for automated in vivo imaging. (United States)

    Bolaños, Federico; LeDue, Jeff M; Murphy, Timothy H


    Automation of animal experimentation improves consistency, reduces potential for error while decreasing animal stress and increasing well-being. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging can identify individual mice in group housing environments enabling animal-specific tracking of physiological parameters. We describe a simple protocol to radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and detect mice. RFID tags were injected sub-cutaneously after brief isoflurane anesthesia and do not require surgical steps such as suturing or incisions. We employ glass-encapsulated 125kHz tags that can be read within 30.2±2.4mm of the antenna. A raspberry pi single board computer and tag reader enable automated logging and cross platform support is possible through Python. We provide sample software written in Python to provide a flexible and cost effective system for logging the weights of multiple mice in relation to pre-defined targets. The sample software can serve as the basis of any behavioral or physiological task where users will need to identify and track specific animals. Recently, we have applied this system of tagging to automated mouse brain imaging within home-cages. We provide a cost effective solution employing open source software to facilitate adoption in applications such as automated imaging or tracking individual animal weights during tasks where food or water restriction is employed as motivation for a specific behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Smart Home Concept with the Internet of Things Concept Using RaspberryPi and NodeMCU (United States)

    Amri, Yasirli; Andri Setiawan, Mukhammad


    The Internet of things (IoT) is getting more tractions in recent years. One of the usage scenario of IoT is smart home. Smart home basically provides home automation for installed devices at home such as thermostat, lighting, air conditioning, etc and allows devices connected to the Internet to be monitored and controlled remotely by user. However many studies on smart home concept focusing only on few main features. They still lack of important usage of IoT i.e. providing energy efficiency, energy monitoring, dealing with security, and managing privacy. This paper proposes a smart home system with RaspberryPi and NodeMCU as the backend that not only serves as home automation and merely a switch replacement, but to also record and report important things to the owner of the house e.g. when someone trespasses the house (security perimeter), or to report the calculation of how much money has been spent in consuming the electrical appliances. We successfully examine our proposed system in a real life working scenario. The communication between user and the system is done using Telegram Bot.

  5. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products. (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C


    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  6. Raspberry Supplementation Improves Insulin Signaling and Promotes Brown-Like Adipocyte Development in White Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice. (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Kang, Yifei; Xu, Xinglian; Wang, Bo; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun


    Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenols and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation, and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks. RB supplementation decreases WAT hypertrophy induced by HFD and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and macrophage infiltration in WAT. Meanwhile, RB addition improves insulin sensitivity of HFD-mice. Additionally, RB supplementation drives the browning of WAT (beige adipogenesis), which is associated with elevated PGC-1α and FNDC5/irisin contents. Consistently, the content of beige adipocyte markers including UCP1, PRDM16, Cytochrome C, Cidea, and Elvol3 is enhanced in HFD-mice, which are correlated with increased AMPK phosphorylation and Sirt1 protein contents. Dietary RB attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation of WAT in HFD-mice and improves insulin sensitivity and beige adipogenesis, which is associated with increased FNDC5/irisin content and activation of AMPK/Sirt1 pathway. RB supplementation provides a promising strategy to prevent diet-induced obesity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-silica composites: Raspberry vs core-shell structures. Where do we stand? (United States)

    Roosz, Nicolas; Euvard, Myriam; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric C; Martin, Nicolas; Viau, Lydie


    The synthesis of polyaniline-silica composites has been reinvestigated in view of the opposing results found in the literature. Firstly, we synthesized silica particles with tunable size using the Stöber process. These silica particles have been fully characterized before being used as solid support for the polymerization of aniline. This polymerization was performed according to a published procedure where the pH of the reaction mixture was below the pKa of aniline but at a value where the silica particles surface was still slightly negatively charged. The objective of this procedure was to favor electrostatic interactions between anilinium cations and the silica surface to lead to the formation of silica-polyaniline core-shell particles. Several sets of nanocomposites were prepared under different experimental conditions (oxidant/aniline ratio, silica concentration, temperature, silica particles diameters). The study evidenced that under all the conditions used the formation of core-shell nanoparticles is impossible. However, using different particle sizes, noticeable morphological differences were observed. The use of large silica particles led to the formation of non-uniform polyaniline-silica composites whereas the use of smaller particles always led to raspberry-like morphology as reported by other groups in highly acidic media. The difference in morphology led to different electrical properties with electrical conductivities measured at room temperature ranging from 1.6×10 -3 to 2.5×10 -5 S cm -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic Profile of 'Willamette' Raspberry Leaf and Fruit Affected by Prohexadione-Ca and Young Canes Removal Treatments. (United States)

    Dragišić Maksimović, Jelena J; Poledica, Milena M; Radivojević, Dragan D; Milivojević, Jasminka M


    The influence of growth regulator prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) concurrently with young canes removal on the modification of photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; polyphenol oxidase, PPO; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities in leaves and fruits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar 'Willamette' was studied. ProCa increased while canes removal decreased chlorophylls and carotenoids content compared to control. POD, CAT, and PPO activities in leaves after removal of young canes were higher compared to control (2-4 times) which was visually confirmed for POD by isoelectrofocusing. Removal of young canes slithly increased, while ProCa significantly enhanced SOD activity in leaves compared to control (475.10 and 218.38 nkat mg -1 prot, respectively). Pattern of SOD activity in fruit was similar as in leaf with substantial increase compared to control (about 15 times). Combination of implemented measures increased activity of all enzymes in the leaves and fruits. Our study could provide a better knowledge of the ProCa and canes removal influences on the action of enzymes in order to regulate their activities in fruit products.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.


    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  10. Glucanolytic Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the Causal Agent of Raspberry Root Rot


    Valois, D.; Fayad, K.; Barasubiye, T.; Garon, M.; Dery, C.; Brzezinski, R.; Beaulieu, C.


    A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to grow on fragmented Phytophthora mycelium and to produce metabolites that inhibit Phytophthora growth. Thirteen strains were selected, and all produced (beta)-1,3-, (beta)-1,4-, and (beta)-1,6-glucanases. These enzymes could hydrolyze glucans from Phytophthora cell walls and cause lysis of Phytophthora cells. These enzymes also degraded other glucan substrates, such as cellulose, laminarin, pustulan, and yeast cell ...

  11. Evaluating a push-pull strategy for management of Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in red raspberry (United States)

    Drosophilia suzukii Matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits and cherries that lays its eggs in ripe and ripening fruit. Current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. Alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under inv...

  12. The content of minerals in Slovenian organic and conventional produced fruits, herbs and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca KNAP


    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineral composition of fruits, herbs and vegetables grown conventionally and according to organic practice. Fruits, herbs and vegetables have been identified as leading dietary source of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. These compounds are very variable in the composition and in the concentration among cultivars and species. Determination of calcium (Ca, potassium (K, phosphorus (P sulphur (S and chlorine (Cl was performed with Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF. We found that among organic crops basil, parsley, pears, peppers, rockets and celery had higher calcium contents in comparison to conventional ones. Organically produced broccoli, eggplant, parsley, rocket and celery had higher potassium contents as well as pepper, rockets, celery, beetroots and tomatoes had higher phosphorus contents. Likewise, higher sulphur content was found in organically produced parsley, rocket, celery and raspberries. Results of this study demonstrated that in general there are no rules in the content of minerals between different farming systems.

  13. Influência do meio de cultura, tipo e concentração de citocininas na multiplicação in vitro de amoreira-preta e framboeseira The influence of culture medium, cytokinin type and concentrations on in vitro multiplication of blackberry and raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Nolasco Leitzke


    Full Text Available A amoreira-preta e a framboeseira são espécies pouco cultivadas no Brasil, porém representam uma ótima opção de diversificação para pequenas propriedades, por serem rústicas e com elevada produtividade. A propagação dessas espécies dá-se, principalmente, por meio de estacas de raiz e mesmo de hastes novas, porém, já é crescente o interesse pelo uso da micropropagação como um método alternativo de propagação vegetativa de plantas frutíferas. No entanto, existe a necessidade de se ajustar, para cada espécie, e/ou cultivar, as melhores condições de cultivo, para que se obtenha sucesso no processo. Assim, neste trabalho objetivou-se determinar o melhor meio de cultura (MS e WPM, o efeito das citocininas (BAP, 2iP, Zeatina e suas concentrações (0; 7,5 ;15 e 22,5 μM na multiplicação in vitro de amoreira-preta 'Xavante' e de framboeseira 'Batum' e 'Heritage'. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o meio MS e a citocinina BAP na concentração de 15 μM foi mais eficiente para ambas as espécies e cultivares, induzindo maior número médio de folhas, brotações e gemas. Quanto ao comprimento das brotações, observou-se um comportamento diferenciado entre espécie, cultivar e regulador. Para amoreira-preta, o cultivo em meio MS na ausência de regulador promoveu o aumento do comprimento das brotações, enquanto que para framboeseira 'Batum' e 'Heritage', melhores resultados foram obtidos na presença de citocininas, respectivamente, Zeatina e 2iP, independentemente das concentrações utilizadas.The blackberry and raspberry are species little cultivated in Brazil. However, they represent a valuable diversification option for small farms, once they are rustic and very productive. Root cuttings and softwood stem are the most widely practiced type of propagation. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of micropropagation as an alternative technique for fruit plant propagation. Nevertheless

  14. Experimental study of mini SCADA renewable energy management system on microgrid using Raspberry Pi (United States)

    Tridianto, E.; Permatasari, P. D.; Ali, I. R.


    Renewable Energy Management System (REMS) is a device that can be able to monitor power through a microgrid. The purpose of this system is to optimize power usage that produced from renewable energy with the result that reduces power demand from the grid. To reach the goal this device manage the load power needs fully supplied by renewable energy when the power produced from renewable energy is higher than load demand, besides power surplus will be stored in battery in this way energy stored in battery can be used when it needed. When the power produced from renewable energy can not satisfy the power demand, power will supply by renewable energy and grid. This device uses power meters for record any power flow through microgrid. In order to manage power flow in microgrid this system use relay module. The user can find out energy consumption (consumed by the load) and production (produced by renewable energy) in a period of time so that the user can switch on the load in right time.

  15. Using a Raspberry Pi as a Versatile and Inexpensive Display Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Iglesias


    Full Text Available This article covers the process by which a library took some unused equipment and added a cheap computing device to produce very inexpensive but effective electronic signage. Hardware and software issues as well as a step-by-step guide through the process are included.

  16. Implementación de un agente extensible SNMP sobre la plataforma Raspberry Pi para la simulación de MIB propietarias


    García Estébanez, Adrián


    RESUMEN: En este proyecto se describe el diseño e implementación de un agente de gestión SNMP extensible y autónomo sobre un computador de placa reducida Raspberry Pi. El agente se ha implementado utilizando el software Net-SNMP, siendo posible su extensión gracias al estándar AgentX. Para conseguirlo, se han desarrollado los programas necesarios para que el dispositivo soporte todas las funciones que definen un agente extensible autónomo, así como aquellos que simulan los escenarios de prueb...

  17. Implementación de un agente extensible SNMP sobre plataforma raspberry pi para control y monitorización de sensores


    García Núñez, Javier


    RESUMEN: En este proyecto vamos a realizar el desarrollo e implementación de un agente de gestión SNMP sobre una Raspberry Pi 3. En el proyecto los agentes se implementan con el software libre Net-SNMP utilizando AgentX para extenderle. Mediante el desarrollo de las programas o demonios conseguimos el correcto funcionamiento de las funciones descritas las cuales necesarias para que el agente extendido funcione de forma correcta y autónoma. En el proyecto se implemente una pequeña estación met...

  18. Native Oils from Apple, Blackcurrant, Raspberry, and Strawberry Seeds as a Source of Polyenoic Fatty Acids, Tocochromanols, and Phytosterols: A Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pieszka


    Full Text Available The oils from strawberry, blackcurrant, raspberry, and apple seeds were characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (90.8%, 88.6%, 94.0%, and 86.9%, resp.. Strawberry and raspberry oils had high levels of C18:2 (45.4% and 49.0% and αC18:3 (29.0% and 33.0%, resp.. Blackcurrant oil was the richest source of γC18:3 (18.5% and C18:4 (3.6%. Apple oil had high levels of C18:2 (55.5% and C18:1 (29.4%. Blackcurrant oil had 229.5 mg/100 g of tocochromanols, predominantly γ-tocopherol (117.8 mg/100 g and α-tocopherol (84.3 mg/100 g. Raspberry oil was rich in γ-, α-, and δ-tocopherol (193.5; 65.6; and 32.2 mg/100 g, resp.. Strawberry oil contained γ- and δ-tocopherol, 49.0 and 6.1 mg/100 g, respectively. Apple contained all isomers of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols at 41.7, 62.7, 13.6, and 21.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The level of tocotrienols in the analysed oils ranged from 0.85 to 6.73 mg/100 g. Ten different phytosterols were found in the tested oils. The richest sources of phytosterols were blackcurrant oil (6824.9 μg/g followed by raspberry (5384.1 μg/g, strawberry (4643.1 μg/g, and apple oil (3460.0 μg/g. The dominant compound in the analysed oils was sitosterol, from 2630 μg/g in apple oil to 3630 μg/g in blackcurrant oil.

  19. A raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA-2. (United States)

    Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R


    Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.

  20. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de framboeseira In vitro multiplication rate of raspberry cultivars

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    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de quatro das principais cultivares de framboeseira utilizadas no Brasil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red e Heritage. Utilizou-se protocolo empregado em laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos explantes foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semissólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; a multiplicação em MS com 0,8 mg L-1 BAP e 15 mg L-1 sulfato de ferro; e o enraizamento em ½MS com 0,1 mg L-1 ANA, sempre a 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 60 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (60 dias, multiplicação (seis subcultivos de 40 dias e enraizamento in vitro (30 dias. As cultivares de framboeseira apresentaram pronunciada variabilidade genética quanto ao potencial de multiplicação. O número estimado de mudas obtidas por meristema no sistema de micropropagação descrito foi de 56.664 para 'Autumn Bliss', 6.692 para 'Heritage', 1.942 para 'Batum' e 696 para 'Dorman Red'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade de resposta in vitro é importante para o planejamento da produção de mudas nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro potential of multiplication of the four main raspberry cultivars used in Brazil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red and Heritage. A commercial micropropagation protocol was used. The explant desinfestation was carried out in solution of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite. The meristem culture was carried out in semi-solid MS medium with 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0.01 mg L-1 ANA and 0.1 mg L-1 AG3; the explant multiplication in MS medium with 0.8 mg L-1 BAP and 15 mg L-1 iron sulphate; and the rooting in ½MS medium with 0.1 mg L-1 ANA, always at 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 and 16